Sample records for split spread telluric

  1. Discussion on telluric field and seismic activity in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zlotnicki


    Full Text Available Two stations were installed in the Southeastern Thessaly basin (Central Greece, recording the geomagnetic and telluric fields from 1993 to 1996. The aim was to detect long-term abnormal changes of the telluric field, which were possibly related to imbedding earthquakes. Between January 1993 and October 1996, 213 and185 (Neraida and Mavrolofos stations respectively abnormal changes of the telluric field were observed in association with the seismic activity. The duration of these changes varied from several minutes to 24 days and the maximum amplitude was 3.8 mV/m. Data recording detected 625 and 917 seismic events for Neraida and Mavrolofos station respectively. The percentage of the earthquakes associated with the telluric anomalies is 27% and 16% respectively for each station. Both percentages are considered to be very low. Telluric activity was followed by a burst of seismic activity in areas spreading to different directions from the stations. A correlation of the characteristics of the telluric field with the earthquake magnitude was attempted, but no reliable relationship was obtained.

  2. Distribution of impurities during crystallization of tellurous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debska-Horecka, A.


    Crystallization has been used for purification of telluric acid and coprecipitation of Zn(2), Bi(3), Ni(2), Cr(3), Mg(2), Ca(2), Tl(1), Mn(2), Cu(2), Co(2), Cd(2) with telluric acid sediment has been investigated. The optimum conditions for obtaining the telluric acid of high purity have been established. (author)

  3. Telluric Imaginary and Images on Mariana Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Orellana


    Full Text Available The text holds on the analysis of the mythical aspects in the journalistic coverage of the destruction occurred on the night of November 5, 2015 in Bento Rodrigues district in the Brazilian city of Mariana, Minas Gerais. We dedicate our analysis to the visual aspects of human and environmental tragedy. The text contains five sections. Initially, we discuss the application of the myths which facilitate the approach of telluric mythemes in Brazil. Next, we deal with the symbolism of mud and poetic land. On continuation, we address matters of death and the destruction of life in Rio Doce. It can be observed as the imaginary mythical heroic becomes an important vector in which the journalistic discourse proposes their narratives and imaginary related to the feminine universe persist with pejorative notions; that are defined by mytheme mud and its imagery leads.

  4. Monitoring hydraulic stimulation using telluric sounding (United States)

    Rees, Nigel; Heinson, Graham; Conway, Dennis


    The telluric sounding (TS) method is introduced as a potential tool for monitoring hydraulic fracturing at depth. The advantage of this technique is that it requires only the measurement of electric fields, which are cheap and easy when compared with magnetotelluric measurements. Additionally, the transfer function between electric fields from two locations is essentially the identity matrix for a 1D Earth no matter what the vertical structure. Therefore, changes in the earth resulting from the introduction of conductive bodies underneath one of these sites can be associated with deviations away from the identity matrix, with static shift appearing as a galvanic multiplier at all periods. Singular value decomposition and eigenvalue analysis can reduce the complexity of the resulting telluric distortion matrix to simpler parameters that can be visualised in the form of Mohr circles. This technique would be useful in constraining the lateral extent of resistivity changes. We test the viability of utilising the TS method for monitoring on both a synthetic dataset and for a hydraulic stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system case study conducted in Paralana, South Australia. The synthetic data example shows small but consistent changes in the transfer functions associated with hydraulic stimulation, with grids of Mohr circles introduced as a useful diagnostic tool for visualising the extent of fluid movement. The Paralana electric field data were relatively noisy and affected by the dead band making the analysis of transfer functions difficult. However, changes in the order of 5% were observed from 5 s to longer periods. We conclude that deep monitoring using the TS method is marginal at depths in the order of 4 km and that in order to have meaningful interpretations, electric field data need to be of a high quality with low levels of site noise.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Bid Ask Spread Pada Masa Sebelum Dan Sesudah Stock Split Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2008-2013


    Pakpahan, Quitsyah Agnes


    Bid Ask Spread is the difference of ask-price and bid-price of shares on the capital market. Bid ask spread is a factor that can influence the investor decision whether hold or sell their shares and make profit from spread of ask price and bid price. This is indicates that the stock liquidity as reflected in the stock price, trading volume, stock return will affect bid ask spread. Bid ask spread will increase if the risk of stock is increase, such as the less liquidity of stock, the higher ri...

  6. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Hirt, Christian; Pitoňák, Martin


    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be defined with respect to the equipotential surface. Taking the analogy with terrestrial height systems, the realization of height systems for telluric planets and moons could be done by means of defining the orthometric and geoidal heights. In this case, however, the definition of the orthometric heights in principle differs. Whereas the terrestrial geoid is described as an equipotential surface that best approximates the mean sea level, such a definition for planets/moons is irrelevant in the absence of (liquid) global oceans. A more natural choice for planets and moons is to adopt the geoidal equipotential surface that closely approximates the geometric reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid). In this study, we address these aspects by proposing a more accurate approach for defining the orthometric heights for telluric planets and moons from available topographic and gravity models, while adopting the average crustal density in the absence of reliable crustal density models. In particular, we discuss a proper treatment of topographic masses in the context of gravimetric geoid determination. In numerical studies, we investigate differences between the geodetic and orthometric heights, represented by the geoidal heights, on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Moon. Our results reveal that these differences are significant. The geoidal heights on Mercury vary from - 132 to 166 m. On Venus, the geoidal heights are between - 51 and 137 m with maxima on this planet at Atla Regio and Beta

  7. Embryo splitting


    Karl Illmensee; Mike Levanduski


    Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board appr...

  8. Development of long-term numerical ephemerides of telluric planets to analytical series (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. M.


    We develop numerical ephemerides of telluric planets to compact analytical series valid over 3000BC-3000AD. The long-term planetary ephemerides DE406 are used as the source; a spectral analysis of tabulated values for the heliocentric mean longitude of every telluric planets is made. For that purpose we used our modification of the spectral analysis method which allows one to develop the tabulated values directly to Poisson series where both amplitudes and arguments of the series'terms are high-degree polynomials of time. As a result, the maximum difference between the mean longitudes of the telluric planets given by the numerical ephemerides DE406 and the new analytical series is less than 0.07 arcsec over the total time interval of 6000 years. The number of Poisson terms in every development is less than 950.

  9. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee


    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  10. Possible influence of telluric current on seismicity of the Earth's crust in seismoactive zones (United States)

    Trenkin, A. A.


    A physical model is proposed for the possible effect of telluric currents on macrofracturing in the Earth's crust and the triggering of earthquakes via the interaction of telluric currents with the geomagnetic field. For implementation of the considered processes, a an escalated regime due to positive feedback between the decrease in electrical conductivity of the developing earthquake source and the increases in current and pressure in this source was established. Estimates of characteristic earthquake-triggering time that agree with the experimental data were obtained. The model explains the interrelationship between some observed electromagnetic phenomena and earthquake development processes in seismoactive zones.

  11. Modelling telluric line spectra in the optical and infrared with an application to VLT/X-Shooter spectra (United States)

    Rudolf, N.; Günther, H. M.; Schneider, P. C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.


    Context. Earth's atmosphere imprints a large number of telluric absorption and emission lines on astronomical spectra, especially in the near infrared, that need to be removed before analysing the affected wavelength regions. Aims: These lines are typically removed by comparison to A- or B-type stars used as telluric standards that themselves have strong hydrogen lines, which complicates the removal of telluric lines. We have developed a method to circumvent that problem. Methods: For our IDL software package tellrem we used a recent approach to model telluric absorption features with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). The broad wavelength coverage of the X-Shooter at VLT allows us to expand their technique by determining the abundances of the most important telluric molecules H2O, O2, CO2, and CH4 from sufficiently isolated line groups. For individual observations we construct a telluric absorption model for most of the spectral range that is used to remove the telluric absorption from the object spectrum. Results: We remove telluric absorption from both continuum regions and emission lines without systematic residuals for most of the processable spectral range; however, our method increases the statistical errors. The errors of the corrected spectrum typically increase by 10% for S/N ~ 10 and by a factor of two for high-quality data (S/N ~ 100), I.e. the method is accurate on the percent level. Conclusions: Modelling telluric absorption can be an alternative to the observation of standard stars for removing telluric contamination. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 085.C-0764(A) and 60.A-9022(C).The tellrem package is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  12. Earth electricity: a review of mechanisms which cause telluric currents in the lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Helman


    Full Text Available Telluric currents are natural electrical phenomena in the Earth or its bodies of water. The strongest electric currents are related to lightning phenomena or space weather. Earth electricity can cause damage to structures, and may be useful for earthquake forecasting and other applications. Thirty-two distinct mechanisms that cause Earth electricity are described, and a broad selection of current research is highlighted.

  13. Approximation of orbital elements of telluric planets by compact analytical series (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S.


    We take the long-term numerical ephemeris of the major planets DE424 (Folkner 2011) and approximate the orbital elements of the telluric planets from that ephemeris by trigonometric series. Amplitudes of the series' terms are the second- or third-degree polynomials of time, and arguments are the fourth-degree time polynomials. The resulting series are precise and compact; in particular the maximum deviation of the planetary mean longitude calculated by the analytical series from that given by DE-424 over [-3000; 3000].

  14. Spectral and polarimetric characterization of gazeous and telluric planets with SEE COAST (United States)

    Boccaletti, A.; Baudoz, P.; Mawet, D.; Schneider, J.; Tinetti, G.; Galicher, R.; Stam, D.; Cavarroc, C.; Hough, J.; Doel, P.; Pinfield, D.; Keller, C.-U.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Udry, S.; Ferrari, A.; Martin, E.; Ménard, F.; Sein, E.


    SEE COAST stands for Super Earth Explorer - Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope. The concept was initially proposed to ESA for Cosmic Vision. None of the direct detection exoplanet proposals were selected in 2007 and we are now pursuing our efforts to consolidate the astrophysical program and the technical developments for the next call for proposal. The prime objective of SEE COAST is to contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Exploring the diversity of these objects is therefore the main driver to define the instrumentation. In the next decade the improvement of radial velocity instruments and obviously temporal coverage will provide us with a large numbers of long period giants as well as telluric planets, namely Super Earths. Obtaining the spectral and polarimetric signatures of these objects in the visible range to measure atmospheric parameters (molecular composition, clouds, soils, …) will be unique and with important scientific returns. A space mission complementary to near IR instruments like SPHERE, GPI, JWST and later ELTs for the full characterization of giants and Super Earths is a first secure step towards the longer term goal that is the characterization of telluric planets with mass and atmosphere comparable to that of the Earth. An overview of the astrophysical motivation and the trade-off that lead to a simple integrated concept of a space-based high contrast imaging instrument are given here.

  15. Spectral and polarimetric characterization of gazeous and telluric planets with SEE COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller C.-U.


    Full Text Available SEE COAST stands for Super Earth Explorer – Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope. The concept was initially proposed to ESA for Cosmic Vision. None of the direct detection exoplanet proposals were selected in 2007 and we are now pursuing our efforts to consolidate the astrophysical program and the technical developments for the next call for proposal. The prime objective of SEE COAST is to contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Exploring the diversity of these objects is therefore the main driver to define the instrumentation. In the next decade the improvement of radial velocity instruments and obviously temporal coverage will provide us with a large numbers of long period giants as well as telluric planets, namely Super Earths. Obtaining the spectral and polarimetric signatures of these objects in the visible range to measure atmospheric parameters (molecular composition, clouds, soils, … will be unique and with important scientific returns. A space mission complementary to near IR instruments like SPHERE, GPI, JWST and later ELTs for the full characterization of giants and Super Earths is a first secure step towards the longer term goal that is the characterization of telluric planets with mass and atmosphere comparable to that of the Earth. An overview of the astrophysical motivation and the trade-off that lead to a simple integrated concept of a space-based high contrast imaging instrument are given here.

  16. Determination of the Telluric Water Vapor Absorption Correction for Astronomical Data Obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (United States)

    Erickson, E. F.; Simpson, J. P.; Kuhn, P. M.; Stearns, L. P.


    The amount of telluric water vapor along the line of sight of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope as obtained concommitantly on 23 flights is compared with the NASA-Ames Michelson interferometer and with the NOAA-Boulder radiometer. A strong correlation between the two determinations exists, and a method for computing the atmospheric transmission for a given radiometer reading is established.

  17. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa


    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  18. Seismic and magneto-telluric imaging for geothermal exploration at Jemez pueblo in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albrecht, Michael [LOS ALAMOS GEOTHERMAL


    A shallow geothermal reservoir in the Pueblo of Jemez in New Mexico may indicate a commercial-scale geothermal energy potential in the area. To explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, seismic surveys are conducted along three lines for the purpose of imaging complex subsurface structures near the Indian Springs fault zone. A 3-D magneto-telluric (MT) survey is also carried out in the same area. Seismic and MT imaging can provide complementary information to reveal detailed geologic formation properties around the fault zones. The high-resolution seismic images will be used together with MT images, geologic mapping, and hydrogeochemistry, to explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, and to determine whether a conunercial-scale geothermal resource exists for power generation or direct use applications after drilling and well testing.

  19. Temporal Variations of Telluric Water Vapor Absorption at Apache Point Observatory (United States)

    Li, Dan; Blake, Cullen H.; Nidever, David; Halverson, Samuel P.


    Time-variable absorption by water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere presents an important source of systematic error for a wide range of ground-based astronomical measurements, particularly at near-infrared wavelengths. We present results from the first study on the temporal and spatial variability of water vapor absorption at Apache Point Observatory (APO). We analyze ∼400,000 high-resolution, near-infrared (H-band) spectra of hot stars collected as calibration data for the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. We fit for the optical depths of telluric water vapor absorption features in APOGEE spectra and convert these optical depths to Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) using contemporaneous data from a GPS-based PWV monitoring station at APO. Based on simultaneous measurements obtained over a 3° field of view, we estimate that our PWV measurement precision is ±0.11 mm. We explore the statistics of PWV variations over a range of timescales from less than an hour to days. We find that the amplitude of PWV variations within an hour is less than 1 mm for most (96.5%) APOGEE field visits. By considering APOGEE observations that are close in time but separated by large distances on the sky, we find that PWV is homogeneous across the sky at a given epoch, with 90% of measurements taken up to 70° apart within 1.5 hr having ΔPWV < 1.0 mm. Our results can be used to help simulate the impact of water vapor absorption on upcoming surveys at continental observing sites like APO, and also to help plan for simultaneous water vapor metrology that may be carried out in support of upcoming photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  20. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings. (United States)

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir


    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans.

  1. Neutron structural, X-ray powder and vibrational studies of the mixed solid solution rubidium ammonium sulfate tellurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktari, L.; Dammak, M.; Kolsi, A.W.; Cousson, A.


    At room temperature the rubidium ammonium sulfate tellurate salt Rb 1.12 (NH 4 ) 0.88 SO 4 .Te(OH) 6 (RbNST) has been prepared using the reaction of the rubidium sulfate, ammonium sulfate and telluric acid. Its structure has been determined from single crystal using neutron diffraction data. The RbNST crystal is monoclinic structure with P2 1 /a space group. The parameters are: a = 11.440(9) A, b = 6.640(7) A, c = 13.700(1) A, β = 106.90(7) deg. and Z = 4. The main result is the presence of two different and independent anionic groups (TeO 6 6- and SO 4 2- ) in the same crystal. The structure is like built by planes of pure SO 4 tetrahedra and pure TeO 6 octahedra altering with Rb + and NH 4 + cations statistically disordered on one atomic position. Differential scanning calorimetry traces show one anomaly at 418 K, two epaulments at 483 and 510 K corresponding to three phase transitions and one strong peak at 517 K dealing with the decomposition of the salt. Raman scattering and X-ray powder diffraction measurements on RbNST material, taken between 300 and 620 K are reported in this paper. The spectrums confirm and characterize clearly these phase transitions detected by DSC.

  2. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.


    to a singularity in the transverse plane. Instead, the pulse spreads out along the direction of negative dispersion and splits up into small-scale cells, which may undergo further splitting events. The analytical results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the three dimensional cubic Schrodinger...

  3. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.


    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  4. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar


    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  5. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan


    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  6. FTIR, Raman, and UV-Vis spectroscopic and DFT investigations of the structure of iron-lead-tellurate glasses. (United States)

    Rada, Simona; Dehelean, Adriana; Culea, Eugen


    In this work, the effects of iron ion intercalations on lead-tellurate glasses were investigated via FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies. This homogeneous glass system has compositions xFe(2)O(3)·(100-x)[4TeO(2)·PbO(2)], where x = 0-60 mol%. The presented observations in these mechanisms show that the lead ions have a pronounced affinity towards [TeO(3)] structural units, resulting in the deformation of the Te-O-Te linkages, and leading to the intercalation of [PbO( n )] (n = 3, 4) and [FeO( n )] (n = 4, 6) entities in the [TeO(4)] chain network. The formation of negatively charged [FeO(4)](1-) structural units implies the attraction of Pb(2+) ions in order to compensate for this electrical charge. Upon increasing the Fe(2)O(3) content to 60 mol%, the network can accommodate an excess of oxygen through the formation of [FeO(6)] structural units and the conversion of [TeO(4)] into [TeO(3)] structural units. For even higher Fe(2)O(3) contents, Raman spectra indicate a greater degree of depolymerization of the vitreous network than FTIR spectra do. The bands due to the Pb-O bond vibrations are very strongly polarized and the [TeO(4)] structural units convert into [TeO(3)] units via an intermediate coordination stage termed "[TeO(3+1)]" structural units. Our UV-Vis spectroscopic data show two mechanisms: (i) the conversion of the Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) at the same time as the oxidation of Pb(2+) to Pb(+4) ions for samples with low Fe(2)O(3) contents; (ii) when the Fe(2)O(3) content is high (x ≥ 50 mol%), the Fe(2+) ions capture positive holes and are transferred to Fe(3+) ions through a photochemical reaction, while the Pb(2+) ions are formed by the reduction of Pb(4+) ions. DFT calculations show that the addition of Fe(2)O(3) to lead-tellurate glasses seems to break the axial Te-O bonds, and the [TeO(4)] structural units are gradually transformed into [TeO(3+1)]- and [TeO(3)]-type polyhedra. Analyzing these data further indicates a gradual

  7. Gamma radiation and temperature influence on the chemical effect produced by isomeric transition in the telluric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel G, M.


    When the gamma radiation due to the isomeric transition is internally converted an autoionization is produced. For atoms with a high atomic number this autoionization can be a large one and produce a fragmentation in a molecule. In the specific case of the solid state these fragments remain trapped in different places of the crystalline system. This can be considered as chemical change in the original molecule. These damages produced by the nuclear transformation can be measured by different methods: heating, gamma rays, pressure, etc. In this work the results of an experimental measurement of the behavior of the crystalline telluric acid molecule fragments under gamma radiation (0 to 20 Mrads) with controlled temperature of 2 0 C (-196 0 C to 50 0 C) it is presented. It was observed that the values of the mentioned behavior vary rapidly at first for relatively low doses and that for larger doses these values remained constant. Besides with a lower temperature these variation are progressively lower. (author)

  8. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  9. Aspects of Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Romanino, A


    We explore some fundamental differences in the phenomenology, cosmology and model building of Split Supersymmetry compared with traditional low-scale supersymmetry. We show how the mass spectrum of Split Supersymmetry naturally emerges from theories where the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking preserves an $R$ symmetry, characterize the class of theories where the unavoidable $R$-breaking by gravity can be neglected, and point out a new possibility, where supersymmetry breaking is directly communicated at tree level to the visible sector via renormalizable interactions. Next, we discuss possible low-energy signals for Split Supersymmetry. The absence of new light scalars removes all the phenomenological difficulties of low-energy supersymmetry, associated with one-loop flavor and CP violating effects. However, the electric dipole moments of leptons and quarks do arise at two loops, and are automatically at the level of present limits with no need for small phases, making them accessible to several ongo...

  10. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form M = U + ∑ j I j with U a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any I j a well described ideal of satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if ≠ .

  11. Splitting of Comets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Splitting of Comets. Utpal Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 11-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Cometary ...

  12. How Is Mono Spread? (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español How Is Mono Spread? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Is Mono Spread? Print My sister has mononucleosis. I drank ... had it. Does this mean that I have mono now? – Kyle* Mono, or mononucleosis, is spread through ...

  13. Near-infrared diffuse interstellar bands in APOGEE telluric standard star spectra . Weak bands and comparisons with optical counterparts (United States)

    Elyajouri, M.; Lallement, R.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Capitanio, L.; Cox, N. L. J.


