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Sample records for split-window channels yielding

  1. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  2. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in environment and earth science study, especially for monitoring drought. The objective of this work is a comparison of two split-window methods: Mao method and Sobrino method, for retrieving LST using MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in ...

  3. Derivation of Land Surface Temperature for Landsat-8 TIRS Using a Split Window Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offer Rozenstein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is one of the most important variables measured by satellite remote sensing. Public domain data are available from the newly operational Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS. This paper presents an adjustment of the split window algorithm (SWA for TIRS that uses atmospheric transmittance and land surface emissivity (LSE as inputs. Various alternatives for estimating these SWA inputs are reviewed, and a sensitivity analysis of the SWA to misestimating the input parameters is performed. The accuracy of the current development was assessed using simulated Modtran data. The root mean square error (RMSE of the simulated LST was calculated as 0.93 °C. This SWA development is leading to progress in the determination of LST by Landsat-8 TIRS.

  4. Use of GLOBE Observations to Derive a Landsat 8 Split Window Algorithm for Urban Heat Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, L.; Czajkowski, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface temperature has been studied to investigate the warming of urban climates, also known as urban heat islands, which can impact urban planning, public health, pollution levels, and energy consumption. However, the full potential of remotely sensed images is limited when analyzing land surface temperature due to the daunting task of correcting for atmospheric effects. Landsat 8 has two thermal infrared sensors. With two bands in the infrared region, a split window algorithm (SWA), can be applied to correct for atmospheric effects. This project used in situ surface temperature measurements from NASA's ground observation program, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), to derive the correcting coefficients for use in the SWA. The GLOBE database provided land surface temperature data that coincided with Landsat 8 overpasses. The land surface temperature derived from Landsat 8 SWA can be used to analyze for urban heat island effect.

  5. Generalized Split-Window Algorithm for Estimate of Land Surface Temperature from Chinese Geostationary FengYun Meteorological Satellite (FY-2C Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the radiative transfer theory, this paper addressed the estimate ofLand Surface Temperature (LST from the Chinese first operational geostationarymeteorological satellite-FengYun-2C (FY-2C data in two thermal infrared channels (IR1,10.3-11.3 μ m and IR2, 11.5-12.5 μ m , using the Generalized Split-Window (GSWalgorithm proposed by Wan and Dozier (1996. The coefficients in the GSW algorithmcorresponding to a series of overlapping ranging of the mean emissivity, the atmosphericWater Vapor Content (WVC, and the LST were derived using a statistical regressionmethod from the numerical values simulated with an accurate atmospheric radiativetransfer model MODTRAN 4 over a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions.The simulation analysis showed that the LST could be estimated by the GSW algorithmwith the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE less than 1 K for the sub-ranges with theViewing Zenith Angle (VZA less than 30° or for the sub-rangs with VZA less than 60°and the atmospheric WVC less than 3.5 g/cm2 provided that the Land Surface Emissivities(LSEs are known. In order to determine the range for the optimum coefficients of theGSW algorithm, the LSEs could be derived from the data in MODIS channels 31 and 32 provided by MODIS/Terra LST product MOD11B1, or be estimated either according tothe land surface classification or using the method proposed by Jiang et al. (2006; and theWVC could be obtained from MODIS total precipitable water product MOD05, or beretrieved using Li et al.’ method (2003. The sensitivity and error analyses in term of theuncertainty of the LSE and WVC as well as the instrumental noise were performed. Inaddition, in order to compare the different formulations of the split-window algorithms,several recently proposed split-window algorithms were used to estimate the LST with thesame simulated FY-2C data. The result of the intercomparsion showed that most of thealgorithms give

  6. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface temperature from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Qin, Qiming; Yang, Yonghui; Xiong, Yujiu; Qiu, Guoyu

    2009-08-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in environment and earth science study, especially for monitoring drought. The objective of this work is a comparison of two split-window methods: Mao method and Sobrino method, for retrieving LST using MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in North China Plain. The results show that the max, min and mean errors of Mao method are 1.33K, 1.54K and 0.13K lower than the standard LST product respectively; while those of Sobrino method are 0.73K, 1.46K and 1.50K higher than the standard respectively. Validation of the two methods using LST product based on weather stations shows a good agreement between the standard and Sobrino method, with RMSE of 1.17K, whereas RMSE of Mao method is 1.85K. Finally, the study introduces the Sobmao method, which is based on Sobrino method but simplifies the estimation of atmospheric water vapour content using Mao method. The Sobmao method has almost the same accuracy with Sobrino method. With high accuracy and simplification of water vapour content estimation, the Sobmao method is recommendable in LST inversion for good application in Ningxia region, the northwest China, with mean error of 0.33K and the RMSE value of 0.91K.

  7. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  8. Assessment of Mono- and Split-Window Approaches for Time Series Processing of LST from AVHRR—A TIMELINE Round Robin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Myrtha Frey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing of land surface temperature from long time series of AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer requires stable algorithms, which are well characterized in terms of accuracy, precision and sensitivity. This assessment presents a comparison of four mono-window (Price 1983, Qin et al., 2001, Jiménez-Muñoz and Sobrino 2003, linear approach and six split-window algorithms (Price 1984, Becker and Li 1990, Ulivieri et al., 1994, Wan and Dozier 1996, Yu 2008, Jiménez-Muñoz and Sobrino 2008 to estimate LST from top of atmosphere brightness temperatures, emissivity and columnar water vapour. Where possible, new coefficients were estimated matching the spectral response curves of the different AVHRR sensors of the past and present. The consideration of unique spectral response curves is necessary to avoid artificial anomalies and wrong trends when processing time series data. Using simulated data on the base of a large atmospheric profile database covering many different states of the atmosphere, biomes and geographical regions, it was assessed (a to what accuracy and precision LST can be estimated using before mentioned algorithms and (b how sensitive the algorithms are to errors in their input variables. It was found, that the split-window algorithms performed almost equally well, differences were found mainly in their sensitivity to input bands, resulting in the Becker and Li 1990 and Price 1984 split-window algorithm to perform best. Amongst the mono-window algorithms, larger deviations occurred in terms of accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The Qin et al., 2001 algorithm was found to be the best performing mono-window algorithm. A short comparison of the application of the Becker and Li 1990 coefficients to AVHRR with the MODIS LST product confirmed the approach to be physically sound.

  9. Neutral Higgs boson searches in the H{yields}{tau}{tau}{yields}{mu}{mu} decay channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethani, Agni

    2013-10-15

    This dissertation describes the search for Higgs bosons decaying to a pair of {tau} leptons both decaying to muons. The analysis was performed using events recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2011 and 2012, at center-of-mass energy 7 TeV and 8 TeV respectively. The dataset corresponds to total integrated luminosity of 17 fb{sup -1}, 4.9 fb{sup -1} taken at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy and 12.1 fb{sup -1} at 8 TeV. The results were interpreted in the context of both the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Upper limits were set to the Higgs production cross section in the former case and on the (tan {beta}, m{sub A}) plane in the latter. The update of this analysis with more data, combined with other {tau}{tau} final states, lead to the first evidence of the Higgs coupling to {tau} leptons. Included in this document is also the study of the Z boson production followed by Z {yields} {tau}{tau} decay with two muons in the final state. This analysis was performed with 36 pb{sup -1} of data collected in 2010, at center-of-mass energy 7 TeV, by the CMS experiment. The result of this study was the measurement of the Z production cross section in proton-proton collisions. The analysis procedures developed for the Z boson decay to {tau} leptons were used to commission the Higgs boson searches in the same decay channel.

  10. Destiny-yield relationship for channel catfish reared in a biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of stocking density on yield of stocker channel catfish and water quality in a biofloc technology production system was studied in this completely randomized design experiment. Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 48.0 g/fish, 17.8 cm/fish) were stocked into nine continuously ...

  11. Total yield of channeling radiation from relativistic electrons in thin Si and W crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdrashitov, S.V.; Bogdanov, O.V.; Dabagov, S.B.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Tukhfatullin, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependences of channeling radiation total yield from relativistic 155–855 MeV electrons at both 〈1 0 0〉 axial and (1 0 0) planar channeling in thin silicon and tungsten crystals are studied by means of computer simulations. The model as well as computer code developed allows getting the quantitative results for orientation dependence of channeling radiation that can be used for crystal alignment in channeling experiments and/or for diagnostics of initial angular divergence of electron beam

  12. ION-BEAM CHANNELING YIELDS OF HOST AND IMPURITY ATOMS IN LINBO3 - COMPUTER-SIMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REBOUTA, L; SMULDERS, PJM; BOERMA, DO; AGULLOLOPEZ, F; DASILVA, MF; SOARES, JC

    1993-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program for the simulation of channeling phenomena in LiNbO3 crystals is described. Results of the program are compared with experimental yields for Nb, Li, and O from angular scans through the [0001], [0221BAR], [0441BAR], and [1120BAR] axial directions and through the (0001) planar

  13. A Practical Split-Window Algorithm for Retrieving Land Surface Temperature from Landsat-8 Data and a Case Study of an Urban Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijun Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a practical split-window algorithm (SWA for retrieving land surface temperature (LST from Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS data. This SWA has a universal applicability and a set of parameters that can be applied when retrieving LSTs year-round. The atmospheric transmittance and the land surface emissivity (LSE, the essential SWA input parameters, of the Landsat-8 TIRS data are determined in this paper. We also analysed the error sensitivity of these SWA input parameters. The accuracy evaluation of the proposed SWA in this paper was conducted using the software MODTRAN 4.0. The root mean square error (RMSE of the simulated LST using the mid-latitude summer atmospheric profile is 0.51 K, improving on the result of 0.93 K from Rozenstein (2014. Among the 90 simulated data points, the maximum absolute error is 0.99 °C, and the minimum absolute error is 0.02 °C. Under the Tropical model and 1976 US standard atmospheric conditions, the RMSE of the LST errors are 0.70 K and 0.63 K, respectively. The accuracy results indicate that the SWA provides an LST retrieval method that features not only high accuracy but also a certain universality. Additionally, the SWA was applied to retrieve the LST of an urban area using two Landsat-8 images. The SWA presented in this paper should promote the application of Landsat-8 data in the study of environmental evolution.

  14. Entrance channel dependence of back angle yields: orbiting in 24Mg+16O reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.; Gil, S.; Khandaker, M.; Leach, D.D.; Lock, D.K.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The back-angle yields of the oxygen and carbon particles from the 24 Mg+ 16 O reaction have been measured at E/sub Lab/( 24 Mg) = 79.5 MeV by using reverse kinematics. Comparison with data for the 28 Si+ 12 C reaction forming the same compound nucleus at the same excitation energy and with very similar spin distribution, demonstrates a strong entrance channel effect which is favoring the break-up into the entrance channel with large excitation energy. This result qualitatively supports the picture of the formation of a long-lived orbiting complex whose structure and decay are dependent on the entrance channel. The compound nucleus contribution has been inferred to be less than 15% of the measured oxygen cross-section. 9 references

  15. Mean secondary electron yield of avalanche electrons in the channels of a microchannel plate detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; Suszcynsky, D.M.; Harper, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    By modeling the statistical evolution of an avalanche created by 20 keV protons impacting the input surface of a z-stack microchannel plate (MCP) detector, the mean secondary electron yield γ C of avalanche electrons propagating through a MCP channel is measured to equal 1.37 for 760 V per MCP in the z stack. This value agrees with other studies that used MCP gain measurements to infer γ C . The technique described here to measure γ C is independent of gain saturation effects and simplifying assumptions used in the segmented dynode model, both of which can introduce errors when inferring γ C through gain measurements. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. An Improved Single-Channel Method to Retrieve Land Surface Temperature from the Landsat-8 Thermal Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Cristóbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is one of the sources of input data for modeling land surface processes. The Landsat satellite series is the only operational mission with more than 30 years of archived thermal infrared imagery from which we can retrieve LST. Unfortunately, stray light artifacts were observed in Landsat-8 TIRS data, mostly affecting Band 11, currently making the split-window technique impractical for retrieving surface temperature without requiring atmospheric data. In this study, a single-channel methodology to retrieve surface temperature from Landsat TM and ETM+ was improved to retrieve LST from Landsat-8 TIRS Band 10 using near-surface air temperature (Ta and integrated atmospheric column water vapor (w as input data. This improved methodology was parameterized and successfully evaluated with simulated data from a global and robust radiosonde database and validated with in situ data from four flux tower sites under different types of vegetation and snow cover in 44 Landsat-8 scenes. Evaluation results using simulated data showed that the inclusion of Ta together with w within a single-channel scheme improves LST retrieval, yielding lower errors and less bias than models based only on w. The new proposed LST retrieval model, developed with both w and Ta, yielded overall errors on the order of 1 K and a bias of −0.5 K validated against in situ data, providing a better performance than other models parameterized using w and Ta or only w models that yielded higher error and bias.

  17. Geologic and physiographic controls on bed-material yield, transport, and channel morphology for alluvial and bedrock rivers, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Anderson, Scott A.; Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2014-01-01

    The rivers of western Oregon have diverse forms and characteristics, with channel substrates ranging from continuous alluvial gravel to bare bedrock. Analysis of several measurable morphologic attributes of 24 valley reaches on 17 rivers provides a basis for comparing nonalluvial and alluvial channels. Key differences are that alluvial reaches have greater bar area, greater migration rates, and show systematic correlation among variables relating grain size to bed-material transport capacity. We relate these differences between channel types to bed-material transport rates as derived from a coupled regional analysis of empirical sediment yield measurements and physical experiments of clast attrition during transport. This sediment supply analysis shows that overall bed-material transport rates for western Oregon are chiefly controlled by (1) lithology and basin slope, which are the key factors for bed-material supply into the stream network, and (2) lithologic control of bed-material attrition from in-transport abrasion and disintegration. This bed-material comminution strongly affects bed-material transport in the study area, reducing transport rates by 50%–90% along the length of the larger rivers in the study area. A comparison of the bed-material transport estimates with the morphologic analyses shows that alluvial gravel-bed channels have systematic and bounding relations between bed-material transport rate and attributes such as bar area and local transport capacity. By contrast, few such relations are evident for nonalluvial rivers with bedrock or mixed-bed substrates, which are apparently more influenced by local controls on channel geometry and sediment supply. At the scale of western Oregon, the physiographic and lithologic controls on the balance between bed-material supply and transport capacity exert far-reaching influence on the distribution of alluvial and nonalluvial channels and their consequently distinctive morphologies and behaviors

  18. Nickel Particles Selectively Confined in the Mesoporous Channels of SBA-15 Yielding a Very Stable Catalyst for DRM Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Alberto; Pereñiguez, Rosa; Caballero, Alfonso

    2018-01-18

    A series of four Ni catalysts supported on SBA-15 and on a high SiO 2 surface area have been prepared by modified impregnation (ImU) and deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. The catalysts have been extensively characterized, including in situ XAS (bulk sensitive) and XPS (surface sensitive) techniques, and their catalytic activities evaluated in the dry reforming reaction of methane (DRM). The combined use of XPS and XAS has allowed us to determine the location of nickel particles on each catalyst after reduction at high temperature (750 °C). Both Ni/SiO 2 -DP and Ni/SBA-15-DP catalysts yield well-dispersed and homogeneous metallic phases mainly located in the mesoporosity of both supports. On the contrary, the Ni/SiO 2 -ImU and Ni/SBA-15-ImU catalysts present a bimodal distribution of the reduced nickel phase, with nickel metallic particles located out and into the mesoporous structure of SiO 2 or the SBA-15 channels. The Ni/SBA-15-DP catalyst was found the most stable and performing system, with a very low level of carbon deposition, about an order of magnitude lower than the equivalent ImU catalyst. This outstanding performance comes from the confinement of small and homogeneous nickel particles in the mesoporous channels of SBA-15, which, in strong interaction with the support, are resistant to sintering and coke deposition during the demanding reaction conditions of DRM.

  19. Search for the Higgs Boson in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} Channel in CMS Using a Multivariate Analysis; Busqueda del Boson de Higgs en el Canal H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} en CMS Empleando un Metodo de Analisis Multivariado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Diaz, A.

    2007-12-28

    This note presents a Higgs boson search analysis in the CMS detector of the LHC accelerator (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} channel, using a multivariate method. This analysis, based in a Higgs boson mass dependent likelihood, constructed from discriminant variables, provides a significant improvement of the Higgs boson discovery potential in a wide mass range with respect to the official analysis published by CMS, based in orthogonal cuts independent of the Higgs boson mass. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and the search for the Higgs boson in the decay channel H {yields} WW{sup *} {yields} 2e2{nu}; Le calorimetre electromagnetique de CMS et la recherche du boson de Higgs dans le canal de desintegration H {yields} WW{sup *} {yields} 2e2{nu}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovelli, I.Ch

    2006-01-15

    CMS is one of the four experiments that will take data at the LHC. Large part of my work was devoted to the development of electron reconstruction tools aimed at improving the Higgs boson discovery potential in the H {yields} WW{sup *} {yields} 2e2{nu} channel. A major role in the electron reconstruction is played by the electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL, an homogeneous calorimeter made of scintillating PbWO{sub 4} crystals. The first 3 chapters give an overview of LHC and CMS.In chapter 4 the analysis of the data collected during the 2003 electromagnetic calorimeter test beam is presented. First the problem of the intercalibration at the test beam is addressed. This is a major task, since the precision of the intercalibration directly affects the constant term of the energy resolution, for which the CMS goal is to reach a precision better than 0.5%. The good initial intercalibration, anyway, could be spoiled during the data taking by the effects of the radiation on the crystals, which can change the relative responses of the channels. A monitoring laser system is foreseen at CMS. The possibility to check the calibration stability and to correct the changes in the response with a precision within the required limits is demonstrated. Chapter five describes the electron reconstruction and identification in CMS. A crucial problem for the electron reconstruction is represented by the Bremsstrahlung emission in the tracker. A tracking procedure dealing with the Bremsstrahlung energy loss is discussed. Together with an improvement in the reconstruction efficiency, the procedure allows to identify electrons with a small fraction of radiated energy, which can be usefully exploited for the ECAL calibration. The developed algorithms are applied in chapter 6, which presents the study of the CMS discovery potential of the Higgs boson in the H {yields} WW{sup *} {yields} 2e2{nu} channel. This is the discovery channel in the range of masses between 2m{sub W} and 2m{sub Z}. Here

  1. Total yield and spectra of positrons produced by channeling radiation from 0.1 ÷ 1.6 GeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrashitov, S. V.; Bogdanov, O. V.; Dabagov, S. B.; Pivovarov, Yu. L.; Tukhfatullin, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    The hybrid scheme of positron source involving channeling radiation from 0.1 ÷ 1.6 GeV 〈1 0 0〉 channeled electrons in a crystalline W target (radiator) and subsequent electron-positron pair production in a downstream thick amorphous W target (converter) is investigated by means of computer simulation using the BCM-1 code. Computer simulation is carried out taking into account positron energy loss in a thick converter. Total yield of positrons as a function of the thickness of the converter as well as the energy spectrum of positrons for the chosen converter thickness are obtained. According to the calculations, the total yield of positrons produced by channeling radiation from 0.1 ÷ 1.6 GeV electrons in a 10 μm W crystal equals 0.5 ÷ 160 positrons per 103 incident electrons, respectively, with the maximum of positron energy spectrum in the energy range 1 ÷ 3 MeV. Calculations are performed within the framework of the planned experimental program at SPARC_LAB LNF.

  2. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The hERG potassium channel is essential for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Due to this vital function, absence of unintended and potentially life-threatening interactions with hERG is required for approval of new drugs. The structure of hERG is therefore one of the most sought......-after. To provide purified hERG for structural studies and new hERG biomimetic platforms for detection of undesirable interactions, we have developed a hERG expression platform generating unprecedented amounts of purified and functional hERG channels. Full-length hERG, with or without a C-terminally fused green...... fluorescent protein (GFP) His(8)-tag was produced from a codon-optimized hERG cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both constructs complemented the high potassium requirement of a knock-out Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, indicating correct tetramer assembly in vivo. Functionality was further demonstrated...

  3. Search for the SM Higgs boson in the channel WH{yields}l{nu}b anti b with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, Jonas Zacharias

    2012-11-26

    One of the most important scientific challenges of ATLAS and CMS, multi-purpose detectors at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is the discovery or exclusion of the longly sought standard model Higgs boson predicted almost fifty years ago. In summer 2012, both ATLAS and CMS discovered a new particle. Its mass is determined to be 126.0{+-}0.4(stat){+-} 0.4(sys) GeV (ATLAS) and 125.3{+-}0.4(stat){+-}0.5 (sys) GeV. Its further properties are so far consistent with the predicted properties of a standard model Higgs boson within large uncertainties. Besides the Higgs search in the sensitive bosonic channels, H{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, H{yields}ZZ, and H{yields}WW, the fermionic channels H{yields}{tau}{tau} and H{yields}b anti b contributed to the exclusion of a standard model Higgs boson below the observed excess and are essential for measuring the couplings of the new particle to fermions. In the analysis presented here, the associated Higgs production WH in the Higgs decay channel H{yields}b anti b is studied on the collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb{sup -1} recorded by ATLAS in 2011 at a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. A cut-based analysis selects events with the signature of interest, consisting of one lepton (electron, muon), missing transverse energy, and two b jets. Techniques for a data-driven estimate of the multijet background are developed, validated and applied. The different contributions from heavy and light flavour jets to the W+jets background are estimated by a data-driven method. Furthermore, the large background components from top and W+jets are normalized using collision data. The invariant mass of the two selected jets m{sub b} {sub anti} {sub b} is used for the determination of exclusion limits on the Higgs signal strength {sigma}/{sigma}{sub WH} in the mass window 110 GeV{<=}m{sub H}{<=}130 GeV. For a hypothesized Higgs mass of m{sub H}=110 GeV, the Higgs signal strength is excluded for values

  4. Measurement of the G asymmetry for the {gamma}p{yields}N{pi} channels in the {delta}(1232) resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.-J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Lang, M.; Rost, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A.; Walcher, Th. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Pavia (Italy); Univ. di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica; Annand, J.R.M.; Livingston, K.; McGeorge, J.C.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); d' Hose, N. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dutz, H. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Goertz, S.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Grabmayr, P.; Krimmer, J. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Hasegawa, S.; Horikawa, N. [Nagoya University, CIRSE, Nagoya (Japan); Holvoet, H.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Lannoy, B.; Rostomyan, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Vyver, R. van de [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); Iwata, T. [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Kondratiev, R. [INR, Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Preobrajenski, I. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). INR; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Zapadtka, F. [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The G asymmetry of the {gamma}p{yields}N{pi} reaction has been measured for the first time for E{sub {gamma}}=340{+-}14 MeV. This observable, for which very scarce published data exist, plays an important role to disentangle the contributions of the various nucleon resonances. The experiment, performed at the Mainz microtron MAMI, used a 4{pi}-detector system, a linearly polarized, tagged photon beam, and a longitudinally polarized proton target. (orig.)

  5. Study on the Electron Generation by a Micro-Channel Plate Based on EGS4 Calculations and the Universal Yield Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Han, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Chung, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of a cesium iodine coated micro-channel plate is studied. We use the EGS4 code to transport photons and generated electrons until their energies become less than 1keV and 10keV respectively. Among the generated electrons, the emission from the secondary electrons located within the escape depth of 56mm from the photo-converter boundary is estimated by integrating the product of the secondary electrons with a probability depending only on their geometric locations. The secondary electron emission from the generated electrons of energy higher than 100eV is estimated by the 'universal yield curve'. The sum of these provides an estimate for the secondary electron yield and we show that results of applying this algorithm agree with known experimental results. Using this algorithm, we computed secondary electron emissions from a micro-channel plate used in a gas electron multiplier detector that is currently being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

  6. Search for neutrino oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} in the decay channel: {tau}{yields}{rho} of the NOMAD experiment; Recherche d'oscillations de neutrinos {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} dans le canal de desintegration {tau}{yields}{rho} aupres de l'experience NOMAD au Cern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, N

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the NOMAD experiment is to find the oscillations of muon-neutrinos into tau-neutrinos by detecting the presence of tau-neutrinos in a beam made up essentially of muon-neutrinos. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to neutrinos, to the open questions in neutrino physics and gives the elements necessary to understand the oscillation phenomenon. The second part presents the principle on which is based the NOMAD experiment and the NOMAD detector is described. NOMAD detector is made up of 49 big drift chambers. The data collected allow the reconstruction of interaction vertex, of tracks of charged particles and give accurate values of energies and impulses involved in the process. A very important point is the alignment of the chambers and their efficiency. This thesis is a contribution to the improvement of reconstruction methods. The aim of NOMAD detector is to reveal the presence of tau-neutrino by detecting the decay products of the {tau}{sup -} issued from the current charged interaction of the tau-neutrino with the target. 5 channels of the {tau}{sup -} decay are opened to NOMAD detector but the hadronic channel: {tau}{sup -} {yields} {rho}{sup -} is the most interesting because of its high branching ratio (25.3%). The fourth part describes the analysis methods which are based on various decay topologies of {rho}. (A.C.)

  7. Measurement of the pp{yields}t anti t{gamma} inclusive cross section in the semi-leptonic decay channel with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammes, Marcus

    2012-07-01

    The top quark, being the heaviest of the six quarks in the Standard Model of Particle Physics, had not been discovered until 1995. Hence, many of its properties could not be measured at a high precision or even not be investigated at all so far. Since the top quark is so heavy, it might play a special role in electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). Especially its coupling to the electroweak (EW) gauge bosons could reveal hints to New Physics, if there were deviations from the predictions by the Standard Model. The total cross section of the top quark pair production process with the additional emission of a photon (t anti t{gamma}) has been determined with the ATLAS experiment as a first measurement of the couplings of EW gauge bosons to the top quark, since this process provides the largest cross section compared to other EW couplings. The t anti t{gamma} cross section measurement has been performed in the semi-leptonic (e+jets and {mu}+jets) decay channel using a template fit method with 1.04 fb{sup -1} of ATLAS data collected at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV in 2011. Various background sources have been investigated, using data-driven methods whenever possible; the impact of systematic uncertainties has been evaluated using a statistical ensemble of 3000 pseudo experiments. The result of the measurement yields a cross section of {sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t{gamma}} x BR=[1.84{+-}0.49(stat.){sup +0.50}{sub -0.50}(syst.){+-}0.07(lumi.)] pb at a significance of 2.9 {sigma}.

  8. Feasibility studies of the anti pp{yields}{pi} {sup circle} e{sup +}e{sup -} electromagnetic channel at anti PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    Among all possible realizations of quark and antiquark assembly, the nucleon (the proton and the neutron) is the most stable of all hadrons and consequently has been the subject of intensive studies. Mass, shape, radius and more complex representations of its internal structure are measured since several decades using different probes. The proton (spin 1/2) is described by the electric G{sub E} and magnetic G{sub M} form factors which characterise its internal structure. The simplest way to measure the proton form factors consists in measuring the angular distribution of the electron-proton elastic scattering accessing the so-called Space-Like region where q{sup 2}{<=}0. Using the crossed channel anti pp<->e{sup +}e{sup -}, one accesses another kinematical region, the so-called Time-Like region where q{sup 2}>0. However, due to the anti pp <->e{sup +}e{sup -} threshold q{sup 2}{sub th}, only the kinematical domain q{sup 2}>q{sup 2}{sub th}> 0 is available. To access the unphysical region, one may use the anti pp{yields}{pi} {sup circle} e{sup +}e{sup -} reaction where the {pi} {sup circle} takes away a part of the system energy allowing q{sup 2} to be varied between q{sup 2}{sub th} and almost 0. This thesis aims to show the feasibility of such measurements with the anti PANDA detector which will be installed on the new high intensity antiproton ring at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt. To describe the anti pp {yields} {pi} {sup circle} e{sup +}e{sup -} reaction, a Lagrangian based approach is developed. The 5-fold differential cross section is determined and related to linear combinations of hadronic tensors. Under the assumption of one nucleon exchange, the hadronic tensors are expressed in terms of the 2 complex proton electromagnetic form factors. An extraction method which provides an access to the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio R= vertical stroke G{sub E} vertical stroke / vertical stroke G{sub M} vertical stroke and for the first time in an

  9. Accurate quantum yields by laser gain vs absorption spectroscopy - Investigation of Br/Br(asterisk) channels in photofragmentation of Br2 and IBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, H. K.; Weitz, E.; Leone, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    Various techniques have been used to study photodissociation dynamics of the halogens and interhalogens. The quantum yields obtained by these techniques differ widely. The present investigation is concerned with a qualitatively new approach for obtaining highly accurate quantum yields for electronically excited states. This approach makes it possible to obtain an accuracy of 1 percent to 3 percent. It is shown that measurement of the initial transient gain/absorption vs the final absorption in a single time-resolved signal is a very accurate technique in the study of absolute branching fractions in photodissociation. The new technique is found to be insensitive to pulse and probe laser characteristics, molecular absorption cross sections, and absolute precursor density.

  10. Channelling and channelling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, A.H.; Uggerhoej, E.

    1987-01-01

    The study of channelling phenomena has developed rapidly since the early 1960s and today channelling has found many applications. The radiation emitted by channelled megaelectronvolt and gigaelectronvolt electrons and positrons has been investigated extensively and the possibility of, for example, constructing intense tunable X- and γ-ray sources is being explored. Multi-gigaelectronvolt radiation and pair-creation processes in single crystals show similarities with strong-field effects and are of particular interest because of high production rates that persist far beyond the channelling regime. (author)

  11. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  12. YIELD INDICATORS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, East and Southern Africa, Centre, P.O. Box 7878,. Kampala, Uganda. Makerere ... would have great potential in terms of human nutrition. Storage root yield , the ... Inter-relationships among traits and path analysis for yield components of cassava. 604 collected included plant ...