    Aims: Information on the existence and properties of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) outside the optical domain is still limited. Additional infra-red (IR) measurements and IR-optical correlative studies are needed to constrain DIB carriers and locate various absorbers in 3D maps of the interstellar matter. Methods: We extended our study of H-band DIBs in Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Telluric Standard Star (TSS) spectra. We used the strong λ15273 band to select the most and least absorbed targets. We used individual spectra of the former subsample to extract weaker DIBs, and we searched the two stacked series for differences that could indicate additional bands. High-resolution NARVAL and SOPHIE optical spectra for a subsample of 55 TSS targets were additionally recorded for NIR/optical correlative studies. Results: From the TSS spectra we extract a catalog of measurements of the poorly studied λλ15617, 15653, and 15673 DIBs in ≃300 sightlines, we obtain a first accurate determination of their rest wavelength and constrained their intrinsic width and shape. In addition, we studied the relationship between these weak bands and the strong λ15273 DIB. We provide a first or second confirmation of several other weak DIBs that have been proposed based on different instruments, and we add new constraints on their widths and locations. We finally propose two new DIB candidates. Conclusions: We compared the strength of the λ15273 absorptions with their optical counterparts λλ5780, 5797, 6196, 6283, and 6614. Using the 5797-5780 ratio as a tracer of shielding against the radiation field, we showed that the λ15273 DIB carrier is significantly more abundant in unshielded (σ-type) clouds, and it responds even more strongly than the λ5780 band carrier to the local ionizing field. Full Table 5 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  14. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari


    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  15. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also introduced in [1] techniques of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie algebras. In the present paper we extend these techniques to the framework of split Lie triple systems so as to obtain a generalization of the results in [1]. We consider the wide class of split Lie triple systems (which contains the class of.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sutrisno


    Full Text Available Research on stock splits has frequently been undertaken. The results vary, but fundamentally can be classified into two groups. First, the stock split is purely "cosmetic". Second, the stock split has a real effect on stocks. The difference between these opinions raises controversy. The purpose of this study is to examine whether stock splits influence stock liquidity and return of an individual stock as well as in a group of stocks as a portfolio. Overall, the results of this study show that stock splits did influence stock price, trading volume and bid-ask spread but did not influence stock risk and abnormal return from the point of view of an individual stock as well as in a group of stocks as a portfolio. The test of a relationship between bid-ask spread and stock price, trading volume and stock risk for each stock shows that all three variable did not significantly affect the bid-ask spread. On the other hand, the test of a relationship in a portfolio reveals that only stock prices significantly affect the bid-ask spread. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian mengenai stock split sudah sering dilakukan. Hasil dari penelitian- penelitian tersebut bermacam - macam, tetapi pada dasarnya dapat dibedakan menjadi dua kelompok. Pertama, stock split dinyatakan murni hanya sebagai "kosmetik". Kedua, stock split dinyatakan mempunyai efek yang nyata terhadap saham. Perbedaan pendapat ini sering menimbulkan kontroversi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji kembali apakah betul stock split dapat mempengaruhi likuiditas dan return saham baik ditinjau secara individual untuk masing - masing saham maupun seluruh saham sebagai sebuah portofolio. Secara keseluruhan, hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa stock split hanya mempengaruhi harga, volume perdagangan dan persentase spread, tetapi tidak mempengaruhi varians dan abnormal return baik ditinjau secara individual maupun sebagai sebuah portofolio. Sedangkan pengujian hubungan antara

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of Bi{sub 3}TeBO{sub 9} or Bi{sub 3}(TeO{sub 6})(BO{sub 3}): a non-centrosymmetric borate-tellurate(VI) of bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daub, Michael; Krummer, Michael; Hoffmann, Anke [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Albertstrasse 21, 79104, Freiburg (Germany); Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Goethe-Universitaet, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hillebrecht, Harald [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Albertstrasse 21, 79104, Freiburg (Germany); Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum FMF, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Stefan-Meier-Strasse 25, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)


    Pale-yellow single crystals of the new borate tellurate(VI) Bi{sub 3}TeBO{sub 9} were obtained by reaction of stoichiometric amounts of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Te(OH){sub 6} at 780 C. The non-centrosymmetric crystal structure (P6{sub 3}, Z=2, a=8.7454(16), c=5.8911(11) Aa, 738 refl., 43 param, R1=0.037, wR2=0.093) contains isolated trigonal-planar BO{sub 3} units and nearly undistorted TeO{sub 6} octahedra. The Bi{sup 3+} cations are located in between in octahedral voids. The BiO{sub 6} octahedra are significantly distorted to a [3+3] pattern (2.25/2.50 Aa) due to the ns{sup 2} configuration. According to the structural features, the formula can be written as Bi{sub 3}(TeO{sub 6})(BO{sub 3}). Alternatively, the structure can also be described as hcp of oxygen with Te{sup VI} and Bi{sup III} in octahedral voids and B{sup III} in trigonal- planar voids. The vibrational spectra show the typical features of BO{sub 3} and TeO{sub 6} units with a significant {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B isotopic splitting of the IR-active B-O valence mode (1248 and 1282 cm{sup -1}). The UV/Vis spectrum shows an optical band edge with an onset around 480 nm (2.6 eV). MAS-NMR spectra of {sup 11}B show an anisotropic signal with a quadrupole coupling constant of C{sub Q}=2.55 MHz. and a very small deviation from rotational symmetry (η=0.2). The isotropic chemical shift is 20.1 ppm. The second harmonic generation (SHG) test was positive with an activity comparable to potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Bi{sub 3}TeBO{sub 9} decomposes in air at 825 C to Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5}. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Determinants of bond yield spread changes in South Africa | Radier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper offers an emerging market perspective on the determinants of bond yield spread changes. The study covers the period 2005-2013 and it is based on a sample of 106 corporate vanilla bonds listed on the South African market. To capture the impact of the financial crisis of 2007-2008, the sample period is split into ...

  19. Contribution to the study of the radiation environment in Antananarivo: Assessment of the Exposure of the Public to the Telluric X and Gamma Radiations and the Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravelomanantsoa, S.D.


    The radioactivity represents among indicators of state of the environment because the man is exposed to ionizing radiations of permanent way. The knowledge of the different components of this natural radioactivity to which the humanity has always been exposed proves out to be necessary. The state of places of this radioactive environment deserves to be made for Antananarivo, the city the populated more of Madagascar. The present thesis on the 'Assessment of the Exposure of the Public to the Telluric X and Gamma Radiations and the Radon to Antananarivo' contributes to the survey of the Radioactive Environment. It is the synthesis of results of all works done in the setting of a research project that lasted three years, works constituted by more of about hundred coming down on land and by the analysis in laboratory of about hundred samples.The radioactive radiation detection, the radioactive substance characterization in the environment and the assessment of dose exposure has been done by the global counting of the X and gamma ambient radiations, of spectrometric measures on land and in laboratory and by alpha, X and gamma dosimetric measures, to the free air and inside of buildings, the day and the night. The gotten results served basis to three communications made to the National Academy of Arts, of Letters and Science, Tsimbazaza, Antananarivo in June 1998, in May 1999 and in December 2000. An evaluation of the contribution of the telluric X and gamma rays and of the radon in the yearly efficient average dose owed to natural radiation sources finishes the state of places that is going to lead to the unpublished values. [fr


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Roni Setyawan


    Full Text Available This study aims to re-examine the effectiveness of liquidity hypothesis in stock split. Liquidity hypothesis in stock split is defined as the returning stock price to the optimal trading level. Based on Ekaputra and Putri (2006, this study consists of two analysis methods such as: 1 Paired t-test among return volatility and liquidity during stock split 2 OLS-test focuses on the consistency of the model of Ekaputra and Putri (2006 and in line with Kim et al. (2007, this research includes Amihud’s Illiquidity as an alternative proxy of liquidity in stock split in addition to relative spread. According to paired t-test, this study finds return volatility decreases after stock split and it is similar to liquidity proxies both relative spread and Amihud’s Illiquidity. In OLS-test, the results indicate that only the effect of trading volume toward liquidity proxies (i.e., relative spread and Amihud’s Illiquidity has the appropriate signs with the alternative hypothesis. Generally, this research concludes that stock liquidity increases after stock split and relative spread is a better liquidity proxy than Amihud’s Illiquidity.

  1. Ocean, Spreading Centre

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    along the mid-oceanic ridges, in general, control the internal structure. Geophysical experiments over the global midoceanic ridges have found some explicit relationships between spreading rate, seismic structure, and ridge-axis morphology....

  2. Pathways of lateral spreading. (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J


    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas


    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  4. How rivers split (United States)

    Seybold, H. F.; Yi, R.; Devauchelle, O.; Petroff, A.; Rothman, D.


    River networks have fascinated mankind for centuries. They exhibit a striking geometry with similar shapes repeating on all scales. Yet, how these networks form and create these geometries remains elusive. Recently we have shown that channels fed by subsurface flow split at a characteristic angle of 2π/5 unambiguously consistent with our field measurements in a seepage network on the Florida Panhandle (Fig.1). Our theory is based only on the simple hypothesis that the channels grow in the direction at which the ground water enters the spring and classical solutions of subsurface hydrology. Here we apply our analysis to the ramification of large drainage basins and extend our theory to include slope effects. Using high resolution stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), we scrutinize our hypothesis in arbitrary channel networks and investigate the branching angle dependence on Horton-Strahler order and the maturity of the streams.; High-resolution topographic map of valley networks incised by groundwater flow, located on the Florida Panhandle near Bristol, FL.

  5. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas


    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  6. Global Locator, Local Locator, and Identifier Split (GLI-Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menth


    Full Text Available The locator/identifier split is an approach for a new addressing and routing architecture to make routing in the core of the Internet more scalable. Based on this principle, we developed the GLI-Split framework, which separates the functionality of current IP addresses into a stable identifier and two independent locators, one for routing in the Internet core and one for edge networks. This makes routing in the Internet more stable and provides more flexibility for edge networks. GLI-Split can be incrementally deployed and it is backward-compatible with the IPv6 Internet. We describe its architecture, compare it to other approaches, present its benefits, and finally present a proof-of-concept implementation of GLI-Split.

  7. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira


    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  8. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  9. Ridge split and implant placement in deficient alveolar ridge: Case report and an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reenesh Mechery


    Full Text Available Dr. Hilt Tatum 1970s introduced a method of ridge splitting or bone spreading, which over a period have been used in implant dentistry for esthetic rehabilitation and implant site preparation in cases of deficient alveolar ridges to satisfy the basic ideal need of hard tissue augmentation for functional and esthetic outcome of implant. In this case report, we describe a case of horizontal ridge augmentation using ridge split and simultaneous implant placement in esthetic maxillary premolar zone.

  10. LOUIS I. KAHN, EL PAISAJE TELÚRICO Y LAS MAQUETAS DE ARCILLA / Louis I. Kahn, the telluric landscape and clay models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Jové Sandoval


    Full Text Available RESUMEN Kahn siempre mantuvo una especial conexión con el paisaje reconociéndose desde muy temprano en sus dibujos y pinturas, especialmente en sus bocetos de viaje. Él forjó una idea de un paisaje telúrico, formado por el moldeado del suelo en conjunción con la arquitectura; para trabajarlo y transmitirlo encontraría un instrumento muy eficaz: las maquetas de arcilla. Estos peculiares modelos surgieron a partir del año 1961, cuando se produjo la colaboración con el escultor Isamu Noguchi en el Levy Memorial Playground. A partir de aquel momento la arcilla será el material omnipresente en la producción de maquetas a gran escala en la oficina de Kahn; en ellas se abordaban y se concretaban las ideas generales. Estos modelos de arcilla hablan del vínculo de sus propuestas con el paisaje, con la orografía y con el orden subyacente que su arquitectura establece con el sitio, expresada a través de lo que podríamos denominar protoedificios. Este trabajo con la arcilla será reflejo también de un significado más profundo experimentado en sus viajes a la India que lo vinculan al sentido más atávico de aquellas culturas con el trabajo de sustracción y acumulación de la tierra, un paisaje telúrico donde el hombre impone la huella de su presencia. SUMMARY Kahn always had a special connection with landscape, recognizable in his drawings and paintings from early on, especially in his travel sketches. He forged the idea of a telluric landscape, formed by terrain sculpting along with architecture; to work on this and transmit it, he would find a most effective tool: clay models. These distinctive models came into existence in 1961, when he collaborated with the sculptor Isamu Noguchi on the Levy Memorial Playground. From then on, clay would be ubiquitous in the large-scale models in Kahn's office; he approached and materialized his general ideas in them. These clay mock-ups reflect how he linked his purposes to landscape, to orography

  11. Virus spread in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieghem, P. van; Omic, J.; Kooij, R.E.


    The influence of the network characteristics on the virus spread is analyzed in a new-the N-intertwined Markov chain-model, whose only approximation lies in the application of mean field theory. The mean field approximation is quantified in detail. The N-intertwined model has been compared with the

  12. Spread of Canine Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Colin Parrish, a Professor of Virology at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, discusses the spread of influenza among dogs.  Created: 4/5/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2018.

  13. Combinatorics of spreads and parallelisms

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman


    Partitions of Vector Spaces Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Finite Focal-SpreadsGeneralizing André SpreadsThe Going Up Construction for Focal-SpreadsSubgeometry Partitions Subgeometry and Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Subgeometries from Focal-SpreadsExtended André SubgeometriesKantor's Flag-Transitive DesignsMaximal Additive Partial SpreadsSubplane Covered Nets and Baer Groups Partial Desarguesian t-Parallelisms Direct Products of Affine PlanesJha-Johnson SL(2,

  14. Spread spectrum image steganography. (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T


    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  15. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicedo, Benoit


    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)

  16. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W ...

  17. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.


    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  18. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2006 physics pp. 793–802. Split supersymmetry in brane models. IGNATIOS ANTONIADIS∗. Department of Physics, CERN-Theory Division, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. E-mail: Ignatios. ... that LEP data favor the unification of the three SM gauge couplings are smoking guns for the presence of new ...

  19. Water splitting by cooperative catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.


    A mononuclear Ru complex is shown to efficiently split water into H2 and O2 in consecutive steps through a heat- and light-driven process (see picture). Thermally driven H2 formation involves the aid of a non-innocent ligand scaffold, while dioxygen is generated by initial photochemically induced

  20. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system; system of roots; root space; split Lie algebra; structure theory. 1. Introduction and previous definitions. Throughout this paper, Lie triple systems T are considered of arbitrary dimension and over an arbitrary field K. It is worth to mention that, unless otherwise stated, there is not any restriction on dim Tα or {k ...

  1. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 25 January 2008. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences.

  2. Estimation of wave directional spreading

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    One of the useful measures of waves directional spreading at a given location is the directional spreading parameter. This paper presents a new approach to arrive at its characteristic value using the computational technique of Artificial Neural...

  3. Illusory spreading of watercolor. (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Hardy, Joseph L; Delahunt, Peter B; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S


    The watercolor effect (WCE) is a phenomenon of long-range color assimilation occurring when a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour; the brighter color spreads into the entire enclosed area. Here, we determined the optimal chromatic parameters and the cone signals supporting the WCE. To that end, we quantified the effect of color assimilation using hue cancellation as a function of hue, colorimetric purity, and cone modulation of inducing contours. When the inner and outer contours had chromaticities that were in opposite directions in color space, a stronger WCE was obtained as compared with other color directions. Additionally, equal colorimetric purity between the outer and inner contours was necessary to obtain a large effect compared with conditions in which the contours differed in colorimetric purity. However, there was no further increase in the magnitude of the effect when the colorimetric purity increased beyond a value corresponding to an equal vector length between the inner and outer contours. Finally, L-M-cone-modulated WCE was perceptually stronger than S-cone-modulated WCE for our conditions. This last result demonstrates that both L-M-cone and S-cone pathways are important for watercolor spreading. Our data suggest that the WCE depends critically upon the particular spatiochromatic arrangement in the display, with the relative chromatic contrast between the inducing contours being particularly important.

  4. Ionospheric influence on the seismo-telluric current related to ULF electromagnetic signals observed before the Wenchuan MS=8.0 earthquake (United States)

    Li, M.


    A three-layer (Earth-air-ionosphere) physical model, as well as a two-layer (Earth-air) model, is employed to investigate the ionospheric effect on the wave fields for a finite length dipole current source co-located with the main fault of an earthquake when the distance between the epicenter and an observing station is up to one thousand kilometers or even more. The results show that all electrical fields are free of ionospheric effect for different frequencies in a relative short range, e.g., -300 km for f=1 Hz, implying the ionospheric influence on electromagnetic fields can be neglected within this range, which becomes smaller as the frequency increases. However, the ionosphere can give a constructive interference to the waves passed through and make them decay slowly when an observation is out of this range and the ionosperic effect can be up to 1-2 magnitudes of the electrical fields. For an observed 1.3 mV m-1 signal at 1,440 km away for the Wenchuan MS=8.0 earthquake, the expected seismo-telluric current magnitude for the Earth-air-ionosphere model is of 5.0×107 A , one magnitude smaller than the current value of 3.7×108 A obtained by the Earth-air model free of ionospheric effect. This indicates that it is easier to record a signal even for stations located at distances beyond their detectability threshold. Furthermore, the radiating patterns of the electrical field components |Ex| and |Ey| are complementary each other although anyone 2-D power distribution of them shows strong power areas as well as weak ones, which is advantageous to register a signal if the observing system is designed to measure both of them instead of only one.

  5. Étude électrochimique des systèmes binaires et ternaire engageant les éléments bismuth, antimoine et tellure (United States)

    del Frari, D.; Diliberto, S.; Boulanger, C.; Lecuire, J. M.


    Dans la présente étude, nous nous sommes intéressés à la recherche des meilleures conditions de synthèse du composé Bi0,5Sb1,5Te3, présentant des propriétés thermoélectriques optimales à température ambiante pour un composé de type p. Une étude voltampérométrique a donc été menée pour les binaires engageant ces trois éléments, c’est-à-dire Bi-Te et Sb-Te, ainsi que pour le ternaire Bi-Sb-Te. Les ions BiIII+, SbIII+ et TeIV+ ont été mis en solution dans l’électrolyte acide perchlorique HClO4 1M acide tartrique C4H6O6 0,1M, avec une concentration maximale en tellure de l’ordre de 10-2M. Les rapports envisagés entre les ions, choisis en fonction d’études antérieures, sont les suivants : Bi/Te=1 et Sb/Te=1 pour les binaires, et (Bi+Sb)/Te=1 et Sb/Bi=3 pour le ternaire. Des dépôts ont été réalisés à différents potentiels, de manière à identifier les pics obtenus sur les voltampérogrammes. Ces dépôts ont été caractérisés par diffraction des rayons X, et leur stoechiométrie a été obtenue par microsonde de Castaing.

  6. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA


    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  7. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waele, A T A M de; Liang, W


    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the cold finger are connected by a flexible tube. The displacer in the cold head is suspended by a spring. Its motion is pneumatically driven by the pressure oscillations generated by the compressor. In this paper we give the basic dynamic equations of split Stirling refrigerators and investigate the possibility of spontaneous mechanical oscillations if a large temperature gradient develops in the cold finger, e.g. during or after cool down. These oscillations would be superimposed on the pressure oscillations of the compressor and could ruin the cooler performance.

  8. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang


    channels initiates spreading depression of brain activity. In contrast, epileptic seizures show modest ion translocation and sustained depolarization below the inactivation threshold for action potential generating channels. Such modest sustained depolarization allows synchronous, highly frequent neuronal...... stimulations. Eventually, epileptic field potentials were recorded during the period that had originally seen spreading depression of activity. Such spreading convulsions are characterized by epileptic field potentials on the final shoulder of the large slow potential change of spreading depolarization. We...... depolarizations in contrast to only three patients (12%) with 55 ictal epileptic events isolated from spreading depolarizations. Spreading depolarization frequency and depression periods per 24 h recording episodes showed an early and a delayed peak on Day 7. Patients surviving subarachnoid haemorrhage with poor...

  9. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili


    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  11. Spreading of rock avalanches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamis, A.S.; Savage, S.G. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)


    Landslides and rockfalls that initiate on a steep slope eventually come to rest after flowing for some runout distance on a flat. Rockfalls of very large masses have been observed to exhibit unexpectedly long runout distances. This problem becomes more significant as the development of resources in mountain regions becomes more intensive. As early as 1881, Albert Heim observed and described the Elm rockfall of Switzerland (quoted by as HsU). This rockfall produced a debris which moved more than 2 Km along a nearly horizontal valley floor and one of its branches surged up the side of the valley to a height of 100 m. From the deposit of the Elm and the eyewitnesses Heim concluded that the debris behaved as a flowing fluid rather than sliding solids. Davies, among others, suggested that the excessive runout distance is volume dependent and the larger the volume of the debris, the longer the relative travel distance. A summary of the numerous hypotheses which have been proposed to explain this puzzling phenomena were also presented by Davies. However, none of these have been completely satisfactory or generally accepted. A simple model of the flow and spreading of a finite mass of cohesionless granular material down incline has been developed as a part of the present preliminary investigation into the mechanics of rockfalls. (author)

  12. Ionospheric influence on the seismo-telluric current related to electromagnetic signals observed before the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake (United States)

    Li, Mei; Tan, Handong; Cao, Meng


    A three-layer (Earth-air-ionosphere) physical model, as well as a two-layer (Earth-air) model, is employed in this paper to investigate the ionospheric effect on the wave fields for a finite length dipole current source co-located at a hypocenter depth and along the main fault of an earthquake when the distance between the epicenter and an observing station is up to 1000 km or even more. The results show that all electrical fields are free of ionospheric effects for different frequencies in a relative short range, e.g., ˜ 300 km for f = 1 Hz, implying the ionospheric influence on electromagnetic fields can be neglected within this range, which becomes smaller as the frequency increases. However, the ionosphere can give a constructive interference to the waves passing through and make them decay slowly when an observation is out of this range; moreover, the ionospheric effect can be up to 1-2 orders of magnitude of the electrical fields. For a ground-based observable 1.3 mV m-1 electric signal at f = 1 Hz 1440 km away from the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake, the expected seismo-telluric current magnitude for the Earth-air-ionosphere model is of 5.0 × 107A, 1 magnitude smaller than the current value of 3.7 × 108A obtained by the Earth-air model free of ionospheric effects. This indicates that the ionosphere facilitates the electromagnetic wave propagation, as if the detectability of the system were improved effectively and it is easier to record a signal even for stations located at distances beyond their detectability thresholds. Furthermore, the radiating patterns of the electrical field components |Ex| and |Ey| are complementary to each other, although any two-dimensional (2-D) power distribution of these components shows strong power areas as well as weak ones, which is advantageous to register a signal if the observing system is designed to measure both of them instead of only one.

  13. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.


    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  14. Parallel BLAST on split databases. (United States)

    Mathog, David R


    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from

  15. Muon time spreads in EAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, P.R.; O'Connell, B.; Mann, D.M.; Nash, W.F.; Strutt, R.B.


    The results of measurements on the rise times of muon scintillator responses recorded from EAS detected at Haverah Park are presented. The average muon time spread is found to be a function of core distance, zenith angle and muon threshold energy. Significant fluctuations in muon time spreads are shown to exist between showers

  16. Information spreading dynamics in hypernetworks (United States)

    Suo, Qi; Guo, Jin-Li; Shen, Ai-Zhong


    Contact pattern and spreading strategy fundamentally influence the spread of information. Current mathematical methods largely assume that contacts between individuals are fixed by networks. In fact, individuals are affected by all his/her neighbors in different social relationships. Here, we develop a mathematical approach to depict the information spreading process in hypernetworks. Each individual is viewed as a node, and each social relationship containing the individual is viewed as a hyperedge. Based on SIS epidemic model, we construct two spreading models. One model is based on global transmission, corresponding to RP strategy. The other is based on local transmission, corresponding to CP strategy. These models can degenerate into complex network models with a special parameter. Thus hypernetwork models extend the traditional models and are more realistic. Further, we discuss the impact of parameters including structure parameters of hypernetwork, spreading rate, recovering rate as well as information seed on the models. Propagation time and density of informed nodes can reveal the overall trend of information dissemination. Comparing these two models, we find out that there is no spreading threshold in RP, while there exists a spreading threshold in CP. The RP strategy induces a broader and faster information spreading process under the same parameters.

  17. The effects of the spreading of the Central Atlantic during the Middle Jurassic on dinosaur faunas


    Clark, N.D.L.


    The spreading of the Central Atlantic is a complex series of\\ud events that include a ridge jump to the east and a ridge jump to the west at c. 170Ma and c. 162Ma respectively. These jumps were influenced by plate interactions as Laurasia separated from Gondwana, although the second jump may have been influenced by spreading in the Gulf of Mexico, which occurred at about the same time. Dinosaur evolution and diversity were influenced by the spreading of the Central Atlantic that split Laurasi...

  18. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skokos, Ch., E-mail: [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Gerlach, E. [Lohrmann Observatory, Technical University Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bodyfelt, J.D., E-mail: [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Albany, Private Bag 102904, North Shore City, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Papamikos, G. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Eggl, S. [IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France)


    While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

  19. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokos, Ch.; Gerlach, E.; Bodyfelt, J.D.; Papamikos, G.; Eggl, S.


    While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

  20. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tongsong, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China); Department of Mathematics, Heze University, Heze, Shandong 274015 (China); Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China)


    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  1. Testing PVLAS axions with resonant photon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, E; Gabrielli, Emidio; Giovannini, Massimo


    The photon splitting gamma -> gamma gamma in a time-independent and inhomogeneous magnetized background is considered when neutral and ultralight spin-0 particles are coupled to two-photons. Depending on the inhomogeneity scale of the external field, resonant photon splitting can occur. If an optical laser crosses a magnetic field of few Tesla with typical inhomogeneity scale of the order of the meter, a potentially observable rate of photon splittings is expected for the PVLAS range of couplings and masses.

  2. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N


    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  3. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen


    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  4. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei


    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.


    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  6. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Floettmann


    Full Text Available The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  7. Gauge mediated mini-split (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon


    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  8. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  9. Spread effects - methodology; Spredningseffekter - metodegrunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  10. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T


    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  11. Colonic motility and enema spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Clark, A.G.; Reynolds, J.R.; Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham


    Radiolabelled enema solution was administered to eight healthy subjects, both in fasted and fed states. Enema spreading was monitored over a 4-h period using gamma scintigraphy and colonic motility was recorded simultaneously using a pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. The rate and extent of enema dispersion were unaffected by eating. Spreading could be correlated with colonic motility and was inhibited by aboral propulsion of the colonic contents. (orig.)

  12. Split Questionnaire Design for Massive Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiguzel, F.; Wedel, M.


    Companies are conducting more and longer surveys than ever before. Massive questionnaires are pervasive in marketing practice. As an alternative to the heuristic methods that are currently used to split questionnaires, this study develops a methodology to design the split questionnaire in a way that

  13. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.


    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  14. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.


    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  15. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.


    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  16. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen


    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  17. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of T is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Keywords.

  18. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari


    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  19. Spreading Depression, Spreading Depolarizations, and the Cerebral Vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayata, Cenk; Lauritzen, Martin


    Spreading depression (SD) is a transient wave of near-complete neuronal and glial depolarization associated with massive transmembrane ionic and water shifts. It is evolutionarily conserved in the central nervous systems of a wide variety of species from locust to human. The depolarization spreads......, such as action potentials and synaptic transmission. Seventy years after its discovery by Leão, the mechanisms of SD and its profound metabolic and hemodynamic effects are still debated. What we did learn of consequence, however, is that SD plays a central role in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases...

  20. Accelerated split course regimen in the treatment of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchin, G.; Minatel, E.; Roncadin, M.; Trovo, M.G.; De Paoli, A.; Bortolus, R.; Arcicasa, M.; Boz, G.; Gobitti, C.; Grigoletto, E.; Bassignano, G.


    63 patients, with brain metastases were treated with an accelerated split course regimen; irradiation was given to the whole brain in 3 daily fractions of 160 cGy each for 5 days a week. The cycle was repeated after 2 weeks to a total dose of 4800 cGy. Male-female ratio was 3:1. Median age was 58 years. The most frequent site of primary tumor was lung (41 patients), breast in 6 patients, melanoma in 3 patients, other sites in 8 patients and unknown cancer in 5 patients. Thirty-five patients had multiple brain metastases localizations. Two patients failed to complete the scheduled treatment: one because of early death and the other by refusal of therapy during treatment. Complete remission was obtained in 4 patients and partial remission in 24 patients. The median survival time was 21 weeks. The overall response rate was 42.5%. Toxicity was not considerable. The treatment results were not influenced by the site of primary tumor or by disease spreading; only the neurologic status before radiotherapy and the response to treatment influenced survival. The results obtained are similar to those reported by others; however, with the accelerated split course regimen the treatment time was reduced and a shorter period of hospitalization was required. 36 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Controlling droplet spreading with topography (United States)

    Kant, P.; Hazel, A. L.; Dowling, M.; Thompson, A. B.; Juel, A.


    We present an experimental system that can be used to study the dynamics of a picoliter droplet (in-flight radius of 12.2 μ m ) as it spreads over substrates with topographic variations. We concentrate on the spreading of a droplet within a recessed stadium-shaped pixel, with applications to the manufacture of polymer organic light-emitting-diode displays, and find that the sloping sidewall of the pixel can either locally enhance or hinder spreading depending on whether the topography gradient ahead of the contact line is positive or negative, respectively. Locally enhanced spreading occurs via the formation of thin pointed rivulets along the sidewalls of the pixel through a mechanism similar to capillary rise in sharp corners. We demonstrate that a simplified model involving quasistatic surface-tension effects within the framework of a thin-film approximation combined with an experimentally measured dynamic spreading law, relating the speed of the contact line to the contact angle, provides excellent predictions of the evolving liquid morphologies. A key feature of the liquid-substrate interaction studied here is the presence of significant contact angle hysteresis, which enables the persistence of noncircular fluid morphologies. We also show that the spreading law for an advancing contact line can be adequately approximated by a Cox-Voinov law for the majority of the evolution. The model does not include viscous effects in the bulk of the droplet and hence the time scales for the propagation of the thin pointed rivulets are not captured. Nonetheless, this simple model can be used very effectively to predict the areas covered by the liquid and may serve as a useful design tool for systems that require precise control of liquid on substrates.

  2. Detonation spreading in fine TATBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.E.; Lee, K.Y.; Spontarelli, T.; Stine, J.R.


    A test has been devised that permits rapid evaluation of the detonation-spreading (or corner-turning) properties of detonations in insensitive high explosives. The test utilizes a copper witness plate as the medium to capture performance data. Dent depth and shape in the copper are used as quantitative measures of the detonation output and spreading behavior. The merits of the test are that it is easy to perform with no dynamic instrumentation, and the test requires only a few grams of experimental explosive materials.

  3. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    channel, due to the presence of collateralized borrowers, and (ii) a banking attenuator effect, which crucially arises from the spread in interest rates caused by the introduction of monopolistically competitive financial intermediaries. We show how the classical amplification mechanism explored in models...... of private borrowing between collaterally-constrained 'impatient' households and unconstrained 'patient' households, such as those put forward by Kiyotaki and Moore (1997) and Iacoviello (2005), is counteracted by the banking attenuator effect, given an endogenous steady state spread between loan and savings...

  4. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue...

  5. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.


    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  6. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... absorption, this is the more difficult side to optimize. Nevertheless, by using TiO2 as a transparent cathode protection layer in conjunction with known H-2 evolution catalysts, protection is clearly feasible for a large bandgap photocathode. This suggests that there may be promising strategies...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  7. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  8. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department


    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  9. Spreading dynamics in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Sen; Makse, Hernán A


    Searching for influential spreaders in complex networks is an issue of great significance for applications across various domains, ranging from epidemic control, innovation diffusion, viral marketing, and social movement to idea propagation. In this paper, we first display some of the most important theoretical models that describe spreading processes, and then discuss the problem of locating both the individual and multiple influential spreaders respectively. Recent approaches in these two topics are presented. For the identification of privileged single spreaders, we summarize several widely used centralities, such as degree, betweenness centrality, PageRank, k-shell, etc. We investigate the empirical diffusion data in a large scale online social community—LiveJournal. With this extensive dataset, we find that various measures can convey very distinct information of nodes. Of all the users in the LiveJournal social network, only a small fraction of them are involved in spreading. For the spreading processes in LiveJournal, while degree can locate nodes participating in information diffusion with higher probability, k-shell is more effective in finding nodes with a large influence. Our results should provide useful information for designing efficient spreading strategies in reality. (paper)

  10. Spreading dynamics in complex networks (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Makse, Hernán A.


    Searching for influential spreaders in complex networks is an issue of great significance for applications across various domains, ranging from epidemic control, innovation diffusion, viral marketing, and social movement to idea propagation. In this paper, we first display some of the most important theoretical models that describe spreading processes, and then discuss the problem of locating both the individual and multiple influential spreaders respectively. Recent approaches in these two topics are presented. For the identification of privileged single spreaders, we summarize several widely used centralities, such as degree, betweenness centrality, PageRank, k-shell, etc. We investigate the empirical diffusion data in a large scale online social community—LiveJournal. With this extensive dataset, we find that various measures can convey very distinct information of nodes. Of all the users in the LiveJournal social network, only a small fraction of them are involved in spreading. For the spreading processes in LiveJournal, while degree can locate nodes participating in information diffusion with higher probability, k-shell is more effective in finding nodes with a large influence. Our results should provide useful information for designing efficient spreading strategies in reality.

  11. Spreading rate, spreading obliquity, and melt supply at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Cannat, Mathilde; Sauter, Daniel; Bezos, Antoine; Meyzen, Christine; Humler, Eric; Le Rigoleur, Marion


    We use bathymetry, gravimetry, and basalt composition to examine the relationship between spreading rate, spreading obliquity, and the melt supply at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). We find that at regional scales (more than 200 km), melt supply reflects variations in mantle melting that are primarily controlled by large-scale heterogeneities in mantle temperature and/or composition. Focusing on adjacent SWIR regions with contrasted obliquity, we find that the effect of obliquity on melt production is significant (about 1.5 km less melt produced for a decrease of 7 mm/a to 4 mm/a in effective spreading rates, ESR) but not enough to produce near-amagmatic spreading in the most oblique regions of the ridge, unless associated with an anomalously cold and/or depleted mantle source. Our observations lead us to support models in which mantle upwelling beneath slow and ultraslow ridges is somewhat focused and accelerated, thereby reducing the effect of spreading rate and obliquity on upper mantle cooling and melt supply. To explain why very oblique SWIR regions nonetheless have large outcrops of mantle-derived ultramafic rocks and, in many cases, no evidence for axial volcanism (Cannat et al., 2006; Dick et al., 2003), we develop a model which combines melt migration along axis to more volcanically robust areas, melt trapping in the lithospheric mantle, and melt transport in dikes that may only form where enough melt has gathered to build sufficient overpressure. These dikes would open perpendicularly to the direction of the least compressive stress and favor the formation of orthogonal ridge sections. The resulting segmentation pattern, with prominent orthogonal volcanic centers and long intervening avolcanic or nearly avolcanic ridge sections, is not specific to oblique ridge regions. It is also observed along the SWIR and the arctic Gakkel Ridge in orthogonal regions underlain by cold and/or depleted mantle.

  12. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration


    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  13. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed

  14. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting. (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L


    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window


    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya


    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  16. A split SUSY model from SUSY GUT


    Wang, FeiDepartment of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, P.R. China; Wang, Wenyu(Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P.R. China); Yang, Jin(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China)


    We propose to split the sparticle spectrum from the hierarchy between the GUT scale and the Planck scale. A split supersymmetric model, which gives non-universal gaugino masses, is built with proper high dimensional operators in the framework of SO(10) GUT. Based on a calculation of two-loop beta functions for gauge couplings (taking into account all weak scale threshold corrections), we check the gauge coupling unification and dark matter constraints (relic density and direct detections). We...

  17. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server


    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  18. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  19. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC


    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  20. Slip of Spreading Viscoplastic Droplets. (United States)

    Jalaal, Maziyar; Balmforth, Neil J; Stoeber, Boris


    The spreading of axisymmetric viscoplastic droplets extruded slowly on glass surfaces is studied experimentally using shadowgraphy and swept-field confocal microscopy. The microscopy furnishes vertical profiles of the radial velocity using particle image velocimetry (PIV) with neutrally buoyant tracers seeded in the fluid. Experiments were conducted for two complex fluids: aqueous solutions of Carbopol and xanthan gum. On untreated glass surfaces, PIV demonstrates that both fluids experience a significant amount of effective slip. The experiments were repeated on glass that had been treated to feature positive surface charges, thereby promoting adhesion between the negatively charged polymeric constituents of the fluids and the glass surface. The Carbopol and xanthan gum droplets spread more slowly on the treated surface and to a smaller radial distance. PIV demonstrated that this reduced spreading was associated with a substantial reduction in slip. For Carbopol, the effective slip could be eliminated entirely to within the precision of the PIV measurements; the reduction in slip was less effective for xanthan gum, with a weak slip velocity remaining noticeable.

  1. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate purpose...

  2. Fano resonance Rabi splitting of surface plasmons. (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan


    Rabi splitting and Fano resonance are well-known physical phenomena in conventional quantum systems as atoms and quantum dots, arising from strong interaction between two quantum states. In recent years similar features have been observed in various nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic systems. Yet, realization of strong interaction between two or more Fano resonance states has not been accomplished either in quantum or in optical systems. Here we report the observation of Rabi splitting of two strongly coupled surface plasmon Fano resonance states in a three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vertical asymmetric split-ring resonators. The plasmonic system stably supports triple Fano resonance states and double Rabi splittings can occur between lower and upper pairs of the Fano resonance states. The experimental discovery agrees excellently with rigorous numerical simulations, and is well explained by an analytical three-oscillator model. The discovery of Fano resonance Rabi splitting could provide a stimulating insight to explore new fundamental physics in analogous atomic systems and could be used to significantly enhance light-matter interaction for optical sensing and detecting applications.

  3. Photochemical Water-Splitting with Organomanganese Complexes. (United States)

    Kadassery, Karthika J; Dey, Suman Kr; Cannella, Anthony F; Surendhran, Roshaan; Lacy, David C


    Certain organometallic chromophores with water-derived ligands, such as the known [Mn(CO) 3 (μ 3 -OH)] 4 (1) tetramer, drew our attention as possible platforms to study water-splitting reactions. Herein, we investigate the UV irradiation of various tricarbonyl organomanganese complexes, including 1, and demonstrate that dihydrogen, CO, and hydrogen peroxide form as products in a photochemical water-splitting decomposition reaction. The organic and manganese-containing side products are also characterized. Labeling studies with 18 O-1 suggest that the source of oxygen atoms in H 2 O 2 originates from free water that interacts with 1 after photochemical dissociation of CO (1-CO) constituting the oxidative half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Hydrogen production from 1 is the result of several different processes, one of which involves the protons derived from the hydroxido ligands in 1 constituting the reductive half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Other processes that generate H 2 are also operative and are described. Collectively the results from the photochemical decomposition of 1 provide an opportunity to propose a mechanism, and it is discussed within the context of developing new strategies for water-splitting reactions with organomanganese complexes.

  4. Split-hand/split-foot malformation with paternal mutation in the p63 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, I.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Goossens, A.; Assche, F.A. van; Fryns, J.P.


    We report the prenatal diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation of bilateral split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHSFM) with severe lobster claw deformity of hands and feet in a male fetus without associated malformations. A minor manifestation of SHSFM was present in the father with only mild bilateral

  5. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang


    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  6. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... (bismuth vanadate) was investigated in view of combining this 2.4 eV large bandgap semiconductor with a Si back-illuminated photocathode. A device obtained by mechanical stacking of BiVO4 photoanode and standard Si photocathode performs non-assisted water splitting under illumination with Solar......-to-Hydrogen efficiency lower than 0.5%. In addition, BiVO4 was synthesized on the back-side of a Si back-illuminated photocathode to produce a preliminary monolithic solar water splitting device.The Faradaic efficiency of different types of catalysts for the electrochemical production of hydrogen or oxygen was evaluated...

  7. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu


    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  8. Split Notochord Syndrome: A Rare Variant (United States)

    Dhawan, Vidhu; Kapoor, Kanchan; Singh, Balbir; Kochhar, Suman; Sehgal, Alka; Dada, Rima


    Split notochord syndrome represents an extremely rare and pleomorphic form of spinal dysraphism characterized by a persistent communication between the endoderm and the ectoderm, resulting in splitting or deviation of the notochord. It manifests as a cleft in the dorsal midline of the body through which intestinal loops are exteriorized and even myelomeningoceles or teratomas may occur at the site. A rare variant was diagnosed on autopsy of a 23+4-week-old fetus showing a similar dorsal enteric fistula and midline protruding intestinal loops in thoracolumbar region. The anteroposterior radiograph showed a complete midline cleft in the vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 region, and a split in the spinal cord was further confirmed by ultrasonography. Myelomeningocele was erroneously reported on antenatal ultrasound. Thus, awareness of this rare anomaly is necessary to thoroughly evaluate the cases of such spinal defects or suspected myelomeningoceles. PMID:28904581

  9. Fuzzy split and merge for shadow detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya K. Sasi


    Full Text Available Presence of shadow in an image often causes problems in computer vision applications such as object recognition and image segmentation. This paper proposes a method to detect the shadow from a single image using fuzzy split and merge approach. Split and merge is a classical algorithm used in image segmentation. Predicate function in the classical approach is replaced by a Fuzzy predicate in the proposed approach. The method follows a top down approach of recursively splitting an image into homogeneous quadtree blocks, followed by a bottom up approach by merging adjacent unique regions. The method has been compared with previous approaches and found to be better in performance in terms of accuracy.

  10. Plume spread and atmospheric stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The horizontal spread of a plume in atmospheric dispersion can be described by the standard deviation of horizontal direction. The widely used Pasquill-Gifford classes of atmospheric stability have assigned typical values of the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction and of the lapse rate. A measured lapse rate can thus be used to estimate the standard deviation of wind direction. It is examined by means of a large dataset of fast wind measurements how good these estimates are. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  11. Faster multiple emulsification with drop splitting. (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A


    Microfluidic devices can form emulsions in which the drops have an intricate, controlled structure; however, a challenge is that the droplets are produced slowly, typically only a few millilitres per hour. Here, we present a simple technique to increase the production rate. Using a large drop maker, we produce large drops at a fast volumetric rate; by splitting these drops several times in a splitting array, we create drops of the desired small size. The advantage of this over forming the small drops directly using a small drop maker is that the drops can be formed at much faster rates. This can be applied to the production of single and multiple emulsions.

  12. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You


    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  13. Hyperfine splitting in lithium-like bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmann, Matthias; Froemmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Will, Elisa [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Andelkovic, Zoran; Kuehl, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri; Winters, Danyal; Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Botermann, Benjamin; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Geppert, Christopher [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Richard [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Volotka, Andrey [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang [IMP Lanzhou (China)


    High-precision measurements of the hyperfine splitting values on Li- and H-like bismuth ions, combined with precise atomic structure calculations allow us to test QED-effects in the regime of the strongest magnetic fields that are available in the laboratory. Performing laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Darmstadt, we have now succeeded in measuring the hyperfine splitting in Li-like bismuth. Probing this transition has not been easy because of its extremely low fluorescence rate. Details about this challenging experiment will be given and the achieved experimental accuracy are presented.

  14. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    The characteristics of directional spread parameters at intermediate water depth are investigated based on a cosine power '2s' directional spreading model. This is based on wave measurements carried out using a Datawell directional waverider buoy...

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl, the first iron compound with selenate(IV) and tellurate(IV) groups (United States)

    Akhrorov, Akhmad Yu; Kuznetsova, Elena S.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Kuznetsov, Alexey N.; Dolgikh, Valery A.


    During the search for selenium analogues of FeTe2O5Cl, the new iron (III) tellurate(IV) selenate(IV) chloride with the composition Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl was synthesized by chemical vapor transport (CVT) reaction and characterized by TGA-, EDX-,SCXRD-analysis, as well as IR and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unitcell parameters a = 5.183(3) Å, b = 15.521(9) Å, c = 7.128(5) Å and β = 107.16(1)°. The crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl represents a new structure type and contains electroneutral heteropolyhedral layers formed by dimers of the [FeO5Cl]8- octahedra, linked via common O-O edges, and mixed [Te3SeO10]4- tetramers. Adjacent layers are stacked along the b axis and linked by weak residual bonds. The new compound is stable up to 420 °C. DFT calculations predict Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl to be a wide-gap semiconductor with the band gap of ca. 2.7 eV.

  16. The spreading of misinformation online. (United States)

    Del Vicario, Michela; Bessi, Alessandro; Zollo, Fabiana; Petroni, Fabio; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter


    The wide availability of user-provided content in online social media facilitates the aggregation of people around common interests, worldviews, and narratives. However, the World Wide Web (WWW) also allows for the rapid dissemination of unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories that often elicit rapid, large, but naive social responses such as the recent case of Jade Helm 15--where a simple military exercise turned out to be perceived as the beginning of a new civil war in the United States. In this work, we address the determinants governing misinformation spreading through a thorough quantitative analysis. In particular, we focus on how Facebook users consume information related to two distinct narratives: scientific and conspiracy news. We find that, although consumers of scientific and conspiracy stories present similar consumption patterns with respect to content, cascade dynamics differ. Selective exposure to content is the primary driver of content diffusion and generates the formation of homogeneous clusters, i.e., "echo chambers." Indeed, homogeneity appears to be the primary driver for the diffusion of contents and each echo chamber has its own cascade dynamics. Finally, we introduce a data-driven percolation model mimicking rumor spreading and we show that homogeneity and polarization are the main determinants for predicting cascades' size.

  17. Epidemic spread on weighted networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Kamp

    Full Text Available The contact structure between hosts shapes disease spread. Most network-based models used in epidemiology tend to ignore heterogeneity in the weighting of contacts between two individuals. However, this assumption is known to be at odds with the data for many networks (e.g. sexual contact networks and to have a critical influence on epidemics' behavior. One of the reasons why models usually ignore heterogeneity in transmission is that we currently lack tools to analyze weighted networks, such that most studies rely on numerical simulations. Here, we present a novel framework to estimate key epidemiological variables, such as the rate of early epidemic expansion (r0 and the basic reproductive ratio (R0, from joint probability distributions of number of partners (contacts and number of interaction events through which contacts are weighted. These distributions are much easier to infer than the exact shape of the network, which makes the approach widely applicable. The framework also allows for a derivation of the full time course of epidemic prevalence and contact behaviour, which we validate with numerical simulations on networks. Overall, incorporating more realistic contact networks into epidemiological models can improve our understanding of the emergence and spread of infectious diseases.

  18. Brazil : Interest Rates and Intermediation Spreads


    World Bank


    This study sheds light on the analytical and policy issues regarding the high intermediation spread in Brazil, focusing on its determinants, the reasons for its persistence, and its impact on the real economy, especially on access to finance for Brazilian firms. The key contention of the analysis is that high intermediation spreads are a symptom of underlying problems; as such, spreads constitute ...

  19. Discrete objects, splitting closure and connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notions of discrete and indiscrete classes with respect to a closure operator are introduced and studied. These notions are strongly related to splitting and cosplitting closure operators. By linking the above concepts, two Galois connections arise whose composition provides a third Galois connection that can be used as a ...

  20. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...

  1. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.


    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  2. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Concept of split beta. -lactamase protein fragment complementation assay. (A) and (B) are vector systems involved in the assay. As an example, a vector system for bacterial host is described here. (C) Co-transformation of complementation vectors in appropriate bacterial host. (D) and (E) are types of inter- actions expected ...

  3. Molecular catalytic system for efficient water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joya, Khurram Saleem


    The aim of this dissertation is to construct and explore artificial oxygen evolving complexes that are synthetically accessible, stable, functionally robust and efficient. To achieve this, a class of mono metal water splitting catalysts is introduced in this manuscript and exploitation of these

  4. Splitting up Beta’s change


    Suarez, Ronny


    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  5. Shear-wave splitting and moonquakes (United States)

    Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.; Savage, M. K.