  13. Study of the CP violation in the channel B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} and development of an aerogel Cherenkov counter; Etude de la violation de CP dans le canal B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} et developpement d`un compteur Tcherenkov a aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafaye, Remi [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France)

    1998-05-11

    CP violation and the mass generation problem, will be the two fundamental points for Particle Physics at the dawn of the third millennium. The BABAR experiment, which is installed at PEP-II SLAC B-factory, aims to study CP violation in the B meson systems. It will be then possible to test the standard model explanation of CP violation and may be to highlight new sources. In order to study CP violation with the BABAR experiment it is mandatory to identify most of the produced particles. The first part of this thesis presents the study we carried out on a project of Cherenkov aerogel threshold counters for separating pions from kaons in the momentum region between 0.5 and 4.3 GeV/c. This study includes: preliminary search on materials (reflecting wrappings, wavelength shifters and aerogel), cells and light guides geometry and prototype simulation. Test beam results have shown the feasibility of such a detector. The second part of this thesis deals with the CP parameter measurement that could be achieved at the BABAR experiment for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} channel, where the J/{psi} decays in lepton mode. The reconstruction efficiency, background level, tagging efficiency as well as the resolution on the B vertex positions are studied. The measurement of the expected asymmetry is made with a probabilistic method or a fit and the resolution on the parameter sin 2{beta} that could be achieved is estimated. It is then shown that an uncertainty of 0.075 on sin 2{beta} could be reached in 1 year of data taking at the BABAR experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 fbarn{sup -1}. (author) 89 refs., 89 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. Tagging calibration of the jets from beauty quarks and the search for Higgs boson in the tt-bar H {yields} l{nu}b, jjb, bb-bar channel in the ATLAS experiment at LHC; Calibration de l'etiquetage de jets issus de quarks beaux et recherche du boson de Higgs dans le canal tt-barH {yields} l{nu}b, jjb, bb-bar dans l'experience ATLAS aupres du LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correard, Sebastien [Faculte des Sciences de Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 09 (France)

    2006-02-15

    B-tagging calibration and search for the Higgs boson in the tt-bar H {yields} l{nu}b, jjb, bb-bar channel with ATLAS at LHC The ATLAS experiment, based at CERN, will use the LHC proton collisions to deepen the Standard Model measurements, and look for possible signs of new physics. One of its main tasks will be the search for the Higgs boson. This thesis first describes the latest b-tagging algorithms, shows the importance of its calibration, and proposes a b-tagging calibration method based on the first data recorded by ATLAS. Then, considering that the Higgs boson may be light (m{sub H} < 135 GeV/c{sup 2}), the ttH channel is studied, with H decaying in a b quark pair. Full simulation and the latest realistic b-tagging methods have been combined for the first time. For an integrated luminosity of 30 fb{sup -1} (3 years of data taking), the S/{radical}B ratio, determining the sensitivity of this analysis, is raised to 4.9. This should allow a non-ambiguous observation of the Higgs boson in this channel. (author)

  15. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB’s private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication affects the aggregate...... demand due to the presence of reaching-for-yield investors. We show that a resulting risk premium channel helps to rationalize our findings....

  16. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Peking University, Beijing 100 871, China. Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetic and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050 021, China. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and ...

  17. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, Peking University, Beijing 100 871, China. 2. Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetic and Developmental Biology, Chinese. Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050 021, China. 3. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and ...

  18. Comparison of two split-window methods for retrieving land surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used include version 5 of Terra-MODIS Level 1B products of daytime (MOD02 1 km) and Land Sur- face Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E)-Daily. L3 Global 1km product (MOD11A1) on date of. 30/09/2008. Image is preprocessed similar with the description in section 4.1, and two maps of the. Sobmao retrieved LST and ...

  19. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  20. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  1. Experiment search of the electroweak symmetry breaking in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel and of a solution of the hierarchy problem in the Atlas experiment: participation to the tests of the electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Recherche experimentale de la brisure spontanee de symetrie electrofaible dans le canal H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} et d'une solution au probleme de hierarchie dans ATLAS. Participation a la preparation de l'electronique du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalier, M

    2005-04-15

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the ATLAS experiment at LHC collider, by studying two complementary topics: the search for the Higgs boson in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel, and a search for extra dimensions in the gluon sector. Tests of the electronic of the electromagnetic calorimeter allowed us to validate various cards that were under the responsibility of the LPNHE. Using full simulation data of the detector allowed us to precisely compute mass resolution of the di-photon system. Due to recent theoretical improvements, signal and background have been studied at the next order of the perturbative development, which increases cross-sections. With regards to the jet background, a study has been done using discriminating variables in order to obtain, for a 80 % photons efficiency, a rejection factor of 7000. The discovery potential benefits from this change of cross-sections and increases by 50 % in comparison with the same analysis done at the leading order. In addition to this, a new analysis using a maximum likelihood method allowed us to increase by 40 % the discovery potential in comparison with our classical analysis. In conclusion, the Higgs boson of 120 GeV/c{sup 2} can be now discovered in this channel with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Furthermore, the consistency of the problem of the Higgs boson mass can be solved by introducing extra dimensions in which gluons can propagate. We have shown that it was possible to discover extra-dimensions up to a compactification scale of 15 TeV. (author)

  2. Study of CP violation in the channel B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(ee)K{sub S}{sup 0}, identification and reconstruction of electrons in the LHCb experiment; Etude de la violation de CP dans le canal B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(ee)K{sub S}{sup 0}, identification et reconstruction des electrons dans l'experience LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrier, H

    2005-04-15

    LHCb experiment has been designed in order to do precise measurements of CP violation and rare decays with B mesons. In 2000, the collaboration decided to modify the spectrometer in order to minimize the amount of matter seen by particles and to optimize the trigger. This thesis was done in this context and is divided into 3 parts. The first part is relative to the electron identification and to the recovery of Bremsstrahlung photons emitted by electrons when they pass through matter. Electron identification is mainly based on information provided by calorimeter system but also uses RICH and muon system. A method based on reference histograms had been developed which combine information provided by these detectors. Electron identification efficiency, for electrons in ECAL acceptance is 95% and the pion mis-identification rates 0.8% with a 65% purity of electron sample. Bremsstrahlung recovery allows the selection of J/{phi} decaying in e{sup +}e{sup -} pair and of B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{phi}(ee)K{sub S}{sup 0} channel which are described in the second part. The selection of this channel was developed in order to get an acceptable selection efficiency with a good rejection of background. A set of kinematic and topological cuts were designed and total selection efficiency is 0.176%, corresponding to 28000 untagged events reconstructed by year, with a ratio B/S belonging to [0.017;0.069] (at 90% of confidence level) for inclusive bb-bar background. In the third part, B meson flavour tagging is presented. The addition of information provided by the vertex locator allows to reject electron coming from conversion and to improve slightly the performances. The LHCb sensibility to sin(2{beta}) from B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} decay is also determined. The statistical error, expected after one year of data collecting, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2 fb{sup -1} and bb-bar pair cross section of 0.5 mb, varies from 0.015 to 0.020 according to

  3. Search for a standard model Higgs boson in the H{yields}ZZ{yields} Script-Small-L {sup +} Script-Small-L {sup -}{nu}{nu}{sup Macron} decay channel using 4.7 fb{sup -1} of {radical}(s)=7 TeV data with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Abdallah, J. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies and Departament de Fisica de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona and ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Abdel Khalek, S. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Abdelalim, A.A. [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Abdinov, O. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Abi, B. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Abolins, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); AbouZeid, O.S. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON (Canada); Abramowicz, H. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abreu, H. [DSM/IRFU (Institut de Recherches sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers), CEA Saclay (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Acerbi, E. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Milano (Italy); Acharya, B.S. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Adamczyk, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Adams, D.L. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Addy, T.N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); and others

    2012-10-22

    A search for a Standard Model Higgs boson decaying via H{yields}ZZ{yields} Script-Small-L {sup +} Script-Small-L {sup -}{nu}{nu}{sup Macron }, where Script-Small-L represents electrons or muons, is presented. It is based on proton-proton collision data at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC during 2011 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb{sup -1}. The data agree with the expected Standard Model backgrounds. Upper limits on the Higgs boson production cross section are derived for Higgs boson masses between 200 GeV and 600 GeV and the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass in the range 319-558 GeV is excluded at the 95% confidence level.

  4. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  5. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  6. Search for a Standard Model Higgs boson in the mass range 200-600 GeV in the H{yields}ZZ{yields} Script-Small-L {sup +} Script-Small-L {sup -}qq{sup Macron} decay channel with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Abdallah, J. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies and Departament de Fisica de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona and ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Abdel Khalek, S. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Abdelalim, A.A. [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Abdinov, O. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Abi, B. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Abolins, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); AbouZeid, O.S. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Abramowicz, H. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abreu, H. [DSM/IRFU (Institut de Recherches sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers), CEA Saclay (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Acerbi, E. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Milano (Italy); Acharya, B.S. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Adamczyk, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Adams, D.L. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Addy, T.N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); and others

    2012-10-22

    A search for a heavy Standard Model Higgs boson decaying via H{yields}ZZ{yields} Script-Small-L {sup +} Script-Small-L {sup -}qq{sup Macron }, where Script-Small-L =e or {mu}, is presented. The search uses a data set of pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb{sup -1} collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC. No significant excess of events above the estimated background is found. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the production cross section of a Higgs boson with a mass in the range between 200 and 600 GeV are derived. A Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass in the range 300 GeV Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To m{sub H} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 322 GeV or 353 GeV Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To m{sub H} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 410 GeV is excluded at 95% CL. The corresponding expected exclusion range is 351 GeV Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To m{sub H} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 404 GeV at 95% CL.

  7. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  8. Starburst Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies. In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  9. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB’s private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication affects the aggregate...

  10. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    , we show that communication shocks have a large and economically significant impact on swap rates and sovereign yields, displaying a hump-shaped pattern across maturity. Second, we document that around the European debt crisis communication had the effect of driving a wedge between yields on core...... versus peripheral countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB's private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication can...

  11. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  12. NSAIDs acutely inhibit TRPC channels in freshly isolated rat glomeruli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Institute of Cytology RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Vladislav; Ryan, Robert P.; Cowley, Allen W. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Staruschenko, Alexander, E-mail: Staruschenko@mcw.edu [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} We have established a unique approach to search for physiologically relevant mechanisms of TRPC channels in podocytes. {yields} This study describes endogenous TRPC channels in the isolated decapsulated glomeruli preparation. {yields} We report for the first time that NSAIDs inhibit TRPC channels in podocytes. -- Abstract: Using a novel approach for analysis of TRPC channel activity, we report here that NSAIDs are involved into regulation of TRPC channels in the podocytes of the freshly isolated decapsulated glomeruli. Fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques confirmed the integrity of podocytes in the glomeruli. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3 and 6 are highly expressed in the glomeruli. Single-channel patch clamp analysis revealed cation currents with distinct TRPC properties. This is the first report describing single TRPC-like currents in glomerular podocytes. Furthermore, our data provide a novel mechanism of NSAIDs regulation of TRPC channels, which might be implicated in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier.

  13. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  14. Cirrus Horizontal Heterogeneity Effects on Cloud Optical Properties Retrieved from MODIS VNIR to TIR Channels as a Function of the Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S. E.; Sourdeval, O.; Wang, C.; Meyer, K.; Cornet, C.; Szczap, F.

    2017-12-01

    Cirrus are an important part of the Earth radiation budget but an assessment of their role yet remains highly uncertain. Cirrus optical properties such as Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) and ice crystal effective particle size (Re) are often retrieved with a combination of Visible/Near InfraRed (VNIR) and ShortWave-InfraRed (SWIR) reflectance channels. Alternatively, Thermal InfraRed (TIR) techniques, such as the Split Window Technique (SWT), have demonstrated better sensitivity to thin cirrus. However, current satellite operational products for both retrieval methods assume that cloudy pixels are horizontally homogeneous (Plane Parallel and Homogeneous Approximation (PPHA)) and independent (Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA)). The impact of these approximations on cirrus retrievals needs to be understood and, as far as possible, corrected. Horizontal heterogeneity effects can be more easily estimated and corrected in the TIR range because they are mainly dominated by the PPA bias, which primarily depends on the COT subpixel heterogeneity. For solar reflectance channels, in addition to the PPHA bias, the IPA can lead to significant retrieval errors if there is large photon transport between cloudy columns in addition to brightening and shadowing effects that are more difficult to quantify.The effects of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity are here studied on COT and Re retrievals obtained using simulated MODIS reflectances at 0.86 and 2.11 μm and radiances at 8.5, 11.0 and 12.0 μm, for spatial resolutions ranging from 50 m to 10 km. For each spatial resolution, simulated TOA reflectances and radiances are combined for cloud optical property retrievals with a research-level optimal estimation retrieval method (OEM). The impact of horizontal heterogeneity on the retrieved products is assessed for different solar geometries and various combinations of the five channels.

  15. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    21 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding.................................................22 F. SUMMARY...on demand, hybrid channel allocation in wireless networks, and 3 Beowulf Ethernet channel bonding. The background information presented in this...channels are available for dynamic allocation [Ref 32]. 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding A by-product of using older computers in a NASA research lab

  16. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  17. Development of a tuneable channel cut crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treimer, W.; Strobl, M.; Hilger, A.

    2001-10-01

    We have developed the first tuneable channel cut crystal for ultra small angle neutron scattering and neutron optical experiments. The Darwin range of a perfect crystal can be reduced down to a fraction of its natural width. This “Darwin reduction” was realised without any change of the beam geometry which yields an intensity gain relative to conventional asymmetric Bragg diffraction. With such tuneable channel cut crystal peaks nearly δ-peaks can experimentally be realised.

  18. Yield and yield component analysis of twelve upland rice genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple correlation and path coefficient analysis were used to study yield and yield components. Genotypic stability analysis was performed on the yield and the two traits most related to yield using mean yield-coefficient of variation (CV). The genotype, ITA 324 had the highest grain yield and percentage fertile spikelets in ...

  19. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots...... is not one homogenous type of channels, but rather breaks down in different (sub)types of channels, each with different characteristics and possibilities to supplement and/or replace existing channels. Given the variety of channels, we foresee challenges in incorporating these new channels in multi-channel...... models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  20. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  1. Computer simulation of proton channelling in silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2000-06-12

    Jun 12, 2000 ... (23). For the system in figure 7 this yields a value of. 2 = 325 ˚A in fair agreement with the computed value. 5. Conclusion. This paper reports an indigenously developed computer code for channelling of fast ions in crystals using Vineyard model and screened binary Coulombic potential. The paper reports.

  2. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  3. Comparative timber-yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. T. Haig

    1932-01-01

    During the last decade the U. S. Forest Service and several of the forest schools have completed rather comprehensive studies of the growth and yield of a number of commercially important native conifers. As the majority of these studies show the volumes obtainable in fully-stocked stands to very similar standards of utilization, they furnish an excellent opportunity...

  4. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per unit

  5. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have stable, not too short crop duration with ... Ndiaye is located in the. Costal Delta region of Senegal. The climate of the Delta is characterized by a wet season from July to October with approximately. 200 mm of ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant height of 16 rice.

  6. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  7. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For people of African heritage and older people, calcium channel blockers might ... high-blood-pressure/in-depth/calcium-channel-blockers/ART-20047605 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  8. Superconducting muon channel at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, K.; Koda, A.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Fujimori, H.; Makimura, S.; Higemoto, W.; Nakahara, K.; Ishida, K.; Nishiyama, K.; Nagamine, K.; Miyake, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The Muon Science Laboratory at the Materials and Life Science Facility is now under construction in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), where four types of muon channels are planned to be installed. A conventional superconducting muon channel will be installed at the first stage, which can extract surface (positive) muons and decay positive/negative muons up to 120 MeV/c, and the expected muon yield is a few 10 6 /s at 60 MeV/c (for both positive and negative). This channel will be used for various kinds of experiments like muon catalyzed fusion, μSR and nondestructive elements analysis. The present status of the superconducting muon channel is briefly reported.

  9. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  10. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  11. Channel morphology [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  12. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  13. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    meets the challenging design requirements of RF channel-select filters, the last method presents a design hierarchy that achieves the desired filter response with a specific center frequency, bandwidth, and filter termination resistance. The design procedure culminates in specific values for all mechanical geometry variables necessary for the filter layout, such as disk radii, and beam widths; and process design variables such as resonator material thickness and capacitive actuation gap spacing. Finally, the experimental results introduce a 39nm-gap capacitive transducer, voltage-controlled frequency tuning, and a stress relieving coupled array design that enable a 0.09% bandwidth 223.4 MHz channel-select filter with only 2.7dB of in-band insertion loss and 50dB rejection of out-of-band interferers. This amount of rejection is more than 23dB better than previous capacitive-gap transduced filter designs that did not benefit from sub-50nm gaps. It also comes in tandem with a 20dB shape factor of 2.7 realized by a hierarchical mechanical circuit design utilizing 206 micromechanical circuit elements, all contained in an area footprint of only 600mumx420mum. The key to such low insertion loss for this tiny percent bandwidth is Q's>8,800 supplied by polysilicon disk resonators employing for the first time capacitive transducer gaps small enough to generate coupling strengths of C x/Co ˜0.1%, which is a 6.1x improvement over previous efforts. The filter structure utilizes electrical tuning to correct frequency mismatches due to process variations, where a dc tuning voltage of 12.1 V improves the filter insertion loss by 1.8 dB and yields the desired equiripple passband shape. An electrical equivalent circuit is presented that captures not only the ideal filter response, but also parasitic non-idealities that create electrical feed-through, where simulation of the derived equivalent circuit matches the measured filter spectrum closely both in-band and out-of-band. The combined

  14. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and yield components in soybean under Bursa, Mustafakemalpaşa ecological conditions. Trials were conducted ... that increase in plant density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. .... nitrogen doses, plant density and their interaction on yield and yield ...

  15. Origin of apparent viscosity in yield stress fluids below yielding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, P.C.F.; Fall, A.; Bonn, D.

    2009-01-01

    For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is

  16. Triaxial testing beyond yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is continuation of work published at ISOPE 2015, where capabilities of undrained triaxial testing were presented. Now, drained loading is emphasized, recovery of disturbed sand properties is observed. After liquefying or yielding, sand becomes disturbed: stiffness and resistance...... to liquefaction become compromised. However, sand can "heal" itself. It can recover during drained deformation cycles. The recovery mechanism can be observed using a triaxial apparatus. Such tests are relevant for offshore, seismic, and other fields of engineering, where disturbed soil states are encountered....

  17. Calibration of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter. Identification of the tau leptons and search for a Higgs boson in the channel qqH {yields} qq {tau}{tau} in the Atlas experiment at LHC; Etalonnage du calorimetre electromagnetique tonneau. Identification des leptons taus et recherche d'un boson de Higgs dans le canal qqH {yields} qq {tau}{tau} dans l'experience ATLAS au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrade, F

    2006-09-15

    The Standard Model is the theory which describes the fundamental interactions most accurately. However, the Higgs mechanism and its associated boson have not yet been discovered. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter will play an important role in its discovery if it exists. In the first part of this work, a final mapping of all barrel electromagnetic calorimeter cells, and in particular the problematic ones, was made. Then, the code for the calorimeter calibration was migrated into the ATLAS software environment (ATHENA), where it was tested and validated with the 2004 test beam data. In this code, the optimal filtering coefficients, which enable to reconstruct the energy deposited in the calorimeter while minimizing the electronic and pile-up noises, are calculated. For this, a model was developed to predict the physics signal waveform from the calibration waveform. In a third part, two algorithms for reconstructing and identifying {tau} leptons in their hadronic decay mode were studied and compared. Finally in a fourth part, one amongst the most important Standard Model Higgs production and decay channels was investigated, namely the weak boson fusion production followed by the Higgs decay into a tau lepton pair, for a low mass Higgs (115 < m{sub Higgs} < 145 GeV/c{sup 2}). This study was performed for 30 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity using fast and fully simulated data. A study of the dominant background Z + n jets (n {<=} 5) was also performed. (author)

  18. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  19. Ion Channels in Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    be fitted to a Hodgkin - conductance. K (1.0) > Rb (0.77) > NH4 (0.10) > Cs Huxley type n4j model (17, 38). However, the rate of K0 (0.02) > Na (ɘ.01...15, 25 activated) T- and B-cells, murine B-cells? SCG, single-channel conductance under physiological ionic gradient- tfor ructif~ y ig ehannel, largest...the channel induces a confor- kat T-cell line (52). Fina:! y , single-channel recordings of mational change that ina.-tix ates the channel rather human T

  20. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  1. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... end of the study, positive and significant relationship were found among seed yield and pods per plant and biological yield in both years. The strongest and direct positive effects were the biological yield (p = 0.6500), numbers of ... Pea is an important plant in human and animal nutrition because of its high ...

  2. yield and yield component association of some capsicum genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-24

    Jul 24, 2015 ... The experiment was conducted in humid agro ecological zone of Calabar, Nigeria, to evaluate the yield performance and the association between yield and yield related components of some capsicum genotypes which include; Bird pepper(Capsicum annuumvar. aviculare), Habanero pepper(Capsicum ...

  3. Yield and yield components of six canola ( Brassica napus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design arrangement in split factorial with four replications The results demonstrated that late planting date and interrupting of irrigation at flowering stage significantly decreased growth, yield and yield components the of canola cultivars. In addition, oil yield ...

  4. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was designed randomized complete blocks design with four replications. At the end of the study, positive and significant relationship were found among seed yield and pods per plant and biological yield in both years. The strongest and direct positive effects were the biological yield (p = 0.6500), numbers of ...

  5. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  6. DESIGN OF PARABOLIC CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alibekov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the apparent location of the hydraulic parameters of parabolic channels in earthen channel and volume of dredging required in their design and construction, on the basis of conditions to ensure the stability of the slope at the maximum water flow rate. 

  7. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this ... vary. However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel antagonist. It helps decrease the heart's pumping strength, which ...

  8. CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...

  9. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  10. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  11. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    . The underlying posttranscriptional and posttranslational remodeling of the individual K(+) channels changes their activity and significance relative to each other, and they must be viewed together to understand their role in keeping a stable heart rhythm, also under menacing conditions like attacks of reentry......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  12. Muon cooling channels

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard-K-Kei

    2003-01-01

    A procedure uses the equations that govern ionization cooling, and leads to the most important parameters of a muon cooling channel that achieves assumed performance parameters. First, purely transverse cooling is considered, followed by both transverse and longitudinal cooling in quadrupole and solenoid channels. Similarities and differences in the results are discussed in detail, and a common notation is developed. Procedure and notation are applied to a few published cooling channels. The parameters of the cooling channels are derived step by step, starting from assumed values of the initial, final and equilibrium emittances, both transverse and longitudinal, the length of the cooling channel, and the material properties of the absorber. The results obtained include cooling lengths and partition numbers, amplitude functions and limits on the dispersion at the absorber, length, aperture and spacing of the absorber, parameters of the RF system that achieve the longitudinal amplitude function and bucket area ...

  13. Kinetics and Product Channels in Combustion Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, John F. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2017-02-28

    We report study of the chemical kinetics and/or photochemistry of several chemical reactions of potential interest in understanding the gas phase combustion chemistry of nitrogen-containing molecules. Studies completed during the final grant period include determination of quantum yields of the photolysis of HCNO, fulminic acid, a kinetics and product channel study of the reaction of CN radicals with methyl bromide, and study of the products of the reaction of hydroxymethyl radical with nitric oxide.

  14. Yield gains in leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield of all crops have increased during the past century through improved cultural practices and plant breeding. We reviewed gains in yield of lettuce and spinach in the U.S., principally California and Arizona. We proposed several genetic models for yield of lettuce based on the market type: whole...

  15. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  16. Coherifying quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  17. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  18. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  19. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also...

  20. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  1. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  2. The MISO Wiretap Channel with Noisy Main Channel Estimation in the High Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2017-02-07

    We improve upon our previous upper bound on the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with multiple transmit antennas and single-antenna receivers, with noisy main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). Specifically, we show that if the main CSI error does not scale with the power budget at the transmitter P̅, then the secrecy capacity is )bounded above essentially by log log (P̅ yielding a secure degree of freedom (sdof) equal to zero. However, if the main CSI error scales as O(P̅-β), for β ∈ [0,1], then the sdof is equal to β.

  3. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    , controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl...... understood. Potential agonist binding sites have been proposed in transmembrane domains 3 and 4, in congruence with agonist binding sites of TRPV1. However, the functional relationship between TRPV4 and agonist binding is not yet understood. In this thesis is further elaborate the structure...

  4. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  5. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  6. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  7. Tritium in the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.; Fievet, B.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Olivier, A.; Tenailleau, L.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled that sea waters entering the Channel exhibit a natural concentration of tritium, the authors outline that spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are now the main sources of tritium for marine ecosystems as some oceanographic campaigns showed it. If data about the presence of tritium in water are numerous, data concerning the presence of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium in organisms are much less frequent. However, some surveys have been performed along the Channel French coasts

  8. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  9. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  10. Effect of density and planting pattern on yield and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza yadavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate competition ability of Grain maize (Zea mays L. against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. a field experiment was conducted at Esfahan on 2003. In this research the effect of corn spatial arrangement on yield and yield components of corn (647 Three Way Cross hybrids under different levels of redroot pigweed infestation was investigated. Treatments were arranged in a factorial split experiment based on RCBD with three replications. Factorial arrangement of corn densities (74000 and 111000 plant ha-1 and planting patterns (single row, rectangular twin row and zigzag twin row formed the main plots. Split-plots referred to pigweed densities (0, 4, 8 and 12 plant m-1. Results showed that both grain and biological yield of corn increased as corn density rates increased but rows number per cob, number of grains per row of cob and 1000 grains weight decreased. The effects of planting arrangement on yield and yield components despite rows grain in cob, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were statistically significant. Corn grain yield and yield components decreased significantly by increasing pigweed density. The effect of redroot pigweed density on corn grain and biological yield loss was predicted using Cousence hyperbolic yield equation. It showed that maximum grain yield loss and biological yield loss happened in single row arrangement and low corn density. Rows number per cob and grain numbers per row in higher corn density treatment showed lower reduction slopes under pigweed competition. In addition, grain rows numbers per cob and corn harvest index in twin arrangement treatments decreased lower than single row treatment under pigweed competition. The results of this research indicated that corn competition ability against redroot pigweed could be increased using dense population (1/5 fold of general density and zigzag twin row arrangement.

  11. Mechanosensitive gating of Kv channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Morris

    Full Text Available K-selective voltage-gated channels (Kv are multi-conformation bilayer-embedded proteins whose mechanosensitive (MS Popen(V implies that at least one conformational transition requires the restructuring of the channel-bilayer interface. Unlike Morris and colleagues, who attributed MS-Kv responses to a cooperative V-dependent closed-closed expansion↔compaction transition near the open state, Mackinnon and colleagues invoke expansion during a V-independent closed↔open transition. With increasing membrane tension, they suggest, the closed↔open equilibrium constant, L, can increase >100-fold, thereby taking steady-state Popen from 0→1; "exquisite sensitivity to small…mechanical perturbations", they state, makes a Kv "as much a mechanosensitive…as…a voltage-dependent channel". Devised to explain successive gK(V curves in excised patches where tension spontaneously increased until lysis, their L-based model falters in part because of an overlooked IK feature; with recovery from slow inactivation factored in, their g(V datasets are fully explained by the earlier model (a MS V-dependent closed-closed transition, invariant L≥4. An L-based MS-Kv predicts neither known Kv time courses nor the distinctive MS responses of Kv-ILT. It predicts Kv densities (hence gating charge per V-sensor several-fold different from established values. If opening depended on elevated tension (L-based model, standard gK(V operation would be compromised by animal cells' membrane flaccidity. A MS V-dependent transition is, by contrast, unproblematic on all counts. Since these issues bear directly on recent findings that mechanically-modulated Kv channels subtly tune pain-related excitability in peripheral mechanoreceptor neurons we undertook excitability modeling (evoked action potentials. Kvs with MS V-dependent closed-closed transitions produce nuanced mechanically-modulated excitability whereas an L-based MS-Kv yields extreme, possibly excessive

  12. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  13. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    In a study carried out to estimate the components of variation in 'egusi' melon populations indicated high proportion of genetic variation in the yield attributes ... of the improvement made in yield of watermelon may be attributed to its genetic ..... variability and correlation studies in “egusi” melon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) ...

  14. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... who reported maximum fruit yield in watermelon with an application of maleic hydrazide at 100 ppm. The yield increased from 7.22 tons/ha in the control to 13.1 tons/ha in the treatment with 100 ppm maleic hydrazide and 100 ppm ethephon, resulting in an additional return which increased the income from ...

  15. Studies on yield and yield component responses of Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucuna flagellipes was subjected to field scale culture over 1999 and 2000 growth seasons. Yield and yield component responses were evaluated using 4 x 3 factorial treatment combinations of phosphorus at 0, 20, 40, and 60kg P ha-1 and lime at 0, 1 and 2 t CaCO3 ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized ...

  16. Relationship between yield and some yield components in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bean common mosaic virus–blackeye cowpea strain (BCMV-BlC) and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) belonging to the genus potyvirus are cosmopolitan and economically important pathogens of cowpea. This study analysed the linear relationship between yield and some yield related characters (numbers of ...

  17. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effect of plant population and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components in soybean under Bursa, Mustafakemalpaa ecological conditions. Trials were conducted during 2000 and 2001 at the experimental fields of the Mustafakemalpaa Vocational High School, University of ...

  18. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tef (Eragrostis tef) is one of most important food crops grown in Benishangul Gumuz region of Ethiopia and is ... Nitrogen by P interaction effect was significant on plant height, straw and grain yield. Grain yield increased .... indicating the possibility of Al toxicity and deficiency of certain plant nutrients. The exchangeable K of ...

  19. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    carried out and data obtain from drainage channels. The time of concentratio version of version of Kirpich equation (new equation of time new equation of time from the drainage channels were determined using results showed that most of the drainage channels h. All the drainage channels of basin A had velocities ra.

  20. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  1. Channel identification machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  2. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  3. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  4. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M

    2017-04-12

    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  5. Chaos in quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  6. CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Cheadle, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The service life of CANDU fuel channels is determined by the component that has to withstand the most severe conditions, the Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube. The latest fuel channels are expected to have a lifetime of over 30 years. The properties that control service life are fracture and deformation. For fracture, a defence-in-depth approach is used - preventing crack initiation and invoking leak-before-break. Confidence in the serviceability of fuel channels is based on current knowledge of the state of health of the components evaluated by surveillance. Degradation of properties with service is slow, allowing sufficient time to judge and act when end-of-life is reached. Methods for improving the properties of components are outlined. (author)

  7. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  8. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and ...

  9. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  10. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  11. Channels of Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from…

  12. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  13. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  14. Regions of KCNQ K+ Channels Controlling Functional Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eChoveau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available KCNQ1-5 α-subunits assemble to form K+ channels that play critical roles in the function of numerous tissues. The channels are tetramers of subunits containing six transmembrane domains. Each subunit consists of a pore region (S5-pore-S6 and a voltage sensor domain (S1-S4. Despite similar structures, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 homomers yield small current amplitudes compared to other KCNQ homomers and KCNQ2/3 heteromers. Two major mechanisms have been suggested as governing functional expression. The first involves control of channel trafficking to the plasma membrane by the distal part of the C-terminus, containing two coiled-coiled domains, required for channel trafficking and assembly. The proximal half of the C-terminus is the crucial region for channel modulation by signaling molecules such as calmodulin, which may mediate C- and N-terminal interactions. The N-terminus of KCNQ channels has also been postulated as critical for channel surface expression. The second mechanism suggests networks of interactions between the pore helix and the selectivity filter, and between the pore helix and the S6 domain that govern KCNQ current amplitudes. Here, we summarize the role of these different regions in expression of functional KCNQ channels.

  15. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  16. Modeling of Reverberant Radio Channels Using Propagation Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels; Steinböck, Gerhard; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2012-01-01

    decaying power. We model the channel as a propagation graph in which vertices represent transmitters, receivers, and scatterers, while edges represent propagation conditions between vertices. The recursive structure of the graph accounts for the exponential power decay and the avalanche effect. We derive...... that the graph's recursive structure yields both an exponential power decay and an avalanche effect....

  17. J-PARC decay muon channel construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, P; Shimomura, K; Koda, A; Kawamura, N; Fujimori, H; Makimura, S; Kobayashi, Y; Nakahara, K; Kato, M; Takeshita, S; Kadono, R; Nishiyama, K; Miyake, Y; Hiraishi, M; Miyazaki, M; Higemoto, W; Ito, T U; Ninomiya, K; Ishida, K; Kubo, M K

    2010-01-01

    The new Muon Science Facility (MUSE) that is now under construction at J-PARC in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) building will comprise four types of muon channels. In the first stage, a conventional superconducting decay muon channel (D-Line) was constructed, which can extract surface (positive) muons with an expected muon yield of 10 7 /s and decay positive/negative muons up to 120 MeV/c, with an expected muon yield of a few 10 6 /s at 60 MeV/c for both positive and negative muons. This channel will be used for various kinds of muon experiments like μSR, muon catalyzed fusion and nondestructive elements analysis.

  18. Quantum communication under channel uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Janis Christian Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This work contains results concerning transmission of entanglement and subspaces as well as generation of entanglement in the limit of arbitrary many uses of compound- and arbitrarily varying quantum channels (CQC, AVQC). In both cases, the channel is described by a set of memoryless channels. Only forward communication between one sender and one receiver is allowed. A code is said to be ''good'' only, if it is ''good'' for every channel out of the set. Both settings describe a scenario, in which sender and receiver have only limited channel knowledge. For different amounts of information about the channel available to sender or receiver, coding theorems are proven for the CQC. For the AVQC, both deterministic and randomised coding schemes are considered. Coding theorems are proven, as well as a quantum analogue of the Ahlswede-dichotomy. The connection to zero-error capacities of stationary memoryless quantum channels is investigated. The notion of symmetrisability is defined and used for both classes of channels.

  19. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  20. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  1. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  2. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  3. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  4. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  5. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  6. Inter-Relationships Between Yield And Yield Attributes Of Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temp 25oC, Mean Max Temp 31.5oC) during the rainy season of 1999 and 2000 to determine the inter-relationship between yield and some important agronomic traits in the potato grown under high ambient temperatures. The genotypes were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.

  7. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation studies provide a better understanding of the association of different characters with grain yield (Dixet and Dubey, 1984). The study of associations ... of 120 kg ha-1. The date of sowing was as prescribed by the treatments. Four irrigations were applied to the crop before withholding water to allow for proper ...

  8. Channel box compression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamizo, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuki.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the volume of spent fuel channel boxes of power plant facilities to eliminate secondary wastes, suppress generation of radiation sources and improve storage space efficiency. The device has a box-like shape. A support frame is disposed on the lateral side of the box for supporting spent channel boxes. A horizontal transferring unit and a vertical transferring compression unit driven by a driving mechanism are disposed in the support frame. Further, the compression unit may have a rotational compression roller so as to move freely in the transferring unit. In addition, the transferring unit and the driving mechanism may be disposed outside of pool water. With such a constitution, since spent channel boxes are compressed and bent by horizontal movement of the transferring unit and the vertical movement of the compression unit, no cut pieces or cut powders are generated. Further, if the transferring unit and the driving mechanism are disposed outside of the pool water, it is not necessary to make them waterproof, which facilitates the maintenance. (I.S.)

  9. Alluvial cover controlling the width, slope and sinuosity of bedrock channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Jens Martin

    2018-02-01

    Bedrock channel slope and width are important parameters for setting bedload transport capacity and for stream-profile inversion to obtain tectonics information. Channel width and slope development are closely related to the problem of bedrock channel sinuosity. It is therefore likely that observations on bedrock channel meandering yields insights into the development of channel width and slope. Active meandering occurs when the bedrock channel walls are eroded, which also drives channel widening. Further, for a given drop in elevation, the more sinuous a channel is, the lower is its channel bed slope in comparison to a straight channel. It can thus be expected that studies of bedrock channel meandering give insights into width and slope adjustment and vice versa. The mechanisms by which bedrock channels actively meander have been debated since the beginning of modern geomorphic research in the 19th century, but a final consensus has not been reached. It has long been argued that whether a bedrock channel meanders actively or not is determined by the availability of sediment relative to transport capacity, a notion that has also been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. Here, this idea is taken up by postulating that the rate of change of both width and sinuosity over time is dependent on bed cover only. Based on the physics of erosion by bedload impacts, a scaling argument is developed to link bedrock channel width, slope and sinuosity to sediment supply, discharge and erodibility. This simple model built on sediment-flux-driven bedrock erosion concepts yields the observed scaling relationships of channel width and slope with discharge and erosion rate. Further, it explains why sinuosity evolves to a steady-state value and predicts the observed relations between sinuosity, erodibility and storm frequency, as has been observed for meandering bedrock rivers on Pacific Arc islands.

  10. Matching Theory for Channel Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a cognitive radio network (CRN in which a set of secondary users (SUs competes for a limited number of channels (spectrum resources belonging to primary users (PUs, the channel allocation is a challenge and dominates the throughput and congestion of the network. In this paper, the channel allocation problem is first formulated as the 0-1 integer programming optimization, with considering the overall utility both of primary system and secondary system. Inspired by matching theory, a many-to-one matching game is used to remodel the channel allocation problem, and the corresponding PU proposing deferred acceptance (PPDA algorithm is also proposed to yield a stable matching. We compare the performance and computation complexity between these two solutions. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and obtain the communication overhead of the proposed scheme.

  11. TRP channels in kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Recent studies of TRP channels indicate that they are involved in numerous fundamental cell

  12. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLeanza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channels (Ca2+-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K+ channel-3 (TASK-3, Ca2+ uniporter MCU, Mg2+-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, the ER-located Ca2+ depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  13. Planar channeling observed by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsarte, Guy

    1970-06-01

    Radiographies of crystals by means of channeled particles exhibit channeling patterns. The origin of these patterns is studied, The role played by planar channeling is demonstrated. It is shown that these patterns are local amplifications of the process generating the images of a crystal on the radiography. It is deduced that planar channeling plays a determining role in the formation of these images. An orientation chamber using transmitted planar channels is described. The orientation of very small grains in a polycrystal can be very easily obtained, (author) [fr

  14. COMPARATIVE YIELD AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Flavonoids represent a wide spread group of water soluble phenolic derivatives, known for their medicinal effect. This paper is focused on identifying the functional groups present in flavonoids of Blighia sapida stem bark and root sample. The percentage yield was higher with methanol extract of the stem bark ...

  15. Modeling temporal and spatial variability of crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, S.; Manoli, G.; Scudiero, E.; Morari, F.; Putti, M.; Teatini, P.

    2014-12-01

    In a world of increasing food insecurity the development of modeling tools capable of supporting on-farm decision making processes is highly needed to formulate sustainable irrigation practices in order to preserve water resources while maintaining adequate crop yield. The design of these practices starts from the accurate modeling of soil-plant-atmosphere interaction. We present an innovative 3D Soil-Plant model that couples 3D hydrological soil dynamics with a mechanistic description of plant transpiration and photosynthesis, including a crop growth module. Because of its intrinsically three dimensional nature, the model is able to capture spatial and temporal patterns of crop yield over large scales and under various climate and environmental factors. The model is applied to a 25 ha corn field in the Venice coastland, Italy, that has been continuously monitored over the years 2010 and 2012 in terms of both hydrological dynamics and yield mapping. The model results satisfactorily reproduce the large variability observed in maize yield (from 2 to 15 ton/ha). This variability is shown to be connected to the spatial heterogeneities of the farmland, which is characterized by several sandy paleo-channels crossing organic-rich silty soils. Salt contamination of soils and groundwater in a large portion of the area strongly affects the crop yield, especially outside the paleo-channels, where measured salt concentrations are lower than the surroundings. The developed model includes a simplified description of the effects of salt concentration in soil water on transpiration. The results seem to capture accurately the effects of salt concentration and the variability of the climatic conditions occurred during the three years of measurements. This innovative modeling framework paves the way to future large scale simulations of farmland dynamics.

  16. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  17. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  18. Channels in tokamak reactor shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchipakin, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of calculations of neutron transport through the channels in the tokamak reactor radiation shields, obtained by the Monte Carlo method and by the method of discrete ordinates, are considered. The given data show that the structural materials of the channel and that of the blanket and shields in the regions close to it are subjected to almost the same irradiation as the first wall and therefore they should satisfy the technical requirements. The radiation energy release in the injector channel wall, caused by neutron shooting, substantially depends on the channel dimensions. At the channel large diameter (0.7-10 m) this dependence noticeably decreases. The investigation of the effect of the injector channel cross section form on the neutron flux density through the channel, testifies to weak dependence of shooting radiation intensity on the form of the channel cross section. It is concluded that measures to decrease unfavourable effect of the channels on the safety of the power tokamak reactor operation and maintenance cause substantial changes in reactor design due to which the channel protection must be developed at first stages. The Monte Carlo method is recommended to be used for variant calculations and when calculating the neutron flux functionals in specific points of the system the discrete ordinate method is preferred [ru

  19. Channel Wall Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. A computational design approach for virtual screening of peptide interactions across K+ channel families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Doupnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels represent a large family of membrane proteins with many being well established targets in pharmacotherapy. The ‘druggability’ of heteromeric channels comprised of different subunits remains obscure, due largely to a lack of channel-specific probes necessary to delineate their therapeutic potential in vivo. Our initial studies reported here, investigated the family of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir channels given the availability of high resolution crystal structures for the eukaryotic constitutively active Kir2.2 channel. We describe a ‘limited’ homology modeling approach that can yield chimeric Kir channels having an outer vestibule structure representing nearly any known vertebrate or invertebrate channel. These computationally-derived channel structures were tested in silico for ‘docking’ to NMR structures of tertiapin (TPN, a 21 amino acid peptide found in bee venom. TPN is a highly selective and potent blocker for the epithelial rat Kir1.1 channel, but does not block human or zebrafish Kir1.1 channel isoforms. Our Kir1.1 channel-TPN docking experiments recapitulated published in vitro findings for TPN-sensitive and TPN-insensitive channels. Additionally, in silico site-directed mutagenesis identified ‘hot spots’ within the channel outer vestibule that mediate energetically favorable docking scores and correlate with sites previously identified with in vitro thermodynamic mutant-cycle analysis. These ‘proof-of-principle’ results establish a framework for virtual screening of re-engineered peptide toxins for interactions with computationally derived Kir channels that currently lack channel-specific blockers. When coupled with electrophysiological validation, this virtual screening approach may accelerate the drug discovery process, and can be readily applied to other ion channels families where high resolution structures are available.

  1. An O(NlogN Algorithm for Region Definition Using Channels/Switchboxes and Ordering Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Tai Yan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For a building block placement, the routing space can be further partitioned into channels and switchboxes. In general, the definition of switchboxes releases the cyclic channel precedence constraints and further yields a safe routing ordering process. However, switchbox routing is more difficult than channel routing. In this paper, an O(NlogN region definition and ordering assignment (RDAOA algorithm is proposed to minimize the number of switchboxes for the routing phase, where N is the number of vertices in a channel precedence graph. Several examples have been tested on the proposed algorithm, and the experimental results are listed and compared.

  2. A communication channel model of the software process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning research into a noisy communication channel analogy of software development process productivity, in order to establish quantifiable behavior and theoretical bounds is discussed. The analogy leads to a fundamental mathematical relationship between human productivity and the amount of information supplied by the developers, the capacity of the human channel for processing and transmitting information, the software product yield (object size) the work effort, requirements efficiency, tool and process efficiency, and programming environment advantage. An upper bound to productivity is derived that shows that software reuse is the only means that can lead to unbounded productivity growth; practical considerations of size and cost of reusable components may reduce this to a finite bound.

  3. Abundance and diversity of Mollusca in the Beagle Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Linse

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The malacofauna of the Beagle Channel caught by an epibenthic sledge during the Joint Magellan Victor Hensen Campaign in 1994 was investigated. At 11 locations 16 samples were taken on a transect through the Channel. Species of Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia were identified and quantified. Their horizontal and vertical distribution was described and possible reasons due to their feeding mode discussed. The exact number of specimens collected was 35,084 yielding 107,208 molluscs/ 1000 m2.

  4. Faddeev equations with an extra resonance channel in muon catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motovilov, A.K.; Kuperin, Yu.A.; Susko, A.A.; Vinitskij, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    A three-body model is applied to derive inhomogeneous integral and differential Faddeev equations with energy-dependent potentials. The integral equations are shown to be Fredholm equations. The stricking probability ω s is determined in terms of the amplitudes of spherical waves in the asymptotics of the exit-channel wave function. The integral representation for ω s is given in terms of the continuum wave functions. To the first Born Approximation for the wave function, this representation yields an explicit expression for ω s through the expansion coefficients of the wave function of dtμ of the initial channel

  5. The Channel Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The

  6. UPSO three channel fast photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. K.; Sagar, R.; Joshi, S.; Ashoka, B. N.; Babu, V. C.; Seetha, S.; Girish, V.

    2001-09-01

    The design and performance of a modular portable three channel fast photometer is described. It can be disassembled as single individual channels such that the system can also be used as a single channel photometer. The instrument is put into operation since November 1999 on the 1-m UPSO telescope at Nainital. Since then, it is used extensively for the survey of roAp stars in the northern sky at UPSO. The discoveries made using this new photometer are also mentioned.

  7. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  8. Pull Promotions and Channel Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Eitan Gerstner; James D. Hess

    1995-01-01

    This paper recommends that manufacturers consider a pull price promotion as a coordination device in an independent channel of distribution. Uncoordinated decisions of both manufacturer and retailer to charge high prices can break down the effort to expand the market, resulting in losses to the channel as a whole. We show that manufacturers can enhance channel price coordination by designing pull price discounts that target price-conscious consumers. The increased price coordination improves ...

  9. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eGeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1 channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD, also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with 5 closed states on the upper tier and 5 open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states.

  10. Measurement of the {gamma}-anisotropy in n{yields}+p{yields}{yields}d+{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, T.M.; Dubbers, D.; Hautle, P.; Bunyatova, E.I.; Korobkina, E.I.; Zimmer, O

    2000-02-11

    The study of the radiative neutron capture by protons, n+p{yields}d+{gamma}, provides valuable information about the nucleon-nucleon interaction. So far, no experimental value has existed for the {gamma}-anisotropy which may appear if neutrons and protons both are polarised. A non-vanishing {gamma}-anisotropy {eta} is a clear-cut signal for the existence of transitions {sup 3}S{sub 1}{yields} {sup 3}d{sub 1} from the triplet initial state to the ground state of the deuteron. We report the first measurement of this observable. The result is {eta}=(1.0{+-}2.5)x10{sup -4} at 50.5% polarisation of neutrons and protons.

  11. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  12. Impact of processing parameters on the LTCC channels geometry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macioszczyk Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A great advantage of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC yields the possibility of channel and air cavity fabrication. Such empty spaces have numerous applications, for example, in microfluidics, microwave techniques and integrated packaging. However, improper geometry of these structures can degrade the performance of the final device. The processing parameters recommended by the LTCC tape supplier are relevant for the production of multilayer circuits but not surface embedded channels and/or cavities. Thus, it is important to examine which factors of the fabrication process are the most significant. In our study, special attention has been paid to the geometric performance of the channel structure resulting from the applied processing parameters. Laser cutting parameters were checked to obtain the structures with great fidelity. The impact of an isostatic lamination on the quality of the final structure was analyzed. The influence of pressure and temperature of the lamination process on the channel geometry and tape shrinkage were examined. The performed experiments showed that some improvements in channel/cavity geometry may be achieved by optimizing the processing procedures. The microscopic observations combined with the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed which combinations of the processing parameters are the best for achieving a channel/cavity structure with the desired geometry.

  13. Perennial-streamflow characteristics related to channel geometry and sediment in Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Hedman, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geometry, channel-sediment, and discharge data were collected and compiled from 252 streamflow-gaging stations in the Missouri River basin. The sites represent the complete ranges of hydrologic and geologic conditions found in the basin. The data were analyzed by computer to yield equations relating various discharge characteristics to variables of channel geometry and bed and bank material. The equations provide discharge as the dependent variable for the purpose of making estimates of discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Results show that channel width is best related to variables of discharge, but that reduction of standard errors can be achieved by considering channel-sediment properties, channel gradient, and discharge variability. The channel-material variables do not exert uniform effects on width-discharge relations and, therefore, are considered as sediment-data groups, or stream types, rather than as terms in multiple power-function equations. Relative to streamflow, narrowest channels occur when streams of steady discharge transport sufficient silt and clay to form stable, cohesive banks but have a small tractive load of sand and coarser sizes. Stable channels also are associated with high channel gradients, which cause high channel roughness and bed and bank armouring by coarse particle sizes. The widest, most unstable channels are found with streams that apparently transport of large tractive load of sand sizes. The downstream rates of change of width with discharge reflect these trends, suggesting that a given bed-material load necessitates a minimum width over which the tractive material can be moved. (USGS)

  14. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  15. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  16. ZnO-channel thin-film transistors: Channel mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    ZnO-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) test structures are fabricated using a bottom-gate structure on thermally oxidized Si; ZnO is deposited via RF sputtering from an oxide target, with an unheated substrate. Electrical characteristics are evaluated, with particular attention given to the extraction and interpretation of transistor channel mobility. ZnO-channel TFT mobility exhibits severe deviation from that assumed by ideal TFT models; mobility extraction methodology must accordingly be recast so as to provide useful insight into device operation. Two mobility metrics, μ avg and μ inc , are developed and proposed as relevant tools in the characterization of nonideal TFTs. These mobility metrics are employed to characterize the ZnO-channel TFTs reported herein; values for μ inc as high as 25 cm2/V s are measured, comprising a substantial increase in ZnO-channel TFT mobility as compared to previously reported performance for such devices

  17. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  18. Narrowband Compton Scattering Yield Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykovanov, Sergey; Seipt, Daniel; Kharin, Vasily

    2017-10-01

    Compton Scattering (CS) of laser light off high-energy electrons is a well-established source of X- and gamma-rays for applications in medicine, biology, nuclear and material sciences. Main advantage of CS photon sources is the possibility to generate narrow spectra as opposed to a broad continuum obtained when utilizing Bremsstrahlung. However, due to the low cross-section of the linear process, the total photon yield is quite low. The most straightforward way to increase the number of photon-electron beam scattering events is to increase the laser pulse intensity at the interaction point by harder focusing. This leads to an unfortunate consequence. Increase in the laser pulse normalized amplitude a0, leads to additional ponderomotive spectrum broadening of the scattered radiation. The ponderomotive broadening is caused by the v × B force, which slows the electron down near the peak of the laser pulse where the intensity is high, and can be neglected near the wings of the pulse, where the intensity is low. We show that laser pulse chirping, both nonlinear (laser pulse frequency ''following'' the envelope of the pulse) and linear, leads to compensation of the ponderomotive broadening and considerably enhances the yield of the nonlinear Compton sources. Work supported by the Helmholtz Association via Helmholtz Young Investigators Grant (VH-NG-1037).

  19. One-sided asymptotically mean stationary channels

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of asymptotically mean stationary (AMS) communication channels. A hierarchy based on stability properties (stationarity, quasi-stationarity, recurrence and asymptotically mean stationarity) of channels is identified. Stationary channels are a subclass of quasi-stationary channels which are a subclass of recurrent AMS channels which are a subclass of AMS channels. These classes are proved to be stable under Markovian composition of channels (e.g., the cascade of...

  20. Diagnostic yield of molecular autopsy in patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome using targeted exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunn, Laurence M; Lopes, Luis R; Syrris, Petros

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The targeted genetic screening of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS) probands in a molecular autopsy has a diagnostic yield of up to 35%. Exome sequencing has the potential to improve this yield. The primary aim of this study is to examine the feasibility and diagnostic utility...... previously published rare (0.02-0.5%) candidate mutations-a total yield of 29%. Co-segregation fully confirmed two private SCN5A Na channel mutations. Variants of unknown significance were detected in a further 34% of probands. CONCLUSION: Molecular autopsy using targeted exome sequencing has a relatively...

  1. Note: A dual-channel sensor for dew point measurement based on quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing

    2017-05-01

    A new sensor with dual-channel was designed for eliminating the temperature effect on the frequency measurement of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in dew point detection. The sensor uses active temperature control, produces condensation on the surface of QCM, and then detects the dew point. Both the single-channel and the dual-channel methods were conducted based on the device. The measurement error of the single-channel method was less than 0.5 °C at the dew point range of -2 °C-10 °C while the dual-channel was 0.3 °C. The results showed that the dual-channel method was able to eliminate the temperature effect and yield better measurement accuracy.

  2. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  3. Perceived quality of channel zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Ahmed, K.; Brunnström, K.

    2006-01-01

    The end user experience of service quality is critical to the success of a service provider's IPTV deployment program. A key element involved in validating IPTV quality of experience (QoE) is how quickly and reliably users can change TV channels, often referred to as channel zapping. Currently there

  4. Channel Communication and Reconfigurable Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Karelse, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many applications can be structured as a set of processes or threads that communicate via channels. These threads can be executed on various platforms (e.g. general purpose CPU, DSP, FPGA, etc). In our research we apply channels as a basic communication mechanism between threads in a reconfigurable

  5. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  6. Defect Distributions in Channeling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, P.

    1965-01-01

    A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility...

  7. Multi-channel PSD Estimators for Speech Dereverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuklasinski, Adam; Doclo, Simon; Gerkmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    densities (PSDs). We first derive closed-form expressions for the mean square error (MSE) of both PSD estimators and then show that one estimator – previously used for speech dereverberation by the authors – always yields a better MSE. Only in the case of a two microphone array or for special spatial......In this paper we perform an extensive theoretical and experimental comparison of two recently proposed multi-channel speech dereverberation algorithms. Both of them are based on the multi-channel Wiener filter but they use different estimators of the speech and reverberation power spectral...... distributions of the interference both estimators yield the same MSE. The theoretically derived MSE values are in good agreement with numerical simulation results and with instrumental speech quality measures in a realistic speech dereverberation task for binaural hearing aids....

  8. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  9. Deep subthreshold photofission yields analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Migneco, E.; Barna, R.C.; De Pasquale, D.

    1979-01-01

    Photofission yield measurements on 232 Th and /sup 235,236,238/U, showing the ''shelf effect,'' have been analyzed in terms of a double-humped fission barrier. From the characteristic of the shelf it was possible to evaluate the excitation energy E/sub II/ of the shape isomer. In the framework of the double-humped barrier, with the competition between γ decay to the shape isomer and tunneling through the outer barrier of a compound state in the second well, it was possible to deduce fission branching ratios in agreement with those known in the literature. In particular for 232 Th a three-humped fission barrier is proposed, the second deep minimum causing the shelf effect and the third one the narrow resonances detected in this isotope

  10. Deep subthreshold photofission yields analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Migneco, E.; Barna, R.C.; De Pasquale, D.

    1979-09-01

    Photofission yield measurements on /sup 232/Th and /sup 235,236,238/U, showing the ''shelf effect,'' have been analyzed in terms of a double-humped fission barrier. From the characteristic of the shelf it was possible to evaluate the excitation energy E/sub II/ of the shape isomer. In the framework of the double-humped barrier, with the competition between ..gamma.. decay to the shape isomer and tunneling through the outer barrier of a compound state in the second well, it was possible to deduce fission branching ratios in agreement with those known in the literature. In particular for /sup 232/Th a three-humped fission barrier is proposed, the second deep minimum causing the shelf effect and the third one the narrow resonances detected in this isotope.

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 8 channels mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Ana I; Liu, Boyi; Jabba, Sairam V; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Morris, John B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2017-05-01

    Eucalyptol (1,8-cineol), the major ingredient in the essential oil of eucalyptus leaves and other medicinal plants, has long been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Eucalyptol interacts with the TRP cation channels among other targets, but it is unclear which of these mediates its anti-inflammatory effects. Effects of eucalyptol were compared in wild-type and TRPM8 channel-deficient mice in two different models: footpad inflammation elicited by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and pulmonary inflammation following administration of LPS. Oedema formation, behavioural inflammatory pain responses, leukocyte infiltration, enzyme activities and cytokine and chemokine levels were measured. In the CFA model, eucalyptol strongly attenuated oedema and mechanical allodynia and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6), effects comparable with those of ibuprofen. In the LPS model of pulmonary inflammation, eucalyptol treatment diminished leukocyte infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-6. Genetic deletion of TRPM8 channels abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptol in both models. Eucalyptol was at least sixfold more potent on human, than on mouse TRPM8 channels. A metabolite of eucalyptol, 2-hydroxy-1,8-cineol, also activated human TRPM8 channels. Among the pharmacological targets of eucalyptol, TRPM8 channels were essential for its anti-inflammatory effects in mice. Human TRPM8 channels are more sensitive to eucalyptol than rodent TRPM8 channels explaining the higher potency of eucalyptol in humans. Metabolites of eucalyptol could contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects. The development of more potent and selective TRPM8 agonists may yield novel anti-inflammatory agents. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Amazon floodplain channels regulate channel-floodplain water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Baugh, C.; Trigg, M.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the role of floodplain channels in regulating the exchange of water between the Amazon main stem and its extensive floodplains using a combination of field survey, remote sensing and numerical modelling for a 30,000 km2 area around the confluence of the Solimões and Purus rivers. From Landsat imagery we identified 1762 individual floodplain channel reaches with total length of nearly 9300 line km that range in width from 900m to 20m. Using a boat survey we measured width and depth along 509 line km of floodplain channels in 45 separate reaches and used these data to develop geomorphic relationships between width and depth. This enabled reconstruction of the depth of all other channels in the Landsat survey to an RMSE of 2.5m. We then constructed a 2D hydraulic model of this site which included all 9300km of floodplain channels as sub-grid scale features using a recently developed version of the LISFLOOD-FP code. The DEM for the model was derived from a version of the SRTM Digital Elevation Model that was processed to remove vegetation artefacts. The model was run at 270m resolution over the entire 30,000 km2 domain for the period from 2002-2009. Simulations were run with and without floodplain channels to examine the impact of these features on floodplain flow dynamics and storage. Simulated floodplain channel hydraulics were validated against a combination of in-situ and remotely sensed data. Our results show that approximately 100 km3 of water is exchanged between the channel and the floodplain during a typical annual cycle, and 8.5±2.1% of mainstem flows is routed through the floodplain. The overall effect of floodplains channels was to increase the duration of connections between the Amazon River and the floodplain. Inclusion of floodplain channels in the model increased inundation volume by 7.3% - 11.3% at high water, and decreased it at low water by 4.0% - 16.6%, with the range in these estimates due to potential errors in floodplain channel

  13. Linear stability analysis of heated parallel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Isbin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analyis is presented of thermal hydraulic stability of flow in parallel channels covering the range from inlet subcooling to exit superheat. The model is based on a one-dimensional drift velocity formulation of the two phase flow conservation equations. The system of equations is linearized by assuming small disturbances about the steady state. The dynamic response of the system to an inlet flow perturbation is derived yielding the characteristic equation which predicts the onset of instabilities. A specific application is carried out for homogeneous and regional uniformly heated systems. The particular case of equal characteristic frequencies of two-phase and single phase vapor region is studied in detail. The D-partition method and the Mikhailov stability criterion are used for determining the marginal stability boundary. Stability predictions from the present analysis are compared with the experimental data from the solar test facility. 8 references

  14. Vacuum measuring system for channel electron multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, A.; Ritzinger, W.