    Shear-wave splitting is a powerful tool for measuring anisotropy in the Earth's crust and mantle, and is sensitive to geological features such as fluid filled cracks, thin alternating layers of rock with different elastic properties, and preferred mineral orientations caused by strain. Since a shear wave splitting measurement requires only a single 3-component seismic station, it has potential applications for future single-station planetary seismic missions, such as the InSight geophysical mission to Mars, as well as possible future missions to Europa and the Moon. Here we present a preliminary shear-wave splitting analysis of moonquakes detected by the Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment. Lunar seismic data suffers from several drawbacks compared to modern terrestrial data, including severe seismic scattering, low intrinsic attenuation, 10-bit data resolution, thermal spikes, and timing errors. Despite these drawbacks, we show that it is in principle possible to make a shear wave splitting measurement using the S-phase arrival of a relatively high-quality moonquake, as determined by several agreeing measurement criteria. Encouraged by this finding, we further extend our analysis to clusters of "deep moonquake" events by stacking multiple events from the same cluster together to further enhance the quality of the S-phase arrivals that the measurement is based on.

  6. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness. (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara


    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  8. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia


    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  9. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.


    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...

  10. Undifferentiated Laryngeal Carcinoma with Pagetoid Spread. (United States)

    Sarioglu, Sulen; Dogan, Ersoy; Sahin, Yasemin; Uzun, Evren; Bekis, Recep; Ada, Emel; Sagol, Ozgul; Akman, Fadime


    Pagetoid spread, is used to define intraepithelial spread of cancer cells, when a massive carcinoma is identified beneath the basal membrane. There are only few reports of pagetoid spread at the head and neck region. Herein a 74 year old male patient with bilateral transglottic laryngeal high grade malignant epithelial tumor with pagetoid spread is presented. The tumor was located at the submucosa and there was spread of the CK7 and CK19 positive tumor cells into the non neoplastic mucosa, which was CK5/6 positive, sparing the basement membrane, creating a typical pagetoid pattern. Radiographic and positron emission tomography scan examination of the patient was unremarkable at presentation other than the laryngeal and neck lesions; but extensive systemic metastasis developed at 6 months following operation. To the best of our knowledge no epithelial malignancy with pagetoid spread was described at the larynx. Pagetoid spread may be a hallmark of very aggressive behavior in laryngeal carcinoma.

  11. Non-Mendelian transmission in a human developmental disorder: split hand/split foot.


    Jarvik, G. P.; Patton, M. A.; Homfray, T.; Evans, J. P.


    The study of Mendelian disorders that do not meet some Mendelian expectations has led to an increased understanding of such previously obscure genetic phenomena as anticipation. Split hand/split foot (SHSF), a human developmental malformation, demonstrates such distinctive genetic features as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. In this study, new pedigrees with defined ascertainment confirm the existence of non-Mendelian transmission characterized by the overtransmission of SHSF fro...

  12. Acceleration tests of the INS 25.5-MHz split coaxial RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, S.; Imanishi, A.; Morimoto, T.; Tojyo, E.; Tokuda, N.; Shibuya, S.


    The INS 25.5-MHz split coaxial RFQ, a linac that accelerates ions with a charge-to-mass ratio greater than 1/30 from 1 to 45.4 keV/u, is now undergoing acceleration tests with a beam of molecular nitrogen (N 2 + ) ions. Results so far obtained show that the RFQ operates in accordance with the design. Presented are preliminary results on the beam performance: emittances of the in- and output beams, output energy and its spread, and beam transmission. (author)

  13. Splitting, splitting and splitting again: A brief history of the development of regional government in Indonesia since independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the changes in the structure and role of provincial and sub-provincial governments in Indonesia since independence. Particular attention is paid to the process of splitting both provinces and districts (kabupaten and kota into smaller units. The paper points out that this process has been going on since the 1950s, but has accelerated in the post-Soeharto era. The paper examines why the splitting of government units has occurred in some parts of the Outer Islands to a much greater extent than in Java, and also examines the implications of developments since 1999 for the capacity of local government units to deliver basic services such as health and education.

  14. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures (United States)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew


    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  15. Infrared Peak Splitting from Phonon Localization in Solid Hydrogen. (United States)

    Magdău, Ioan B; Ackland, Graeme J


    We show that the isotope effect leads to a completely different spectroscopic signal in hydrogen-deuterium mixtures, compared to pure elements that have the same crystal structure. This is particularly true for molecular vibrations, which are the main source of information about the structure of high-pressure hydrogen. Mass disorder breaks translational symmetry, meaning that vibrations are localized almost to single molecules, and are not zone-center phonons. In mixtures, each observable infrared (IR) peak corresponds to a collection of many such molecular vibrations, which have a distribution of frequencies depending on local environment. Furthermore discrete groups of environments cause the peaks to split. We illustrate this issue by considering the IR spectrum of the high-pressure phase III structure of hydrogen, recently interpreted as showing novel phases in isotopic mixtures. We calculate the IR spectrum of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures in the C2/c and Cmca-12 structures, showing that isotopic disorder gives rise to mode localization of the high-frequency vibrons. The local coordination of the molecules leads to discrete IR peaks. The spread of frequencies is strongly enhanced with pressure, such that more peaks become resolvable at higher pressures, in agreement with the recent measurements.

  16. Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid (United States)

    Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce


    A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.

  17. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young


    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  18. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  19. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling. (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W


    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  20. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco


    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  1. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C


    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  2. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow


    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e + e - annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  3. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  4. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.


    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  5. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1 M Forero Piulestán1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 24 June 2009 ...

  6. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović


    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  7. Perineural spread in head and neck tumors. (United States)

    Brea Álvarez, B; Tuñón Gómez, M


    Perineural spread is the dissemination of some types of head and neck tumors along nervous structures. Perineural spread has negative repercussions on treatment because it requires more extensive resection and larger fields of irradiation. Moreover, perineural spread is associated with increased local recurrence, and it is considered an independent indicator of poor prognosis in the TNM classification for tumor staging. However, perineural spread often goes undetected on imaging studies. In this update, we review the concept of perineural spread, its pathogenesis, and the main pathways and connections among the facial nerves, which are essential to understand this process. Furthermore, we discuss the appropriate techniques for imaging studies, and we describe and illustrate the typical imaging signs that help identify perineural spread on CT and MRI. Finally, we discuss the differential diagnosis with other entities. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans. (United States)


    ...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General rules—(1... split-dollar loan depend upon the relationship between the parties and upon whether the loan is a demand...-dollar demand loan is any split-dollar loan that is payable in full at any time on the demand of the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  10. MIMO Based Eigen-Space Spreading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eltawil, Ahmed


    .... Combination of this powerful technique with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based modulation and traditional time and frequency spreading techniques results in a highly secure mode of communications...

  11. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting (United States)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  12. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.


    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  13. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors (United States)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun


    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets.

  14. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer. (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua


    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  15. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu


    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  16. Tectonics and magmatism of ultraslow spreading ridges (United States)

    Dubinin, E. P.; Kokhan, A. V.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.


    The tectonics, structure-forming processes, and magmatism in rift zones of ultraslow spreading ridges are exemplified in the Reykjanes, Kolbeinsey, Mohns, Knipovich, Gakkel, and Southwest Indian ridges. The thermal state of the mantle, the thickness of the brittle lithospheric layer, and spreading obliquety are the most important factors that control the structural pattern of rift zones. For the Reykjanes and Kolbeinsey ridges, the following are crucial factors: variations in the crust thickness; relationships between the thicknesses of its brittle and ductile layers; width of the rift zone; increase in intensity of magma supply approaching the Iceland thermal anomaly; and spreading obliquety. For the Knipovich Ridge, these are its localization in the transitional zone between the Gakkel and Mohns ridges under conditions of shear and tensile stresses and multiple rearrangements of spreading; nonorthogonal spreading; and structural and compositional barrier of thick continental lithosphere at the Barents Sea shelf and Spitsbergen. The Mohns Ridge is characterized by oblique spreading under conditions of a thick cold lithosphere and narrow stable rift zone. The Gakkel and the Southwest Indian ridges are distinguished by the lowest spreading rate under the settings of the along-strike variations in heating of the mantle and of a variable spreading geometry. The intensity of endogenic structure-forming varies along the strike of the ridges. In addition to the prevalence of tectonic factors in the formation of the topography, magmatism and metamorphism locally play an important role.

  17. Modelling unidirectional liquid spreading on slanted microposts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Blow, Matthew L.; Yeomans, Julia M.


    A lattice Boltzmann algorithm is used to simulate the slow spreading of drops on a surface patterned with slanted micro-posts. Gibb's pinning of the interface on the sides or top of the posts leads to unidirectional spreading over a wide range of contact angles and inclination angles of the posts...

  18. Age, spreading rates, and spreading asymmetry of the world's ocean crust (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The authors present four companion digital models of the age, age uncertainty, spreading rates and spreading asymmetries of the world's ocean basins as geographic...

  19. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong


    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  20. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines. (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H


    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  1. Randomized clinical trial comparing fixed-time split dosing and split dosing of oral Picosulfate regimen for bowel preparation. (United States)

    Jun, Jae Hyuck; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Seo, Hyun Il; Kim, Young Don; Lee, Sang Jin; Jun, Baek Gyu; Hwang, Min Sik; Park, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Myeong Jong; Cheon, Gab Jin


    To compare the efficacy of fixed-time split dose and split dose of an oral sodium picosulfate for bowel preparation. This is study was prospective, randomized controlled study performed at a single Institution (2013-058). A total of 204 subjects were assigned to receive one of two sodium picosulfate regimens ( i.e ., fixed-time split or split) prior to colonoscopy. Main outcome measurements were bowel preparation quality and subject tolerability. There was no statistical difference between the fixed-time split dose regimen group and the split dose regimen group (Ottawa score mean 2.57 ± 1.91 vs 2.80 ± 2.51, P = 0.457). Cecal intubation time and physician's satisfaction of inspection were not significantly different between the two groups ( P = 0.428, P = 0.489). On subgroup analysis, for afternoon procedures, the fixed-time split dose regimen was equally effective as compared with the split dose regimen (Ottawa score mean 2.56 ± 1.78 vs 2.59 ± 2.27, P = 0.932). There was no difference in tolerability or compliance between the two groups. Nausea was 21.2% in the fixed-time split dose group and 14.3% in the split dose group ( P = 0.136). Vomiting was 7.1% and 2.9% ( P = 0.164), abdominal discomfort 7.1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.484), dizziness 1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.113), cold sweating 1% and 0% ( P = 0.302) and palpitation 0% and 1% ( P = 0.330), respectively. Sleep disturbance was two (2%) patients in the fixed-time split dose group and zero (0%) patient in the split dose preparation ( P = 0.143) group. A fixed-time split dose regimen with sodium picosulfate is not inferior to a split dose regimen for bowel preparation and equally effective for afternoon colonoscopy.

  2. The Regularity of Functions on Dual Split Quaternions in Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim


    Full Text Available This paper shows some properties of dual split quaternion numbers and expressions of power series in dual split quaternions and provides differential operators in dual split quaternions and a dual split regular function on Ω⊂ℂ2×ℂ2 that has a dual split Cauchy-Riemann system in dual split quaternions.

  3. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.


    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semisimple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggest that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.)

  4. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri


    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  5. An Iterative Algorithm for the Split Equality and Multiple-Sets Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoyi Shi


    Full Text Available The multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP requires finding a point x∈∩i=1NCi, y∈∩j=1MQj such that Ax=By, where N and M are positive integers, {C1,C2,…,CN} and {Q1,Q2,…,QM} are closed convex subsets of Hilbert spaces H1, H2, respectively, and A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 are two bounded linear operators. When N=M=1, the MSSEP is called the split equality problem (SEP. If  B=I, then the MSSEP and SEP reduce to the well-known multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSSFP and split feasibility problem (SFP, respectively. One of the purposes of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm to solve the SEP and MSSEP in the framework of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces under some more mild conditions for the iterative coefficient.

  6. SIHR rumor spreading model in social networks (United States)

    Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Jiajia; Chen, Yucheng; Wang, Qin; Cheng, Jingjing; Cui, Hongxin


    There are significant differences between rumor spreading and epidemic spreading in social networks, especially with consideration of the mutual effect of forgetting and remembering mechanisms. In this paper, a new rumor spreading model, Susceptible-Infected-Hibernator-Removed (SIHR) model, is developed. The model extends the classical Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) rumor spreading model by adding a direct link from ignorants to stiflers and a new kind of people-Hibernators. We derive mean-field equations that describe the dynamics of the SIHR model in social networks. Then a steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the final size of the rumor spreading under various spreading rate, stifling rate, forgetting rate, and average degree of the network. We discuss the spreading threshold and find the relationship between the final size of the rumor and two probabilities. Also Runge-Kutta method is used for numerical simulation which shows that the direct link from the ignorants to the stiflers advances the rumor terminal time and reduces the maximum rumor influence. Moreover, the forgetting and remembering mechanisms of hibernators postpone the rumor terminal time and reduce the maximum rumor influence.

  7. Contrasted fossil spreading centers off Baja California (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Michaud, F.; Royer, J. Y.; Bourgois, J.; Sichler, B.; Bandy, W.; Mortera, C.; Sosson, M.; Pontoise, B.; Calmus, T.


    In April 2002, R/V L Atalante collected swath-bathymetry, surface and deep tow magnetic, gravity and seismic data in order to investigate the existence, characteristics and age of the Guadalupe and Magdalena fossil spreading centers that were postulated off Baja California (eastern Pacific Ocean). The new data confirm the existence of these extinct spreading centers and better define the location and orientation of the Magdalena Ridge segments. The two fossil ridges exhibit very different characters. The Guadalupe fossil axis displays a deep N-S axial valley with a 2D geometry, and regular abyssal hills and magnetic anomalies on its flanks. According to surface and deep tow magnetics, seafloor spreading stopped at 12 Ma (anomaly 5A). Conversely, the Magdalena fossil spreading system exhibits a complex bathymetric structure, with a series of ridge segments and conjugate fan-shaped abyssal hills, troughs and volcanic highs, and spreading discontinuities with various orientation. The surface and deep-tow magnetics indicate an age younger than or equal to 12 Ma, 5A being the youngest unambiguously identified magnetic anomaly. The morphological and structural difference between the two fossil spreading centers is striking. We interpret the fan-shaped abyssal hills and the various structural direction of the Magdalena spreading system as the result of a continuous clockwise change in spreading direction of about 18deg./Ma, for a total of 45deg. between anomalies 5B and 5A. Spreading finally ceased when the seafloor spreading direction became parallel to the margin. We believe that then, a new strike-slip plate boundary initiated along the western margin of Baja California. The Guadalupe ridge gradually slowed down with a minor 10deg. reorientation prior to extinction at chron 5A. This observation suggests that a Magdalena plate and a Guadalupe plate started to behave independently at about 14.5 Ma, with the Shirley FZ (27.6N) acting as a plate boundary. Whether there

  8. Credit Spreads Across the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    that accounts for both business cycle and jump risk, and show by estimation that the model captures the counter-cyclical level and pro-cyclical slope of empirical credit spread curves. In addition, I provide a new procedure for estimation of idiosyncratic jump risk, which is consistent with observed shocks......This paper studies how corporate bond spreads vary with the business cycle. I show that both level and slope of empirical credit spread curves are correlated with the state of the economy, and I link this to variation in idiosyncratic jump risk. I develop a structural credit risk model...... to firm fundamentals....

  9. Dynamics of rumor spreading in complex networks. (United States)

    Moreno, Yamir; Nekovee, Maziar; Pacheco, Amalio F


    We derive the mean-field equations characterizing the dynamics of a rumor process that takes place on top of complex heterogeneous networks. These equations are solved numerically by means of a stochastic approach. First, we present analytical and Monte Carlo calculations for homogeneous networks and compare the results with those obtained by the numerical method. Then, we study the spreading process in detail for random scale-free networks. The time profiles for several quantities are numerically computed, which allows us to distinguish among different variants of rumor spreading algorithms. Our conclusions are directed to possible applications in replicated database maintenance, peer-to-peer communication networks, and social spreading phenomena.

  10. Credit Spreads Across the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    This paper studies how corporate bond spreads vary with the business cycle. I show that both level and slope of empirical credit spread curves are correlated with the state of the economy, and I link this to variation in idiosyncratic jump risk. I develop a structural credit risk model...... that accounts for both business cycle and jump risk, and show by estimation that the model captures the counter-cyclical level and pro-cyclical slope of empirical credit spread curves. In addition, I provide a new procedure for estimation of idiosyncratic jump risk, which is consistent with observed shocks...

  11. Adaptive coded spreading OFDM signal for dynamic-λ optical access network (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun


    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a novel adaptive coded spreading (ACS) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for dynamic distributed optical ring-based access network. The wavelength can be assigned to different remote nodes (RNs) according to the traffic demand of optical network unit (ONU). The ACS can provide dynamic spreading gain to different signals according to the split ratio or transmission length, which offers flexible power budget for the network. A 10×13.12 Gb/s OFDM access with ACS is successfully demonstrated over two RNs and 120 km transmission in the experiment. The demonstrated method may be viewed as one promising for future optical metro access network.

  12. Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce fuel hydrogen (United States)

    Yuan, Hao

    Solar energy is regarded as a promising source for clean and sustainable energy. However, it is not a continuous energy source, thus certain strategies have to be developed to effectively convert and store it. Solar-driven electrocatalytic water splitting, which converts solar energy into chemical energy for storage as fuel hydrogen, can effectively mitigate the intermittence of solar radiation. Water splitting consists of two half reactions: water oxidation and hydrogen evolution. Both reactions rely on highly effective electrocatalysts. This dissertation is an account of four detailed studies on developing highly effective low-cost electrocatalysts for both reactions, and includes a preliminary attempt at system integration to build a functional photoanode for solar-driven water oxidation. For the water oxidation reaction, we have developed an electrochemical method to immobilize a cobalt-based (Co-OXO) water oxidation catalyst on a conductive surface to promote recyclability and reusability without affecting functionality. We have also developed a method to synthesize a manganese-based (MnOx) catalytic film in situ, generating a nanoscale fibrous morphology that provides steady and excellent water oxidation performance. The new method involves two series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) over different potential ranges, followed by calcination to increase crystallinity. The research has the potential to open avenues for synthesizing and optimizing other manganese-based water oxidation catalysts. For the hydrogen evolution reaction, we have developed a new electrodeposition method to synthesize Ni/Ni(OH)2 catalysts in situ on conductive surfaces. The new method involves only two cycles of CV over a single potential range. The resulting catalytic film has a morphology of packed walnut-shaped particles. It has superior catalytic activity and good stability over long periods. We have investigated the feasibility of incorporating manganese-based water oxidation catalysts

  13. The impact of payment splitting on liquidity requirements in RTGS


    Denbee, Edward; Norman, Ben


    This paper examines the impact that payment splitting could have upon the liquidity requirements and efficiency of a large-value payment system, such as the United Kingdom’s CHAPS. Using the Bank of Finland Payment and Settlement Simulator and real UK payments data we find that payment splitting could reduce the liquidity required to settle payments. The reduction in required liquidity would increase as the payment splitting threshold decreased but the relationship is non-linear. Liquidity sa...

  14. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao


    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  15. Information spreading and development of cultural centers (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim


    The historical interplay between societies is governed by many factors, including in particular the spreading of languages, religion, and other symbolic traits. Cultural development, in turn, is coupled to the emergence and maintenance of information spreading. Strong centralized cultures exist due to attention from their members, whose faithfulness in turn relies on the supply of information. Here we discuss a culture evolution model on a planar geometry that takes into account aspects of the feedback between information spreading and its maintenance. Features of the model are highlighted by comparing it to cultural spreading in ancient and medieval Europe, where it suggests in particular that long-lived centers should be located in geographically remote regions.

  16. Spreading characteristics of proprietary rectal steroid preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, D.J.


    Three types of rectal steroid preparation were labelled with Technetium 99 or Indium 111, and the extent of spread of each within the bowel was followed, immediately after administration and at 2hrs, using a gamma camera. Patients with ulcerative colitis were compared with controls. Results indicate that 'Colifoam' enema and 'Predsol' suppository act mainly in the rectum, but 'Predsol retention' enema spreads further into the colon, making it more useful for patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. (U.K.)

  17. Irregularities and Forecast Studies of Equatorial Spread (United States)


    document in the published literature . The result implies that the aeronomy of the postsunset equatorial ionosphere is sufficiently well understood for...of equatorial spread F in the Peruvian sector, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 38153827, doi:10.1002/2014JA019889. ◦ Hysell, D. L., M. A. Milla...L. Condori, and J. W. Meriwether (2014), Data-driven numer- ical simulations of equatorial spread F in the Peruvian sector: 2. Autumnal equinox, J

  18. A Power System Network Splitting Strategy Based on Contingency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawani Saharuddin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a network splitting strategy following critical line outages based on N-1 contingency analysis. Network splitting is the best option for certain critical outages when the tendency of severe cascading failures is very high. Network splitting is executed by splitting the power system network into feasible set of islands. Thus, it is essential to identify the optimal splitting solution (in terms of minimal power flow disruption that satisfies certain constraints. This paper determines the optimal splitting solution for each of the critical line outage using discrete evolutionary programming (DEP optimization technique assisted by heuristic initialization approach. Heuristic initialization provides the best initial cutsets which will guide the optimization technique to find the optimal splitting solution. Generation–load balance and transmission line overloading analysis are carried out in each island to ensure the steady state stability is achieved. Load shedding scheme is initiated if the power balance criterion is violated in any island to sustain the generation–load balance. The proposed technique is validated on the IEEE 118 bus system. Results show that the proposed approach produces an optimal splitting solution with lower power flow disruption during network splitting execution.

  19. Raman spectroscopy of tellurate-tungstate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugov, I.B.; Brovchenko, I.M.; Kabanov, V.O.; Yanush, O.V.


    The Raman spectra of xTeO 2 - (1-x)WO 3 glasses, where 0.75 4 , WO 4 and WO 6 structural groups observed. This is in accordance with the absence of some chemical compounds between TeO 2 and WO 3 in the phase diagram of the system. The presence of WO 4 tetrahedra in the glasses, not observed in the different WO 3 crystalline modifications and the crystallized glasses, was defined as a feature of WO 3 g lassy state . It was suggested that the WO 4 tetrahedron does not replace equivalently the TeO 4 polyhedron in the glass structure, as it was reported previously, because of the different valency state of both cations. (author)

  20. Roles of the spreading scope and effectiveness in spreading dynamics on multiplex networks (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Run-Ran; Peng, Dan; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong


    Comparing with single networks, the multiplex networks bring two main effects on the spreading process among individuals. First, the pathogen or information can be transmitted to more individuals through different layers at one time, which enlarges the spreading scope. Second, through different layers, an individual can also transmit the pathogen or information to the same individuals more than once at one time, which makes the spreading more effective. To understand the different roles of the spreading scope and effectiveness, we propose an epidemic model on multiplex networks with link overlapping, where the spreading effectiveness of each interaction as well as the variety of channels (spreading scope) can be controlled by the number of overlapping links. We find that for Poisson degree distribution, increasing the epidemic scope (the first effect) is more efficient than enhancing epidemic probability (the second effect) to facilitate the spreading process. However, for power-law degree distribution, the effects of the two factors on the spreading dynamics become complicated. Enhancing epidemic probability makes pathogen or rumor easier to outbreak in a finite system. But after that increasing epidemic scopes is still more effective for a wide spreading. Theoretical results along with reasonable explanation for these phenomena are all given in this paper, which indicates that the epidemic scope could play an important role in the spreading dynamics.