    1982-03-01

    A system in which channel electron multipliers can be calibrated to be used as detectors of electrons or protons in space is described. The system consists of an electron gun built in a vacuum chamber and equipped with a control Faraday cup and a high impedance electrometer to measure electron fluxes. It contains an electron flux control with buffer amplifier, a proportional integration differentiation regulation unit, and a heating current power regulation. Detection efficiency dependency on the energy of the incident particles, the saturation that yields decreasing count rates at continuously increasing particle flux, or the statistical pulse height distribution giving information about well or restrictedly usuable multipliers can be measured. The optimum supply voltage of the multipliers at which small fluctuations do not cause any changes of the pulse height distribution, and the function count rates vs. supply voltage for selecting good or poor multipliers can also be determined.

  15. Channel-coupling theory of covalent bonding in H2: A further application of arrangement-channel quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.S.; Krueger, H.

    1977-01-01

    The dissociation energy D/sub e/ and the equilibrium proton-proton separation R/sub eq/ of H 2 are calculated using the methods of arrangement-channel quantum mechanics. This theory is the channel component version of the channel-coupling array approach to many-body scattering, applied to bound-state problems. In the approximation used herein, the wave function is identical to that of the classic Heitler-London-Sugiura valence-bond calculation, which gave D/sub e/ = 3.14 eV and R/sub eq/ = 1.65a 0 , values accurate to 34% and 17.8%, respectively. The present method yields D/sub e/ = 4.437 eV and R/sub eq/ approx. = 1.42a 0 , accurate to 6.5% and 1%, respectively. Some implications of these results are discussed

  16. NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senatore, A.; Monteil, A.; van Minnen, J.; Smit, A.B.; Spafford, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single

  17. Spectral line polarimetry with a channeled polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans; Rietjens, Jeroen H H; Martijn Smit, J; Keller, Christoph U

    2014-07-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry or spectral polarization modulation is an accurate technique for measuring the continuum polarization in one shot with no moving parts. We show how a dual-beam implementation also enables spectral line polarimetry at the intrinsic resolution, as in a classic beam-splitting polarimeter. Recording redundant polarization information in the two spectrally modulated beams of a polarizing beam-splitter even provides the possibility to perform a postfacto differential transmission correction that improves the accuracy of the spectral line polarimetry. We perform an error analysis to compare the accuracy of spectral line polarimetry to continuum polarimetry, degraded by a residual dark signal and differential transmission, as well as to quantify the impact of the transmission correction. We demonstrate the new techniques with a blue sky polarization measurement around the oxygen A absorption band using the groundSPEX instrument, yielding a polarization in the deepest part of the band of 0.160±0.010, significantly different from the polarization in the continuum of 0.2284±0.0004. The presented methods are applicable to any dual-beam channeled polarimeter, including implementations for snapshot imaging polarimetry.

  18. Substrate channeling in proline metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson, Benjamin W.; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Becker, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    Proline metabolism is an important pathway that has relevance in several cellular functions such as redox balance, apoptosis, and cell survival. Results from different groups have indicated that substrate channeling of proline metabolic intermediates may be a critical mechanism. One intermediate is pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), which upon hydrolysis opens to glutamic semialdehyde (GSA). Recent structural and kinetic evidence indicate substrate channeling of P5C/GSA occurs in the proline catabolic pathway between the proline dehydrogenase and P5C dehydrogenase active sites of bifunctional proline utilization A (PutA). Substrate channeling in PutA is proposed to facilitate the hydrolysis of P5C to GSA which is unfavorable at physiological pH. The second intermediate, gamma-glutamyl phosphate, is part of the proline biosynthetic pathway and is extremely labile. Substrate channeling of gamma-glutamyl phosphate is thought to be necessary to protect it from bulk solvent. Because of the unfavorable equilibrium of P5C/GSA and the reactivity of gamma-glutamyl phosphate, substrate channeling likely improves the efficiency of proline metabolism. Here, we outline general strategies for testing substrate channeling and review the evidence for channeling in proline metabolism. PMID:22201749

  19. Melt Channel Formation in Paraffin With Applications to Lava Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Mills, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    We present the results from laboratory experiments designed to explore channel formation caused by instabilities in fluid flow, and to provide a simple experimental basis to facilitate the extension of lava channel theory. Kelemen et. al. [1995] reported on a series of experiments that explored channel formation resulting from fluid instabilities caused by the ``reactive infiltration instability'' (RII). However, the material used in portions of their experiments was undesirable because of a poorly suited rheology. Therefore, our experiments were initiated as an extension of those earlier experiments, using instead a material with more robust rheological properties. The material chosen for this series of experiments is a paraffin with a freezing temperature of 4°C, which is transparent when liquid and opaque-white when frozen. The paraffin is pumped at a constant and controlled rate into a narrow gap between two circular plates, both with a diameter of ~51cm. The gap is open along the circumference of the plates, allowing the paraffin to flow out of the gap once it reaches the edge of the plate. The upper plate is constructed of Plexiglas to allow observation of the wax below, and it has a hole in the center through which the paraffin is pumped. The lower plate is constructed of aluminum, painted black, and kept at -5°C by circulating coolant through a reservoir below the it. As the paraffin, which is kept at 20°C before being pumped into the gap, flows over the cold lower plate, it begins to freeze and eventually fills up the gap between the plates. A single channel then forms, surrounded by solid paraffin, and the liquid being pumped in is transported via this channel to the edge of the plate. This is a stable state for all but the lowest flow rates attempted and verifies the results from the earlier work exploring the RII. We conducted experiments at different flows rates from 270mL/min to <30mL/min, and recorded the dimensions of the steady state channel

  20. Search for the supersymmetric partner of the top quark in the channel stop anti-stop {yields} e{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup {+-}} sneutrino anti-sneutrino b anti-b in D0 experiment at the Tevatron. Calibration of the D0 electromagnetic calorimeter; Recherche du partenaire supersymetrique du quark top dans le canal stop anti-stop {yields} e{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup {+-}} sneutrino anti-sneutrino b anti-b au sein de l'experience D0 aupres du TeVatron. Calibration du calorimetre electromagnetique de D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, A

    2006-10-15

    Symmetry is one of the most natural extensions of the standard model. At low energy it may consist in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model which is the framework chosen to perform the search of the stop with 350 pb{sup -1} of data collected by D0 during the run-IIa period of the Tevatron. We selected the events with an electron, a muon, missing transverse energy and non-isolated tracks, signature for the stop decay in 3 particles (stop {yields} bl sneutrino). Since no significant excess of signal is seen, the results are interpreted in terms of limit on the stop production cross-sections, in such a way that we extend the existing exclusion region in the parameter space (m(stop), m(sneutrino)) up to stop masses of 168 (140) GeV for sneutrino masses of 50 (94) GeV. Finally, because of the crucial role of the electromagnetic calorimeter, a fine calibration was performed using Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} events, which improved significantly the energy resolution. (author)

  1. ACE Strategy with Virtual Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tichy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is an electronic device, which can mediate hearing sensations to profoundly deaf people. Contemporary cochlear implants are sophisticated electronic devices; however, their performance could still be improved. This paper describes an experiment we made in that direction: additional 21 virtual channels were implemented by sequential stimulation of adjacent intracochlear electrodes, and the ACE strategy with virtual channels (ACEv, Advanced Combination Encoder strategy with virtual channels for the Nucleus® 24 Cochlear Implant System was created and verified in a clinical test with four patients.

  2. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  3. Impacts of forest restoration on water yield: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoso, Solange; Bezerra, Maíra Ometto; Weiss, Katherine C. B.; Palmer, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Enhancing water provision services is a common target in forest restoration projects worldwide due to growing concerns over freshwater scarcity. However, whether or not forest cover expansion or restoration can improve water provision services is still unclear and highly disputed. Purpose The goal of this review is to provide a balanced and impartial assessment of the impacts of forest restoration and forest cover expansion on water yields as informed by the scientific literature. Potential sources of bias on the results of papers published are also examined. Data sources English, Spanish and Portuguese peer-review articles in Agricola, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and SciELO. Databases were searched through 2015. Search terms Intervention terms included forest restoration, regeneration/regrowth, forest second-growth, forestation/afforestation, and forestry. Target terms included water yield/quantity, streamflow, discharge, channel runoff, and annual flow. Study selection and eligibility criteria Articles were pre-selected based on key words in the title, abstract or text. Eligible articles addressed relevant interventions and targets and included quantitative information. Results Most studies reported decreases in water yields following the intervention, while other hydrological benefits have been observed. However, relatively few studies focused specifically on forest restoration, especially with native species, and/or on projects done at large spatial or temporal scales. Information is especially limited for the humid tropics and subtropics. Conclusions and implications of key findings While most studies reported a decrease in water yields, meta-analyses from a sub-set of studies suggest the potential influence of temporal and/or spatial scales on the outcomes of forest cover expansion or restoration projects. Given the many other benefits of forest restoration, improving our understanding of when and why forest

  4. Predictive techniques for river channel evolution and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting changes in alluvial channel morphology associated with anthropogenic and natural changes in flow and/or sediment supply is a critical part of the management of riverine systems. Over the past few years, advances in the understanding of the physics of sediment transport in conjunction with rapidly increasing capabilities in computational fluid dynamics have yielded now approaches to problems in river mechanics. Techniques appropriate for length scales ranging from reaches to bars and bedforms are described here. Examples of the use of these computational approaches are discussed for three cases: (1) the design of diversion scenarios that maintain channel morphology in steep cobble-bedded channels in Colorado, (2) determination of channel maintenance flows for the preservation of channel islands in the Snake River in Idaho, and (3) prediction of the temporal evolution of deposits in lateral separation zones for future assessment of the impacts of various dam release scenarios on lateral separation deposits in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. With continued development of their scientific and technical components, the methodologies described here can provide powerful tools for the management of river environments in the future.

  5. Sodium channels in planar lipid bilayers. Channel gating kinetics of purified sodium channels modified by batrachotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Single channel currents of sodium channels purified from rat brain and reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers were recorded. The kinetics of channel gating were investigated in the presence of batrachotoxin to eliminate inactivation and an analysis was conducted on membranes with a single active channel at any given time. Channel opening is favored by depolarization and is strongly voltage dependent. Probability density analysis of dwell times in the closed and open states of the channel indicates the occurrence of one open state and several distinct closed states in the voltage (V) range-120 mV less than or equal to V less than or equal to +120 mV. For V less than or equal to 0, the transition rates between stages are exponentially dependent on the applied voltage, as described in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Huang, L. M., N. Moran, and G. Ehrenstein. 1984. Biophysical Journal. 45:313- 322). In contrast, for V greater than or equal to 0, the transition rates are virtually voltage independent. Autocorrelation analysis (Labarca, P., J. Rice, D. Fredkin, and M. Montal. 1985. Biophysical Journal. 47:469-478) shows that there is no correlation in the durations of successive open or closing events. Several kinetic schemes that are consistent with the experimental data are considered. This approach may provide information about the mechanism underlying the voltage dependence of channel activation. PMID:2426388

  6. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  7. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, P.; Kee Haeyoung.

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach's Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins τ J , j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig

  8. FMCG companies specific distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Barin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution includes all activities undertaken by the producer, alone or in cooperation, since the end of the final finished products or services until they are in possession of consumers. The distribution consists of the following major components: distribution channels or marketing channels, which together form a distribution network; logistics o rphysical distribution. In order to effective achieve, distribution of goods requires an amount of activities and operational processes related to transit of goods from producer to consumer, the best conditions, using existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.

  9. Potassium Channels in Neurofbromatosis-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Mingkui

    2006-01-01

    .... We were the first to investigate potential mechanisms of cognitive impairment in NF-1 at the molecular level involving potassium channels, and demonstrated a possible mechanism for the learning deficits seen in NF1...

  10. modelling relationship between rainfall variability and yields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield models should be used for planning and forecasting the yield of millet and sorghum in the study area. Key words: modelling, rainfall, yields, millet, sorghum. INTRODUCTION. Meteorological variables, such as rainfall parameters, temperature, sunshine hours, relative humidity, and wind velocity and soil moisture are.

  11. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhou

    Full Text Available A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions. Keywords: Columnar ice, Multiaxial loading, Hardening rule, Path dependency, Yield criterion

  12. Fission yield data evaluation system FYDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    Taking account of some features of fission yield data, to do the fission yield data evaluation conveniently, a fission yield data evaluation system FYDES has been developed for last two years. Outline of the system, data retrieval and data table standardization, data correction codes, data averaging code, simultaneous evaluation code and data fit programs were introduced

  13. Nodal yield in selective neck dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Bradley, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The total lymph node yield in neck dissection is highly variable and depends on anatomical, surgical and pathological parameters. A minimum yield of six lymph nodes for a selective neck dissection (SND) as recommended in guidelines lies in the lower range of the reported clinical nodal yields...

  14. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  15. Marketing channel behaviour and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Thesis submitted to University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Business Administration. A major aim of this study is to offer a relatively comprehensive picture of marketing channel behaviour and performance. Given the statistical difficulties in testing a very large, comprehensive model to achieve this aim, two separate but overlapping models are proposed. One model specifically addresses behaviour in marketing channels, while the other integrates k...

  16. Learning the MMSE Channel Estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, David; Wiese, Thomas; Utschick, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for estimating conditionally Gaussian random vectors with random covariance matrices, which uses techniques from the field of machine learning. Such models are typical in communication systems, where the covariance matrix of the channel vector depends on random parameters, e.g., angles of propagation paths. If the covariance matrices exhibit certain Toeplitz and shift-invariance structures, the complexity of the MMSE channel estimator can be reduced to O(M log M) floating ...

  17. Eight channel telephone telemetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A portable, indirectly coupled telephone system is reported which transmits/to a central receiving site eight channels of EEG data of sufficient fidelity for screening and/or limited diagnostic use. The system requires no electrical connection to the telephone at the transmitter or at the receiver and is compatible with common EEG recording practice for real-time recording. It accepts 8 input channels simultaneously with one telephone transmitter and one telephone receiver operates from standard power sources.

  18. An Exclusion Zone for Ca2+ Channels around Docked Vesicles Explains Release Control by Multiple Channels at a CNS Synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Daniel; Babai, Norbert; Kochubey, Olexiy; Han, Yunyun; Markram, Henry; Schürmann, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    The spatial arrangement of Ca2+ channels and vesicles remains unknown for most CNS synapses, despite of the crucial importance of this geometrical parameter for the Ca2+ control of transmitter release. At a large model synapse, the calyx of Held, transmitter release is controlled by several Ca2+ channels in a "domain overlap" mode, at least in young animals. To study the geometrical constraints of Ca2+ channel placement in domain overlap control of release, we used stochastic MCell modelling, at active zones for which the position of docked vesicles was derived from electron microscopy (EM). We found that random placement of Ca2+ channels was unable to produce high slope values between release and presynaptic Ca2+ entry, a hallmark of domain overlap, and yielded excessively large release probabilities. The simple assumption that Ca2+ channels can be located anywhere at active zones, except below a critical distance of ~ 30 nm away from docked vesicles ("exclusion zone"), rescued high slope values and low release probabilities. Alternatively, high slope values can also be obtained by placing all Ca2+ channels into a single supercluster, which however results in significantly higher heterogeneity of release probabilities. We also show experimentally that high slope values, and the sensitivity to the slow Ca2+ chelator EGTA-AM, are maintained with developmental maturation of the calyx synapse. Taken together, domain overlap control of release represents a highly organized active zone architecture in which Ca2+ channels must obey a certain distance to docked vesicles. Furthermore, domain overlap can be employed by near-mature, fast-releasing synapses.

  19. An Exclusion Zone for Ca2+ Channels around Docked Vesicles Explains Release Control by Multiple Channels at a CNS Synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Keller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial arrangement of Ca2+ channels and vesicles remains unknown for most CNS synapses, despite of the crucial importance of this geometrical parameter for the Ca2+ control of transmitter release. At a large model synapse, the calyx of Held, transmitter release is controlled by several Ca2+ channels in a "domain overlap" mode, at least in young animals. To study the geometrical constraints of Ca2+ channel placement in domain overlap control of release, we used stochastic MCell modelling, at active zones for which the position of docked vesicles was derived from electron microscopy (EM. We found that random placement of Ca2+ channels was unable to produce high slope values between release and presynaptic Ca2+ entry, a hallmark of domain overlap, and yielded excessively large release probabilities. The simple assumption that Ca2+ channels can be located anywhere at active zones, except below a critical distance of ~ 30 nm away from docked vesicles ("exclusion zone", rescued high slope values and low release probabilities. Alternatively, high slope values can also be obtained by placing all Ca2+ channels into a single supercluster, which however results in significantly higher heterogeneity of release probabilities. We also show experimentally that high slope values, and the sensitivity to the slow Ca2+ chelator EGTA-AM, are maintained with developmental maturation of the calyx synapse. Taken together, domain overlap control of release represents a highly organized active zone architecture in which Ca2+ channels must obey a certain distance to docked vesicles. Furthermore, domain overlap can be employed by near-mature, fast-releasing synapses.

  20. Electrophysiological characterisation of KCNQ channel modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, R.L

    Potassium (K+) ion channels are ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells, and each channel serves a precise physiological role due to its specific biophysical characteristics and expression pattern. A few K+ channels are targets for certain drugs, and in this thesis it is suggested that the KCNQ K......+ channels may be targets for neuroprotective, anti-epileptic and anti-nociceptive compounds. The importance of these channels is underscored by the fact that four out of five KCNQ channel subtypes are involved in severe human diseases. However, the pharmacology of the KCNQ channels is yet poorly understood...... as these channels were identified only recently. Therefore, there is a need for understanding the biophysical behavior and pharmacology of these ion channels. KCNQ channels belong to the group of voltage-activated K+ channels. The subfamily consists of KCNQ1-5, which is primarily expressed in the CNS, heart, ear...

  1. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  2. NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE. NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG(+ impermeant and blockable with 10 µM Gd(3+ ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2:371-83.

  3. Disturbance, stream incision, and channel evolution: The roles of excess transport capacity and boundary materials in controlling channel response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Andrew; Rinaldi, Massimo

    2006-09-01

    Channel incision is part of denudation, drainage-network development, and landscape evolution. Rejuvenation of fluvial networks by channel incision often leads to further network development and an increase in drainage density as gullies migrate into previously non-incised surfaces. Large, anthropogenic disturbances, similar to large or catastrophic "natural" events, greatly compress time scales for incision and related processes by creating enormous imbalances between upstream sediment delivery and available transporting power. Field examples of channel responses to antrhopogenic and "natural" disturbances are presented for fluvial systems in the mid continent and Pacific Northwest, USA, and central Italy. Responses to different types of disturbances are shown to result in similar spatial and temporal trends of incision for vastly different fluvial systems. Similar disturbances are shown to result in varying relative magnitudes of vertical and lateral (widening) processes, and different channel morphologies as a function of the type of boundary sediments comprising the bed and banks. This apparent contradiction is explained through an analysis of temporal adjustments to flow energy, shear stress, and stream power with time. Numerical simulations of sand-bed channels of varying bank resistance and disturbed by reducing the upstream sediment supply by half, show identical adjustments in flow energy and the rate of energy dissipation. The processes that dominate adjustment and the ultimate stable geometries, however, are vastly different, depending on the cohesion of the channel banks and the supply of hydraulically-controlled sediment (sand) provided by bank erosion. The non-linear asymptotic nature of fluvial adjustment to incision caused by channelization or other causes is borne out in similar temporal trends of sediment loads from disturbed systems. The sediments emanating from incised channels can represent a large proportion of the total sediment yield from a

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Antiamoebin Ion Channel: Linking Structure and Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Wei, Chenyu; Bjelkmar, Paer; Wallace, B. A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out in order to ascertain which of the potential multimeric forms of the transmembrane peptaibol channel, antiamoebin, is consistant with its measured conductance. Estimates of the conductance obtained through counting ions that cross the channel and by solving the Nernst-Planck equation yield consistent results, indicating that the motion of ions inside the channel can be satisfactorily described as diffusive.The calculated conductance of octameric channels is markedly higher than the conductance measured in single channel recordings, whereas the tetramer appears to be non-conducting. The conductance of the hexamer was estimated to be 115+/-34 pS and 74+/-20 pS, at 150 mV and 75 mV, respectively, in satisfactory agreement with the value of 90 pS measured at 75 mV. On this basis we propose that the antiamoebin channel consists of six monomers. Its pore is large enough to accommodate K(+) and Cl(-) with their first solvation shells intact. The free energy barrier encountered by K(+) is only 2.2 kcal/mol whereas Cl(-) encounters a substantially higher barrier of nearly 5 kcal/mol. This difference makes the channel selective for cations. Ion crossing events are shown to be uncorrelated and follow Poisson statistics. keywords: ion channels, peptaibols, channel conductance, molecular dynamics

  5. Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling

  6. Effect of channel size on sweet potato storage root enlargement in the Tuskegee University hydroponic nutrient film system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Martinez, Edwin; Bonsi, C. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.; Hill, Walter A.; Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the sweet potato as a food source for future long term manned space missions is being evaluated for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Sweet potatoes have been successfully grown in a specially designed Tuskegee University nutrient film technique (TU NFT) system. This hydroponic system yielded storage roots as high as 1790 g/plant fresh weight. In order to determine the effect of channel size on the yield of sweet potatoes, the width and depth of the growing channels were varied in two separate experiments. Widths were studied using the rectangular TU NFT channels with widths of 15 cm (6 in), 30 cm (12 in) and 45 cm (18 in). Channel depths of 5 cm (2 in), 10 cm (4 in), and 15 cm (6 in) were studied using a standard NASA fan shaped Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) channel. A comparison of preliminary results indicated that, except for storage root number, the growth and yield of sweet potatoes were not affected by channel width. Storage root yield was affected by channel depth although storage root number and foliage growth were not. Both experiments are being repeated.

  7. Integrated microchip incorporating atomic magnetometer and microfluidic channel for NMR and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Micah P [Oakland, CA; Savukov, Igor M [Los Alamos, NM; Budker, Dmitry [El Cerrito, CA; Shah, Vishal K [Plainsboro, NJ; Knappe, Svenja [Boulder, CO; Kitching, John [Boulder, CO; Michalak, David J [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Shoujun [Houston, TX; Pines, Alexander [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-09

    An integral microfluidic device includes an alkali vapor cell and microfluidic channel, which can be used to detect magnetism for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Small magnetic fields in the vicinity of the vapor cell can be measured by optically polarizing and probing the spin precession in the small magnetic field. This can then be used to detect the magnetic field of in encoded analyte in the adjacent microfluidic channel. The magnetism in the microfluidic channel can be modulated by applying an appropriate series of radio or audio frequency pulses upstream from the microfluidic chip (the remote detection modality) to yield a sensitive means of detecting NMR and MRI.

  8. Volume of the space of qubit-qubit channels and state transformations under random quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lovas, Attila; Andai, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The simplest building blocks for quantum computations are the qubit-qubit quantum channels. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these channels via their Choi representation. The restriction of a quantum channel to the space of classical states (i.e. probability distributions) is called the underlying classical channel. The structure of quantum channels over a fixed classical channel is studied, the volume of general and unital qubit channels with respect to the Lebesgue measure is comp...

  9. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a) At... choice of channel position when it requests carriage. Channel positioning requests from local commercial...

  10. Lithofacies characterization and channel development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and multistory channel complex. The different stages of channel development can be considered in terms of low efficiency and high efficiency flows, which are related to slope equilibrium. Keywords: Outcrop, slope, channel development, channel architecture, process model, lowstand. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.

  11. Information transfer through quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how

  12. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory

  13. Quantum Yield of Nitrite from the Photolysis of Aqueous Nitrate above 300 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Katherine B; McFall, Alexander S; Anastasio, Cort

    2017-04-18

    Photolysis of nitrate (NO 3 - ) produces reactive nitrogen and oxygen species via three different channels, forming: (1) nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and hydroxyl radical ( • OH), (2) nitrite (NO 2 - ) and oxygen atom (O( 3 P)), and (3) peroxynitrite (ONOO - ). These photoproducts are important oxidants and reactants in surface waters, atmospheric drops, and snowpacks. While the efficiency of the first channel, to form NO 2 , is well documented, a large range of values have been reported for the second channel, nitrite, above 300 nm. In part, this disagreement reflects secondary chemistry that can produce or destroy nitrite. In this study, we examine factors that influence nitrite production and find that pH, nitrate concentration, and the presence of an • OH scavenger can be important. We measure an average nitrite quantum yield (Φ(NO 2 - )) of (1.1 ± 0.2)% (313 nm, 50 μM nitrate, pH ≥ 5), which is at the upper end of past measurements and an order of magnitude above the smallest-and most commonly cited-value reported for this channel. Nitrite production is often considered a very minor channel in nitrate photolysis, but our results indicate it is as important as the NO 2 channel. In contrast, at 313 nm we observe no formation of peroxynitrite, corresponding to Φ(ONOO - ) < 0.26%.

  14. Optimality of private quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouda, Jan; Ziman, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We addressed the question of optimality of private quantum channels. We have shown that the Shannon entropy of the classical key necessary to securely transfer the quantum information is lower bounded by the entropy exchange of the private quantum channel E and the von Neumann entropy of the ciphertext state ρ (0) . Based on these bounds we have shown that decomposition of private quantum channels into orthogonal unitaries (if they exist) optimizes the entropy. For non-ancillary single-qubit PQC we have derived the optimal entropy for the arbitrary set of plaintexts. In particular, we have shown that except when the (closure of the) set of plaintexts contains all states, one bit key is sufficient. We characterized and analysed all the possible single-qubit private quantum channels for an arbitrary set of plaintexts. For the set of plaintexts consisting of all qubit states we have characterized all possible approximate private quantum channels and we have derived the relation between the security parameter and the corresponding minimal entropy

  15. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of 6061 aluminum alloy strips severely deformed by Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Evren, E-mail: etan@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Metallurgical and Materials Eng. Dept., 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Kibar, Alp Aykut, E-mail: alpaykut@gmail.com [Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Guer, C. Hakan, E-mail: chgur@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Metallurgical and Materials Eng. Dept., 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP) is a severe plastic deformation technique to improve the mechanical properties of flat products by producing ultrafine grains. In this study, the changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al-alloy strips deformed by various numbers of DCAP passes were investigated. Some DCAPed samples were also held at 200 deg. C and 350 deg. C to investigate the effect of post-annealing. Mechanical properties were determined by hardness and tension tests; and microstructural changes were investigated by TEM analysis. Up to a critical level of plastic strain, remarkable improvements have been observed in the strength and hardness of the severely deformed strips; and the improvements have been explained by variations in grain size, dislocation structure, and formation of subgrains. - Research Highlights: {yields}Dissimilar Channel Angular Pressing (DCAP). {yields}Severe plastic deformation (SPD). {yields}Transmission Electron Microscopy of the 6061 Al alloy. {yields}Mechanical Properties of 6061 Al alloy.

  16. Deformation localization and dislocation channel dynamics in neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of deformation localization and dislocation channel formation were investigated in situ in a neutron-irradiated AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel and a model 304-based austenitic alloy by combining several analytical techniques including optic microscopy and laser confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Channel formation was observed at ∼70% of the polycrystalline yield stress of the irradiated materials (σ0.2). It was shown that triple junction points do not always serve as a source of dislocation channels; at stress levels below the σ0.2, channels often formed near the middle of the grain boundary. For a single grain, the role of elastic stiffness value (Young's modulus) in channel formation was analyzed; it was shown that in the irradiated 304 steels the initial channels appeared in "soft" grains with a high Schmid factor located near "stiff" grains with high elastic stiffness. The spatial organization of channels in a single grain was analyzed; it was shown that secondary channels operating in the same slip plane as primary channels often appeared at the middle or at one-third of the way between primary channels. The twinning nature of dislocation channels was analyzed for grains of different orientation using TEM. In the AISI 304 steel, channels in grains oriented close to 〈0 0 1〉||TA (tensile axis) and 〈1 0 1〉||TA were twin free and grain with 〈1 1 1〉||TA and grains oriented close to a Schmid factor maximum contained deformation twins.

  17. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  18. Channels of Monetary Transmission in the CIS

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilov, Rustam

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the breakdown of the Soviet Union, and it is time to draw a concluding line for monetary policy efficiency in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We propose a comprehensive treatment of the subject for nine members of the CIS for the period of 2000-2009. Four transmission channels are investigated: interest rate channel, exchange rate channel, bank lending channel, and monetary channel. First, we design a VAR framework for each CIS member-state and inv...

  19. Modification of single Na+ channels by batrachotoxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, F N; Narahashi, T

    1982-01-01

    The modifications in the properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels caused by batrachotoxin were studied by using the patch clamp method for measuring single channel currents from excised membranes of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. The toxin-modified open state of the Na+ channel has a decreased conductance in comparison to that of normal Na+ channels. The lifetime of the modified open state is drastically prolonged, and channels now continue to open during a maintained depolarization so that the...

  20. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent...

  1. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    Small-conductance, calcium-activated K+ channels (SK channels) are voltage-insensitive channels that have been identified molecularly within the last few years. As SK channels play a fundamental role in most excitable cells and participate in afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike-frequency adapt...... at concentrations of 3 microM and above. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressive widely used clinically, inhibits SK3 channels with an IC50 of 39.1 +/- 10 microM (n=6)....

  2. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-07-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

  3. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

  4. Evaluate interference in digital channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.; Sumida, J.

    1985-01-01

    Any future mobile satellite service (MSS) which is to provide simultaneous mobile communications for a large number of users will have to make very efficient use of the spectrum. As the spectrum available for an MSS is limited, the system's channels should be packed as closely together as possible, with minimum-width guard bands. In addition the employment of frequency reuse schemes is an important factor. Difficulties regarding these solutions are related to the introduction of interference in the link. A balance must be achieved between the competing aims of spectrum conservation and low interference. While the interference phenomenon in narrowband FM voice channels is reasonably well understood, very little effort, however, has been devoted to the problem in digital radios. Attention is given to work, which illuminates the effects of cochannel and adjacent channel interference on digital FM (FSK) radios.

  5. Pannexin-1 channels in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mark S; Whyte-Fagundes, Paige; Zoidl, Georg; Carlen, Peter L

    2017-09-05

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) expression is raised in several animal seizure models and in resected human epileptic brain tissue, suggesting relevance to epilepsy. Multiple factors that are characteristic of seizures are thought to regulate Panx1 channel opening, including elevated levels of extracellular K + . Panx1, when open, 1) releases ATP, glutamate, and other metabolites into the extracellular medium, and 2) may depolarize the membrane due to a channel reversal potential around 0mV. Resultant ATP release from stimulated Panx1 can activate purinergic receptors, including P2X7 receptors. Glutamate and other signaling molecules released by Panx1 opening may have both excitatory and inhibitory actions on seizure generation. This review examines the critical and complex roles of Panx1 channels in epilepsy, which could provide a basis for future therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of donepezil on hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun Ju; Lee, Hong Joon; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kim, In-Beom; Choi, Jin-Sung; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2015-02-09

    Donepezil is a potent, selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which is used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique and Western blot analyses were used to study the effects of donepezil on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. Donepezil inhibited the tail current of the hERG in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 1.3 μM. The metabolites of donepezil, 6-ODD and 5-ODD, inhibited the hERG currents in a similar concentration-dependent manner; the IC50 values were 1.0 and 1.5 μM, respectively. A fast drug perfusion system demonstrated that donepezil interacted with both the open and inactivated states of the hERG. A fast application of donepezil during the tail currents inhibited the open state of the hERG in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 2.7 μM. Kinetic analysis of donepezil in an open state of the hERG yielded blocking and unblocking rate constants of 0.54 µM(-1)s(-1) and 1.82 s(-1), respectively. The block of the hERG by donepezil was voltage-dependent with a steep increase across the voltage range of channel activation. Donepezil caused a reduction in the hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane at low concentration, but decreased the channel protein expression at higher concentrations. These results suggest that donepezil inhibited the hERG at a supratherapeutic concentration, and that it did so by preferentially binding to the activated (open and/or inactivated) states of the channels and by inhibiting the trafficking and expression of the hERG channel protein in the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, R.

    The alumina industry has historically been able to reduce alumina production costs, by increasing the liquor alumina yield. To know the potential for further yield increases, the phase diagram of the ternary system Na2O-Al2O -H2O at various temperature levels was analysed. It was found that the maximum theorical precipitation alumina yield is 160 g/l, while that for digestion was calculated to be 675 g/l.

  8. Disagreement about inflation and the yield curve

    OpenAIRE

    Ehling, P; Gallmeyer, M; Heyerdahl-Larsen, C; Illeditsch, P

    2018-01-01

    We show that inflation disagreement, not just expected inflation, has an impact on nominal interest rates. In contrast to expected inflation, which mainly affects the wedge between real and nominal yields, inflation disagreement affects nominal yields predominantly through its impact on the real side of the economy. We show theoretically and empirically that inflation disagreement raises real and nominal yields and their volatilities. Inflation disagreement is positively related to consumers’...

  9. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresse...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  10. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  11. 32-Channel banana-avg montage is better than 16-channel double banana montage to detect epileptiform discharges in routine EEGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan; Gonzalez, Walter; Bautista, Ramon; DeCerce, John

    2008-10-01

    We designed a study, comparing the yield of standard 16-channel longitudinal bipolar montage (double banana) versus a combined 32-channel longitudinal bipolar plus average referential montage (banana-plus), to detect epileptic abnormalities. We selected 25 consecutive routine EEG samples with a diagnosis of spike or sharp waves in the temporal regions and 25 consecutive focal slowing and 50 normal EEGs. A total of 100 samples were printed in both montages and randomized for reading. Thirty independent EEG readers blinded from the EEG diagnosis were invited to participate. Twenty-two readers successfully completed the test for a total of 4400 answers collected for analysis. The average sensitivity to detect epileptiform discharges for 16 and 32-channel montages was 36.5% and 61%, respectively (Pdouble banana montage. Residents and EEG fellows could improve EEG-reading accuracy if taught on a combined 32-channel montage.

  12. Improved Method of Fluorescence Quantum Yield Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawara, Krzysztof; Waluk, Jacek

    2017-09-05

    In the most widely used procedure for luminescence quantum yield determination, absorption and emission spectra are measured on two different instruments. This leads to errors caused by wavelength misalignment and different monochromator characteristics of the spectrophotometer and the spectrofluorometer. These errors can be avoided using a method for fluorescence quantum yield determination that relies on simultaneous absorption and fluorescence emission (SAFE) measurement using a single commercial spectrofluorometer. The method's performance is compared with the standard routinely used procedure for the relative quantum yield determination. The advantages of SAFE measurement are discussed. The proposed novel approach eliminates a number of potential errors in quantum yield determination protocol and provides higher accuracy.

  13. Status of fission product yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The topics covered in this paper are: (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy, (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum, (c) independent yields, (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets, and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  14. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  15. The Orange Juice Distribution Channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the agents in the European marketing channels of the FCOJ, focusing on the final juice consumers, retailing, food ... Marketing channels are defined as “a set of interdependent organisations involved in the process of making a .... Mexico - 8.0 8.0 8.3 8.0 8.0 - -. Venezuela - 7.9 8.0 7.5 7.3 7.1 - -. Taiwan - 4.4 4.9 6.2 6.6 7.0 - -.

  16. Bubble Formation in Yield Stress Fluids Using Flow-Focusing and T-Junction Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, Benoit; Rouyer, Florence; Angelescu, Dan E; Lorenceau, Elise

    2015-05-22

    We study the production of bubbles inside yield stress fluids (YSFs) in axisymmetric T-junction and flow-focusing devices. Taking advantage of yield stress over capillary stress, we exhibit a robust break-up mechanism reminiscent of the geometrical operating regime in 2D flow-focusing devices for Newtonian fluids. We report that when the gas is pressure driven, the dynamics is unsteady due to hydrodynamic feedback and YSF deposition on the walls of the channels. However, the present study also identifies pathways for potential steady-state production of bubbly YSFs at large scale.

  17. Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z.; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

  18. Visualizing multi-channel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antemijczuk, Paweł; Magiera, Marta; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a visualization to illustrate social interactions, built from multiple distinct channels of communication. The visualization displays a summary of dense personal information in a compact graphical notation. The starting point is an abstract drawing of a spider’s web. Below...

  19. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  20. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the

  1. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  2. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  3. 7 CFR 1437.102 - Yield determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.102 Yield determinations. (a) An actual... used in the actual production history base period when less than four consecutive crop years of actual...

  4. Growth and yield in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Rinehart; Richard B. Standiford

    1983-01-01

    A study of the major Eucalyptus globulus stands throughout California conducted by Woodbridge Metcalf in 1924 provides a complete and accurate data set for generating variable site-density yield models. Two models were developed using linear regression techniques. Model I depicts a linear relationship between age and yield best used for stands between five and fifteen...

  5. Normal yield tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington; Floyd A. Johnson; George R. Staebler; William J. Lloyd

    1960-01-01

    Increasing interest in the management of red alder (Alnus rubra) has created a need for reliable yield information. Existing yield tables for red alder have been very useful as interim sources of information, but they are generally inadequate for current and prospective management needs. The advisory committee for the Station's Olympia...

  6. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  7. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Present paper tries to understand the influence of hydrogeological characteristics on groundwater yield of shallow wells in regolith aquifer, Ilorin, Nigeria. The data on hydrogeological characteristics such as drawdown, water level, depth of borehole, depth of overburden and well yield for 78 borewells were collected from ...

  8. Appropriateness and Diagnostic Yield of Referrals for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate referrals constituted 221(58.9%). Inappropriate referral rate was similar for endoscopists and non-endoscopists. Positive yield was 62.7%. Male sex, age > 45 years, haematemesis, persistent vomiting, gastroenterologists' referrals and epigastric tenderness were the best predictors of positive yield. Gastritis, 121 ...

  9. Impact of Quantitative Easing on Purchased Asset Yields, its Persistency and Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakl Jakub

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper rests on the event study and SVAR analysis of quantitative easing that was initiated as a reaction to the financial crisis at the turn of 2008/2009 that finally ended in 2014. The Fed was virtually unable to continue with its conventional monetary policy regime in environment of zero-bound threshold, where there is no easy way to decrease main monetary policy rate any further. As a reaction to this limitation, the Fed started to practice quantitative easing and other unconventional measures. Event study examines changes in yields of purchased assets, namely US Treasuries, MBS and agency debt, and on two-day event window of the OIS and yield spreads quantifies imminent impact of QE announcements and relevant chairman speeches. Following VAR model and impulse-response functions, I examine the impact of QE and its persistency on purchased asset and on alternative asset classes in the framework of various transmission channels such as signalling, portfolio-balancing and liquidity channels. In this study I found non-negligible impact of QE on purchased assets in both models through all waves of QE and time persistency patterns in IRFs part. Furthermore, some evidence for portfolio-balancing channel and other related channels was found.

  10. CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR ENERGY TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  11. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  12. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  13. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  14. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem

  15. An Effective Channel Allocation Scheme to Reduce Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Interference for WMN Backhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Ismaili, I.A.; Khuhawar, F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Two folded work presents channel allocation scheme sustaining channel orthogonality and channel spacing to reduce CCI (Co-Channel Interference) and ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference) for inter flow of an intra-flow link. Proposed scheme as a part of radio resource allocation is applied on infrastructure based backhaul of wireless mesh network using directional antennas. The proposed approach is applied separately on 2.4 and 5GHz bands. Interference of connectivity graph is modelled by strongly connected directed graph and greedy algorithms are used for channel allocation. We have used OPNET Modeller suite to simulate network models for this research. The proposed arrangement reduces the channel interference and increases system throughput. In this research, the influence of channel is computed in terms of network throughput and delay. (author)

  16. Implementation issues of a High-Speed distributed Multi-Channel ADDA System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, J.M.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Laanstra, Geert J.; Kuipers, Hendrik

    2005-01-01

    A multi-channel ADDA controller is used in many active noise cancellation and active vibration control problems. Such a con- troller is able to yield good performance, however it also requires a lot of hardware on a centralized place and a lot of sensitive wiring. A practical work around for this

  17. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-05-12

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  18. Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields components of sole early maturing maize ( Zea mays ) and bambaranut ( Vigna subterranean Thour. ) and in intercrop under southern guinea savannah ecology zone.

  19. Correlation of yield and yield components for afila and normal leave pea, Pissum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Radiša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the correlation of yield and yield components of Afila and normal leaf Pea, we conducted a three years research (1993 - 1995. We have researched a correlative junction of yield and yield components (number of pods, number of grains per pod, number of grains per plant and the absolute grain weight of 8 Afila lines and 4 parent varieties. The results showed that the yield and yield components are highly related r - 0.82 - 0.95, while the absolute weight is not related to the yield r - 0, 19 and due to that it does not represent the yield component. The determined correlative values for all researched genotypes and parents were the same as previously researched by other authors, which leads us to the conclusion that the absence of leaves does not directly impact the change of correlative values.

  20. Measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    DØ Collaboration; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Berntzon, L.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Blumenschein, U.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Claes, D.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; de, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doidge, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fatakia, S. N.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, F.; Guo, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hansson, P.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Käfer, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Kasper, P.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kotcher, J.; Kothari, B.; Koubarovsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Krop, D.; Kryemadhi, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lazoflores, J.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lesne, V.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Z.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lynker, M.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Magnan, A.-M.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martens, M.; McCarthy, R.; Meder, D.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Michaut, M.; Miettinen, H.; Millet, T.

    2007-10-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel based on approximately 370 pb-1 of data collected by the DØ experiment during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We employ two different methods to extract the top quark mass. We show that both methods yield consistent results using ensemble tests of events generated with the DØ Monte Carlo simulation. We combine the results from the two methods to obtain a top quark mass m=178.1±8.2 GeV. The statistical uncertainty is 6.7 GeV and the systematic uncertainty is 4.8 GeV.

  1. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holschbach, M.; Roden, W.; Hamkens, W. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin)

    1991-04-01

    A useful synthetic approach to carbon-11 labelled 1,4-dihydropyridines is described. Carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists {sup 11}C-Nifedipine, {sup 11}C-Nisoldipine, {sup 11}C-nitrendipine and {sup 11}C-CF{sub 3}-Nifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch method using protected carboxy functions. Deprotection of the carboxylic acids by alkaline hydrolysis followed by conversion into the corresponding potassium salts and subsequent methylation with {sup 11}CH{sub 3}I produced the labelled compounds in very good chemical and radiochemical yields (94%). (author).

  2. Experimental Study of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriani, Widya; Lubis, Fadrizal; Angraini, Muthia

    2017-12-01

    Experimental testing is commonly used as one of the steps to determine the cause of the collapse of a building structure. The collapse of structures can be due to low quality materials. Although material samples have passed laboratory tests and the existing technical specifications have been met but there may be undetected defects and known material after failure. In this paper will be presented Experimental Testing of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members to determine the cause of the collapse of a building roof truss x in Pekanbaru. Test of tensile strength material cold formed channel sections was performed to obtain the main characteristics of Cold Formed steel material, namely ultimate tensile strength loads that can be held by members and the yield stress possessed by channel sections used in construction. Analysis of axially tension cold formed steel channel section presents in this paper was conducted through experimental study based on specificationsAnnualBook of ASTM Standards: Metal Test methods and Analitical Procedures, Section 3 (1991). The result of capacity loads experimental test was compared with design based on SNI 03-7971-2013standard of Indonesia for the design of cold formed steel structural members. The results of the yield stress of the material will be seen against the minimum allowable allowable stress range. After the test, the percentace of ultimate axial tension capacity theory has a result that is 16.46% larger than the ultimate axial tension capacity experimental. When compared with the load that must be borne 5.673 kN/m it can be concluded that 2 specimens do not meet. Yield stress of member has fulfilled requirement that wass bigger than 550 MPa. Based on the curve obtained ultimate axial tension capacity theory, results greater than experimental. The greatest voltage value (fu) is achieved under the same conditions as its yield stress. For this specimen with a melting voltage value fy = 571.5068 MPa has fulfilled the

  3. Carbon sputtering yield measurements at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasinski, Robert D.; Polk, James E.; Goebel, Dan; Johnson, Lee K.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, carbon sputtering yields were measured experimentally at varying angles of incidence under Xe + bombardment. The measurements were obtained by etching a coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a low energy ion beam. The material properties of the carbon targets were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. C sputtering yields measured under Ar + and Xe + bombardment at normal incidence displayed satisfactory agreement with previously published data over an energy range of 200 eV-1 keV. For Xe + ions, the dependence of the yields on angle of incidence θ was determined for 0 o ≤ θ ≤ 80 deg. Over this range, an increase in C sputtering yield by a factor of 4.8 was observed, with the peak in yield occurring at 70 o . This is a much higher variation compared to Xe + → Mo yields under similar conditions, a difference that may be attributed to higher scattering of the incident particles transverse to the beam direction than in the case of Xe + → C. In addition, the variation of the yields with θ was not strongly energy dependent. Trapping of Xe in the surface was observed, in contrast to observations using the QCM technique with metallic target materials. Finally, target surface roughness was characterized using atomic force microscope measurements to distinguish between the effects of local and overall angle of incidence of the target

  4. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  5. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  6. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Food for thought: pretty good multispecies yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Dichmont, C. M.; Levin, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    MSY principles for marine fisheries management reflect a focus on obtaining continued high catches to provide food and livelihoods for humanity, while not compromising ecosystems. However, maintaining healthy stocks to provide the maximum sustainable yield on a single-species basis does not ensure...... good multidimensional yield to accommodate situations where the yield from a stock affects the ecosystem, economic and social benefits, or sustainability. We demonstrate in a European example that PGMY is a practical concept. As PGMY provides a safe operating space for management that adheres...

  8. System Model of Daily Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T. C.; Dickinson, W. T.

    1980-06-01

    Input-output systems concepts have been applied to the modeling of daily runoff-sediment yield of the Thames River in southern Ontario, Canada. Spectral and correlation techniques have been used to construct a parsimonious model of daily sediment yields. It is shown that a linear discrete dynamic model is possible in terms of the log-transformed daily runoff and sediment yield sequences. The fluvial system of the Thames River watershed exhibits a weak memory on a daily basis, and the noise component corrupting the watershed fluvial system resembles a white noise process.

  9. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  10. Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. J Chen, F Tang, R Zhu, C Gao, G Di, Y Zhang. Abstract. The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, ...

  11. Effect of sulfur and iron fertilizers on yield, yield components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... results showed that water stress significantly reduced biological yield (10.26%) and number of capsule per plant. Interaction between water stress and combination of iron and sulfur fertilizers had significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained by well water treatment and b2c2 ...

  12. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 7 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of seven wheat parents during the crop season of 2009 to 2010. Mean square of general ... Genetic background and yield traits of the seven parents. Parent. Pedigree. Released year ..... Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing characters in wheat (Triticum ...

  13. The KATP channel in migraine pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Karagholi, Mohammad Al-Mahdi; Hansen, Jakob Møller; Severinsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To review the distribution and function of KATP channels, describe the use of KATP channels openers in clinical trials and make the case that these channels may play a role in headache and migraine. DISCUSSION: KATP channels are widely present in the trigeminovascular system and play...... an important role in the regulation of tone in cerebral and meningeal arteries. Clinical trials using synthetic KATP channel openers report headache as a prevalent-side effect in non-migraine sufferers, indicating that KATP channel opening may cause headache, possibly due to vascular mechanisms. Whether KATP...... channel openers can provoke migraine in migraine sufferers is not known. CONCLUSION: We suggest that KATP channels may play an important role in migraine pathogenesis and could be a potential novel therapeutic anti-migraine target....

  14. Channel Estimation in DCT-Based OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Gengxin; Xie, Zhidong; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives the channel estimation of a discrete cosine transform- (DCT-) based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system over a frequency-selective multipath fading channel. Channel estimation has been proved to improve system throughput and performance by allowing for coherent demodulation. Pilot-aided methods are traditionally used to learn the channel response. Least square (LS) and mean square error estimators (MMSE) are investigated. We also study a compressed sensing (CS) based channel estimation, which takes the sparse property of wireless channel into account. Simulation results have shown that the CS based channel estimation is expected to have better performance than LS. However MMSE can achieve optimal performance because of prior knowledge of the channel statistic. PMID:24757439

  15. Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas: Jetty Stability Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Nicholas C; Lin, Lihwa; Batten, Brian K; Brown, Gary L

    2006-01-01

    .... The current has produced a large area of scour on the bay side of the inlet adjacent to the west jetty, and vessels encountering a strong along-channel and cross-channel current at the entrance...

  16. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  17. Modification of single Na+ channels by batrachotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, F N; Narahashi, T

    1982-11-01

    The modifications in the properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels caused by batrachotoxin were studied by using the patch clamp method for measuring single channel currents from excised membranes of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. The toxin-modified open state of the Na+ channel has a decreased conductance in comparison to that of normal Na+ channels. The lifetime of the modified open state is drastically prolonged, and channels now continue to open during a maintained depolarization so that the probability of a channel being open becomes constant. Modified and normal open states of Na+ channels coexist in batrachotoxin-exposed membrane patches. Unlike the normal condition, Na+ channels exposed to batrachotoxin open spontaneously at large negative potentials. These spontaneous openings apparently cause the toxin-induced increase in Na+ permeability which, in turn, causes membrane depolarization.

  18. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  19. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  20. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  1. BK channel modulators: a comprehensive overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardi, Antonio; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The large Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel) reflects per excellence the dilemma of the molecular target driven drug discovery process. Significant experimental evidence suggests that the BK channels play a pivotal and specific role in many pathophysiological conditions supporting...... the notion that the channel represents an innovative and promising drug target. However, after more than ten years of intense research effort both in academia and industry, scientists have yet to witness the approval of a single BK channel modulator for clinical use. On the contrary, three BK openers...... and blockers 4) Marketed and/or investigational drugs with BK-modulating side properties and structural analogues 5) Naturally-occurring BK channel openers and structural analogues 6) Synthetic BK channel openers. This review is intended to provide readers with current opinion on the BK channel as a drug...

  2. Thermoelectricity in Heterogeneous Nanofluidic Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Wang, Qinggong

    2018-04-19

    Ionic fluids are essential to energy conversion, water desalination, drug delivery, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Ionic transport in nanoscale confinements and complex physical fields still remain elusive. Here, a nanofluidic system is developed using nanochannels of heterogeneous surface properties to investigate transport properties of ions under different temperatures. Steady ionic currents are observed under symmetric temperature gradients, which is equivalent to generating electricity using waste heat (e.g., electronic chips and solar panels). The currents increase linearly with temperature gradient and nonlinearly with channel size. Contributions to ion motion from temperatures and channel properties are evaluated for this phenomenon. The findings provide insights into the study of confined ionic fluids in multiphysical fields, and suggest applications in thermal energy conversion, temperature sensors, and chip-level thermal management. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  4. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  5. Improving Channel Coordination Through Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Lal

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of franchising arrangements in improving coordination between channel members. In particular we focus on two elements of the franchising contract, namely, the royalty structure and the monitoring technology. We begin with a simple analysis where a manufacturer distributes its product through a retailer and the retail demand is affected by the retail price and the service provided by the retailer. In this context we show that neither royalty payments nor moni...

  6. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  7. Trafficking of neuronal calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Zamponi, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), č. článku NS20160003. ISSN 2059-6553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * neuron * trafficing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) http://www. neuron alsignaling.org/content/1/1/NS20160003

  8. Muon decay channeling in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, A.; Patterson, B.D.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Wichert, Th.

    1984-01-01

    This experiment employs the channeling effect of the host lattice on the trajectories of decay positrons in order to determine the position of positive muons implanted into silicon crystals. Low-momentum ( 0 ). In order to achieve sufficient angular resolution, the Si wafer is bent to a spherical shape, thereby focussing a particular crystal axis to a point at the center of the MWPC (located 3.4 m from the wafer). (Auth.)

  9. On the yield stress of complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderas, F.; Herrera-Valencia, E. E.; Sanchez-Solis, A.; Manero, O.; Medina-Torres, L.; Renteria, A.; Sanchez-Olivares, G.

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, the yield stress of complex materials is analyzed and modeled using the Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) constitutive equation, consisting of the upper-convected Maxwell equation coupled to a kinetic equation to account for the breakdown and reformation of the fluid structure. BMP model predictions for a complex fluid in different flow situations are analyzed and compared with yield stress predictions of other rheological models, and with experiments on fluids that exhibit yield stresses. It is shown that one of the main features of the BMP model is that it predicts a real yield stress (elastic solid or Hookean behavior) as one of the material parameters, the zero shear-rate fluidity, is zero. In addition, the transition to fluid-like behavior is continuous, as opposed to predictions of more empirical models.

  10. Yield stress materials in soft condensed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Daniel; Denn, Morton M.; Berthier, Ludovic; Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear flow behavior in response to external mechanical forces due to the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur: the yield stress. Both the physical origin and rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior are discussed and an overview is given of experimental techniques available to measure the yield stress. Recent progress is discussed concerning a microscopic theoretical description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing, in particular, the role played by relaxation time scales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and nonlocal effects in confined geometries.

  11. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  12. X-ray yields in kaonic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, E.; Leon, M.

    1979-01-01

    The yield of K x-rays in kaonic hydrogen (as well as other forms of exotic hydrogen) has been calculated following the method used by Leon and Bethe. Our results are not incompatible with experiment. (auth)

  13. Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight on Research Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration By Kirstie Saltsman, Ph.D. | January 5, 2014 ... Diseases has uncovered chemical signals that drive the regeneration of lost digit tips in mice. The findings, ...

  14. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  15. CP violation in charmless B sup 0 decays: A coupled channel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanninger, M.; Sehgal, L.M. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik 3B und 3. Physikalisches Inst.)

    1991-04-01

    We consider the CP-violating asymmetry between B{sup 0}{yields}f and anti B{sup 0}{yields}f in the case that f is a CP-eigenstate containing no charmed quarks. The asymmetry is assumed to arise as a result of mixing with other channels f' having the same quantum numbers but containing a canti c pair. Inelastic unitarity is implemented by means of the K-matrix formalism, in which the constraints of CPT are manifestly satisfied. The formalism is applied to a hypothetical two-channel problem B{sup 0}{yields}Manti M, M'anti M', and then to a realistic four-channel situation B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D{sup +}D{sup -}, D{sup 0}anti D{sup 0}. Asymmetries and branching ratios are estimated for the decays B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. (orig.).

  16. Analysing Gas-Liquid Flow in PEM Electrolyser Micro-Channels (Poster)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafmejani, Saeed Sadeghi; Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    to hot spots. Management of heat and fluid flow through the micro-channels play a great role in the capability of PEM water electrolysis when working at high current densities. Despite, many studies have been done on gas-liquid flows; still there is a lack of research on gas-liquid flows in micro......One means of increasing the hydrogen yield to cost ratio of a PEM water electrolyser, is to increase the operating current density. However, at high current densities (higher than 1 A/cm2), management of heat and mass transfer in the anode current collector and channel becomes crucial and can lead......-sized channels (hydraulic diameter of 1 mm) of PEM water electrolysis. Precisely controlling all the parameters that affect the gas-liquid flow in a PEM water electrolysis cell is quite challenging, hence a simplified setup is constructed consisting of only a transparent channel with a sheet of titanium felt...

  17. The voltage-dependent action of pentobarbital on batrachotoxin-modified human brain sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, B; Duch, D S; Urban, B W

    1994-09-14

    The voltage-dependent action of the intravenous anesthetic pentobarbital on human brain sodium channels activated by batrachotoxin was examined using planar lipid bilayer methods. Fractional open time-data were fitted by Boltzmann functions to yield simple parameters characterizing the voltage-dependence of the fractional open time. Pentobarbital caused a dose-dependent reduction of the maximum fractional open time of the sodium channel and a shift of the potential of half-maximal open time towards hyperpolarized potentials, whereas the slope parameter of the Boltzmann-fits was unaffected. A statistically significant increase of the variability of these parameters was found only in the case of the maximum fractional open time, indicating a random fluctuation of pentobarbital-induced suppression of the sodium channels over time. The voltage-dependent action of pentobarbital probably results from either a pentobarbital-modification of channel activation gating and/or a modification of the pentobarbital action by the gating process itself.

  18. No evidence for specific opioid effects on batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels from human brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, C; Gerhard, A; Wartenberg, H C; Rehberg, B; Urban, B W

    1997-06-20

    Human central nervous system (CNS) sodium channels modified by batrachotoxin and incorporated inter voltage-clamped lipid bilayers, were exposed to various concentrations of the opioid alfentanil (0.2-8.0 mM). Alfentanil caused a concentration-dependent and membrane potential independent reduction of the single channel amplitude and the fractional channel open-time. The weighted computer fit of the dose-response curve yielded a maximal conductance block of 50% with an EC50 of 1.3 mM. These effects occurred at levels beyond clinically relevant human serum/brain levels (0.003 mM) but within the predicted concentration range using the Meyer-Overton (lipid solubility/anaesthetic potency) correlation. Thus, human CNS sodium channels are probably not a main target site for the clinical effects of alfentanil but they provide a model system to estimate the proportion of the lipophilic interactions contributing to its overall effect.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of ion-beam channeling in YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodyrev, V.A.; Chumanov, V.Ya.; Bourdelle, K.K.; Pokhil, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program (UPIC) for the simulation of ion channeling in crystals with complex structure is described. The program is applied to simulate the channeling of 1.5 MeV He + and 1 MeV D + near the [001] axis of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 assuming strongly correlated atomic displacements along the [001] Cu-O rows in the superconducting state. The values for the abrupt change in the half-width of the channeling dip observed in experiments [R.P. Sharma et al., Phys. Rev. B 38 (1988) 9287] at the temperature of the superconducting transition, T c , are reproduced in the simulations with correlation coefficients of 0.8-0.9. The increase in the minimum channeling yield at T c found in measurements [T. Haga et al., Phys. Rev. B 41 (1990) 826] can be qualitatively explained by the increase in dechanneling rate due to correlations. ((orig.))

  20. Low-Complexity Iterative Receiver for Space-Time Coded Signals over Frequency Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a low-complexity turbo-detector scheme for frequency selective multiple-input multiple-output channels. The detection part of the receiver is based on a List-type MAP equalizer which is a state-reduction algorithm of the MAP algorithm using per-survivor technique. This alternative achieves a good tradeoff between performance and complexity provided a small amount of the channel is neglected. In order to induce the good performance of this equalizer, we propose to use a whitened matched filter (WMF which leads to a white-noise “minimum phase” channel model. Simulation results show that the use of the WMF yields significant improvement, particularly over severe channels. Thanks to the iterative turbo processing (detection and decoding are iterated several times, the performance loss due to the use of the suboptimum List-type equalizer is recovered.

  1. 47 CFR 95.29 - Channels available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... no more than 5 watts ERP. (g) Fixed stations in GMRS systems authorized before March 18, 1968... transmission of another GMRS station on a different channel or channels), the licensee of the GMRS system must... GMRS system from the following 462 MHz channels: 462.5500, 462.5750, 462.6000, 462.6250, 462.6500, 462...

  2. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan...