  1. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John


    Most of today’s complex systems and processes involve several stages through which input or the raw material has to go before the final product is obtained. Also in many cases factors at different stages interact. Therefore, a holistic approach for experimentation that considers all stages...... on the Kronecker product representation of orthogonal designs and can be used for any number of stages, for various numbers of subplots and for different number of subplots for each stage. The procedure is demonstrated on both regular and nonregular designs and provides the maximum number of factors that can...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  2. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator....... Finally the velocity estimates from each frequency band are averaged to obtain an improved velocity estimate. The FS method has been evaluated in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS. In both simulations and experiments...

  3. Dynamical Model about Rumor Spreading with Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaxia Zhao


    Full Text Available Rumor is a kind of social remark, that is untrue, and not be confirmed, and spreads on a large scale in a short time. Usually, it can induce a cloud of pressure, anxiety, and panic. Traditionally, it is propagated by word of mouth. Nowadays, with the emergence of the internet, rumors can be spread by instant messengers, emails, or publishing. With this new pattern of spreading, an ISRW dynamical model considering the medium as a subclass is established. Beside the dynamical analysis of the model, we mainly explore the mechanism of spreading of individuals-to-individuals and medium-to-individual. By numerical simulation, we find that if we want to control the rumor spreading, it will not only need to control the rate of change of the spreader subclass, but also need to control the change of the information about rumor in medium which has larger influence. Moreover, to control the effusion of rumor is more important than deleting existing information about rumor. On the one hand, government should enhance the management of internet. On the other hand, relevant legal institutions for punishing the rumor creator and spreader on internet who can be tracked should be established. Using this way, involved authorities can propose efficient measures to control the rumor spreading to keep the stabilization of society and development of economy.

  4. Gossip spread in social network Models (United States)

    Johansson, Tobias


    Gossip almost inevitably arises in real social networks. In this article we investigate the relationship between the number of friends of a person and limits on how far gossip about that person can spread in the network. How far gossip travels in a network depends on two sets of factors: (a) factors determining gossip transmission from one person to the next and (b) factors determining network topology. For a simple model where gossip is spread among people who know the victim it is known that a standard scale-free network model produces a non-monotonic relationship between number of friends and expected relative spread of gossip, a pattern that is also observed in real networks (Lind et al., 2007). Here, we study gossip spread in two social network models (Toivonen et al., 2006; Vázquez, 2003) by exploring the parameter space of both models and fitting them to a real Facebook data set. Both models can produce the non-monotonic relationship of real networks more accurately than a standard scale-free model while also exhibiting more realistic variability in gossip spread. Of the two models, the one given in Vázquez (2003) best captures both the expected values and variability of gossip spread.

  5. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang


    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  6. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh


    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  7. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stuerner

    Full Text Available Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs, but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS. A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  8. High-temperature spreading kinetics of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, N.


    In this PhD work a drop transfer setup combined with high speed photography has been used to analyze the spreading of Ag on polished polycrystalline Mo and single crystalline Mo (110) and (100) substrates. The objective of this work was to unveil the basic phenomena controlling spreading in metal-metal systems. The observed spreading kinetics were compared with current theories of low and high temperature spreading such as a molecular kinetic model and a fluid flow model. Analyses of the data reveal that the molecular model does describe the fastest velocity data well for all the investigated systems. Therefore, the energy which is dissipated during the spreading process is a dissipation at the triple line rather than dissipation due to the viscosity in the liquid. A comparison of the determined free activation energy for wetting of {delta}G95{approx}145kJ/mol with literature values allows the statement that the rate determining step seems to be a surface diffusion of the Ag atoms along the triple line. In order to investigate possible ridge formation, due to local atomic diffusion of atoms of the substrate at the triple during the spreading process, grooving experiments of the polycrystalline Mo were performed to calculate the surface diffusities that will control ridge evolution. The analyses of this work showed that a ridge formation at the fastest reported wetting velocities was not possible if there is no initial perturbation for a ridge. If there was an initial perturbation for a ridge the ridge had to be much smaller than 1 nm in order to be able to move with the liquid font. Therefore ridge formation does not influence the spreading kinetics for the studied system and the chosen conditions. SEM, AFM and TEM investigations of the triple line showed that ridge formation does also not occur at the end of the wetting experiment when the drop is close to equilibrium and the wetting velocity is slow. (orig.)

  9. Terrestrial spreading centers under Venus conditions - Evaluation of a crustal spreading model for Western Aphrodite Terra (United States)

    Sotin, C.; Senske, D. A.; Head, J. W.; Parmentier, E. M.


    The model of Reid and Jackson (1981) for terrestrial spreading centers is applied to Venus conditions. On the basis of spreading rate, mantle temperature, and surface temperature, the model predicts both isostatic topography and crustal thickness. The model and Pioneer Venus altimetry and gravity data are used to test the hypothesis of Head and Crumpler (1987) that Western Aphrodite Terra is the location of crustal spreading on Venus. It is concluded that a spreading center model for Ovda Regio in Western Aphrodite Terra could account for the observed topography and line-of-sight gravity anomalies found in the Pioneer data.

  10. Amagmatic Accretionary Segments, Ultraslow Spreading and Non-Volcanic Rifted Margins (Invited) (United States)

    Dick, H. J.; Snow, J. E.


    The evolution of non-volcanic rifted margins is key to understanding continental breakup and the early evolution of some of the world’s most productive hydrocarbon basins. However, the early stages of such rifting are constrained by limited observations on ancient heavily sedimented margins such as Newfoundland and Iberia. Ultraslow spreading ridges, however, provide a modern analogue for early continental rifting. Ultraslow spreading ridges (ridge system (e.g. Gakkel, Southwest Indian, Terceira, and Knipovitch Ridges). They have unique tectonics with widely spaced volcanic segments and amagmatic accretionary ridge segments. The volcanic segments, though far from hot spots, include some of the largest axial volcanoes on the global ridge system, and have, unusual magma chemistry, often showing local isotopic and incompatible element enrichment unrelated to mantle hot spots. The transition from slow to ultraslow tectonics and spreading is not uniquely defined by spreading rate, and may also be moderated by magma supply and mantle temperature. Amagmatic accretionary segments are the 4th class of plate boundary structure, and, we believe, the defining tectonic feature of early continental breakup. They form at effective spreading rates spreading, and replace transform faults and magmatic segments. At amagmatic segments the earth splits apart with the mantle emplaced directly to the seafloor, and great slabs of peridotite are uplifted to form the rift mountains. A thick conductive lid suppresses mantle melting, and magmatic segments form only at widely spaced intervals, with only scattered volcanics in between. Amagmatic segments link with the magmatic segments forming curvilinear plate boundaries, rather than the step-like morphology found at faster spreading ridges. These are all key features of non-volcanic rifted margins; explaining, for example, the presence of mantle peridotites emplaced simultaneously on both the Newfoundland and Iberian Margins in the Jurassic

  11. Spreading of Cholera through Surface Water (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.


    Cholera epidemics are still a major public health concern to date in many areas of the world. In order to understand and forecast cholera outbreaks, one of the most important factors is the role played by the environmental matrix in which the disease spreads. We study how river networks, acting as environmental corridors for pathogens, affect the spreading of cholera epidemics. The environmental matrix in which the disease spreads is constituted by different human communities and their hydrologic interconnections. Each community is characterized by its spatial position, population size, water resources availability and hygiene conditions. By implementing a spatially explicit cholera model we seek the effects on epidemic dynamics of: i) the topology and metrics of the pathogens pathways that connect different communities; ii) the spatial distribution of the population size; and iii) the spatial distributions and quality of surface water resources and public health conditions, and how they vary with population size. The model has been applied to study the space-time evolution of a well documented cholera epidemic occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The epidemic lasted for two years and involved about 140,000 confirmed cholera cases. The model does well in reproducing the distribution of the cholera cases during the two outbreaks as well as their spatial spreading. We further extend the model by deriving the speed of propagation of traveling fronts in the case of uniformly distributed systems for different topologies: one and two dimensional lattices and river networks. The derivation of the spreading celerity proves instrumental in establishing the overall conditions for the relevance of spatially explicit models. The conditions are sought by comparison between spreading and disease timescales. Consider a cholera epidemic that starts from a point and spreads throughout a finite size system, it is possible to identify two different timescales: i

  12. Free energy analysis of cell spreading. (United States)

    McEvoy, Eóin; Deshpande, Vikram S; McGarry, Patrick


    In this study we present a steady-state adaptation of the thermodynamically motivated stress fiber (SF) model of Vigliotti et al. (2015). We implement this steady-state formulation in a non-local finite element setting where we also consider global conservation of the total number of cytoskeletal proteins within the cell, global conservation of the number of binding integrins on the cell membrane, and adhesion limiting ligand density on the substrate surface. We present a number of simulations of cell spreading in which we consider a limited subset of the possible deformed spread-states assumed by the cell in order to examine the hypothesis that free energy minimization drives the process of cell spreading. Simulations suggest that cell spreading can be viewed as a competition between (i) decreasing cytoskeletal free energy due to strain induced assembly of cytoskeletal proteins into contractile SFs, and (ii) increasing elastic free energy due to stretching of the mechanically passive components of the cell. The computed minimum free energy spread area is shown to be lower for a cell on a compliant substrate than on a rigid substrate. Furthermore, a low substrate ligand density is found to limit cell spreading. The predicted dependence of cell spread area on substrate stiffness and ligand density is in agreement with the experiments of Engler et al. (2003). We also simulate the experiments of Théry et al. (2006), whereby initially circular cells deform and adhere to "V-shaped" and "Y-shaped" ligand patches. Analysis of a number of different spread states reveals that deformed configurations with the lowest free energy exhibit a SF distribution that corresponds to experimental observations, i.e. a high concentration of highly aligned SFs occurs along free edges, with lower SF concentrations in the interior of the cell. In summary, the results of this study suggest that cell spreading is driven by free energy minimization based on a competition between decreasing

  13. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.


    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  14. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events (United States)


    ... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...

  15. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events (United States)


    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  16. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  17. April / May 2006. 108 Harvesting split thickness skin in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Background: In the third world countries like Ethiopia the majority of Hospitals have difficulties in harvesting split thickness skin ... The grafts were well taken by the recipient areas and technically there was no danger of deep bite. Conclusion: Split ... to meet the hospital needs. Thus we need to improvise and use appropriate.

  18. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert


    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  19. Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, M.; Jonsson, M.P.; Biskos, G.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Smith, W.A.


    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar

  20. Enhanced residual mean circulation during the evolution of split type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    keywords: split events, stratospheric sudden warming, residual mean circulation. 1 Introduction ... sudden warming. It is characterized by a rapid cooling of the polar cap tempera- ture (Kuroda, 2008). The competition between planetary waves and gravity waves to the residual .... any automated scheme. The split events ...

  1. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assistance of metal nanostructures and quantum dots to semiconductors attains vital importance as they are exuberant visible light harvesters and charge carrier amplifiers. Benevolent use of quantum dots in solar water splitting and photoelectrochemical water splitting provides scope to revolutionize the quantum efficiency ...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  3. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.


    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  4. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom


    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  5. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Hisatomi, Takashi


    Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Post-Tanner spreading of nematic droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechkov, S; Oshanin, G [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Cazabat, A M, E-mail: mechkov@lptmc.jussieu.f, E-mail: anne-marie.cazabat@lps.ens.f, E-mail: oshanin@lptmc.jussieu.f [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France)


    The quasistationary spreading of a circular liquid drop on a solid substrate typically obeys the so-called Tanner law, with the instantaneous base radius R(t) growing with time as Rapproxt{sup 1/10}-an effect of the dominant role of capillary forces for a small-sized droplet. However, for droplets of nematic liquid crystals, a faster spreading law sets in at long times, so that Rapproxt{sup a}lpha with alpha significantly larger than the Tanner exponent 1/10. In the framework of the thin film model (or lubrication approximation), we describe this 'acceleration' as a transition to a qualitatively different spreading regime driven by a strong substrate-liquid interaction specific to nematics (antagonistic anchoring at the interfaces). The numerical solution of the thin film equation agrees well with the available experimental data for nematics, even though the non-Newtonian rheology has yet to be taken into account. Thus we complement the theory of spreading with a post-Tanner stage, noting that the spreading process can be expected to cross over from the usual capillarity-dominated stage to a regime where the whole reservoir becomes a diffusive film in the sense of Derjaguin.

  7. Post-Tanner spreading of nematic droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechkov, S; Oshanin, G; Cazabat, A M


    The quasistationary spreading of a circular liquid drop on a solid substrate typically obeys the so-called Tanner law, with the instantaneous base radius R(t) growing with time as R∼t 1/10 -an effect of the dominant role of capillary forces for a small-sized droplet. However, for droplets of nematic liquid crystals, a faster spreading law sets in at long times, so that R∼t α with α significantly larger than the Tanner exponent 1/10. In the framework of the thin film model (or lubrication approximation), we describe this 'acceleration' as a transition to a qualitatively different spreading regime driven by a strong substrate-liquid interaction specific to nematics (antagonistic anchoring at the interfaces). The numerical solution of the thin film equation agrees well with the available experimental data for nematics, even though the non-Newtonian rheology has yet to be taken into account. Thus we complement the theory of spreading with a post-Tanner stage, noting that the spreading process can be expected to cross over from the usual capillarity-dominated stage to a regime where the whole reservoir becomes a diffusive film in the sense of Derjaguin.

  8. Turbulent wedge spreading dynamics and control strategies (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Goldstein, David; Brown, Garry


    Turbulent wedges are encountered in some routes to transition in wall bounded flows, particularly those involving surface roughness. They are characterized by strongly turbulent regions that are formed downstream of large disturbances, and spread into the non-turbulent flow. Altering the wedge spreading mechanism is a possible drag reduction strategy. Following recent studies of Goldstein, Chu and Brown (Flow Turbul. Combust. 98(1), 2017) and Kuester and White (Exp. Fluids 57(4), 2016), we explore the relation between the base flow vorticity field and turbulent wedge spreading using immersed boundary direct numerical simulations. The lateral spreading rate of the wedges are similar for high Reynolds number boundary layers and Couette flow, but differences emerge in wall normal propagation of turbulence. We also attempt to utilize the surface texture based strategy suggested by Strand and Goldstein (J. Fluid Mech. 668, 2011) to reduce the spreading of isolated turbulent spots, for turbulent wedge control. The effects of height, spacing and orientation of fins on the dynamics of wedge evolution are studied. The results are interpreted from a vorticity dynamics point of view. Supported by AFOSR # FA9550-15-1-0345.

  9. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik


    The split cylinder testis subjected to an analysis combining nonlinear fracture mechanics and plasticity. The fictitious crack model is applied for the analysis of splitting tensile fracture, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is adopted for modelling the compressive crushing/sliding failure. Two...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...... properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...

  10. Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars


    . To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...

  11. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi


    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  12. Diffusive spreading in nature, technology and society

    CERN Document Server

    Caro, Jürgen; Kärger, Jörg; Vogl, Gero


    This book deals with randomly moving objects and their spreading. The objects considered are particles like atoms and molecules, just as living beings like humans, animals, plants, bacteria and even abstract entities like ideas, rumors, information, innovations and linguistic features. The book explores and communicates the laws behind these movements and reports about astonishing similarities and very specific features typical of the given object under considerations. Leading scientists in disciplines as different as archeology, epidemics, linguistics and sociology, in contact with their colleagues from engineering, natural sciences and mathematics, introduce into the phenomena of spreading as relevant for their fields. An introductory chapter on “Spreading Fundamentals” provides a common basis for all these considerations, with a minimum of mathematics, selected and presented for enjoying rather than frustrating the reader.

  13. Seasonal variations of equatorial spread-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. V. Subbarao


    Full Text Available The occurrence of spread-F at Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, dip 0.5°N has been investigated on a seasonal basis in sunspot maximum and minimum years in terms of the growth rate of irregularities by the generalized collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT instability mechanism which includes the gravitational and cross-field instability terms. The occurrence statistics of spread-F at Trivandrum have been obtained using quarter hourly ionograms. The nocturnal variations of the growth rate of irregularities by the GRT mechanism have been estimated for different seasons in sunspot maximum and minimum years at Trivandrum using h'F values and vertical drift velocities obtained from ionograms. It is found that the seasonal variation of spread-F occurrence at Trivandrum can, in general, be accounted for on the basis of the GRT mechanism.

  14. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu


    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  15. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  16. Can rewiring strategy control the epidemic spreading? (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Yin, Qiuju; Liu, Wenyang; Yan, Zhijun; Shi, Tianyu


    Relation existed in the social contact network can affect individuals' behaviors greatly. Considering the diversity of relation intimacy among network nodes, an epidemic propagation model is proposed by incorporating the link-breaking threshold, which is normally neglected in the rewiring strategy. The impact of rewiring strategy on the epidemic spreading in the weighted adaptive network is explored. The results show that the rewiring strategy cannot always control the epidemic prevalence, especially when the link-breaking threshold is low. Meanwhile, as well as strong links, weak links also play a significant role on epidemic spreading.

  17. Selective sweep on human amylase genes postdates the split with Neanderthals (United States)

    Inchley, Charlotte E.; Larbey, Cynthia D. A.; Shwan, Nzar A. A.; Pagani, Luca; Saag, Lauri; Antão, Tiago; Jacobs, Guy; Hudjashov, Georgi; Metspalu, Ene; Mitt, Mario; Eichstaedt, Christina A.; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Mormina, Maru; Mägi, Reedik; Villems, Richard; Metspalu, Mait; Jones, Martin K.; Armour, John A. L.; Kivisild, Toomas


    Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number expansion occurred and whether its spread was enhanced by selection. Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase locus show notable depression of genetic diversity both in African and non-African populations. Analysis of genetic variation in these regions supports the model of an early selective sweep in the human lineage after the split of humans from Neanderthals which led to the fixation of multiple copies of AMY1 in place of a single copy. We find evidence of multiple secondary losses of copy number with the highest frequency (52%) of a deletion of AMY2A and associated low copy number of AMY1 in Northeast Siberian populations whose diet has been low in starch content. PMID:27853181

  18. Photoswitchable Rabi Splitting in Hybrid Plasmon-Waveguide Modes. (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Wang, Mingsong; Wei, Xiaoling; Peng, Xiaolei; Xie, Chong; Zheng, Yuebing


    Rabi splitting that arises from strong plasmon-molecule coupling has attracted tremendous interests. However, it has remained elusive to integrate Rabi splitting into the hybrid plasmon-waveguide modes (HPWMs), which have advantages of both subwavelength light confinement of surface plasmons and long-range propagation of guided modes in dielectric waveguides. Herein, we explore a new type of HPWMs based on hybrid systems of Al nanodisk arrays covered by PMMA thin films that are doped with photochromic molecules and demonstrate the photoswitchable Rabi splitting with a maximum splitting energy of 572 meV in the HPWMs by controlling the photoisomerization of the molecules. Through our experimental measurements combined with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, we reveal that the photoswitchable Rabi splitting arises from the switchable coupling between the HPWMs and molecular excitons. By harnessing the photoswitchable Rabi splitting, we develop all-optical light modulators and rewritable waveguides. The demonstration of Rabi splitting in the HPWMs will further advance scientific research and device applications of hybrid plasmon-molecule systems.

  19. DataSpread: Unifying Databases and Spreadsheets. (United States)

    Bendre, Mangesh; Sun, Bofan; Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Xinyan; Chang, Kevin ChenChuan; Parameswaran, Aditya


    Spreadsheet software is often the tool of choice for ad-hoc tabular data management, processing, and visualization, especially on tiny data sets. On the other hand, relational database systems offer significant power, expressivity, and efficiency over spreadsheet software for data management, while lacking in the ease of use and ad-hoc analysis capabilities. We demonstrate DataSpread, a data exploration tool that holistically unifies databases and spreadsheets. It continues to offer a Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet front-end, while in parallel managing all the data in a back-end database, specifically, PostgreSQL. DataSpread retains all the advantages of spreadsheets, including ease of use, ad-hoc analysis and visualization capabilities, and a schema-free nature, while also adding the advantages of traditional relational databases, such as scalability and the ability to use arbitrary SQL to import, filter, or join external or internal tables and have the results appear in the spreadsheet. DataSpread needs to reason about and reconcile differences in the notions of schema, addressing of cells and tuples, and the current "pane" (which exists in spreadsheets but not in traditional databases), and support data modifications at both the front-end and the back-end. Our demonstration will center on our first and early prototype of the DataSpread, and will give the attendees a sense for the enormous data exploration capabilities offered by unifying spreadsheets and databases.

  20. Damage spreading on networks: Clustering effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Articles Volume 68 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 689-699 ... The damage spreading of the Ising model on three kinds of networks is studied with Glauber dynamics. ... The relationship between the transition temperature and the network measure-clustering coefficient is set up and it is shown that the increase of damage ...

  1. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  2. Damage spreading on networks: Clustering effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The damage spreading of the Ising model on three kinds of networks is studied with Glauber dynamics. One of the networks is generated by evolving the hexagonal lattice with the star-triangle transformation. Another kind of network is constructed by connecting the midpoints of the edges of the topological ...

  3. Unidirectional spreading of oil under solid ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, S.A.; Yapa, P.D.


    Equations are presented to describe the unidirectional spreading of oil under solid ice covers floating in calm water. These spreading equations are derived using a simplified form of the Navier-Stokes equations, and cover both the constant discharge and the constant volume modes. An equation for computing final slick length is also given. Laboratory experiments using physical models were conducted to verify the equations. The experiments used oils of different viscosities, ice cover roughnesses varying from smooth to rough, and a variety of discharge conditions. The emphasis of the study was on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase. The laboratory results agree closely with the theoretical predictions. Discrepancies can be attributed to the experimental difficulties and errors introduced from the assumptions made in deriving the theory. The equations presented will be useful in computing spreading rate during an accidental oil spill or in contingency planning. The equations are simple to use, suitable for hand calculations or for incorporation into numerical models for oil spill simulation. 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  4. Experiments on non-isothermal spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhard, P.


    Experiments are performed on axisymmetric spreading of viscous drops on glass plates. Two liquids are investigated: silicone oil (M-100) spreads to 'infinity' and paraffin oil spreads to a finite-radius steady state. The experiments with silicone oil partly recover the behaviour of previous workers data; those experiments with paraffin oil provide new data. It is found that gravitational forces dominate at long enough times while at shorter times capillary forces dominate. When the plate is heated or cooled with respect to the ambient gas, thermocapillary forces generate flows that alter the spreading dynamics. Heating (cooling) the plate is found to retard (augment) the streading. Moreover, in case of partial wetting, the finally-approached drop radius is smaller (larger) for a heated (cooled) plate. These data are all new. All these observations are in excellent quantitative agreement with the related model predictions of Ehrhard and Davis (1991). A breakdown of the axisymmetric character of the flow is observed only for very long times and/or very thin liquid layers. (orig.) [de

  5. Introduction, establishment and spread of the Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... native fishes and predation on fish larvae. Pseudocrenilabrus philander in the Baakens River therefore satisfies all criteria for an invasive species in this river and was categorised as invasive using a unified framework for biological invasions. Keywords: abundance, cichlid, electrofishing, establishment, invasion, spread ...