  3. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  4. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Q.; Gyftogianni, E.; Graaf, K.F.J. van de; Hoefs, S.J.G.; Weidema, A.F.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  5. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Qing; Gyftogianni, Emmanouela; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.; Hoefs, Susan; Weidema, Freek A.; Bindels, René J. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  6. Sputtering yield measurements on single crystal cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysh, V.S.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.

    1981-01-01

    Single crystals of cobalt have been bombarded with 80 keV A + ions in the direction of the h.c.p. structure and in the direction of the f.c.c. structure. The sputtering yields, measured by the weight loss method, depend on the crystal structure, and damage, introduced by the ion bombardment, is shown to play a significant role in the explanation of the measured sputtering yields. (Auth.)

  7. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  8. Growth regulator on oat yield indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatan K. Krysczun

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth regulator in oat can reduce lodging with effects on yield indicators. The objective of the study is to define the optimum dose of growth regulator to reduce lodging in oats under different conditions of nitrogen (N fertilization (reduced, high and very high and the effects on yield indicators in the succession systems. In each succession system (soybean/oats and corn/oats, two experiments were conducted, one to quantify biomass yield and the other to estimate grain yield and lodging. In the four experiments, the design was randomized blocks with four replicates in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, for N-fertilizer doses (30, 90 and 150 kg ha-1 and growth regulator doses (0, 200, 400 and 600 mL ha-1, respectively. Growth regulator reduces lodging in oat plants, with the ideal doses of 500 mL ha-1 in the soybean/oat system and 400 mL ha-1 in the corn/oat system, regardless of the reduced, high and very high N doses. There is a linear reduction of biological and straw yields, and a quadratic trend in the expression of grain yield and harvest index as a function of the growth regulator doses, regardless of succession systems (soybean/oats and corn/oats.

  9. Water limits to closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops - maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).

  10. The use of service channels by citizens in the Netherlands: implications for multi-channel management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.

    2008-01-01

    Many governmental organizations are changing their service channel management strategies to multi-channel management. However, very few empirical studies exist that explore how these multi-channel strategies should be shaped. In this article we test a number of hypotheses on citizens' channel use

  11. The fluid mechanics of channel fracturing flows: experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedi, Ahmadreza; Tucker, Zachery; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    We show our preliminary experimental results on the role of fluid mechanics in channel fracturing flows, particularly yield stress fracturing fluids. Recent trends in the oil industry have included the use of cyclic pumping of a proppant slurry interspersed with a yield stress fracturing fluid, which is found to increase wells productivity, if particles disperse in a certain fashion. Our experimental study aims to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for dispersing the particles (proppant) within a yield stress carrier fluid, and to measure the dispersion of proppant slugs in various fracturing regimes. To this end we have designed and built a unique experimental setup that resembles a fracture configuration coupled with a particle image/tracking velocimetry setup operating at micro to macro dimensions. Moreover, we have designed optically engineered suspensions of complex fluids with tunable yield stress and consistency, well controlled density match-mismatch properties and refractive indices for both X-rays and visible lights. We present our experimental system and preliminary results. NSF (Grant No. CBET-1554044- CAREER), ACS PRF (Grant No. 55661-DNI9).

  12. Measurement of average electron densities in Si and Ge using MeV delta -rays produced by channelled high-energy projectiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bak, J F; Grob, J J; Jensen, P R; Madsboll, H; Melchart, Gerhard; Møller, S P; Petersen, G; Schiøtt, Hans E; Siffert, P; Uggerhøj, Erik

    1982-01-01

    For the first time, average electron densities in silicon and germanium were measured using the channeling effect for 5 and 12 GeV/c protons,\\pi^{+} and\\pi^{-}. In the investigation, the yield of MeV electrons emitted through the back of the target was measured. Such delta -ray yields are proportional to the local electron density averaged along the path of the projectile in the target. For well- aligned, positive particles, the electron yield is reduced to around 15% of normal yield for germanium and 25% for silicon, whereas negatively charged, channeled projectiles give an increase in yield by a factor of three compared to normal yield. The experimental results have been compared to yield curves calculated using the Lindhard channeling model in connection with special potential models, and very good agreement is obtained for positive particles when the electron density in the middle of channels is obtained by summing the contributions from many neighbouring strings. For positive projectiles, this channeling...

  13. Modeling Flow Pattern and Evolution of Meandering Channels with a Nonlinear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Gu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Meander dynamics has been the focus of river engineering for decades; however, it remains a challenge for researchers to precisely replicate natural evolution processes of meandering channels with numerical models due to the high nonlinearity of the governing equations. The present study puts forward a nonlinear model to simulate the flow pattern and evolution of meandering channels. The proposed meander model adopts the nonlinear hydrodynamic submodel developed by Blanckaert and de Vriend, which accounts for the nonlinear interactions between secondary flow and main flow and therefore has no curvature restriction. With the computational flow field, the evolution process of the channel centerline is simulated using the Bank Erosion and Retreat Model (BERM developed by Chen and Duan. Verification against two laboratory flume experiments indicates the proposed meander model yields satisfactory agreement with the measured data. For comparison, the same experimental cases are also simulated with the linear version of the hydrodynamic submodel. Calculated results show that the flow pattern and meander evolution process predicted by the nonlinear and the linear models are similar for mildly curved channels, whereas they exhibit different characteristics when channel sinuosity becomes relatively high. It is indicated that the nonlinear interactions between main flow and secondary flow prevent the growth of the secondary flow and induce a more uniform transverse velocity profile in high-sinuosity channels, which slows down the evolution process of meandering channels.

  14. The origin of Venusian channels: Modelling of thermal erosion by lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Sorensen, S-A.; Guest, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan imagery has revealed that channels, apparently volcanic in origin, are abundant on the surface of Venus. There has been much debate about the origin of these channels. Are they the result of erosional (either thermal or mechanical) or constructional processes? A common characteristic of the simple sinuous channels is that they show evidence of erosion near their source and then become purely constructional, forming levees and in some cases roofing over completely. One method of showing that thermal erosion is capable of producing the type of channels seen is to use computer modeling incorporating the physical conditions on Venus and the physical characteristics of the different types of lava that may have been erupted. It is possible to calculate, relatively easily, two channel parameters. The first is the erosion rate, which combined with eruption duration, gives depth. The second is for how long after leaving the source the erupted lava will continue to be capable of thermal erosion before constructional processes dominate. Making assumptions about the rheology of the lava (e.g., assume it behaves as a Bingham plastic) along with the slope angle yields a flow velocity and therefore a distance over which thermal erosion will take place. Due to the resolution (both vertical and horizontal) of the Magellan altimetric data, the distance from the source that the channel is erosional can be much more accurately measured than the depth of the channel. This will remain the case until stereo imagery becomes available for large areas of the planet.

  15. Channel discrimination power of bipartite quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, Matteo; Piani, Marco

    2018-03-01

    We quantify the usefulness of a bipartite quantum state in the ancilla-assisted channel discrimination of arbitrary quantum channels, formally defining a worst-case-scenario channel discrimination power for bipartite quantum states. We show that such a quantifier is deeply connected with the operator Schmidt decomposition of the state. We compute the channel discrimination power exactly for pure states, and provide upper and lower bounds for general mixed states. We show that highly entangled states can outperform any state that passes the realignment criterion for separability and that the channel discrimination power of a state is bounded by its quantum discord.

  16. BKCa-Channel Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel H.

    Among ion channels, the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa channel) is in many ways unique. It has a very large single-channel conductance—ten times that of most vertebrate K+ channels—and yet it maintains strict K+ selectivity. It senses as little as 200 nM Ca2+, but it contains no consensus Ca2+-binding motifs, and it is the only channel to be activated by both intracellular Ca2+ and membrane voltage. In fact, there is a synergy between these stimuli such that the higher the internal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]), the smaller the depolarization needed to activate the channel. Furthermore, the BKCa channel has its own brand of auxiliary subunits that profoundly affect gating. In this chapter, I will discuss what is understood about the origins of these properties in terms of allosteric models and channel structure. At the outset, however, I should say that there is not yet a crystal structure of the BKCa channel or any of its components, so much of the current thinking about BKCa-channel structure relies on analogy to other channels.

  17. Performance Analysis of Iterative Channel Estimation and Multiuser Detection in Multipath DS-CDMA Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Husheng; Betz, Sharon M.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of decision feedback based iterative channel estimation and multiuser detection in channel coded aperiodic DS-CDMA systems operating over multipath fading channels. First, explicit expressions describing the performance of channel estimation and parallel interference cancellation based multiuser detection are developed. These results are then combined to characterize the evolution of the performance of a system that iterates among channel estimation, multiu...

  18. On luminescence bleaching of tidal channel sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten; Murray, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the processes responsible for bleaching of the quartz OSL signal from tidal channel sediment. Tidal dynamics are expected to play an important role for complete bleaching of tidal sediments. However, no studies have examined the amount of reworking occurring in tidal channels...... and on tidal flats due to the mixing caused by currents and waves. We apply bed level data to evaluate the amount of vertical sediment reworking in modern tidal channels and at a tidal flat. Cycles of deposition and erosion are measured with a bed level sensor, and the results show that gross sedimentation...... was several times higher than net sedimentation. We propose that tidal channel sediment is bleached either on the tidal flat before it is transported to the tidal channels and incorporated in channel-fill successions or, alternatively, on the shallow intertidal part of the channel banks. Based...

  19. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  20. Clay mineral variations near Pennsylvanian sandstone channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, N.R.; Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN; Murray, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Large linear sandstone bodies in the Illinois Basin have been interpreted as representing fresh water river channels that flowed through generally marine to brackish Pennsylvanian deltaic environments; fresh water from such channels could have affected deposition of adjacent coal-bearing rocks. Low-sulfur coals are commonly associated with the sandstone bodies, which may also host petroleum, uranium, fresh water, or other resources. Thus techniques to locate such channels would be economically useful. Previous studies have shown that clay mineral distributions and bulk chemistries of clay-rich sediments are affected when fresh waters mix with sea water. Such changes associated laterally with freshwater channels might have caused distinctive clay mineral or chemical patterns to develop around the channels. Mineralogies and chemical compositions of more than 500 mudrock samples taken immediately above the springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation from 52 sections located from channel margins to 63 miles distant were determined to discern patterns that could aid in finding channels

  1. A BWR fuel channel tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A relational database management system with a query language, Reference 1, has been used to develop a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel channel tracking system on a microcomputer. The software system developed implements channel vendor and Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommendations for in-core channel movements between reactor operating cycles. A BWR Fuel channel encloses the fuel bundle and is typically fabricated using Ziracoly-4. The channel serves three functions: (1) it provides a barrier to separate two parallel flow paths, one inside the fuel assembly and the other in the bypass region outside the fuel assembly and between channels; (2) it guides the control rod as it moves between fuel assemblies and provides a bearing surface for the blades; and (3) it provides rigidity for the fuel bundle. All of these functions are necessary in typical BWR core designs. Fuel channels are not part of typical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core designs

  2. BK channel modulators: a comprehensive overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardi, Antonio; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2008-01-01

    channels as a potentially attractive target, the design and synthesis of potent and selective BK modulators continue based on novel chemical ideas. A comprehensive overview of BK channel modulators is therefore timely and important to the current medicinal chemist for review, summary, and classification......The large Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel) reflects per excellence the dilemma of the molecular target driven drug discovery process. Significant experimental evidence suggests that the BK channels play a pivotal and specific role in many pathophysiological conditions supporting...... the notion that the channel represents an innovative and promising drug target. However, after more than ten years of intense research effort both in academia and industry, scientists have yet to witness the approval of a single BK channel modulator for clinical use. On the contrary, three BK openers...

  3. Numerical evaluation of various gas and coolant channel designs for high performance liquid-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmito, Agus P.; Kurnia, Jundika C.; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2012-01-01

    A careful design of gas and coolant channel is essential to ensure high performance and durability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. The channel design should allow for good thermal, water and gas management whilst keeping low pressure drop. This study evaluates numerically the performance of various gas and coolant channel designs simultaneously, e.g. parallel, serpentine, oblique-fins, coiled, parallel-serpentine and a novel hybrid parallel-serpentine-oblique-fins designs. The stack performance and local distributions of key parameters are investigated with regards to the thermal, water and gas management. The results indicate that the novel hybrid channel design yields the best performance as it constitutes to a lower pumping power and good thermal, water and gas management as compared to conventional channels. Advantages and limitation of the designs are discussed in the light of present numerical results. Finally, potential application and further improvement of the design are highlighted. -- Highlights: ► We evaluate various gas and coolant channel designs in liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack. ► The model considers coupled electrochemistry, channel design and cooling effect simultaneously. ► We propose a novel hybrid channel design. ► The novel hybrid channel design yields the best thermal, water and gas management which is beneficial for long term durability. ► The novel hybrid channel design exhibits the best performance.

  4. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shilian, E-mail: wangsl@nudt.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhili [College of Electrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, P R China (China)

    2015-01-15

    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  5. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel

  6. Creep deflection analysis of fuel channels in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Lambert, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the creep deflection of fuel channel assemblies. The analysis considers the following factors: anisotropy of zirconium alloys; non-uniform creep rates due to the neutron flux distribution; asymmetry due to temperature gradients along the tube; effect of possible axial forces; effect of nominal slopes at the rolled joints; and, non-linearities due to nominal assembly clearances. Furthermore the problem is statically indeterminate and time dependent since, as creep deflection occurs, the reaction forces at the support points and the bending moment distribution change with time. The relations between bending creep and the creep behaviour of the material are first established. The deflection is obtained by double integration of both the elastic and creep components of the tube curvature. Simultaneous equations for deformation at each support point are formulated. These are solved exactly for each discrete time interval yielding the reaction forces and the bending moment distribution. The process is repeated until the design life is reached. The creep component of deformation is integrated with time. The analysis is implemented in a dedicated computer code which is easy to use and very efficient. The analysis is illustrated by examples. The effects of several parameters such as number of spacer supports, axial loading, temperature asymmetry and assembly tolerance are presented. It is concluded that creep deflection is not a major problem in fuel channels. By proper analysis, the channels can be designed so that their life is not limited by creep deflection. (auth)

  7. Multiaxial yield behaviour of Al replicated foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaz, E.; Bacciarini, C.; Charvet, R.; Dufour, W.; Mortensen, A.

    2011-09-01

    Multiaxial experiments are performed on replicated aluminium foam using a custom-built apparatus. The foam structure is isotropic, and features open monomodal pores 75 μm in average diameter. Plane stress ( σ1, σ2, σ3=0) and axisymmetric ( σ1, σ2=σ3) yield envelopes are measured using cubical specimens, supplemented by tests on hollow cylindrical and uniaxial samples. In addition to the three stress components at 0.2% offset strain, the computer-controlled testing apparatus also measures the three instantaneous displacement vectors. Results show that the shape of the yield surface is independent of the relative density of the foam in the explored range (13-28%). Strain increment vectors lie, within error, roughly normal to the line traced through data points in stress space. Replicated foams feature asymmetric yield behaviour between tension and compression. The data additionally show an influence on the yield surface of the third stress tensor invariant (i.e., of the Lode angle). Simple general expressions for the yield surface are fitted to the data, leading to conclude that their behaviour is slightly better captured by parabolic rather than elliptic expressions dependent on all three stress invariants.

  8. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  9. National Variation in Crop Yield Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineni, N.; Rising, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    A new multilevel model for yield prediction at the county scale using regional climate covariates is presented in this paper. A new crop specific water deficit index, growing degree days, extreme degree days, and time-trend as an approximation of technology improvements are used as predictors to estimate annual crop yields for each county from 1949 to 2009. Every county in the United States is allowed to have unique parameters describing how these weather predictors are related to yield outcomes. County-specific parameters are further modeled as varying according to climatic characteristics, allowing the prediction of parameters in regions where crops are not currently grown and into the future. The structural relationships between crop yield and regional climate as well as trends are estimated simultaneously. All counties are modeled in a single multilevel model with partial pooling to automatically group and reduce estimation uncertainties. The model captures up to 60% of the variability in crop yields after removing the effect of technology, does well in out of sample predictions and is useful in relating the climate responses to local bioclimatic factors. We apply the predicted growing models in a cost-benefit analysis to identify the most economically productive crop in each county.

  10. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  11. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  12. Measurement of jets production in association with a Z boson and in the search for the SM Higgs boson via H {yields} {tau}{tau} {yields} ll + 4{nu} with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psoroulas, Serena

    2012-10-15

    Three measurements focussing on the understanding of jet final states in ATLAS, in dijet, Z and Higgs boson candidate events, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb{sup -1} in 2010 and 4.7 fb{sup -1} in 2011, are presented. In the first part, a calibration method, based on the transverse momentum balance in dijet events, is described. The method is used to estimate the uncertainty of the jet energy scale in the forward region. The results show that the parton shower models are limited in reproducing the results in data, mostly for jets of low transverse momentum. In the second part, the differential cross section measurement of the Z{yields}ll+jets process is reported. Phase space regions not been previously studied at other experiments are investigated. The models used for the theory predictions provide a good description of the data, within the relative uncertainties. In the last part, two contribution to the Higgs searches in the H {yields}{tau}{tau} channel are shown: the modelling of the Z{yields}{tau}{tau} background, and the modelling of jet final states. The Z{yields}{tau}{tau} background is derived from data and validated in the H{yields}{tau}{tau}{yields}ll+4{nu} channel. The modelling of jet final states in simulations is in good agreement with the data, when low-energy pile-up effects are subtracted.

  13. Propagation Characterization and MIMO Channel-Modelling for 3G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Laurent; Berger, Lars Torsten; Ramiro-Moreno, Juan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of MIMO channel models, distinguishing between determinsistic and stochastic channel models.......This paper presents a survey of MIMO channel models, distinguishing between determinsistic and stochastic channel models....

  14. Flexible linings for drainage channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowhurst, A.D.

    1984-12-01

    Watercourses formed in fill areas present special problems. Since soils may not be fully compacted erosion may occur to a greater degree than would otherwise be the case. Rigid structures built under these conditions may well fail due to settlement or to scour from flows passing under the structure. Concrete may well also be more obtrusive in rural landscapes. An alternative exists in the form of thin layers of wire enclosed rip-rap which have several advantages when used for channel linings. This method gives both strength and economy coupled with a natural appearance.

  15. A sensitivity study for Higgs boson production in Vector Boson Fusion in the H {yields} {tau}{tau} {yields} lh+3{nu} final state with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeser, Nicolas

    2011-11-15

    For a hypothetical Higgs boson mass between 114.4 GeV and about 135 GeV the production by Vector Boson Fusion and the decay H {yields} {tau}{tau} {yields} lh + 3{nu} is one of the most promising discovery channels at the LHC. In this thesis, a study of the expected sensitivity of the ATLAS detector for this channel at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV is presented. For the first time, this study includes a full treatment of additional proton-proton interactions, so-called pile-up. The presence of pile-up significantly affects the signal selection efficiency and leads to a deterioration of the reconstructed Higgs boson mass, which is used as a discriminating observable. Two methods have been developed to estimate the dominant background processes from data. By replacing the muons in Z {yields} {mu}{mu} events with simulated {tau} lepton decays, Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events can be modelled with high precision. The non-resonant background, t anti t production and W+jets, is estimated by selecting events where lepton and hadronic {tau} decay have the same electric charge. Assuming a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 fb{sup -1}, an expected signal significance between 3.0 {sigma} and 4.4{sigma} is obtained for a Higgs boson mass between 115 GeV and 135 GeV. The expected significance decreases to 1.6-2.0{sigma} in the presence of pile-up. (orig.)

  16. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  17. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W Hondorp

    Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove

  18. Analysis of yield-attributing traits for high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Okami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of wheat cultivars that achieve high yields despite the short growing season is essential for increasing wheat production in southwestern Japan. The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic progress in grain yield and to clarify yield-attributing traits of high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan. We conducted field experiments for two growing seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 using three commercial wheat cultivars (Shiroganekomugi, Chikugoizumi, and Iwainodaichi and four high-yielding wheat lines including Hakei W1380 developed in southwestern Japan. In an ancillary field experiment, we compared a commercial cultivar, Shiroganekomugi, and a high-yielding line, Hakei W1380, in the 2014–2015 season. Across the two seasons, grain yield of high-yielding lines was generally higher than commercial cultivars. Hakei W1380 achieved the highest grain yield across the two seasons, and successfully produced more than 900 g m−2 in the 2013–2014 season. Correlation analysis showed that recent yield progress of wheat lines in southwestern Japan was derived from enhanced biomass production and grain number m−2. Larger numbers of grains m−2 in high-yielding lines than in commercial cultivars were associated with higher crop growth rate at the pre-anthesis stage, and therefore higher spike dry weight m−2 at anthesis. Genotypic differences in crop growth rate from jointing to anthesis resulted mainly from differences in leaf area index. These results indicate that further improvements in grain yield in southwestern Japan could be achieved by increasing the amount of radiation intercepted at the pre-anthesis stage and grain number m−2.

  19. Response of yield and yield components of Tef [ Eragrostis Tef (Zucc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen by P interaction effect was significant on plant height, straw and grain yield. Grain yield increased significantly from 708.6 to 1681.1 kg ha-1 with increase in the level of N and P from the control (0/0 N/P) to 46 kg N and 10 P kg ha-1. The magnitude of increase in grain yield due to application of 46 kg N along and 10 ...

  20. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  1. Yielding and post-yield behaviour of closed-cell cellular materials under multiaxial dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesenjak, Matej; Ren, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    The paper focuses on characterisation of yielding and post-yield behaviour of metals with closed-cell cellular structure when subjected to multiaxial dynamic loading, considering the influence of the relative density, base material, strain rate and pore gas pressure. Research was conducted by extensive parametric fully-coupled computational simulations using the finite element code LS-DYNA. Results have shown that the macroscopic yield stress of cellular material rises with increase of the relative density, while its dependence on the hydrostatic stress decreases. The yield limit also rises with increase of the strain rate, while the hydrostatic stress influence remains more or less the same at different strain-rates. The macroscopic yield limit of the cellular material is also strongly influenced by the choice of base material since the base materials with higher yield limit contribute also to higher macroscopic yield limit of the cellular material. By increasing the pore gas filler pressure the dependence on hydrostatic stress increases while at the same time the yield surface shifts along the hydrostatic axis in the negative direction. This means that yielding at compression is delayed due to influence of the initial pore pressure and occurs at higher compressive loading, while the opposite is true for tensile loading.

  2. Effect of Drought Stress on Yield and Yield Components of Determinate Soybean (Glycine max (L Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdipour

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought Stress on branch and main stem yield and yield components of determinate soybean [Glycin max L. Merr], was evaluated in factorial experiment on completely randomized design with four replications at the Greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty of Shahr-e- Kord UniverSity in 2005. The experimental factors were three determinate soybean cultivars (Hutcheson, Brim and Stonewall and three drought stress levels; control; irrigate at 50% (S1; and at 25% available water (S2. Drought stress did not decrease grain yield of the main stem but decreased it in the branches severely. The highest grain yield of main stem and its contribution to total grain yield were obtained to be6.53gr, and 65.23%, for S2 and 6.21gr, 44.23% for S1 and 5.98gr, 36.04% for control treatments respectively. The highest grain yield of the branches and their contribution to total grain yield in control, S1 and S2  were obtained to be 10.61gr, 63.95%; 7.83gr, 55.76%; and 3.48gr, 34.76% respectively. Number of grains per branch was highly correlated with their grain yield , total grain yield , branch length and branch number (p

  3. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on yields and yield components in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milošev, D.; Pekarić-Nadj, N.; Molnar, I.; Rončević, P.

    1999-01-01

    Just before sowing, the seed of winter wheat was subjected to a single exposure to the pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF) at different frequencies: 8, 15, 30 and 72 Hz. The duration of exposure was variable: 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Observations made during the growing season, analyses of yield and yield components and comparison with the untreated (control) revealed significant, mostly positive differences with regard to plant height, spike length and yield level. The highest yield was recorded in the treatment with 30 Hz for 30 minutes. The study findings indicate that different frequencies and exposure times of PEMF have different effects on plant growth development and hence, biochemical processes in plants

  4. Experimental assessment of bacterial storage yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö.; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    to the amount of oxygen associated with substrate storage. Model simulation was used to evaluate the procedure for different initial experimental conditions. The procedure was tested on acetate. The same storage yield value of 0.76 gCOD/gCOD was calculated for two experiments, starting with different F/M ratios......An experimental procedure was developed for the respirometric determination of bacterial storage yield as defined in the Activated Sludge Model No. 3. The proposed approach is based on the oxygen utilization rate (OUR) profile obtained from a batch test and correlates the area under the OUR curve...

  5. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However...

  6. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  7. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    2011-01-01

    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... while accommodating output growth and monetary policy expectations. Forecasted GDP growth plays a significant role in explaining time variation in the market prices of risk. The sensitivity of long yields is linked to the persistence of expected inflation under the risk-neutral measure. Models...

  8. Systematics of neutron-induced fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Brissot, R.

    1983-10-01

    The main characteristics of the mass and charge distributions for thermal neutron induced fission of actinides are reviewed. We show that these distributions can be reasonably reproduced with only 24 data as input. We use a representation where the element yields together with the most probable mass Ap(Z) play the dominant role. The ability of this model to calculate mass yields for the fission of not yet measured actinides is also shown. The influence of the excitation energy of the fissile system on charge and mass distribution is also discussed

  9. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A [Structure and Activity of Normal and Pathological Biomolecules-INSERM/UEVE U829, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf [3.Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aubert, Pascal [Nanometric Media Laboratory, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, ParisTech, BP 87, F-91000 Evry (France); Gaffet, Eric [Nanomaterials Research Group-UMR 5060, CNRS, UTBM, Site de Sevenans, F-90010 Belfort (France)], E-mail: jpb.cnrs@free.fr, E-mail: pcurmi@univ-evry.fr, E-mail: f.jelezko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-06-10

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  10. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  11. A 16 channel high resolution (<11 ps RMS) Time-to-Digital Converter in a Field Programmable Gate Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugur, C; Bayer, E; Kurz, N; Traxler, M

    2012-01-01

    A 16-channel Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) was implemented in a general purpose Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The fine time calculations are achieved by using the dedicated carry-chain lines. The coarse counter defines the coarse time stamp. In order to overcome the negative effects of temperature and power supply dependency bin-by-bin calibration is applied. The time interval measurements are done using 2 channels. The time resolution of channels are calculated for 1 clock cycle and a minimum of 10.3 ps RMS on two channels, yielding 7.3 ps RMS (10.3 ps/√2) on a single channel is achieved.

  12. A study of mini-channel thermal module design for achieving high stability and high capability in electronic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Li; Wu, Huang-Ching; Kong Wang, S.; Hung, Tzu-Chen; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of multiple-mini-channel thermal modules were investigated quantitatively. The flow channels, which were mounted on one side of a copper test section, were designed in three types: (1) the first module consists of fourteen straight and parallel channels with a rectangular cross section of 1 mm × 3 mm, (2) the second module consists of fourteen gradually widening channels with a U-shaped cross section starting from an inlet section of 0.5 mm × 3 mm and increasing to an outlet section of 1 mm × 3 mm, and (3) the third module is similar to the second module except for the rectangular cross section. Visual observations and the measured boiling curves show that, in the straight channels, some bubbles cannot be flushed out of the channels fast enough, so they tend to flow back and accumulate at the entrance. This results in a rather dry channel condition for CHF (critical heat flux) to occur for the cases with low flow rates. For the widening channel modules, no occurrence of CHF was observed under an even lower operating pressure in an attempt to induce the incipient of CHF. Under a similar temperature rise at the channel exit, the maximum heat removal rate of the widening channels reaches 27 W/cm 2 which is at least twice as high as that of the straight channels. -- Highlights: ► Three mini-channel modules were designed, and experiments were carried out on pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics. ► Comparisons were made between one regular straight-channel module and two widening-channel modules with rectangular and U-shaped cross sections. ► It was found that the widening channels yield a stable two-phase heat transfer mode with no occurrence of CHF due to a better movement of the bubbles and the absence of backflow which causes accumulation of bubbles commonly occur at the entrance of the straight-shaped parallel channels. ► The maximum heat removal rate of the widening channels reaches

  13. Pauli diagonal channels constant on axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathanson, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, St. Mary' s College of California, Moraga, CA 94575 (United States); Ruskai, Mary Beth [Department of Mathematics, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2007-07-13

    We define and study the properties of channels which are analogous to unital qubit channels in several ways. A full treatment can be given only when the dimension d = p{sup m} a prime power, in which case each of the d + 1 mutually unbiased bases (MUB) defines an axis. Along each axis the channel looks like a depolarizing channel, but the degree of depolarization depends on the axis. When d is not a prime power, some of our results still hold, particularly in the case of channels with one symmetry axis. We describe the convex structure of this class of channels and the subclass of entanglement breaking channels. We find new bound entangled states for d = 3. For these channels, we show that the multiplicativity conjecture for maximal output p-norm holds for p = 2. We also find channels with behaviour not exhibited by unital qubit channels, including two pairs of orthogonal bases with equal output entropy in the absence of symmetry. This provides new numerical evidence for the additivity of minimal output entropy.

  14. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  15. A Perspective on the MIMO Wiretap Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Oggier, Frederique

    2015-10-01

    A wiretap channel is a communication channel between a transmitter Alice and a legitimate receiver Bob, in the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. The goal of communication is to achieve reliability between Alice and Bob, but also confidentiality despite Eve’s presence. Wiretap channels are declined in all kinds of flavors, depending on the underlying channels used by the three players: discrete memoryless channels, additive Gaussian noise channels, or fading channels, to name a few. In this survey, we focus on the case where the three players use multiple-antenna channels with Gaussian noise to communicate. After summarizing known results for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) channels, both in terms of achievable reliable data rate (capacity) and code design, we introduce the MIMO wiretap channel. We then state the MIMO wiretap capacity, summarize the idea of the proof(s) behind this result, and comment on the insights given by the proofs on the physical meaning of the secrecy capacity. We finally discuss design criteria for MIMO wiretap codes.

  16. Quantum circuits for quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Raban; Colbeck, Roger; Christandl, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    We study the implementation of quantum channels with quantum computers while minimizing the experimental cost, measured in terms of the number of controlled-not (cnot) gates required (single-qubit gates are free). We consider three different models. In the first, the quantum circuit model (QCM), we consider sequences of single-qubit and cnot gates and allow qubits to be traced out at the end of the gate sequence. In the second (RandomQCM), we also allow external classical randomness. In the third (MeasuredQCM) we also allow measurements followed by operations that are classically controlled on the outcomes. We prove lower bounds on the number of cnot gates required and give near-optimal decompositions in almost all cases. Our main result is a MeasuredQCM circuit for any channel from m qubits to n qubits that uses at most one ancilla and has a low cnot count. We give explicit examples for small numbers of qubits that provide the lowest known cnot counts.

  17. Stable channel of reclaimed tidal lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, Achmad; Imanuddin, Momon S.; Moerwanto, Arie S.; Suryadi, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to develop models of the Operation and Maintenance in the reclaimed tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. The research location is reclaimed tidal delta area Telang I Primary 8 representing land typology A/B and a survey conducted in 13 South Secondary Schemes following existing tertiary Telang I. MIKE - 11 computer models used used to analyze the movement of sediment in the channel in both the Primary channel 8, SPD, SDU and tertiary channels in block 13 South. Calibration model with multiple channels in the field of physical parameters has been performed to obtain results close to the results of measurement modeling sediment movement in the channel. The integration models of MIKE - 11 models with various scenarios are used to model the operation and maintenance of the channel in the tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. According to the scheme P8 - 13S, OM models obtained 75 percent, in which the secondary channel (SPD/SDU) and built flap gate in tertiary channel, get a well prototype model of the stable channel (equilibriums), where the average erosion on P8 at a distance of 3,200 m in the amount of 4,472,049 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SPD of 963,836 m3 and mean of sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,508,213 m3. Similarly, on average erosion P8 by 4,135,649 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SDU of 681,304 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,454,345 m3.

  18. Using neutral network to infer the hydrodynamic yield of aspherical sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1993-07-01

    We distinguish two kinds of difficulties with yield determination from aspherical sources. The first kind, the spoofing difficulty, occurs when a fraction of the energy of the explosion is channeled in such a way that it is not detected by the CORRTEX cable. In this case, neither neural networks nor any expert system can be expected to accurately estimate the yield without detailed information about device emplacement within the canister. Numerical simulations however, can provide an upper bound on the undetected fraction of the explosive energy. In the second instance, the interpretation difficulty, the data appear abnormal when analyzed using similar-explosion-scaling and the assumption of a spherical front. The inferred yield varies with time and the confidence in the yield estimate decreases. It is this kind of problem we address in this paper and for which neural networks can make a contribution. We used a back propagation neural network to infer the hydrodynamic yield of simulated aspherical sources. We trained the network using a subset of simulations from 3 different aspherical sources, with 3 different yields, and 3 satellite offset separations. The trained network was able to predict the yield within 15% in all cases and to identify the correct type of aspherical source in most cases. The predictive capability of the network increased with a larger training set. The neural network approach can easily incorporate information from new calculations or experiments and is therefore flexible and easy to maintain. We describe the potential capabilities and limitations in using such networks for yield estimations

  19. Estuarine abandoned channel sedimentation rates record peak fluvial discharge magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Fluvial sediment deposits can provide useful records of integrated watershed expressions including flood event magnitudes. However, floodplain and estuarine sediment deposits evolve through the interaction of watershed/marine sediment supply and transport characteristics with the local depositional environment. Thus extraction of watershed scale signals depends upon accounting for local scale effects on sediment deposition rates and character. This study presents an examination of the balance of fluvial sediment dynamics and local scale hydro-geomorphic controls on alluviation of an abandoned channel in the Salinas River Lagoon, CA. A set of three sediment cores contained discrete flood deposits that corresponded to the largest flood events over the period of accretion from 1969 to 2007. Sedimentation rates scaled with peak flood discharge and event scale sediment flux, but were not influenced by longer scale hydro-meteorological activities such as annual precipitation and water yield. Furthermore, the particle size distributions of flood deposits showed no relationship to event magnitudes. Both the responsiveness of sedimentation and unresponsiveness of particle size distributions to hydro-sedimentological event magnitudes appear to be controlled by aspects of local geomorphology that influence the connectivity of the abandoned channel to the Salinas River mainstem. Well-developed upstream plug bar formation precluded the entrainment of coarser bedload into the abandoned channel, while Salinas River mouth conditions (open/closed) in conjunction with tidal and storm surge conditions may play a role in influencing the delivery of coarser suspended load fractions. Channel adjacent sediment deposition can be valuable records of hydro-meteorological and sedimentological regimes, but local depositional settings may dominate the character of short term (interdecadal) signatures.

  20. Frequency-comb-referenced multi-channel fiber laser for DWDM communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Hyun, Sangwon; Kim, Seungman; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin

    2013-12-02

    We propose an all-fiber-based multi-channel optical scheme that enables simultaneous generation of multiple continuous-wave laser wavelengths with stabilization to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser. The intention is to produce highly stable, accurate wavelength channels with immunity to environmental disturbance so as to enhance the transmission capacity of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) communications. Generated wavelengths lie over a wide spectral range of 5 THz about 1550 nm, each yielding a narrow linewidth of less than 24 kHz with an absolute position uncertainty of ~2.24 × 10¹² (10 s averaging) traceable directly to the atomic Rb clock.

  1. What controls sediment flux in dryland channels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, K.; Singer, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Theories for the development of longitudinal and grain size profiles in perennial fluvial systems are well developed, allowing for generalization of sediment flux and sorting in these fluvial systems over decadal to millennial time scales under different forcings (e.g., sediment supply, climate changes, etc). However, such theoretical frameworks are inadequate for understanding sediment flux in dryland channels subject to spatially and temporally discontinuous streamflow, where transport capacity is usually much lower than sediment supply. In such fluvial systems, channel beds are poorly sorted with weak vertical layering, poorly defined bar forms, minimal downstream fining, and straight longitudinal profiles. Previous work in dryland channels has documented sediment flux at higher rates than their humid counterparts once significant channel flow develops, pulsations in bed material transport under constant discharge, and oscillations in dryland channel width that govern longitudinal patterns in erosion and deposition. These factors point to less well appreciated controls on sediment flux in dryland valley floors that invite further study. This paper investigates the relative roles of hydrology, bed material grain size, and channel width on sediment flux rates in the Rambla de Nogalte in southeastern Spain. Topographic valley cross sections and hillslope and channel particle sizes were collected from an ephemeral-river reach. Longitudinal grain-size variation on the hillslopes and on the channel bed were analysed in order to determine the relationship between hillslope supply characteristics and channel grain-size distribution and longitudinal changes. Local fractional estimates of bed-material transport in the channel were calculated using a range of channel discharge scenarios in order to examine the effect of channel hydrology on sediment transport. Numerical modelling was conducted to investigate runoff connectivity from hillslopes to channel and to examine the

  2. 8 Sources of Pod Yield Losses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    International Arachis News Letter No. 26. Karkannvar J. C., Venugopal R. and Goud J. V.. (1991) Inheritance and linkages Studies in Cowpea. (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Indian J. Gen. 51: 203–207. Mills O. (2000). Survey of prevalent Weeds and. Management Practices on Yield of Groundnut in. Northern Ghana. (BSc.

  3. Improved light yield of lead tungstate scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, A N; Hofstäetter, A; Korzhik, M V; Ligun, V; Lecoq, P; Missevitch, O V; Novotny, R; Peigneux, J P

    2000-01-01

    The application at medium and low energies of lead tungstate scintillators, so far optimized for the ECAL calorimeter of CMS for the future LHC, is strongly limited by their poor light yield. Suitable dopants like molybdenum and terbium can help to overcome this problem. Concepts, results, advantages and drawbacks of this approach are discussed. (11 refs).

  4. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  5. Evaluation of nematode suppression and yield improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Objective: To investigate nematode suppression and yield improvement potential of two organic materials; poultry manure ... region of Ghana. The organic materials were applied on two sweet potato varieties; Apomuden and Santom ..... but a trend similar to what happened in 2014 occurred at. Atebubu.

  6. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  7. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, J.A. (Economic Botany Lab., Beltsville, MD); Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  8. Auger yield calculations for medical radioisotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Boon Q.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auger yields from the decays of 71Ge, 99mTc, 111In and 123–125I have been calculated using a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the ANU. In addition, progress to improve the input data of the model has been made with the Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method.

  9. Carcass Yield and Composition of Supplementing Hararghe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass of lamb fed treatment diets 67FSF aand 100FSF have better maintained pH value within the desirable range. Hence, it can be concluded that feeding FSF to Hararghe highland sheep as a supplement to natural pasture hay based diet with sufficient protein supplement improved carcass yield and pH as compared ...

  10. maize N uptake and grain yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen fertiliser was .... grain yield when manure was supplemented with. 60 kg N ha" mineral N ..... Master of. Philosophy thesis. Harare, Zimbabwe: University of Zimbabwe, 102 pp. Nleya, G.G. and Mugwira, L.M. 1993. Integrated plant nutrition in Zimbabwe. In Integrated.

  11. Azobenzene photoisomerization quantum yields in methanol redetermined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladányi, Vít; Dvořák, Pavel; Al Anshori, Jamaludin; Vetráková, Ľubica; Wirz, Jakob; Heger, Dominik

    2017-12-06

    The quantum yields of azobenzene photoisomerization in methanol solution were redetermined using newly obtained molar absorption coefficients of its cis- and trans-isomers. The results differ substantially from those published previously, especially in the range of the nπ* absorption band. Besides actinometry, these findings are relevant for applications of azobenzene derivatives in optical switching.

  12. Growth and yield of Giant Sequoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Dulitz

    1986-01-01

    Very little information exists concerning growth and yield of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz). For old-growth trees, diameter growth is the single factor adding increment since maximum height has been obtained. Diameter growth averages 0.04 inches per year in normal old-growth trees but will fluctuate with changes in the...

  13. ( Arachis hypogeae ) Yield Performance under different Weeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two–year field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria, during 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons to determine the effects of different weeding regimes on soil chemical properties and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogeae). The experiment was laid out ...

  14. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...

  15. Comparative morphophysiological and yield characteristics of musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that crop cycle did not significantly influenced height of the tallest sucker at harvest of the paint crop, black sigatoka disease responses and the fruit weight. All phonological and yield traits were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the environment evaluation. Similarly, genotype, genome groups and their ...

  16. Soybean Yield Determinants and Response to Rhizobial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Abstract. The response of two soybean varieties (Samsoy—2 and improved variety TGx 1448-2E) to Bradyrhizobium inoculation in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria was tested in a researcher-managed on-farm trial. There were variations in soybean yields between and within farmers' fields. Data obtained from 24.

  17. Disentangling agronomic and economic yield gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Michiel; Morley, Tomas; Jongeneel, Roel; Ittersum, van Martin; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in policy discussions on future agricultural production, both the concept of the yield gap and its determinants are understood differently by economists and agronomists. This study provides a micro-level framework that disentangles and integrates agronomic and economic

  18. Evaluation of Yield Maps Using Fuzzy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of yield maps using fuzzy indicators, which takes into account atypical phenomena and expert opinions regarding the maps. This methodology could allow for improved methods for deciding boundary locations for precision application of production...

  19. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  20. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  1. US U-25 channel performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, E.; Pan, Y. C.

    1980-07-01

    The results of an ANL computational analysis of the performance of the US U-25 MHD channel are presented. This channel has gone through several revisions. The major revision occurred after it had been decided by the DOE Office of MHD to operate the channel with platinum-clad copper electrodes (cold), rather than with ceramic electrodes (hot), as originally planned. This work has been performed at the request of the DOE Office of MHD and the US U-25 generator design Review Committee. The channel specifications and operating conditions are presented. The combustor temperature and thermodynamic and electrical properties of the plasma are computed, and the results are discussed. The MHD channel performance has been predicted for different operating conditions. Sensitivity studies have also been performed on the effects of mass flow rate, surface roughness, combustor temperatures, and loading on the channel performance.

  2. BK channel activators and their therapeutic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars C B

    2014-01-01

    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1, BK, MaxiK) is ubiquitously expressed in the body, and holds the ability to integrate changes in intracellular calcium and membrane potential. This makes the BK channel an important negative feedback system linking increases...... in intracellular calcium to outward hyperpolarizing potassium currents. Consequently, the channel has many important physiological roles including regulation of smooth muscle tone, neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Additionally, cardioprotective roles have been revealed in recent years. After...... a short introduction to the structure, function and regulation of BK channels, we review the small organic molecules activating BK channels and how these tool compounds have helped delineate the roles of BK channels in health and disease....

  3. Analytical Prediction Of Meandering Channel Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Duan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of meandering channels, as a complex phenomenon, has been the research subject challenging river engineers for decades. The evolution of meandering channels is a complex morph-dynamic process resulted from the interaction among flow, sediment, and bank material. The rate of bank erosion was conventionally assumed to be proportional to the magnitude of near-bank excessive velocity or shear stress. A number of laboratory experiments on mild curved channels of flat beds indicated that the high velocity zone crosses the channel centerline at the neighborhood of the downstream inflection point instead of immediately downstream of the apex. If bank erosion only occurs at the places of high shear stress, the erosion of convex banks should be observed in these laboratory flumes, and the bends tend to subside. However, numerous experiments proved that a moderately or highly sinuous channel was initiated from a straight or mildly curved channel of no transverse slope by eroding the concave banks. Obviously

  4. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monique N; Coetzee, William A

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Dip-coating of yield stress fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, M.; Bleyer, J.; Andrieux, A. L.; Boujlel, J.; Coussot, P.

    2016-05-01

    We review and discuss the characteristics of dip-coating of yield stress fluids on the basis of theoretical considerations, numerical simulations of the flow in the bath, and experimental data with different materials. We show that in general, due to the yield stress, viscous dissipations are sufficiently large for capillary effects to be negligible in the process. Dip-coating with yield stress fluids is thus essentially governed by an equilibrium between viscous and gravity effects. In contrast with simple liquids, the coated thickness is uniform and remains fixed to the plate. At low velocities, it appears to tend to a value significantly smaller than the Derjaguin and Levi prediction [B. V. Derjaguin and S. M. Levi, Film Coating Theory (The Focal Press, London, 1964)], i.e., critical thickness of stoppage of a free surface flow along a vertical plate. We show that this comes from the fact that in the bath only a relatively small layer of fluid is in its liquid regime along the moving plate, while the rest of the material is in a solid regime. From numerical simulations, we describe the general trends of this liquid layer, and in particular, its thickness as a function of the rheological characteristics and plate velocity. We finally propose a model for the dip-coating of yield stress fluid, assuming that the solid volume of fluid finally fixed to the plate results from the mass flux of the liquid layer in the bath minus a mass flux due to some downward flow under gravity in the transition zone. A good agreement between this model and experimental data is found for a fluid with a yield stress larger than 20 Pa.

  6. Diesel yield improvement and FCC energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Heat recovery modifications affect FCC LCO yields both directly and indirectly. Direct changes improve LCO recovery by improved fractionation of LCO from both slurry and naphtha. Indirect changes increase LCO yields by increasing FCC reactor feed temperature. Improved diesel yields by direct changes (or higher recovery of the existing diesel) impose changes in internal liquid rates and column temperature profiles. Mechanical and reliability limits must be respected to maintain unit reliability. High diesel recovery from slurry oil increase the slurry oil temperatures. Reliable operation requires keeping the slurry oil operating temperature below roughly 382 deg C (720 deg F). Higher slurry temperatures create a high probability of coke formation in the main fractionators. Close attention to mechanical details is required for reliable operation at 382 deg C (720 deg F). High diesel recovery from naphtha product reduces tower top temperatures. This reduces the available driving force for heat integration. Reduced top temperatures also create the potential for chloride-related and water related corrosion problems. Proper design of equipment can circumvent both these problems. Improved diesel yields by indirect changes creates more shifts heat to feed preheat. This reduces the available heat to other services. The changing yield structure also modifies the required internal liquid rates inside the main fractionators. Again, careful attention to design for heat recovery at low temperature differences is required to maintain the duty to the FCC gas plant. A series of modifications to improve control, increase heat recovery at low temperatures, and circumvent some of the more serious maintenance problems is required. (author)

  7. Influence of Inter and Intra-rows Spacing on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abyssinia

    Tomato is an important cash crop in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia and currently plant spacing practiced by growers ... Inter and intra row spacing is important agricultural factor and has great effect on fruit yield and yield components of .... from the exposure of fruits directly to sunlight at wider spacing. As opposed to this result ...

  8. Seed yield and some yield components of sesame as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of different irrigation, N and superabsorbent levels on yield and yield components of sesame, a field experiment was conducted in Khosf Region, Birjand, Iran in 2009 as a split-split plot design based on a randomized complete block design. The treatments included irrigation interval at three levels ...

  9. The Effect of Iron Fertilization on Nodulation, Yield and Yield Traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Iron Fertilization on Nodulation, Yield and. Yield Traits of Soybean Genotypes with Different. Maturity Groups as Affected by Brady. Rhizobium Inoculations. Anteneh Argaw and Ayele Akuma. School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences,. College of Agriculture and Environmental ...

  10. The Effect of iron fertilization on nodulation, yield and yield traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the major constraint for soybean cultivation in calcareous soils. Its availability affects symbiotic association of the host plant and the endosymbiont and eventually the yield of soybean. However, the effectiveness of integrated application of Bradyrhizobium and Fe fertilizer on nodulation and yield of ...

  11. G×E interaction effects on yield and yield components of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environments. Cultivar 4(2)1425 (moderately yielding) was the most stable and specifically adapted to Zaria. ABBEY-IFE, ATU-IWO and 2ND-AGRIC though moderately yielding were highly tolerant to CMD, suggesting a rich resource within the ...

  12. Effect of different irrigation water level on cotton yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different water level on yield and yield components of the drip irrigated cotton were evaluated in Amik Plain in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Four levels of irrigation water were tested in 2003 and 2004. Treatments were 25 (I25), 50 (I50), 75% (I75) of the full irrigation treatment (I100) which received ...

  13. Effects of sowing dates on grain yield and yield attributes of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of a suitable sowing date has often been identified as the main constraint to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) cv. ICSV111 (Kapaala) production in Ghana. Field experiments were, therefore, used on-station at the Manga Agricultural Research Station to evaluate the effects of five sowing dates on yield and yield ...

  14. Influence of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted in two villages (Oniyo and Moloko Ashipa) representing two agro ecologies in the south west area of Nigeria during 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons. The objective was to determine the effects of NPK fertilizer and poultry manure on the yield and yield components in ...

  15. Correlation and path-cofficient analysis of seed yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine the association among yield components and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield of confectionery sunflower. 36 confectionery sunflower populations originated from different regions of Northwest Iran were characterized using 11 agromorphological traits ...

  16. Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant grain yield increase to applied municipal sewage sludge was obtained. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the different doses municipal sewage sludge application on the heavy metal concentrations, yield and quality of dry bean in the 2006 and 2007 years. The trial was conducted in ...

  17. Study of yield and yield components of corn ( Zea mays L.) inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of seven corn inbred lines, a field trial was conducted under non-stress and different drought stress conditions (stress at vegetative (6 to 7 leaves), pollination and grain filling stages) at the Agricultural College of Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar ...

  18. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Field Pea to Tillage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated a highly significant positive response of mean field pea seed yield, total biomass and number of pods per plant to tillage frequency, phosphorus fertilizer and weeding treatments. Plowing twice, three and four times including the last pass for seed covering resulted in mean seed yield advantages of 38, ...

  19. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on yield, yield components and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, regarding the interaction effects between irrigation intervals and nitrogen fertilizer, it could be concluded that irrigation of eggplants every 6 days and application of 120 kg N ha-1 resulted in the highest yield and yield attributes. In addition, results of interaction effects comparison indicated that WUE varied from ...

  20. Effect of NPK fertilizer on fruit yield and yield components of pumpkin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out for the purpose of evaluating the influence of NPK fertilizer on fruit yield and fruit yield parameters of pumpkin. The experiment was carried out under open field conditions in 2010 for two seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The farm is located ...

  1. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  2. Effect of Salinity and Silicon on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Purslane Portulaca oleracea L.(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects on salinity and silicon application on yield and yield components of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized desgin with three replications and two factors consisted of four different levels of salinity using NaCl (0, 7, 14, 21dS/m and two levels of silicon (application of one mMol sodium silicate and not application. Increasing salinity concentration significantly caused a negative effect on seed yield. But yield components such as number and weight of seed were more sensitive than number of capsul in main stem in final seed yield. Application of silicon increased seed yield in control but was not significant in salinity levels and leaves and stem biomass. Seed yield and total seed weight in branches was significantly decresed. Weight of 1000 seed in main stem and branches was not significantly different in salinity levels. As a result, purslane could be extremely tolerated to saline conditions, so it seems that it can be cultivated in saline soils and arid regions. Also applied silicon can be increase yield and plant tolerance to environmental stress. Keywords: 1000 seed, Branches, Capsul, Dry weight

  3. Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... seed number per plant in municipal sewage sludge treatments had increasing effects on grain yield. Whereas grain yield, which was the highest component was obtained from 60 000 kg ha-1 municipal sewage sludge with 1766.3 kg .... Pb plant grain. Analysis of variance was used to compare treatment.

  4. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  5. Monetary Policy and the Redistribution Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Auclert

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of redistribution in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy to consumption. Using consumer theory, I show that redistribution has aggregate effects whenever marginal propensities to consume (MPCs) covary, across households, with balance-sheet exposures to aggregate shocks. Unexpected inflation gives rise to a Fisher channel and real interest rate shocks to an interest rate exposure channel; both channels are likely to contribute to the expansionary effects...

  6. Quantum privacy and Schur product channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W.; Pereira, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the quantum privacy properties of an important class of quantum channels, by making use of a connection with Schur product matrix operations and associated correlation matrix structures. For channels implemented by mutually commuting unitaries, which cannot privatise qubits encoded directly into subspaces, we nevertheless identify private algebras and subsystems that can be privatised by the channels. We also obtain further results by combining our analysis with tools from the theory of quasi-orthogonal operator algebras and graph theory.

  7. Stability analysis for downflow in heated channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, P.A.B. de.

    1985-01-01

    Stability and flow distribution are analysed for downflow in heated channels. It is shown that at low flow rates instabilities associated with the buoyancy forces may appear. A computer code in FORTRAN language to determine downflow distribution among n heated channels is presented. The model used to calculate downflow distribution and the onset of instability is compared with experiments performed in a test section with two parallel channels. (Author) [pt

  8. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bingnan; Long, Jiang; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The indu...

  9. Universal communication part II: channels with memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lomnitz, Yuval; Feder, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Consider communication over a channel whose probabilistic model is completely unknown vector-wise and is not assumed to be stationary. Communication over such channels is challenging because knowing the past does not indicate anything about the future. The existence of reliable feedback and common randomness is assumed. In a previous paper it was shown that the Shannon capacity cannot be attained, in general, if the channel is not known. An alternative notion of "capacity" was defined, as the...

  10. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  11. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...

  12. Mobility of Yield-Stress Fluids on Lubricant-Impregnated Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Leonid; Solomon, Brian; Varanasi, Kripa; Varanasi Research Group Team

    2017-11-01

    Assuring the flow of yield-stress fluids is an essential problem for various industries such as consumer products, health care, and energy. Elimination of wall-induced pinning forces can potentially save power and cleaning costs as well as enable the flow of yield-stress fluids in channels previously considered too narrow. Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces (LIS) have been demonstrated to change the dynamic behavior of yield-stress fluids and enable them to move as bulk without shearing at all. However, despite the wide applicability of this technology and its general appeal, the fundamental principles governing the performance of yield stress fluids on LIS have not yet been fully explained. In this work, we explore the mobility of yield stress fluids on a wide range of LIS, and explain the connection between macroscale behavior and the microscale properties of the LIS. Specifically, we show a striking difference in mobility between an LIS that contains a lubricant which fully spreads on the rough micro-features of the surface, and an LIS that contains a lubricant which only imbibes these features but does spread over them

  13. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  14. Varietal performance and correlation of okra pod yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Dattijo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field irrigation experiments were conducted to assess the varietal performance and correlation of pod yield and yield attributes under irrigation at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, during the 2015 and 2016 dry seasons. The results revealed that the most outstanding for fresh pod yield per plant were okra cultivar Kwadag Y’ar gagure Salkade, and Kwadam, in descending order, with yield ranging from 580.38 to 622.67 g, while the Composite cultivar had the lowest value of pod yield of 428.62 g over the two years. The greatest average values for the number of pods per plant and the number of primary branches per plant were observed for Salkade and Y’ar gagure, respectively. Highest fresh pod length and fresh pod diameter were also exhibited for Salkade and Kwadag. The genotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the phenotypic variation for the entire yield-contributing characters. Days to 50% flowering were positive and highly significant differences associated with plant height, number of pods per plant, and fresh weight per pod could be observed. Path coefficient analysis showed that the number of pods per plant exhibited positive and direct influence on the pod yield across the studied years. Indirect influence of other yield components through this character also contributed mainly towards pod yield. Therefore, days to 50% flowering, plant height, pod length, number of pods per plant, pod diameter, number of primary branches per plant, and fresh weight per pod could be taken into consideration for the selection and development of high pod-yielding varieties in okra.

  15. Channel Restoration Design for Meandering Rivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip

    2001-01-01

    A framework for channel restoration design is presented that attempts to bridge the divide between reconnaissance level geomorphological designs at one extreme and numerical modeling of hydrodynamics...

  16. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  17. Flow and sediment transport across oblique channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Erik Østergaard; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A 3D numerical investigation of flow across channels aligned obliquely to the main flow direction has been conducted. The applied numerical model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the k-ε model for turbulence closure on a curvilinear grid. Three momentum equations...... are solved, but the computational domain is 2D due to a uniformity along the channel alignment. Two important flow features arise when the flow crosses the channel: (i) the flow will be refracted in the direction of the channel alignment. This may be described by a depth-averaged model. (ii) due to shear...

  18. Calcium channel blockers and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Kevin R

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between calcium channel blockers and prostate cancer has been an area of increased interest to investigators. Calcium channel blockers have been shown to influence cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clinically, the association between calcium channel blockers and the development of prostate cancer has been controversial. However, on a basic science level, there is evidence that calcium channel blockers induce cytotoxicity in androgen receptor positive cell lines and may offer an innovative strategy for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2018-03-01

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  20. The Origins of Transmembrane Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though membrane proteins that mediate transport of ions and small molecules across cell walls are among the largest and least understood biopolymers in contemporary cells, it is still possible to shed light on their origins and early evolution. The central observation is that transmembrane portions of most ion channels are simply bundles of -helices. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and natural channels, mostly of non-genomic origin, we show that the emergence of -helical channels was protobiologically plausible, and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. Specifically, we explain how the antiamoebin channels, which are made of identical helices, 16 amino acids in length, achieve efficiency comparable to that of highly evolved channels. We further show that antiamoebin channels are extremely flexible, compared to modern, genetically coded channels. On the basis of our results, we propose that channels evolved further towards high structural complexity because they needed to acquire stable rigid structures and mechanisms for precise regulation rather than improve efficiency. In general, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  1. Customer Engagement Tool (Multi Channel Communication)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Add new infrastructure within SSA's Enterprise Architecture to allow interactions over multiple, yet to be defined, channels. Possibilities include: Provide a portal...