  6. Wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Jiameng; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Qingmin; Zhao, Ruochen; Liu, Hao; Dong, Guoyan; Hao, Yanan; Bi, Ke


    A wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR) has been prepared. The frequency and transmission bandwidth of the metasurface filters with different split widths are discussed. After analyzing the mechanism of the metasurface, the proposed metasurface filters are fabricated. The electromagnetic properties of the metasurface are measured by a designed test system. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones, which shows that the metasurface filter has a wideband property. As the split width of the CSRR increases, the frequency of the passband shifts to higher frequency regions and the transmission bandwidth decreases.

  7. A splitting algorithm for directional regularization and sparsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads


    We present a new split-type algorithm for the minimization of a p-harmonic energy with added data fidelity term. The half-quadratic splitting reduces the original problem to two straightforward problems, that can be minimized efficiently. The minimizers to the two sub-problems can typically...... be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...

  8. Ridge Splitting Technique for Horizontal Augmentation and Immediate Implant Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanasiou Ioannis


    Full Text Available Insufficient width of the alveolar ridge often prevents ideal implant placement. Guided bone regeneration, bone grafting, alveolar ridge splitting and combinations of these techniques are used for the lateral augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Ridge splitting is a minimally invasive technique indicated for alveolar ridges with adequate height, which enables immediate implant placement and eliminates morbidity and overall treatment time. The classical approach of the technique involves splitting the alveolar ridge into 2 parts with use of ostetomes and chisels. Modifications of this technique include the use of rotating instrument, screw spreaders, horizontal spreaders and ultrasonic device.

  9. Market Split based Congestion Management for Networks with Loops (United States)

    Marmiroli, Marta; Tanimoto, Masahiko; Tsukamoto, Yukitoki; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    Market splitting is one of the methods to solve the transmission congestion problem associated with the introduction of competitive electricity market and transmission access. Based on the concept of price difference among congested areas, the market splitting approach produces a solution that strongly informs market participants of congestion path. In this paper, an algorithm to solve the market splitting problem for complex networks including loop structures is proposed. The method, based on an algebraic approach, ensures a feasible optimal solution verifiable and easily understandable by the market participants. Complex networks are transformed into simple radial ones using the delta-star approach. The method was tested on large problems to evaluate the performances.

  10. Shear wave splitting in the Isparta Angle, southwestern Turkey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broadband station in the Isparta Angle,southwestern Turkey.We selected 21 good quality seismic events out of nearly 357 earthquakes and calculated splitting parameters (polarization direction of fast wave, and delay time between fast and ...

  11. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)


    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  12. Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr


    Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  13. Possibilities of Intermodal Passenger Transport between Split Airport and Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Roguljić


    Full Text Available A substantial number of passengers landing at Split Airportduring the tourist season continue their journey to the destinationson the central Dalmatian islands. Today the transfer isdone mainly through the ferry port in Split. The insufficient capacitiesof roads from the airport to the city centre which accommodatesthe ferry port and waiting for the embarkation onthe ferries and the transport itself to the islands and the finaldestinations take much longer than the air transport itself toSplit. The paper studies the possible improvements of the existingcondition as well as the construction completion and openingto traffic of the passenger sea port next to Split Airport whichwould provide a much better solution of passenger transfer tothe islands.

  14. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene


    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  15. Acoustic Split-Beam Echosounder Data (EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories collects data using Simrad EK60 scientific split-beam acoustic echosounders during resource...

  16. The homogeneous property and flux splitting in gas dynamics (United States)

    Lerat, A.

    The homogeneous property of fluxes in gas dynamics is investigated, and its consequences concerning the flux splitting introduced by Steger and Warming (1981) are examined. It is shown that, for any hyperbolic system w sub t + f(w) sub x = 0 which satisfies the homogeneous property, the flux f(w) can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A(w) = df(w)/dw. This same result is also found to hold for the split fluxes f(+)(w) and f(-)(w). The problem of the validity of flux splitting is studied using these results. Three applications of flux splitting are then considered. The first application concerns uncentered schemes and particularly a precise analysis of their stability, the second is connected with a method for correcting the dispersive error of second-order accurate schemes, and the third deals with a nonreflective boundary condition.

  17. Recent Progress in Energy-Driven Water Splitting. (United States)

    Tee, Si Yin; Win, Khin Yin; Teo, Wee Siang; Koh, Leng-Duei; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Han, Ming-Yong


    Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness. As the most abundant energy resource, the direct conversion of solar energy to hydrogen is considered the most sustainable energy production method without causing pollutions to the environment. In overall, this review briefly summarizes thermolytic, electrolytic, photolytic and biolytic water splitting. It highlights photonic and electrical driven water splitting together with photovoltaic-integrated solar-driven water electrolysis.

  18. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.


    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  19. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan


    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Endoscopic classification of representations of quasi-split unitary groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Chung Pang


    In this paper the author establishes the endoscopic classification of tempered representations of quasi-split unitary groups over local fields, and the endoscopic classification of the discrete automorphic spectrum of quasi-split unitary groups over global number fields. The method is analogous to the work of Arthur on orthogonal and symplectic groups, based on the theory of endoscopy and the comparison of trace formulas on unitary groups and general linear groups.

  1. Spectral splitting for thermal management in photovoltaic cells (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Chiou, Yu-Cheng; Chiesa, Matteo; Almansouri, Ibraheem


    Spectral splitting is widely employed as a way to divide light between different solar cells or processes to optimize energy conversion. Well-understood but less explored is the use of spectrum splitting or filtering to combat solar cell heating. This has impacts both on cell performance and on the surrounding environment. In this manuscript we explore the design of spectral filtering systems that can improve the thermal and power-conversion performance of commercial PV modules.

  2. Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, P.S.


    Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa

  3. Visualization of the sequence of a couple splitting outside shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'......Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'...

  4. A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitsupa Deepho


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.

  5. Epidemic Spreading in Unidirectional Mobile Agents (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Ichinose, Genki; Tainaka, Kei-ichi


    We present an epidemic model combined with a traffic cellular automaton. Each agent or individual is either susceptible (S) or infected (I). An agent with a certain density moves to a fixed direction on one-dimensional lattice. Simulations for SIS model show that the epidemic spreads via migration. We find a dynamical phase transition between infectious and non-infectious phases. If the density exceeds the critical limit ρC, the epidemic spreads into the population. The value of ρC decreases along with the recovery rate as predicted by mean-field theory. However, this theory cannot explain the simulation result that a traffic jam strongly affects the phase transition. It is found that the minimum value of ρC corresponds to the critical value of the jamming transition.

  6. GENERAL: Epidemic spreading on networks with vaccination (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Jing; Duan, Zhi-Sheng; Chen, Guan-Rong; Li, Rong


    In this paper, a new susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model on complex networks with imperfect vaccination is proposed. Two types of epidemic spreading patterns (the recovered individuals have or have not immunity) on scale-free networks are discussed. Both theoretical and numerical analyses are presented. The epidemic thresholds related to the vaccination rate, the vaccination-invalid rate and the vaccination success rate on scale-free networks are demonstrated, showing different results from the reported observations. This reveals that whether or not the epidemic can spread over a network under vaccination control is determined not only by the network structure but also by the medicine's effective duration. Moreover, for a given infective rate, the proportion of individuals to vaccinate can be calculated theoretically for the case that the recovered nodes have immunity. Finally, simulated results are presented to show how to control the disease prevalence.

  7. [Lymphoscintigraphy: evaluating lymphatic spread of rectal cancer]. (United States)

    He, C; Huang, X; Shen, W


    To investigate lymphatic drainage of rectal and lymphatic spread of rectal cancer. Rectal endoscopic lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 37 volunteers and 16 patients. One millilitre dextran marked with (99m)Tc was injected bilaterally into submucosa of the rectum through rectal endoscopy. 1, 2, 3 hours after the injection, rectal lymphoscintigraphy was registered with a computerized gamma camera (TOSHIBA GCA901A). Lymphoscintigraphy in control subjects showed upward epirectal and pararectal nodes. The average number of the nodes was 12 three hours after the injection. Compared with histological node examination in all patients operated upon for rectal cancer, rectal endoscopic lymphoscintigraphy showed a sensitivity of 97.1%, a specificity of 75.0%, an overall accuracy of 87.5%, a false positivity of 25.0%, and false negativity of 8.3%. The method is better for evaluating lymphatic spread of rectal cancer before operation.

  8. Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ye [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Liu, Chuang, E-mail: [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Zhang, Chu-Xu [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Zhang, Zi-Ke, E-mail: [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China)


    Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

  9. Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ye; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke


    Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

  10. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu


    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  11. Heat shock protein gp96 adjuvant induces T cell responses and cross-protection to a split influenza vaccine. (United States)

    Ju, Ying; Fan, Hongxia; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jun; Li, Xinghui; Li, Changfei; Chen, Lizhao; Gao, Qiang; Gao, George F; Meng, Songdong


    The commonly used inactivated or split influenza vaccines induce only induce minimal T cell responses and are less effective in preventing heterologous virus infection. Thus, developing cross-protective influenza vaccines against the spread of a new influenza virus is an important strategy against pandemic emergence. Here we demonstrated that immunization with heat shock protein gp96 as adjuvant led to a dramatic increased antigen-specific T cell response to a pandemic H1N1 split vaccine. Notably, gp96 elicited a cross-protective CD8(+) T cell response to the internal conserved viral protein NP. Although the split pH1N1vaccine alone has low cross-protective efficiency, adding gp96 as an adjuvant effectively improved the cross-protection against challenge with a heterologous virus in mice. Our study reveals the novel property of gp96 in boosting the T cell response against conserved epitopes of influenza virus and its potential use as an adjuvant for human pre-pandemic inactivated influenza vaccines against different viral subtypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis? (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.


    Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely “culprits” in its spread.

  13. Physical model for membrane protrusions during spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamaraux, F; Ali, O; Fourcade, B; Keller, S; Bruckert, F


    During cell spreading onto a substrate, the kinetics of the contact area is an observable quantity. This paper is concerned with a physical approach to modeling this process in the case of ameboid motility where the membrane detaches itself from the underlying cytoskeleton at the leading edge. The physical model we propose is based on previous reports which highlight that membrane tension regulates cell spreading. Using a phenomenological feedback loop to mimic stress-dependent biochemistry, we show that the actin polymerization rate can be coupled to the stress which builds up at the margin of the contact area between the cell and the substrate. In the limit of small variation of membrane tension, we show that the actin polymerization rate can be written in a closed form. Our analysis defines characteristic lengths which depend on elastic properties of the membrane–cytoskeleton complex, such as the membrane–cytoskeleton interaction, and on molecular parameters, the rate of actin polymerization. We discuss our model in the case of axi-symmetric and non-axi-symmetric spreading and we compute the characteristic time scales as a function of fundamental elastic constants such as the strength of membrane–cytoskeleton adherence

  14. Geomagnetic storm and equatorial spread-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Becker-Guedes


    Full Text Available In August 2000, a new ionospheric sounding station was established at Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S, Brazil, by the University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP. Another ionospheric sounding station was established at Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S, Brazil, in April 2002, by UNIVAP in collaboration with the Lutheran University Center of Palmas (CEULP, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA. Both the stations are equipped with digital ionosonde of the type known as Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI. In order to study the effects of geomagnetic storms on equatorial spread-F, we present and discuss three case studies, two from the ionospheric sounding observations at Sao Jose dos Campos (September and November 2000 and one from the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations at Sao Jose dos Campos and Palmas (July 2003. Salient features from these ionospheric observations are presented and discussed in this paper. It has been observed that sometimes (e.g. 4-5 November 2000 the geomagnetic storm acts as an inhibitor (high strong spread-F season, whereas at other times (e.g. 11-12 July 2003 they act as an initiator (low strong spread-F season, possibly due to corresponding changes in the quiet and disturbed drift patterns during different seasons.

  15. Mechanistic movement models to understand epidemic spread. (United States)

    Fofana, Abdou Moutalab; Hurford, Amy


    An overlooked aspect of disease ecology is considering how and why animals come into contact with one and other resulting in disease transmission. Mathematical models of disease spread frequently assume mass-action transmission, justified by stating that susceptible and infectious hosts mix readily, and foregoing any detailed description of host movement. Numerous recent studies have recorded, analysed and modelled animal movement. These movement models describe how animals move with respect to resources, conspecifics and previous movement directions and have been used to understand the conditions for the occurrence and the spread of infectious diseases when hosts perform a type of movement. Here, we summarize the effect of the different types of movement on the threshold conditions for disease spread. We identify gaps in the literature and suggest several promising directions for future research. The mechanistic inclusion of movement in epidemic models may be beneficial for the following two reasons. Firstly, the estimation of the transmission coefficient in an epidemic model is possible because animal movement data can be used to estimate the rate of contacts between conspecifics. Secondly, unsuccessful transmission events, where a susceptible host contacts an infectious host but does not become infected can be quantified. Following an outbreak, this enables disease ecologists to identify 'near misses' and to explore possible alternative epidemic outcomes given shifts in ecological or immunological parameters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung


    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  17. How Phenological Variation Affects Species Spreading Speeds. (United States)

    Otto, Garrett; Bewick, Sharon; Li, Bingtuan; Fagan, William F


    In this paper, we develop a phenologically explicit reaction-diffusion model to analyze the spatial spread of a univoltine insect species. Our model assumes four explicit life stages: adult, two larval, and pupa, with a fourth, implicit, egg stage modeled as a time delay between oviposition and emergence as a larva. As such, our model is broadly applicable to holometabolous insects. To account for phenology (seasonal biological timing), we introduce four time-dependent phenological functions describing adult emergence, oviposition and larval conversion, respectively. Emergence is defined as the per-capita probability of an adult emerging from the pupal stage at a particular time. Oviposition is defined as the per-capita rate of adult egg deposition at a particular time. Two functions deal with the larva stage 1 to larva stage 2, and larva stage 2 to pupa conversion as per-capita rate of conversion at a particular time. This very general formulation allows us to accommodate a wide variety of alternative insect phenologies and lifestyles. We provide the moment-generating function for the general linearized system in terms of phenological functions and model parameters. We prove that the spreading speed of the linearized system is the same as that for nonlinear system. We then find explicit solutions for the spreading speed of the insect population for the limiting cases where (1) emergence and oviposition are impulsive (i.e., take place over an extremely narrow time window), larval conversion occurs at a constant rate, and larvae are immobile, (2) emergence and oviposition are impulsive (i.e., take place over an extremely narrow time window), larval conversion occurs at a constant rate starting at a delayed time from egg hatch, and larvae are immobile, and (3) emergence, oviposition, and larval conversion are impulsive. To consider other biological scenarios, including cases with emergence and oviposition windows of finite width as well as mobile larvae, we use

  18. Axonal and Transynaptic Spread of Prions (United States)

    Shearin, Harold


    ABSTRACT Natural transmission of prion diseases depends upon the spread of prions from the nervous system to excretory or secretory tissues, but the mechanism of prion transport in axons and into peripheral tissue is unresolved. Here, we examined the temporal and spatial movement of prions from the brain stem along cranial nerves into skeletal muscle as a model of axonal transport and transynaptic spread. The disease-specific isoform of the prion protein, PrPSc, was observed in nerve fibers of the tongue approximately 2 weeks prior to PrPSc deposition in skeletal muscle. Initially, PrPSc deposits had a small punctate pattern on the edge of muscle cells that colocalized with synaptophysin, a marker for the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), in >50% of the cells. At later time points PrPSc was widely distributed in muscle cells, but PrPSc deposition at the NMJ, suggesting additional prion replication and dissemination within muscle cells. In contrast to the NMJ, PrPSc was not associated with synaptophysin in nerve fibers but was found to colocalize with LAMP-1 and cathepsin D during early stages of axonal spread. We propose that PrPSc-bound endosomes can lead to membrane recycling in which PrPSc is directed to the synapse, where it either moves across the NMJ into the postsynaptic muscle cell or induces PrPSc formation on muscle cells across the NMJ. IMPORTANCE Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative diseases in which prion dissemination to excretory or secretory tissues is necessary for natural disease transmission. Despite the importance of this pathway, the cellular mechanism of prion transport in axons and into peripheral tissue is unresolved. This study demonstrates anterograde spread of prions within nerve fibers prior to infection of peripheral synapses (i.e., neuromuscular junction) and infection of peripheral tissues (i.e., muscle cells). Within nerve fibers prions were associated with the endosomal-lysosomal pathway prior to entry into

  19. Default Spread dan Term Spread sebagai Variabel Proxy Siklus Bisnis pada Model Fama-French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Hendra


    Full Text Available This research aims to apply the Fama-French models and test the effect of alternative variable of bond yield spread, default spread (RBBB – RAAA and RAAA – RF, and the term spread (RSUN10-RSUN1, as proxy variables of the business cycle, in IDX stock data during 2005-2010. Four types of asset pricing models tested are Sharpe-Lintner CAPM, Fama-French models, Hwang et al.model, and hybrid model. The results showed that the size effect and value effect has an impact on excess stock returns. Slopes of market beta, SMB, and HML are more sensitive to stock big size and high B / M. Default spreads and term spreads in Hwang et al. model can explain the value effect, and weakly explain the size effect, meanwhile the power of explanation disappeared on Hybrid models. Based on the assessment adjusted R2 and the frequency of rejection of non-zero alpha, is found that the hybrid model is the most suitable model.  

  20. Predictive validation of an influenza spread model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Hyder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998-1999. Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type. Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. CONCLUSIONS: Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve

  1. Predictive Validation of an Influenza Spread Model (United States)

    Hyder, Ayaz; Buckeridge, David L.; Leung, Brian


    Background Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. Methods and Findings We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998–1999). Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type). Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. Conclusions Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers) with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve their predictive

  2. Vectorised Spreading Activation algorithm for centrality measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Troussov


    Full Text Available Spreading Activation is a family of graph-based algorithms widely used in areas such as information retrieval, epidemic models, and recommender systems. In this paper we introduce a novel Spreading Activation (SA method that we call Vectorised Spreading Activation (VSA. VSA algorithms, like “traditional” SA algorithms, iteratively propagate the activation from the initially activated set of nodes to the other nodes in a network through outward links. The level of the node’s activation could be used as a centrality measurement in accordance with dynamic model-based view of centrality that focuses on the outcomes for nodes in a network where something is flowing from node to node across the edges. Representing the activation by vectors allows the use of the information about various dimensionalities of the flow and the dynamic of the flow. In this capacity, VSA algorithms can model multitude of complex multidimensional network flows. We present the results of numerical simulations on small synthetic social networks and multi­dimensional network models of folksonomies which show that the results of VSA propagation are more sensitive to the positions of the initial seed and to the community structure of the network than the results produced by traditional SA algorithms. We tentatively conclude that the VSA methods could be instrumental to develop scalable and computationally efficient algorithms which could achieve synergy between computation of centrality indexes with detection of community structures in networks. Based on our preliminary results and on improvements made over previous studies, we foresee advances and applications in the current state of the art of this family of algorithms and their applications to centrality measurement.

  3. Rumor spreading models with random denials (United States)

    Giorno, Virginia; Spina, Serena


    The concept of denial is introduced on rumor spreading processes. The denials occur with a certain rate and they reset to start the initial situation. A population of N individuals is subdivided into ignorants, spreaders and stiflers; at the initial time there is only one spreader and the rest of the population is ignorant. The denials are introduced in the classic DK model and in its generalization, in which a spreader can transmit the rumor at most to k ignorants. The steady state densities are analyzed for these models. Finally, a numerical analysis is performed to study the rule of the involved parameters and to compare the proposed models.

  4. Trigeminal perineural spread of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornik, Alejandro; Rosenblum, Jordan; Biller, Jose


    A 55-year-old man had a five-day history of “pins and needles” sensation on the left chin. Examination showed decreased pinprick sensation on the territory of the left mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium showed enhancement involving the left mandibular branch. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed a left kidney mass diagnosed as renal carcinoma following nephrectomy. The “numb-chin” syndrome heralds or accompanies systemic malignancies. Trigeminal perineural spread has been well-documented in head and neck neoplasms, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported in renal neoplasms. (author)

  5. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael


    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  6. Simultaneous spreading and evaporation: recent developments. (United States)

    Semenov, Sergey; Trybala, Anna; Rubio, Ramon G; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor; Velarde, Manuel G


    The recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of simultaneous spreading and evaporation of liquid droplets on solid substrates is discussed for pure liquids including nanodroplets, nanosuspensions of inorganic particles (nanofluids) and surfactant solutions. Evaporation of both complete wetting and partial wetting liquids into a nonsaturated vapour atmosphere are considered. However, the main attention is paid to the case of partial wetting when the hysteresis of static contact angle takes place. In the case of complete wetting the spreading/evaporation process proceeds in two stages. A theory was suggested for this case and a good agreement with available experimental data was achieved. In the case of partial wetting the spreading/evaporation of a sessile droplet of pure liquid goes through four subsequent stages: (i) the initial stage, spreading, is relatively short (1-2 min) and therefore evaporation can be neglected during this stage; during the initial stage the contact angle reaches the value of advancing contact angle and the radius of the droplet base reaches its maximum value, (ii) the first stage of evaporation is characterised by the constant value of the radius of the droplet base; the value of the contact angle during the first stage decreases from static advancing to static receding contact angle; (iii) during the second stage of evaporation the contact angle remains constant and equal to its receding value, while the radius of the droplet base decreases; and (iv) at the third stage of evaporation both the contact angle and the radius of the droplet base decrease until the drop completely disappears. It has been shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that during the first and second stages of evaporation the volume of droplet to power 2/3 decreases linearly with time. The universal dependence of the contact angle during the first stage and of the radius of the droplet base during the second stage on the reduced time has been

  7. Dynamic Modeling of CDS Index Tranche Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    This paper provides a Market Model which implies a dynamics for standardized CDS index tranche spreads, i.e. tranches which securitise CDS index series and dispose of predefined subordination. This model is useful for pricing options on tranches with future Issue Dates as well as for modeling...... options on structured credit derivatives. With the upcoming regulation of the CDS market in perspective, the model presented here is also an attempt to face the effects on pricing approaches provoked by an eventual Clearing Chamber . It becomes also possible to calibrate Index Tranche Options with bespoke...... tenors/tranche subordination to market data obtained by more liquid Index Tranche Options with standard characteristics....

  8. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Özdemir


    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  9. New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams. (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek


    The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type-$I$ splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type-$II$ criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.

  10. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB (United States)

    Lu, Yubin; Yu, Shuisheng; Cai, Yong


    To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm) split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%-75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  11. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro


    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  12. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg


    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  13. Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work and School (United States)

    ... Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work & School Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can help slow the spread of influenza. At School Resources for Schools, Childcare Providers and Parents Information ...