  2. Fuel channel closure and adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanical closure/actuating ram combination particularly suited for use in sealing the ends of the pressure tubes when a CANDU-type reactor is refueled. It provides a cluster that may be inserted into a fuel channel end fitting to provide at least partial closing off of a pressure tube while permitting the disengagement of the fueling machine and its withdrawal from the closure for other purposes. The invention also provides a ram/closure combination wherein the application of loading force to a deformable sealing disk is regulated by a massive load bar component forming part of the fueling machine and being therefore accessible for maintenance or replacement

  3. Channeling and related crystal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoj, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Channeling, the interaction of particles with oriented crystals, has been applied in a wide variety of scientific and technological areas. A workshop at Aarhus, Denmark, this summer highlighted progress and future directions. Radiation emission has been explored and linked to coherent bremsstrahlung and other oriented crystal radiations. Dramatic effects have been found for ultra-relativistic electrons with Lorentz factors of 105 6. Single crystals are unique for investigations of quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields because probabilities for processes in axial/ planar fields are determined by the magnitude of these fields in the particle rest frame. Erik Uggerhoj of Aarhus reported on an extensive series of experiments concerning radiation emission, pair production, and shower formation carried out at CERN by the NA43 collaboration. As Vladimir Baier of Novosibirsk and Yuri Kononets of Kurchatov noted, theoretical treatment of these interconnected radiation distributions is challenging and much work needs to be done. In general, the agreement with the CERN experiments is good, but many areas like polarization phenomena and particle production need investigation. Prominent among high energy applications is extraction from accelerators. At the workshop, Alexei Asseev reported on beam extraction using a bent crystal at Serpukhov. Konrad Elsener and Jukka Klem reviewed recent CERN SPS studies driven by the possibility of using crystals for extraction of LHC beams. Thornton Murphy of Fermilab announced a step in that direction, with a demonstration this summer of extraction from the Tevatron at 900 GeV. Bent crystal channeling is also used for handling extracted high energy beams. Niels Doble presented a beautiful example of a beam for the CERN NA48 CP-violation experiment. Yuri Chesnokov reported that beams had been deflected through angles up to 150 milliradians at Serpukhov

  4. EPICS channel access using websocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Furukawa, K.; Higurashi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Web technology is useful as a means of widely disseminating accelerator and beam status information. For this purpose, WebOPI was implemented by SNS as a web-based system using Ajax (asynchronous JavaScript and XML) with EPICS. On the other hand, it is often necessary to control the accelerator from different locations as well as the central control room during beam operation and maintenance. However, it is not realistic to replace the GUI-based operator interface (OPI) with a Web-based system using Ajax technology because of interactive performance issue. Therefore, as a next generation OPI over the web using EPICS Channel Access (CA), we developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for Web-based systems. WebSocket is a web technology that provides bidirectional, full-duplex communication channels over a single TCP connection. By utilizing Node.js and the WebSocket access library called Socket.IO, a WebSocket server was implemented. Node.js is a server-side JavaScript language built on the Google V8 JavaScript Engine. In order to construct the WebSocket server as an EPICS CA client, an add-on for Node.js was developed in C/C++ using the EPICS CA library, which is included in the EPICS base. As a result, for accelerator operation, Web-based client systems became available not only in the central control room but also with various types of equipment. (author)

  5. Stochastic algorithm for channel optimized vector quantization: application to robust narrow-band speech coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, M.; Benkherouf, H.; Benzadi, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic joint source-channel scheme developed for efficient and robust encoding of spectral speech LSF parameters. The encoding system, named LSF-SSCOVQ-RC, is an LSF encoding scheme based on a reduced complexity stochastic split vector quantizer optimized for noisy channel. For transmissions over noisy channel, we will show first that our LSF-SSCOVQ-RC encoder outperforms the conventional LSF encoder designed by the split vector quantizer. After that, we applied the LSF-SSCOVQ-RC encoder (with weighted distance) for the robust encoding of LSF parameters of the 2.4 Kbits/s MELP speech coder operating over a noisy/noiseless channel. The simulation results will show that the proposed LSF encoder, incorporated in the MELP, ensure better performances than the original MELP MSVQ of 25 bits/frame; especially when the transmission channel is highly disturbed. Indeed, we will show that the LSF-SSCOVQ-RC yields significant improvement to the LSFs encoding performances by ensuring reliable transmissions over noisy channel.

  6. Oligosaccharide composition of the neurotoxin responsive Na+ channel and the requirement of sialic acid for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, M.; Shaw, G.W.; Glick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The neurotoxin responsive Na + channel was purified to homogeneity in an 18% yield from a clonal cell line of mouse neuroblastoma, N-18, metabolically labeled with L-[ 3 H]fucose. The Na + channel, a glycoprotein, M/sub r/=200,000 (gradient 7-14% PAGE) was digested with Pronase and the glycopeptides were characterized by serial lectin affinity chromatography. greater than 90% of the oligosaccharides contained sialic acid and 18% were biantennary, 39% were triantennary and 30% tetraantennary. The glycoprotein was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles and 86 Rb flux was stimulated (65%) by 200 μM veratridine and 1.2 μg of scorpion venom and was inhibited (95%) by 5 μM tetrodotoxin. The requirement of sialic acid for Na + channel activity was demonstrated since neuraminidase (0.01 U) treatment of the reconstituted glycoprotein eliminated the response of 86 Rb flux to the stimulating neurotoxins. In other experiments, treatment of N-18 cells with 10 μM swainsonine, an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing, altered the oligosaccharide composition of the Na + channel. When the abnormally glycosylated Na + channel was reconstituted into artificial phospholipid vesicles, 86 Rb flux in response to neurotoxins was impaired. Thus, glycosylation of the polypeptide with oligosaccharides of specific composition and structure is essential for expression of the biological activity of the neurotoxin responsive Na + channel

  7. Venom-derived peptides inhibiting Kir channels: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Craig A

    2017-12-01

    Inwardly rectifying K + (Kir) channels play a significant role in vertebrate and invertebrate biology by regulating the movement of K + ions involved in membrane transport and excitability. Yet unlike other ion channels including their ancestral K + -selective homologs, there are very few venom toxins known to target and inhibit Kir channels with the potency and selectivity found for the Ca 2+ -activated and voltage-gated K + channel families. It is unclear whether this is simply due to a lack of discovery, or instead a consequence of the evolutionary processes that drive the development of venom components towards their targets based on a collective efficacy to 1) elicit pain for defensive purposes, 2) promote paralysis for prey capture, or 3) facilitate delivery of venom components into the circulation. The past two decades of venom screening has yielded three venom peptides with inhibitory activity towards mammalian Kir channels, including the discovery of tertiapin, a high-affinity pore blocker from the venom of the European honey bee Apis mellifera. Venomics and structure-based computational approaches represent exciting new frontiers for venom peptide development, where re-engineering peptide 'scaffolds' such as tertiapin may aid in the quest to expand the palette of potent and selective Kir channel blockers for future research and potentially new therapeutics. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An information-guided channel-hopping scheme for block-fading channels with estimation errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2010-12-01

    Information-guided channel-hopping technique employing multiple transmit antennas was previously proposed for supporting high data rate transmission over fading channels. This scheme achieves higher data rates than some mature schemes, such as the well-known cyclic transmit antenna selection and space-time block coding, by exploiting the independence character of multiple channels, which effectively results in having an additional information transmitting channel. Moreover, maximum likelihood decoding may be performed by simply decoupling the signals conveyed by the different mapping methods. In this paper, we investigate the achievable spectral efficiency of this scheme in the case of having channel estimation errors, with optimum pilot overhead for minimum meansquare error channel estimation, when transmitting over blockfading channels. Our numerical results further substantiate the robustness of the presented scheme, even with imperfect channel state information. ©2010 IEEE.

  9. Differential Effects of TRPA and TRPV Channels on Behaviors of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Thies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans , the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels. In contrast, chemosensation responses, assessed by both avoidance reversal behavior and NaCl osmosensation, were dependent on TRPV channels but seemed independent of TRPA-1 channel. Our findings suggest that, in addition to TRPA-1 channel, TRPV channels are necessary for thermotaxis and may activate, or modulate, the function of TRPA-1 channels. In contrast, TRPA-1 channels do not have a dual responsibility, as they have no functional role in odorant avoidance or osmosensation.

  10. Statistical modelling and deconvolution of yield meter data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of mapping spatial variation of yield in a field using data from a yield monitoring system on a combine harvester. The unobserved yield is assumed to be a Gaussian random field and the yield monitoring system data is modelled as a convolution of the yield and an i......This paper considers the problem of mapping spatial variation of yield in a field using data from a yield monitoring system on a combine harvester. The unobserved yield is assumed to be a Gaussian random field and the yield monitoring system data is modelled as a convolution of the yield...... and an impulse response function. This results in an unusual spatial covariance structure (depending on the driving pattern of the combine harverster) for the yield monitoring system data. Parameters of the impulse response function and the spatial covariance function of the yield are estimated using maximum...

  11. correlation studies and path coefficient analysis for seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    4.00 ... Yield being a quantitative trait has complex inheritance, which is subjected to environmental fluctuations ... Analysis for seed yield and yield components in Ethiopian coriander. 53 longest basal leaf, plant height at full maturity,.

  12. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding.

  13. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  14. Determination of light yield from weak scintillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandzhukov, I.G.; Mandzhukova, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of amplitude distribution of weak scintillation pulses by Puasson distribution is suggestd, if average number of photoelectrons collected on the first dinode of the photomultiplier is of the order of 1. The method permits to determine scintillation yield even in those cases, when the photomultiplier does not have a maximum in monoelectron pulse distribution. Scintillation yields of some aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate and aromatic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylol) at inner α-particle irradiation are determined. It is observed from the given results that efficiency of 239 Pu α-particle detection for aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate with 10% concentration is rather high; it makes up 0.94. They may appear useful for applied problems, paticularly, for measuring α-radiation

  15. Quantifying Soiling Loss Directly From PV Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Micheli, Leonardo; Muller, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Soiling of photovoltaic (PV) panels is typically quantified through the use of specialized sensors. Here, we describe and validate a method for estimating soiling loss experienced by PV systems directly from system yield without the need for precipitation data. The method, termed the stochastic rate and recovery (SRR) method, automatically detects soiling intervals in a dataset, then stochastically generates a sample of possible soiling profiles based on the observed characteristics of each interval. In this paper, we describe the method, validate it against soiling station measurements, and compare it with other PV-yield-based soiling estimation methods. The broader application of the SRR method will enable the fleet scale assessment of soiling loss to facilitate mitigation planning and risk assessment.

  16. XPM-induced degradation of multilevel phase modulated channel caused by neighboring NRZ modulated channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Schiellerup, G.; Peucheret, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty.......The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty....

  17. Using Canopy Reflectance and Crop Stress Index to Enhance Wheat Yield Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, S.; Zare, H.; Paymard, P.; Lashkari, A.; Salehnia, N.; Bannayan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Canopy reflectance can be useful indicator of crop health status. Canopy stress index (CSI) is usually expressed as canopy temperature minus air temperature, and this value is higher and a positive number in a well irrigated wheat field. Three main environmental variables constructing CSI are: plant canopy temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) and atmospheric vapor pressure deficiency (VPD). CSI is effected by biological and environmental factors such as soil water status, wind speed, evapotranspiration, conduction systems, plant metabolism, air temperature, relative humidity, etc. which all influence on final yield. This paper aims to investigate the relation of CSI calculated by Landsat images and wheat yield. So, eighteen wheat fields were selected for two years (2009 and 2010) and 5 Landsat images (TM and ETM+) from April to Jun were used to monitor field status in each year. Tc was calculated by applying single-channel method and VPD was computed from Tc, air temperature and humidity. Each single Landsat bands and CSI were defined as the descriptor variables. Relation between wheat yield and the descriptors was assessed by means of linear correlation. The results of stepwise correlation depicted that band 1 (blue) and 3 (red) had the most correlations to yield until grain filling stage. This reflects the importance of photosynthesis rate which absorb blue and red wavelength during mentioned period. This two bands also could capture yield changes (r2=0.77). However, during grain filling period CSI was the only descriptor determining yield volatility (r2=0.85). Low temperature is one of the key factors which increase remobilization of carbohydrate to grain. Therefore, grain yield in the canopy which has less temperature in compared to air temperature would be higher than others.

  18. Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Diego Sánchez de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

  19. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  20. practices on yield stability of cowpeas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crosses. Crop Science 22:1099—1 101. Fakorede, M.A.B. 1986. Selection of sites for preliminary maize yield trials in the rainforest zone of South-wéstem Nigefla. Euphytica 35: 441-447. Fakoredc, M.A.B.; Akingbohungbe, A.E. and. Ogunbodede,B.A. 1983.Useofplanting dates in the preliminary evaluaüon of new cowpea.

  1. Science yield estimation for AFTA coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mennesson, Bertrand; Savransky, Dmitry; Shao, Michael; Serabyn, Eugene; Trauger, John

    2014-08-01

    We describe the algorithms and results of an estimation of the science yield for five candidate coronagraph designs for the WFIRST-AFTA space mission. The targets considered are of three types, known radial-velocity planets, expected but as yet undiscovered exoplanets, and debris disks, all around nearby stars. The results of the original estimation are given, as well as those from subsequently updated designs that take advantage of experience from the initial estimates.

  2. Overview of tritium fast-fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    Tritium production rates are very important to the development of fast reactors because tritium may be produced at a greater rate in fast reactors than in light water reactors. This report focuses on tritium production and does not evaluate the transport and eventual release of the tritium in a fast reactor system. However, if an order-of-magnitude increase in fast fission yields for tritium is confirmed, fission will become the dominant production source of tritium in fast reactors

  3. Colonoscopy: Evaluating indications and diagnostic yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shamali, Mohammed A.; Hasan, F.; Siddiqe, I.; Al-Nakeeb, B.; Kalaoui, M.; Khajah, A.

    2001-01-01

    Colonoscopic procedure is an accepted modality for the evaluation ofcolonic disease. Open-access versus restricted-access colonoscopy has beenargued over in the recent literature. The aim of this retrospective analysisis to identify the yield of the major indications for the procedure, and thepattern of colon pathology in our community. We retrospectively analyzed ourexperience in 3000 colonoscopies over a five-year period. The patientscomprised 1145 females (38%) and 1855 males (62%) and their ages ranged from9 months to 95 years (mean 39.2). There were 2283 patients (76%) who wereaged less than 55 years. Complete examination to the cecum was possible in2850 cases (95%). Pathological findings were identified in 640 patients(21%). The diagnostic yield of patients referred for lower abdominal pain andsurveillance was low, at 7% and 17%, respectively. The yield was high forthose with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), non-bloody diarrhea (35%),iron deficiency anemia (30%), mass lesions identified by radiology (53%) andpolyps identified by radiology (70%). Inflammatory bowel disease wasdiagnosed in 220 patients, carcinoma in 64 patients and colonic polyps in 139patients. Colonic diseases are not uncommon in our part of the world.Colonoscopy is a rewarding procedure in those patients referred with lowergastrointestinal bleeding, mass lesions, polyps and diarrhea. The procedureis less rewarding in patients with lower abdominal pain and in thoseundergoing surveillance colonoscopy. Patient selection on the basis of thepresenting complaint may help to utilize the limited resource available togastroenterologists. About 63% of the procedures were done for indicationsfound to have a low yield. Inflammatory bowel disease is seen with increasingfrequency in our population. (author)

  4. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  5. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  6. Erosion yields of deposited beryllium layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R.P.; Baldwin, M.J.; De Temmerman, G.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion yields of various Be surfaces exposed to deuterium plasma, including polycrystalline Be (PC-Be), magnetron and thermionic vacuum arc deposited surfaces, and in situ plasma-deposited Be layers on Be (DP-Be/Be) and on graphite (DP-Be/C) targets, are measured in the linear divertor plasma simulator PISCES-B. It is observed that the enhanced erosion (∼3 times higher than PC-Be) of DP-Be/Be occurs at sample temperature T s ∼ 310 K, while DP-Be/Be possesses the same yield as PC-Be at a higher T s ∼ 570 K. The erosion yield of DP-Be/C is found to be slightly decreased at T s ∼ 850 K. This is consistent with the more effective formation of Be 2 C at higher T s , which has a higher surface binding energy than Be. It has been identified from spectroscopic measurements that Be is also eroded as BeD.

  7. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-10-01

    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Khorasanian Sesame Ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most region of Khorasan, sesame ecotypes have been planted for many years, but there is little information about seed yield and yield components of them. Therefore a field experimental was conducted to investigation of yield parameters of 14 sesame ecotypes (MSC1, MSC2, MSC3, MSC4, MSC5, MSC6, MSC7, MSC8, MSC9, MSC10, MSC11, MSC12, MSC13 and MSC14 in randomized complete block design with three replications at experimental station, Collage of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2009. Results showed that there were significant difference (P

  9. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  10. Highlights for the 6th International Ion Channel Conference: ion channel structure, function, disease and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To foster communication and interactions amongst international scholars and scientists in the field of ion channel research, the 6th International Ion Channel Conference (IICC-2017 was held between June 23–27, 2017 in the eastern coastal city of Qingdao, China. The meeting consisted of 450 attendees and 130 speakers and poster presenters. The program consisted of research progress, new findings and ongoing studies that were focused on (1 Ion channel structure and function; (2 Ion channel physiology and human diseases; (3 Ion channels as targets for drug discovery; (4 Technological advances in ion channel research. An insightful overview was presented on the structure and function of the mechanotransduction channel Drosophila NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP channel family. Recent studies on Transmembrane protein 16 or Anoctamin-1 (TMEM16A, a member of the calcium-activated chloride channel [CaCC] family were summarized as well. In addition, topics for ion channel regulation, homeostatic feedback and brain disorders were thoroughly discussed. The presentations at the IICC-2017 offer new insights into our understanding of ion channel structures and functions, and ion channels as targets for drug discovery.

  11. Multi-reaction-channel fitting calculations in a coupled-channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gx; 13.75.Jz; 14.20.Gk; 25.80.-e. 1. Introduction. To describe channel coupling effects we adopt the K-matrix formalism. ... Also for some of the strangeness production channels the effect of including the ρ-channel clearly affects the .... The range multiplier for the values is given on top, the name of the parameter below. 220.

  12. Optimising the Quality of Experience during Channel Zapping : The Impact of Advertisements during Channel Zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Klos, V.B.; Godana, B.E.; Nicolai, F.P.; Ahmed, O.K.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays various digital television services are available. However, the user of these services experiences longer delays than the traditional analog TV while switching from channel to channel. The digital TV operator usually displays a black screen with the channel number during zapping. However,

  13. Point mutations in segment I-S6 render voltage-gated Na+ channels resistant to batrachotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Y; Wang, G K

    1998-03-03

    Batrachotoxin (BTX) is a steroidal alkaloid that causes Na+ channels to open persistently. This toxin has been used widely as a tool for studying Na+ channel gating processes and for estimating Na+ channel density. In this report we used point mutations to identify critical residues involved in BTX binding and to examine if such mutations affect channel gating. We show that a single asparagine --> lysine substitution of the rat muscle Na+ channel alpha-subunit, mu1-N434K, renders the channel completely insensitive to 5 microM BTX when expressed in mammalian cells. This mutant channel nonetheless displays normal current kinetics with minimal changes in gating properties. Another substitution, mu1-N434A, yields a partial BTX-sensitive mutant. Unlike wild-type currents, the BTX-modified mu1-N434A currents continue to undergo fast and slow inactivation as if the inactivation processes remain functional. This finding implies that the mu1-N434 residue upon binding with BTX is critical for subsequent changes on gating; alanine at the mu1-434 position apparently diminishes the efficacy of BTX on eliminating Na+ channel inactivation. Mutants of two adjacent residues, mu1-I433K and mu1-L437K, also were found to exhibit the identical BTX-resistant phenotype. We propose that the mu1-I433, mu1-N434, and mu1-L437 residues in transmembrane segment I-S6 probably form a part of the BTX receptor.

  14. Evolution of cleared channels in neutron-irradiated pure copper as a function of tensile strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.

    2004-01-01

    % of the macroscopic yield, at 1.5% and 5% elongation, and near the ultimate tensile strength at 14.5% elongation, with the 5th specimen tested to failure (e(T) = 22%). SEM and TEM characterization of the deformed specimens revealed that the plastic strain was confined primarily to the 'cleared' channels only......Tensile specimens of pure copper were neutron irradiated at similar to323 K to a displacement dose of 0.3 dpa (displacement per atom). Five irradiated specimens were tensile tested at 300 K, but four of the specimens were stopped at specific strains -just before the yield point at similar to90...

  15. Theoretical postulation of PLC channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Ionuţ Chiuţă

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to supply atheoretical basis for modelling the communicationlinks over powerlines. A comprehensive summary oftransmission properties and the noise scenario onpublic mains supply when used for data transmissionare given.Different PLC models - PLC channel, noise inPLC channel, coupling units, filters and conditioningdevices – will be created and they will be used tosimulate the PLC channel.PLC applications will have to work at veryunusual channels, solely designed for optimalelectrical power transportation, completelydisregarding signal transmission at high frequencies.It is shown that the typical properties aredescribed by transfer functions and noise scenariostypical for access and inhouse networks. The generaltransfer function for different channel types is derivedand, since an emulation system should reproducetypical classes of channels rather than singlemeasurements, the transfer function is concretisedwith reference channels. These are later serving asbasis for development of channel simulators andchannel emulators. Special attention is paid tomodelling of aperiodic impulsive noise since PLCsystems are reacting very sensitive to them and thisclass of noise has been insufficiently considered so far.

  16. Channel One Online: Advertising Not Educating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnik, Shelley

    Rather than viewing Channel One's World Wide Web site as an authentic news bureau, as the organization claims, it is better understood as an advertising delivery system. The web site is an attempt to expand Channel One's reach into schools, taking advantage of unsuspecting teachers and students who might fall prey to spurious claims. This paper…

  17. Energy detector performance in Rician fading channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Srđan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the problem of detection of unknown signals in the Rician fading channel. A closed-form expression for the probability of detection is derived, followed by the numerical results. The analysis was extended to the case of cooperative sensor network in which the environment can be modelled by independent Rician fading channels.

  18. The sedimentary record of submarine channel morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the ocean floor and are considered to be the equivalent of rivers on land. These channels are created by turbidity currents, which originate from the continental margins and which can transport sediment for thousands of kilometres into the oceans. The aim of this

  19. Polyps in continent catheterizable bladder channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Travis W; Mitchell, Michael E; Balcom, Anthony H

    2013-02-01

    We describe our experience with polyps encountered in bladder continent catheterizable channels. An IRB-approved retrospective study was conducted on all patients at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin with continent catheterizable channels managed by a single physician over a 16-year time period. Fifty-five patients were identified with bladder channels. During a median follow-up of 7 years (range 3-16 years), 20% (11/55) of bladder channels developed polyps. The time to diagnosis of a polyp in bladder channels from initial surgery ranged from 3 months to 8 years (median of 29 months). Fifty-five percent (6/11) of patients who developed bladder polyps were symptomatic. All patients' symptoms resolved after treatment by endoscopic resection. Forty-five percent (5/11) of polyps recurred after resection. The time of recurrence ranged from 4 months to 7 years (median of 19 months). Polyps were universally benign inflammatory granulomatous tissue. This is the first series reporting the incidence of polyps in bladder catheterizable channels. Patients with continent catheterizable bladder channels can develop symptomatic polyps in their channels, of unknown long-term significance and risk. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring vibrations in fuel channels CNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Ghiselli, A.; Fiori, J.; Sacchi, M.; Villabrille, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper present a description of implementation and execution of vibration measurements made at the request of NUCLEOELECTRICA ARGENTINA S.A. on the ends of the reactor fuel channels of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant to explore possible differences between the dynamic behavior of empty fuel channel and with full charge of fuel elements inside. (author)

  1. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  2. Steady turbulent flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    After the study of fully developed and developing steady laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectangular wet cross-section (see earlier reports in this series), steady turbulent flow in such channels is investigated as a next step towards a mathematical model of the flow in shallow river

  3. Developing laminar flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    As an intermediate step between earlier investigations on fully developed laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectancular wet cross-section and the mathematical modeling of turbulent flow in river bends, a mathematical model of developing laminar flow in such channels is investigated. The

  4. On the dynamics of the Zanzibar Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Garay, J.; Theiss, J.; Moulton, M.; Walsh, C.; van Woesik, R.; Mayorga-Adame, C. G.; García-Reyes, M.; Mukaka, D. S.; Whilden, K.; Shaghude, Y. W.

    2015-09-01

    The Zanzibar Channel lies between the mainland of Tanzania and Zanzibar Island in the tropical western Indian Ocean, is about 100 km long, 40 km wide, and 40 m deep, and is essential to local socioeconomic activities. This paper presents a model of the seasonal and tidal dynamics of the Zanzibar Channel based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and a comparison of the model and observations. The seasonal dynamics of the channel is forced by remote processes and the local wind. Remote forcing creates the East African Coastal Current, a portion of which flows through the channel northward with a seasonally varying magnitude. The local wind enhances this seasonality in the surface Ekman layer, resulting in a stronger northward flow during the southwest monsoon season and a weak northward or occasionally southward flow during the northeast monsoon season. The tidal flows converge and diverge in the center of the channel and reduce the transport in the channel. The remotely forced, wind-forced, and tidal dynamics contain 5%, 3%, and 92% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. Despite their low kinetic energy, the remotely forced and wind-forced flows are most relevant in advecting channel water to the open ocean, which occurs in 19 days at the peak of the southwest monsoon season. The channel is well mixed, except during brief periods in the two rainy seasons, and temporarily cools between December and February. The dispersion of passive tracers is presented as an example of potential model applications.

  5. Forbidden Channels and SIMP Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Choi Soo-Min; Kang Yoo-Jin; Lee Hyun Min

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we focus on dark matter production from thermal freeze-out with forbidden channels and SIMP processes. We show that forbidden channels can be dominant to produce dark matter depending on the dark photon and / or dark Higgs mass compared to SIMP.

  6. Laboratory Experiments on Meandering Meltwater Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R.; Berens, J.; Parker, G.; Stark, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Meandering channels of all scales and flowing over a wide variety of media have common planform patterns. Although the analogy in planform suggests there is a common underlying framework, the constitutive relations driving planform evolution through vertical incision/deposition and lateral migration differ from medium to medium. The driving processes in alluvial and mixed bedrock-alluvial meandering channels have been studied substantially over the last decades. However, this is not the case for meandering channels in other media such as ice or soluble rock. Here we present results from experiments conducted at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on meltwater meandering channels. A rivulet is carved into an ice block and water is allowed to flow at a constant discharge. Planform evolution is analyzed with time lapse imaging and complemented with rubber molds of the channel once the experiment is over. These molds give us the full 3D structure of the meandering, including incisional overhang. Vertical incision rates are measured throughout the run by taking elevations along the channel, and these measurements are complemented with analysis from the molds. We show examples of meandering of intense amplitude with deep overhangs. Features resembling scroll bars document cyclically punctuated melting. We report on lateral migration rates, incision rates, sinuosity, channel depths, channel widths, reach averaged velocities, bend wavelengths and amplitudes and compare them to values reported in the literature for alluvial rivers.

  7. Adaptive RAC codes employing statistical channel evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adaptive encoding technique using row and column array (RAC) codes employing a different number of parity columns that depends on the channel state is proposed in this paper. The trellises of the proposed adaptive codes and a statistical channel evaluation technique employing these trellises are designed and ...

  8. Mixed convection in a baffled grooved channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present numerical work, flow structure and heat transfer characteristics are investigated in a baffled grooved channel, differentially heated from the sides. The baffle is placed vertically downward from the top wall of grooved channel geometry, with the motive of diverting outside forced flow towards the inside of the ...

  9. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    -frequency adaptation, pharmacological modulation of SK channels may be of significant clinical importance. Here we report the functional expression of SK3 in HEK293 and demonstrate a broad pharmacological profile for these channels. Brain slice studies commonly employ 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to block voltage...

  10. Ion channel model development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2010-03-01

    The structure of the KcsA ion channel selectivity filter is used to develop three simple models of ion channel permeation. The quantitative predictions of the knock-on model are tested by comparison with experimental data from single-channel recordings of the KcsA channel. By comparison with experiment, students discover that the knock-on model can't explain saturation of ion channel current as the concentrations of the bathing solutions are increased. By inverting the energy diagram, students derive the association-dissociation model of ion channel permeation. This model predicts non-linear Michaelis-Menten saturating behavior that requires students to perform non-linear least-squares fits to the experimental data. This is done using Excel's solver feature. Students discover that this simple model does an excellent job of explaining the qualitative features of ion channel permeation but cannot account for changes in voltage sensitivity. The model is then extended to include an electrical dissociation distance. This rapid translocation model is then compared with experimental data from a wide variety of ion channels and students discover that this model also has its limitations. Support from NSF DUE 0836833 is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Hydraulics of free overfall in -shaped channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 15 October 2001; revised 13 February 2002. Abstract. In this paper, two methods are presented to analyse the free overfall in. -shaped (equilateral triangle-shaped) channels. First, the flow upstream of a free overfall from smooth horizontal or mildly sloping -shaped channels is analysed theoretically to ...

  12. Channel selection for automatic seizure detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the performance of epileptic seizure detection using only a few of the recorded EEG channels and the ability of software to select these channels compared with a neurophysiologist. Methods: Fifty-nine seizures and 1419 h of interictal EEG are used for training and testing...

  13. Functional architecture of the CFTR chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsdell, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of membrane transport proteins. CFTR is unique among ABC proteins in that it functions not as an active transporter but as an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel. As an ion channel, the function of the CFTR transmembrane channel pore that mediates Cl(-) movement has been studied in great detail. On the other hand, only low resolution structural data is available on the transmembrane parts of the protein. The structure of the channel pore has, however, been modeled on the known structure of active transporter ABC proteins. Currently, significant barriers exist to building a unified view of CFTR pore structure and function. Reconciling functional data on the channel with indirect structural data based on other proteins with very different transport functions and substrates has proven problematic. This review summarizes current structural and functional models of the CFTR Cl(-) channel pore, including a comprehensive review of previous electrophysiological investigations of channel structure and function. In addition, functional data on the three-dimensional arrangement of pore-lining helices, as well as contemporary hypotheses concerning conformational changes in the pore that occur during channel opening and closing, are discussed. Important similarities and differences between different models of the pore highlight current gaps in our knowledge of CFTR structure and function. In order to fill these gaps, structural and functional models of the membrane-spanning pore need to become better integrated.

  14. REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL MODELS | Anioke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...

  15. Voltage-gated lipid ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Andreas; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer

    2013-01-01

    probability as a function of voltage. The voltage-dependence of the lipid pores is found comparable to that of protein channels. Lifetime distributions of open and closed events indicate that the channel open distribution does not follow exponential statistics but rather power law behavior for long open times...

  16. REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...

  17. Privacy of a lossy bosonic memory channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggeri, Giovanna; Mancini, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    We study the security of the information transmission between two honest parties realized through a lossy bosonic memory channel when losses are captured by a dishonest party. We then show that entangled inputs can enhance the private information of such a channel, which however does never overcome that of unentangled inputs in absence of memory

  18. Radio Channel Modeling in Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to de- tect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation

  19. Radio channel modeling in body area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to detect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation in

  20. Micromachining of buried micro channels in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Meint J.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Burger, G.J.; Burger, G.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    A new method for the fabrication of micro structures for fluidic applications, such as channels, cavities, and connector holes in the bulk of silicon wafers, called buried channel technology (BCT), is presented in this paper. The micro structures are constructed by trench etching, coating of the