  14. Spreading depolarisations and outcome after traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Bullock, M Ross; Okonkwo, David O


    Pathological waves of spreading mass neuronal depolarisation arise repeatedly in injured, but potentially salvageable, grey matter in 50-60% of patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to ascertain whether spreading depolarisations are independently associated with unfavourable...

  15. SIRaRu rumor spreading model in complex networks (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Zhao, Laijun; Huang, Rongbing


    Compared with the epidemic spreading, rumor spreading has some specific characteristics. In this paper, we supplement some realistic conditions on previous rumor spreading models, then develop a new rumor spreading model called SIRaRu model. The mean-field equations are derived to describe the dynamics of the SIRaRu rumor spreading in complex networks, associated with which the steady-state analysis is carried out, indicating the spreading threshold existing in both homogeneous networks and inhomogeneous networks. Meanwhile, we discuss the rumor immunization strategy and obtain the immunization threshold and spreading thresholds in homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks, respectively. Numerical simulations are conducted in complex networks, showing that the network topology exerts significant influence on the rumor spreading. The final size of the rumor is greatly impacted by the forgetting rate.

  16. Recording, analysis, and interpretation of spreading depolarizations in neurointensive care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Fabricius, Martin; Ayata, Cenk


    Spreading depolarizations (SD) are waves of abrupt, near-complete breakdown of neuronal transmembrane ion gradients, are the largest possible pathophysiologic disruption of viable cerebral gray matter, and are a crucial mechanism of lesion development. Spreading depolarizations are increasingly r...

  17. CT technology of which the application spreads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shoji


    Computer tomography (CT) is bringing about rapid progress in measurement, analysis and nondestructive inspection techniques as it can express accurately the section of objects. As is generally known, CT technology began from the X-ray CT for human bodies which images the distribution of X-ray absorption coefficient, and developed to emission CT and magnetic resonance imaging which is harmless to living bodies. Recently in industries, the CT using X-ray and gamma ray has begun to be practically used on full scale. Also research is in progress aiming at practical use on the neutron CT using neutron beam which penetrates metals well, emission CT and ultrasonic CT. It was tried to analyze the structure of μm size and elements by the CT using synchrotron orbital radiation. The CT by serial production using 160, 320 and 420 kV X-ray tubes has begun to spread. Detectors, central controlling systems including computers, scanner mechanisms and so on are made in common, and X-ray energy can be selected conforming to scanned objects. These are used in automobile industry for the detection of defects, the accurate measurement of dimensions and so on. The spread of X-ray CT and the application of portable CT, neutron CT and automobile tire CT are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Murine Cytomegalovirus Spreads by Dendritic Cell Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Farrell


    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have coevolved with their hosts over hundreds of millions of years and exploit fundamental features of their biology. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs colonize blood-borne myeloid cells, and it has been hypothesized that systemic dissemination arises from infected stem cells in bone marrow. However, poor CMV transfer by stem cell transplantation argues against this being the main reservoir. To identify alternative pathways for CMV spread, we tracked murine CMV (MCMV colonization after mucosal entry. We show that following intranasal MCMV infection, lung CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC migrated sequentially to lymph nodes (LN, blood, and then salivary glands. Replication-deficient virus followed the same route, and thus, DC infected peripherally traversed LN to enter the blood. Given that DC are thought to die locally following their arrival and integration into LN, recirculation into blood represents a new pathway. We examined host and viral factors that facilitated this LN traverse. We show that MCMV-infected DC exited LN by a distinct route to lymphocytes, entering high endothelial venules and bypassing the efferent lymph. LN exit required CD44 and the viral M33 chemokine receptor, without which infected DC accumulated in LN and systemic spread was greatly reduced. Taken together, our studies provide the first demonstration of virus-driven DC recirculation. As viruses follow host-defined pathways, high endothelial venules may normally allow DC to pass from LN back into blood.

  19. Diffusive spreading and mixing of fluid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, M N; Dietrich, S; Oshanin, G


    The use of ultra-thin, i.e. monolayer, films plays an important role in the emerging field of nano-fluidics. Since the dynamics of such films is governed by the interplay between substrate-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions, the transport of matter in nanoscale devices may eventually be efficiently controlled by substrate engineering. For such films, the dynamics is expected to be captured by two-dimensional lattice-gas models with interacting particles. Using a lattice-gas model and the non-linear diffusion equation derived from the microscopic dynamics in the continuum limit, we study two problems of relevance in the context of nano-fluidics. The first one is the case in which along the spreading direction of a monolayer a mesoscopic-sized obstacle is present, with a particular focus on the relaxation of the fluid density profile upon encountering and passing the obstacle. The second one is the mixing of two monolayers of different particle species which spread side by side following the merger of two chemical lanes, here defined as domains of high affinity for fluid adsorption surrounded by domains of low affinity for fluid adsorption

  20. Model for rumor spreading over networks. (United States)

    Trpevski, Daniel; Tang, Wallace K S; Kocarev, Ljupco


    An alternate model for rumor spreading over networks is suggested, in which two rumors (termed rumor 1 and rumor 2) with different probabilities of acceptance may propagate among nodes. The propagation is not symmetric in the sense that when deciding which rumor to adopt, nodes always consider rumor 1 first. The model is a natural generalization of the well-known epidemic SIS (susceptible-infective-susceptible) model and reduces to it when some of the parameters of this model are zero. We find that preferred rumor 1 is dominant in the network when the degree of nodes is high enough and/or when the network contains large clustered groups of nodes, expelling rumor 2. However, numerical simulations on synthetic networks show that it is possible for rumor 2 to occupy a nonzero fraction of the nodes in many cases as well. Specifically, in the Watts-Strogatz small-world model a moderate level of clustering supports its adoption, while increasing randomness reduces it. For Erdos-Renyi networks, a low average degree allows the coexistence of the two types of rumors. In Barabasi-Albert networks generated with a low m , where m is the number of links when a new node is added, it is also possible for rumor 2 to spread over the network.

  1. Dimensionality reduction in epidemic spreading models (United States)

    Frasca, M.; Rizzo, A.; Gallo, L.; Fortuna, L.; Porfiri, M.


    Complex dynamical systems often exhibit collective dynamics that are well described by a reduced set of key variables in a low-dimensional space. Such a low-dimensional description offers a privileged perspective to understand the system behavior across temporal and spatial scales. In this work, we propose a data-driven approach to establish low-dimensional representations of large epidemic datasets by using a dimensionality reduction algorithm based on isometric features mapping (ISOMAP). We demonstrate our approach on synthetic data for epidemic spreading in a population of mobile individuals. We find that ISOMAP is successful in embedding high-dimensional data into a low-dimensional manifold, whose topological features are associated with the epidemic outbreak. Across a range of simulation parameters and model instances, we observe that epidemic outbreaks are embedded into a family of closed curves in a three-dimensional space, in which neighboring points pertain to instants that are close in time. The orientation of each curve is unique to a specific outbreak, and the coordinates correlate with the number of infected individuals. A low-dimensional description of epidemic spreading is expected to improve our understanding of the role of individual response on the outbreak dynamics, inform the selection of meaningful global observables, and, possibly, aid in the design of control and quarantine procedures.

  2. Preoperative evaluation of locally spreaded pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baramia, M.; Todua, F.; Gotsadze, D.; Khutulashvili, N.; Lashkhi, K.; Nadareishvili, A.


    Am of the study: preoperative evaluation of patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors subjected to pelvic exenteration. Determine operability to avoid explorative laparatomies, which cause serious complications in these patients. Evaluate condition of urinary system in case of this pathology. Materials and methods: 34 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors where pelvic exenteration was attempted were studied. Along with other methods of diagnostic CT and MRI were performed. Results: In all patients secondary involvement of the urinary bladder was noted. In 30 patients CT and MR findings were confirmed (88,2%) intraoperatively and different types of pelvic organs exenteration were performed. In 1 case spread of tomoruos infiltrate to the pelvic wall and common iliac vessels was detected intraoperatively (patient had history of radiation therapy). In 2 cases carcinomatosis of the peritoneum was found. In 1 case involvement of urinary bladder was simulated by close attachment of enlarged uterus. Conclusion: Obtained results show, that CT and MR are highly informative methods of disease spread evaluation and thus determining operability. Radiotherapy performed prior to operation sets difficulties in differentiation for tumourous infiltrate and post-radiotherapy changes in pelvis. (Full text)

  3. Principles of spread-spectrum communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Torrieri, Don


    This book provides a concise but lucid explanation of the fundamentals of spread-spectrum systems with an emphasis on theoretical principles. The choice of specific topics is tempered by the author’s judgment of their practical significance and interest to both researchers and system designers. The book contains many improved derivations of the classical theory and presents the latest research results that bring the reader to the frontier of the field. This third edition includes new coverage of topics such as CDMA networks, acquisition and synchronization in DS-CDMA cellular networks, hopsets for FH-CDMA ad hoc networks, implications of information theory, the central limit theorem, the power spectral density of FH/CPM complex envelopes, adaptive filters, and adaptive arrays.   ·         Focuses on the fundamentals of spread-spectrum communication systems and provides current examples of their applications ·         Includes problem sets at the end of each chapter to assist readers in co...

  4. A lattice model for influenza spreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Liccardo

    Full Text Available We construct a stochastic SIR model for influenza spreading on a D-dimensional lattice, which represents the dynamic contact network of individuals. An age distributed population is placed on the lattice and moves on it. The displacement from a site to a nearest neighbor empty site, allows individuals to change the number and identities of their contacts. The dynamics on the lattice is governed by an attractive interaction between individuals belonging to the same age-class. The parameters, which regulate the pattern dynamics, are fixed fitting the data on the age-dependent daily contact numbers, furnished by the Polymod survey. A simple SIR transmission model with a nearest neighbors interaction and some very basic adaptive mobility restrictions complete the model. The model is validated against the age-distributed Italian epidemiological data for the influenza A(H1N1 during the [Formula: see text] season, with sensible predictions for the epidemiological parameters. For an appropriate topology of the lattice, we find that, whenever the accordance between the contact patterns of the model and the Polymod data is satisfactory, there is a good agreement between the numerical and the experimental epidemiological data. This result shows how rich is the information encoded in the average contact patterns of individuals, with respect to the analysis of the epidemic spreading of an infectious disease.

  5. Multifaceted roles for astrocytes in spreading depolarization (United States)

    Seidel, Jessica L.; Escartin, Carole; Ayata, Cenk; Bonvento, Gilles; Shuttleworth, C. William


    Spreading depolarizations (SD) are coordinated waves of synchronous depolarization, involving large numbers of neurons and astrocytes as they spread slowly through brain tissue. The recent identification of SDs as likely contributors to pathophysiology in human subjects has led to a significant increase in interest in SD mechanisms, and possible approaches to limit the numbers of SDs or their deleterious consequences in injured brain. Astrocytes regulate many events associated with SD. SD initiation and propagation is dependent on extracellular accumulation of K+ and glutamate, both of which involve astrocytic clearance. SDs are extremely metabolically demanding events, and signaling through astrocyte networks is likely central to the dramatic increase in regional blood flow that accompanies SD in otherwise healthy tissues. Astrocytes may provide metabolic support to neurons following SD, and may provide a source of adenosine that inhibits neuronal activity following SD. It is also possible that astrocytes contribute to the pathophysiology of SD, as a consequence of excessive glutamate release, facilitation of NMDA receptor activation, brain edema due to astrocyte swelling, or disrupted coupling to appropriate vascular responses after SD. Direct or indirect evidence has accumulated implicating astrocytes in many of these responses, but much remains unknown about their specific contributions, especially in the context of injury. Conversion of astrocytes to a reactive phenotype is a prominent feature of injured brain, and recent work suggests that the different functional properties of reactive astrocytes could be targeted to limit SDs in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:26301517

  6. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....

  7. Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors (United States)

    Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.


    Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.

  8. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra


    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion. (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in split-belt treadmill studies. We argue that the modified version of stride length for split-belt gait, which is different from the standard definition of stride length and actually is a measure of limb excursion, should be referred to as 'limb excursion' in future studies. Furthermore, the symmetry of stride length and stride time is specifically addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Geometric inductance effects in the spectrum of split transmon qubits (United States)

    Brierley, R. T.; Blumoff, J.; Chou, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.


    The low-energy spectra of transmon superconducting qubits in a cavity can be accurately calculated using the black-box quantization approach. This method involves finding the normal modes of the circuit with a linearized Josephson junction and using these as the basis in which to express the non-linear terms. A split transmon qubit consists of two Josephson junctions in a SQUID loop. This configuration allows the Josephson energy to be tuned by applying external flux. Ideally, the system otherwise behaves as a conventional transmon with a single effective Josephson junction. However, the finite geometric inductance of the SQUID loop causes deviations from the simplest ideal description of a split transmon. This alters both the linearized and non-linear behaviour of the Josephson junctions in the superconducting circuit. We study how these changes can be incorporated into the black-box quantization approach and their effects on the low-energy spectrum of the split transmon.

  11. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.


    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  12. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan


    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  13. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Nurlaela


    Full Text Available Abstract Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  14. Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, Marten


    The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R h =(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  15. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.


    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  16. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng


    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  17. Immediate Loaded Implants in Split-Crest Procedure. (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Bruschi, Giovanni B; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Capparé, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico F


    The aim of this study was to assess survival rate of immediate loading implants placed after split-crest technique. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in the study. They underwent placement of 93 dental implants in edentulous region after split-crest ridge expansion procedure. Implants followed an immediate loading procedure. Crestal bone levels were measured at baseline, at temporary prosthesis placement, at 1 year, and at 2 years from implant placement. For dental implants, a survival rate of 98.92% was reported at 2-year follow-up, with a mean value bone loss of -1.02 ± 0.48. This study assessed immediate loading implant placement after split-crest procedure at 2-year follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao


    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  19. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke


    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  20. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela


    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  1. A fundamental look at fire spread in California chaparral (United States)

    David R. Weise; Thomas Fletcher; Larry Baxter; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; Patrick Pagni; Rod Linn; Bret Butler


    The USDA Forest Service National Fire Plan funded a research program to study fire spread in live fuels of the southwestern United States. In the U.S. current operational fire spread models do not distinguish between live and dead fuels in a sophisticated manner because the study of live fuels has been limited. The program is experimentally examining fire spread at 3...

  2. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  3. A comparison between kinetic flux vector splitting and flux difference splitting methods in solution of Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, M.; Shahverdi, M.


    This paper is proposed to compare the performances of deferent inviscid flux approximation methods in solution of two-dimensional Euler equations. The methods belong to two different group of flux splitting methods: flux difference splitting (FDS) methods and kinetic flux vector splitting (KFVS) method. Here Roe method and Osher method belonging to flux difference splitting (FDS) group have been employed and their performances are compared with that of kinetic flux vector splitting method (KFVS). Roe and Osher methods are based on approximate solution of Riemann problem over computational cell surfaces while the KFVS has a quit different base. In KFVS inviscid fluxes are approximated based on the kinetic theory and correlation between Boltzmann equation and Euler equations. For comparison the performances of the above mentioned methods three different problems have been solved. The first problem is flow over a 10 degree compression-expansion ramp with Mach number of 2.0, the second one is a transonic flow with Mach number of 0.85 over a 4.2% circular bump in a duct and the third is supersonic flow with Mach number of 3.0 over a circular blunt slab. (author)

  4. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.


    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  5. Screening current induced magnetic field in REBCO superconducting coil wound by using split wire having intermittent inner split (United States)

    Matsuda, Tetsuro; Jin, Xinzhe; Okamura, Tetsuji


    REBCO-coated conductor having a high critical current is promising for applications in next generation apparatuses such as ultra-high field NMR, high-resolution MRI, and high-precision accelerator. However, it has an important challenge for application in NMR and MRI, due to the single core in REBCO superconducting layer. The single core induces a large screening current-induced magnetic field (screening current field), and it influences the controlling of center field in NMR/MRI magnet. To reduce the screening current field, we have recently developed a split wire having multi-core structure by inner split method (electrical separation by bending stress, ESBS). In experiment, short samples with linear inner split by a large bending stress of 80 N were prepared and tested. However, to fabricate a long length wire with good quality, it is better to use a smaller bending stress. In this study, a low-bending-stress inner split method is used to fabricate superconducting tapes with longitudinal split in their superconducting layer. The fabrication and experimental assessments for the wire and coil are carried out.

  6. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong


    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  7. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast


    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  8. Optimal Cross-Validation Split Ratio: Experimental Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan


    Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts haveinvest......Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts...

  9. Crystal Splitting in the Growth of Bi2S3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures with a sheaf-like morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. We propose these structures form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By controlling the synthetic parameters, different forms of splitting, analogous to observed in minerals, are obtained in our case of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. These new and complex Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and ED.

  10. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon


    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  11. Cooper Pair Splitting by Means of Graphene Quantum Dots (United States)

    Tan, Z. B.; Cox, D.; Nieminen, T.; Lähteenmäki, P.; Golubev, D.; Lesovik, G. B.; Hakonen, P. J.


    A split Cooper pair is a natural source for entangled electrons which is a basic ingredient for quantum information in the solid state. We report an experiment on a superconductor-graphene double quantum dot (QD) system, in which we observe Cooper pair splitting (CPS) up to a CPS efficiency of ˜10 % . With bias on both QDs, we are able to detect a positive conductance correlation across the two distinctly decoupled QDs. Furthermore, with bias only on one QD, CPS and elastic cotunneling can be distinguished by tuning the energy levels of the QDs to be asymmetric or symmetric with respect to the Fermi level in the superconductor.

  12. Frobenius splitting and geometry of $G$-Schubert varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xuhua; Thomsen, Jesper Funch


    Let X be an equivariant embedding of a connected reductive group G over an algebraically closed field k of positive characteristic. Let B denote a Borel subgroup of G. A G-Schubert variety in X is a subvariety of the form diag(G) V , where V is a B×B -orbit closure in X. In the case where X...... admits a stable Frobenius splitting along an ample divisors. Although this indicates that G-Schubert varieties have nice singularities we present an example of a nonnormal G-Schubert variety in the wonderful compactification of a group of type G2 . Finally we also extend the Frobenius splitting results...

  13. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.


    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  14. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat


    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...

  15. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T


    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, P<0.001). By 30 min, the split drain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  16. The potential and realized spread of wildfires across Canada. (United States)

    Wang, Xianli; Parisien, Marc-André; Flannigan, Mike D; Parks, Sean A; Anderson, Kerry R; Little, John M; Taylor, Steve W


    Given that they can burn for weeks or months, wildfires in temperate and boreal forests may become immense (eg., 10(0) - 10(4) km(2) ). However, during the period within which a large fire is 'active', not all days experience weather that is conducive to fire spread; indeed most of the spread occurs on a small proportion (e.g., 1 - 15 days) of not necessarily consecutive days during the active period. This study examines and compares the Canada-wide patterns in fire-conducive weather ('potential' spread) and the spread that occurs on the ground ('realized' spread). Results show substantial variability in distributions of potential and realized spread days across Canada. Both potential and realized spread are higher in western than in eastern Canada; however, whereas potential spread generally decreases from south to north, there is no such pattern with realized spread. The realized-to-potential fire-spread ratio is considerably higher in northern Canada than in the south, indicating that proportionally more fire-conducive days translate into fire progression. An exploration of environmental correlates to spread show that there may be a few factors compensating for the lower potential spread in northern Canada: a greater proportion of coniferous (i.e., more flammable) vegetation, lesser human impacts (i.e., less fragmented landscapes), sufficient fire ignitions, and intense droughts. Because a linear relationship exists between the frequency distributions of potential spread days and realized spread days in a fire zone, it is possible to obtain one from the other using a simple conversion factor. Our methodology thus provides a means to estimate realized fire spread from weather-based data in regions where fire databases are poor, which may improve our ability to predict future fire activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of splitting a mixed-model line on shortening the line length under open- and closed-boundary working area settings (United States)

    Zhang, Donghao; Matsuura, Haruki; Asada, Akiko


    Some automobile factories have segmented mixed-model production lines into shorter sub-lines according to part group, such as engine, trim, and powertrain. The effects of splitting a line into sub-lines have been reported from the standpoints of worker motivation, productivity improvement, and autonomy based on risk spreading. There has been no mention of the possibility of shortening the line length by altering the product sequence using sub-lines. The purpose of the present paper is to determine the conditions under which sub-lines reduce the line length and the degree to which the line length may be shortened. The line lengths for a non-split line and a line that has been split into sub-lines are compared using three methods for determining the working area, the standard closed boundary, the optimized open boundary, and real-life constant-length stations. The results are discussed by analyzing the upper and lower bounds of the line length. Based on these results, a procedure for deciding whether or not to split a production line is proposed.

  18. Hydroclimatological And Anthropogenic Drivers For Cholera Spreading (United States)

    Righetto, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea


    The nature of waterborne diseases, among which cholera has a prominent importance, calls for a better understanding of the link between epidemic spreading, water and climate. To this end, we have developed a framework which involves a network-based description of a river system, connected with local communities which act as nodes of the network. This has allowed us to produce consistent simulations of real case studies. More recent investigations comprise the evaluation of the spreading velocity of an epidemic wave by means of a reaction-diffusion modeling approach. In particular, we have found that both transport processes and epidemiological quantities, such as the basic reproduction number, have a crucial effect in controlling the spreading of the epidemics. We first developed a description of bacterial movement along the network driven by advection and diffusion; afterward, we have included the movement of human populations. This latter model allowed us to establish the conditions that can trigger epidemic waves that start from the coastal region, where bacteria are autochthonous, and travel inland. In particular, our findings suggest that even relatively low values of human diffusion can have the epidemic propagate upstream. The interaction between climate, hydrology and epidemic events is still much debated, since no clear correlation between climatologic and epidemiological phenomena has emerged so far. However, a spatial assessment of hydrological and epidemiological mechanisms could be crucial to understand the evolution of cholera outbreaks. In particular, a hotly debated topic is the understanding of the mechanisms that can generate patterns of cholera incidence that exhibit an intra-annual double peak, as frequently observed in endemic region such as Bangladesh. One of the possible explanations proposed in the literature is that spring droughts cause bacteria concentration in water to rise dramatically, triggering the first peak. On the other hand

  19. Resource Allocation with Adaptive Spread Spectrum OFDM Using 2D Spreading for Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudais Jean-Yves


    Full Text Available Bit-loading techniques based on orthogonal frequency division mutiplexing (OFDM are frequently used over wireline channels. In the power line context, channel state information can reasonably be obtained at both transmitter and receiver sides, and adaptive loading can advantageously be carried out. In this paper, we propose to apply loading principles to an spread spectrum OFDM (SS-OFDM waveform which is a multicarrier system using 2D spreading in the time and frequency domains. The presented algorithm handles the subcarriers, spreading codes, bits and energies assignment in order to maximize the data rate and the range of the communication system. The optimization is realized at a target symbol error rate and under spectral mask constraint as usually imposed. The analytical study shows that the merging principle realized by the spreading code improves the rate and the range of the discrete multitone (DMT system in single and multiuser contexts. Simulations have been run over measured power line communication (PLC channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is low.

  20. Resource Allocation with Adaptive Spread Spectrum OFDM Using 2D Spreading for Power Line Communications (United States)

    Baudais, Jean-Yves; Crussière, Matthieu


    Bit-loading techniques based on orthogonal frequency division mutiplexing (OFDM) are frequently used over wireline channels. In the power line context, channel state information can reasonably be obtained at both transmitter and receiver sides, and adaptive loading can advantageously be carried out. In this paper, we propose to apply loading principles to an spread spectrum OFDM (SS-OFDM) waveform which is a multicarrier system using 2D spreading in the time and frequency domains. The presented algorithm handles the subcarriers, spreading codes, bits and energies assignment in order to maximize the data rate and the range of the communication system. The optimization is realized at a target symbol error rate and under spectral mask constraint as usually imposed. The analytical study shows that the merging principle realized by the spreading code improves the rate and the range of the discrete multitone (DMT) system in single and multiuser contexts. Simulations have been run over measured power line communication (PLC) channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low.

  1. Modeling Epidemics Spreading on Social Contact Networks. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua


    Social contact networks and the way people interact with each other are the key factors that impact on epidemics spreading. However, it is challenging to model the behavior of epidemics based on social contact networks due to their high dynamics. Traditional models such as susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model ignore the crowding or protection effect and thus has some unrealistic assumption. In this paper, we consider the crowding or protection effect and develop a novel model called improved SIR model. Then, we use both deterministic and stochastic models to characterize the dynamics of epidemics on social contact networks. The results from both simulations and real data set conclude that the epidemics are more likely to outbreak on social contact networks with higher average degree. We also present some potential immunization strategies, such as random set immunization, dominating set immunization, and high degree set immunization to further prove the conclusion.

  2. Sarcoptes scabiei in animals spreading to man. (United States)

    Mitra, M; Mahanta, S K; Sen, S; Ghosh, C; Hati, A K


    An outbreak of Sarcoptes scabiei in animals was observed from mid-November 1991 to mid-December 1991 in two adjacent villages, Fewgram and Nurpur, in Birbhum District, West Bengal State, India, starting from goats to cattle, then to sheep and even to dogs. Nineteen goats and one cattle died of manage infection. The infection spread to man in the last week of December 1991, and affected forty-two human beings, tending and rearing animals. The animals treated with deltamenthrin (synthetic pyrethroid) and amitraz (triazapentadiene) were completely cured. In man, the disease seemed to be self-limited in some cases and 2% hexachlorobenzene was successfully used for treatment of the others. The outbreak was effectively controlled in March 1992.

  3. Trigeminal perineural spread of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornik, Alejandro; Rosenblum, Jordan; Biller, Jose [Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago (United States)


    A 55-year-old man had a five-day history of 'pins and needles' sensation on the left chin. Examination showed decreased pinprick sensation on the territory of the left mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium showed enhancement involving the left mandibular branch. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed a left kidney mass diagnosed as renal carcinoma following nephrectomy. The 'numb-chin' syndrome heralds or accompanies systemic malignancies. Trigeminal perineural spread has been well-documented in head and neck neoplasms, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported in renal neoplasms. (author)

  4. Abnormal cascading failure spreading on complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Sun, Enhui; Xu, Bo; Li, Peng; Ni, Chengzhang


    Applying the mechanism of the preferential selection of the flow destination, we develop a new method to quantify the initial load on an edge, of which the flow is transported along the path with the shortest edge weight between two nodes. Considering the node weight, we propose a cascading model on the edge and investigate cascading dynamics induced by the removal of the edge with the largest load. We perform simulated attacks on four types of constructed networks and two actual networks and observe an interesting and counterintuitive phenomenon of the cascading spreading, i.e., gradually improving the capacity of nodes does not lead to the monotonous increase in the robustness of these networks against cascading failures. The non monotonous behavior of cascading dynamics is well explained by the analysis on a simple graph. We additionally study the effect of the parameter of the node weight on cascading dynamics and evaluate the network robustness by a new metric.

  5. [Epidemiological examples of infectious disease spread]. (United States)

    Schlüter, H; Kramer, M


    The globalisation of trade with animals and animal products and increase of travel transports are very important issues with respect to prevent and control animal diseases or epizootics respectively. The disease control concepts as a complex manner should be established on scientific basis and must be permanently evaluated and updated. Outbreak investigations in order to clarify the source of infection and/or the spread of animal diseases including zoonoses are important fields of activities of veterinary epidemiologists. The application of modern epidemiological methods is the precondition of a successful disease control. On selected examples of animal diseases, the use of these methods is demonstrated. It is urgently necessary to intensify the epidemiological work in applied research and practice.

  6. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong


    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  7. Intensity-dependent point spread image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornsweet, T.N.; Yellott, J.I.


    There is ample anatomical, physiological and psychophysical evidence that the mammilian retina contains networks that mediate interactions among neighboring receptors, resulting in intersecting transformations between input images and their corresponding neural output patterns. The almost universally accepted view is that the principal form of interaction involves lateral inhibition, resulting in an output pattern that is the convolution of the input with a ''Mexican hat'' or difference-of-Gaussians spread function, having a positive center and a negative surround. A closely related process is widely applied in digital image processing, and in photography as ''unsharp masking''. The authors show that a simple and fundamentally different process, involving no inhibitory or subtractive terms can also account for the physiological and psychophysical findings that have been attributed to lateral inhibition. This process also results in a number of fundamental effects that occur in mammalian vision and that would be of considerable significance in robotic vision, but which cannot be explained by lateral inhibitory interaction

  8. Quantifier spreading: children misled by ostensive cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin É. Kiss


    Full Text Available This paper calls attention to a methodological problem of acquisition experiments. It shows that the economy of the stimulus employed in child language experiments may lend an increased ostensive effect to the message communicated to the child. Thus, when the visual stimulus in a sentence-picture matching task is a minimal model abstracting away from the details of the situation, children often regard all the elements of the stimulus as ostensive clues to be represented in the corresponding sentence. The use of such minimal stimuli is mistaken when the experiment aims to test whether or not a certain element of the stimulus is relevant for the linguistic representation or interpretation. The paper illustrates this point by an experiment involving quantifier spreading. It is claimed that children find a universally quantified sentence like 'Every girl is riding a bicycle 'to be a false description of a picture showing three girls riding bicycles and a solo bicycle because they are misled to believe that all the elements in the visual stimulus are relevant, hence all of them are to be represented by the corresponding linguistic description. When the iconic drawings were replaced by photos taken in a natural environment rich in accidental details, the occurrence of quantifier spreading was radically reduced. It is shown that an extra object in the visual stimulus can lead to the rejection of the sentence also in the case of sentences involving no quantification, which gives further support to the claim that the source of the problem is not (or not only the grammatical or cognitive difficulty of quantification but the unintended ostensive effect of the extra object.  This article is part of the special collection: Acquisition of Quantification

  9. SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.


    We have developed a semi-automatic, MATLAB-based GUI to combine standard seismological tasks such as the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting. Shear-wave splitting analysis is widely used to infer seismic anisotropy, which can be interpreted in terms of lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, shape-preferred orientation caused by fluid-filled cracks or alternating layers. Seismic anisotropy provides a unique link between directly observable surface structures and the more elusive dynamic processes in the mantle below. Thus, resolving the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere is of particular importance for geodynamic modeling and interpretations. The increasing number of seismic stations from temporary experiments and permanent installations creates a new basis for comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. However, the increasingly large data sets pose new challenges for the rapid and reliably analysis of teleseismic waveforms and for the interpretation of the measurements. Well-established routines and programs are available but are often impractical for analyzing large data sets from hundreds of stations. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same well-defined quality criteria which may complicate comparison with results from different studies. SplitRacer has been designed to overcome these challenges by incorporation of the following processing steps: i) downloading of waveform data from multiple stations in mseed-format using FDSNWS tools; ii) automated initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold; iii) particle-motion analysis of selected phases at longer periods to detect and correct for sensor misalignment; iv) splitting analysis of selected phases based on transverse-energy minimization for multiple, randomly-selected, relevant time windows; v) one and two-layer joint-splitting analysis for all phases at one station by

  10. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian


    During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...... spreading on a highway with traffic. A total of 800 spots were measured for residual salt for every spreader. The measurements and the spread pattern for brine spreading with nozzles were so precisely, that we learned: “When there is moisture, water or ice on the road, we need to take into account...... that the salt will run from the high level of the road to the lower level”. In the test the salt moved 1 meter in 3 hours. The knowledge gained from the measurements in the county of Funen - brine spread with nozzles, spreading salt to high level of the road and using GPS controlled spreading – was implemented...

  11. Topology dependent epidemic spreading velocity in weighted networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wei; Qiu, Xiaogang; Quax, Rick; Lees, Michael; Sloot, Peter M A


    Many diffusive processes occur on structured networks with weighted links, such as disease spread by airplane transport or information diffusion in social networks or blogs. Understanding the impact of weight-connectivity correlations on epidemic spreading in weighted networks is crucial to support decision-making on disease control and other diffusive processes. However, a real understanding of epidemic spreading velocity in weighted networks is still lacking. Here we conduct a numerical study of the velocity of a Reed–Frost epidemic spreading process in various weighted network topologies as a function of the correlations between edge weights and node degrees. We find that a positive weight-connectivity correlation leads to a faster epidemic spreading compared to an unweighted network. In contrast, we find that both uncorrelated and negatively correlated weight distributions lead to slower spreading processes. In the case of positive weight-connectivity correlations, the acceleration of spreading velocity is weak when the heterogeneity of weight distribution increases. (paper)

  12. Non-isothermal spreading of liquid drops on horizontal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhard, P.; Davis, S.H.


    A viscous-liquid drop spreads on a smooth horizontal surface, which is uniformly heated or cooled. Lubrication theory is used to study thin drops subject to capillary, thermocapillary and gravity forces, and a variety of contact-angle-versus-speed conditions. It is found for isothermal drops that gravity is very important at large times and determines the power law for unlimited spreading. Predictions compare well with the experimental data on isothermal spreading for both two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. It is found that heating (cooling) retards (augments) the spreading process. When the advancing contact angle is zero, heating will cause the drop to spread only finitely far. For positive advancing contact angles, sufficient cooling will cause unlimited spreading. Thus, the heat transfer serves as a sentitive control on the spreading. (orig.) [de

  13. 2SI2R rumor spreading model in homogeneous networks (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Zhao, Laijun; Huang, Rongbing


    Similarities exist between the rumor spreading and the infectious disease transmission. Some researches on the disease spreading involve two or more diseases which are cross-infection propagation. Similarly, two or several kinds of rumors may spread at the same time. In this paper, we study a rumor spreading model called 2SI2R model, in which two types of rumors spread simultaneously among the crowd. Derived from mean-field equations, the dynamics of the 2SI2R rumor spreading model in homogeneous networks is elucidated. Employing the method on infectious diseases, the basic reproduction number, the stability of the disease-free equilibrium, and the final size of rumor are investigated and discussed. In the numerical simulation part, the interaction of two rumors and the impact of different parameters on the rumor spreading are discussed.

  14. Tangled up in mood : Exploring Panará split ergativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardagil-Mas, Bernat


    The two primary goals of this article are to present data concerning the mood-based alignment split that can be observed in Panará pronominal clitics and to put forward a tentative formal analysis that can capture the motivations of such phenomena in the grammar. This paper aims to explore an

  15. Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.


    Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.

  16. Deconstruction, G_2 Holonomy, and Doublet-Triplet Splitting


    Witten, Edward


    We describe a mechanism for using discrete symmetries to solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem of four-dimensional supersymmetric GUT's. We present two versions of the mechanism, one via ``deconstruction,'' and one in terms of M-theory compactification to four dimensions on a manifold of G_2 holonomy.

  17. Split shielding plates in electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters (United States)

    Yavor, Mikhail I.


    An analytical method is developed for calculation of the influence of the splitted shielding plates in inhomogeneous electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters on their electron optical properties. The method allows one to simplify considerably the choice of the mode of operation of the shielding plates needed to achieve a required electrostatic field distribution inside the analyzer.

  18. Split tensile strength of soilcrete blocks | Okere | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the ever increasing problems associated with dredging of rivers to obtain river sand, reduced dependence on river sand should be encouraged by using alternative materials in block production. This work deals with the production of soilcrete blocks using readily available and affordable laterite. Split tensile strength of ...

  19. Signature splitting in two quasiparticle rotational bands of Ta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jun 20, 2016 ... ... of 182Ta are analysed within the framework of two-quasiparticle rotor model. The phase as well as magni- tude of the experimentally observed signature splitting in Kπ = 1+ band of 180Ta, which could not be explained in earlier calculations, is successfully reproduced. The conflict regarding placement of ...

  20. Split Hand and Foot Malformation | Salati | East and Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Split Hand and Foot Malformation. SA Salati ...

  1. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  2. Split calvarial graft and titanium mesh for reconstruction of post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of cranioplasty is to achieve a lifelong, stable and structural reconstruction of the cranium covered by a healthy skin and scalp flap. We present two cases of large frontal bone defect following a accident.. Cases: We describe the utilization of autogenous local split calvarial graft and titanium mesh for ...

  3. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.


    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  4. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in

  5. Relations among the crack growth modes resulting from tensor splitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav


    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-335 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : fracture mechanics * combination of crack-growth modes * non-local effect * tensor splitting Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  6. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities. ~~~'<,. ~. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos ... general theory of relativity and the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury was a great triumph ..... neutrino counting rate, by nearly a factor of 3 over the. SSM prediction, constitutes the solar neutrino ...

  7. Splitting and Projection: Drawing on Psychodynamics in Educational Psychology Practice (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.


    This paper reflects the author's journey into an area of psychology which is not dominant in Educational Psychology discourse, namely psychodynamic psychology. Two psychodynamic mechanisms, namely splitting and projection are explained, and then the author describes and critiques how these mechanisms have proved useful in his practice. Two case…

  8. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Omar Mendoza Marin


    Full Text Available During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient’s discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities.

  9. Transient Splitting of Conoscopic Isogyres of a Uniaxial Nematic (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Senuk, Bohdan; Tortora, Luana; Sprunt, Samuel; Lehmann, Matthias; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.


    The phase identification is often based on conoscopic observations of homeotropic cells: A uniaxial nematic produces a pattern with crossed isogyres, while the biaxial nematic shows a split of isogyres. We demonstrate that the splitting of isogyres occurs even when the material remains in the uniaxial nematic phase. In particular, in the bent core material J35, splitting of isogyres is caused by change of the temperature. The effect is transient and the isogyres return to a uniaxial (crossed) configuration after a certain time that depends on sample thickness, temperature, and rate of temperature change; the time varies from a few seconds to tens of hours. The transient splitting is caused by the temperature-induced material flow that triggers a (uniaxial) director tilt in the cell. The flows and the director tilt are demonstrated by the CARS microscopy and fluorescent confocal polarizing microscopy (FCPM). This transient effect is general and can be observed even in E7 and 5CB. The effect should be considered in textural identifications of potential biaxial nematic materials.

  10. Mass Communication and Ticket Splitting in the 1972 General Election. (United States)

    Atwood, L. Erwin; Sanders, Keith R.

    There is evidence of a growing trend toward ticket splitting, or independent voting patterns in all U.S. elections, especially in recent years. Independence of the electorate in 1972 was visible in the large Republican vote for President, during substantial voting for Democrats in Congress, and in gubernatorial elections. Analysis of mass media…

  11. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil


    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate h...

  12. A cyclic iterative method for solving multiple sets split feasibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (An iterative regularization method for the solution of the split feasibility problem in Banach spaces, Inverse Problems 24 (2008), 055008) and many important recent results in this direction. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 49J53, 65K10, 49M37, 90C25. Keywords: Bregman projection, strong convergence, metric ...

  13. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H


    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  14. The split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula. (United States)

    Hoffman, C H; Dietrich, R B; Pais, M J; Demos, D S; Pribram, H F


    Split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that may be associated with meningomyelocele or meningocele, and genitourinary anomalies. This case presented with an additional finding of bladder exstrophy, raising the possibility of a relationship between this syndrome and the OEIS complex.

  15. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplishing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' problem of science.

  16. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon


    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Fundaments of transport equation splitting and the eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancic, V.


    In order to remove some singularities concerning the boundary conditions of one dimensional transport equation, a split form of transport equation describing the forward i.e. μ≥0, and a backward μ<0 directed neutrons is being proposed here. The eigenvalue problem has also been considered here (author)

  18. Split-mouth design in Paediatric Dentistry clinical trials. (United States)

    Pozos-Guillén, A; Chavarría-Bolaños, D; Garrocho-Rangel, A


    The aim of this article was to describe the essential concepts of the split-mouth design, its underlying assumptions, advantages, limitations, statistical considerations, and possible applications in Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation. In Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation, and as part of randomised controlled trials, the split-mouth design is commonly used. The design is characterised by subdividing the child's dentition into halves (right and left), where two different treatment modalities are assigned to one side randomly, in order to allow further outcome evaluation. Each participant acts as their own control by making within- patient rather than between-patient comparisons, thus diminishing inter-subject variability and increasing study accuracy and power. However, the main problem with this design comprises the potential contamination of the treatment effect from one side to the other, or the "carry-across effect"; likewise, this design is not indicated when the oral disease to be treated is not symmetrically distributed (e.g. severity) in the mouth of children. Thus, in spite of its advantages, the split-mouth design can only be applied in a limited number of strictly selected cases. In order to obtain valid and reliable data from split mouth design studies, it is necessary to evaluate the risk of carry-across effect as well as to carefully analise and select adequate inclusion criteria, sample-size calculation and method of statistical analysis.

  19. Visible-light-induced water splitting on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoontjes, M.G.C.


    In this thesis, a photoelectrochemical water splitting cell concept is discussed, based on a combination of semiconductors comprising a Z-scheme. The motivation for the development of the cell is that in the future a transition will take place from a fossil fuel-based economy, to an economy based on

  20. Higgs, Binos and Gluinos: Split Susy within Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP


    Recent results from the LHC for the Higgs boson with mass between 142 GeV {approx}< m{sub h{sup 0}} {approx}< 147 GeV points to PeV-scale Split Supersymmetry. This article explores the consequences of a Higgs mass in this range and possible discovery modes for Split Susy. Moderate lifetime gluinos, with decay lengths in the 25 {micro}m to 10 yr range, are its imminent smoking gun signature. The 7TeV LHC will be sensitive to the moderately lived gluinos and trilepton signatures from direct electroweakino production. Moreover, the dark matter abundance may be obtained from annihilation through an s-channel Higgs resonance, with the LSP almost purely bino and mass m{sub {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 70 GeV. The Higgs resonance region of Split Susy has visible signatures in dark matter direct and indirect detection and electric dipole moment experiments. If the anomalies go away, the majority of Split Susy parameter space will be excluded.

  1. On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Spain. E-mail: MS received 24 May 2007. Abstract. We develop techniques of connections of roots for split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems. We show that any of such algebras L is of the form L = U +. ∑.

  2. Reduction of Biomass Moisture by Crushing/Splitting - A Concept (United States)

    Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois; Colin Ashmore


    A biomass crusher/splitter concept is presented as a possible n&ant of tsafntainfng rights-of-way (ROW) or harvesting energy wood plantations. The conceptual system would cut, crush, and split small woody biomass leaving it in windrows for drying. A subsequent operation would bale and transport the dried material for use as an energy source. A survey of twenty...

  3. Robustness of the Rabi Splitting under Nonlocal Corrections in Plexcitonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger


    , the influence of nonlocality is rather limited, as in most occasions the width of the Rabi splitting remains largely unaffected and the two hybrid modes are well distinguishable. We discuss how this behavior can be understood in view of the popular coupled-harmonic-oscillator model, while we also provide...

  4. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.


    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  5. Roadmap on solar water splitting: current status and future prospects (United States)

    Chu, Sheng; Li, Wei; Yan, Yanfa; Hamann, Thomas; Shih, Ishiang; Wang, Dunwei; Mi, Zetian


    Artificial photosynthesis via solar water splitting provides a promising approach to storing solar energy in the form of hydrogen on a global scale. However, an efficient and cost-effective solar hydrogen production system that can compete with traditional methods using fossil fuels is yet to be developed. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) tandem cell consisting of a p-type photocathode and an n-type photoanode, with the photovoltage provided by the two photoelectrodes, is an attractive route to achieve highly efficient unassisted water splitting at a low cost. In this article, we provide an overview of recent developments of semiconductor materials, including metal oxides, nitrides, chalcogenides, Si, III-V compounds and organics, either as photocathodes or photoanodes for water reduction and oxidation, respectively. In addition, recent efforts in constructing a PEC tandem system for unassisted water splitting are outlined. The importance of developing a single-photon photocathode and photoanode that can deliver high photocurrent in the low bias region for efficient PEC tandem system is highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future development of photoelectrode materials, and viable solutions to realize highly efficient PEC water splitting device for practical applications.

  6. Recent developments in solar H2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplish- ing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' prob-.

  7. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities. S M Chitre is a Senior. Professor at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are in the areas of solar physics, physics and astrophysics of condensed objects and gravitational lenses. Keywords. Neutrino. Sun, solar structure.

  8. Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump: Optimization and Exergy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix


    This paper presents a numerical study of a split condenser heat pump (SCHP). The SCHP setup differs from a traditional heat pump (THP) setup in the way that two separate water streams on the secondary side of the condenser are heated in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one s...

  9. On Split Lie Algebras with Symmetric Root Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and any I j a well described ideal of , satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if j ≠ k . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected.

  10. On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik] = 0 if j = k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected. Keywords. Infinite dimensional Lie ...

  11. On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 24 May 2007 ...

  12. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe; Pavlov, Patrik; Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre; Eladari, Dominique; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud; Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie; Houillier, Pascal


    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  13. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Renal Transplantation Department, Paris (France); Pavlov, Patrik [Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Eladari, Dominique [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 970, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Urology Department, Paris (France); Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 1151, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Houillier, Pascal [Paris Descartes University, INSERM, Unit umrs1138, and CNRS Unit erl8228, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France)


    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  14. Methane splitting in the K plant at Heydebreck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report consisted of two major topics. The first was methane splitting in equipment for gas for distant transmission. The amount to be split was 3500 m/sup 3//hr methane per system. The temperature in the converter outlet was 850/sup 0/C and the methane was preheated to 650/sup 0/C. The results of this showed oxygen requirements to be 0.487 m/sup 3//m/sup 3/ of methane, steam requirements to be 0.529 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, condensate requirements to be 0.518 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, and cooling-water requirements to be 16 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane. The second topic was methane splitting in equipment for long-distance gas with additional indirect cooling. A summary showed the oxygen requirements to be 0.487 m/sup 3//m/sup 3/ of methane, steam requirements to be 0.107 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, condensate requirements to be 0.526 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, and cooling-water requirements to be 9.6 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane. The items discussed for each topic included calculations of methane converters, which included oxygen requirements and a heat balance of the converter; cooling of the split gas, which included heat content of the split gas at the catalyst converter outlet and heat exchangers; and the cooler-vaporizer system, which included a heat balance of the water circuit, determination of the amount of water in the cooler-vaporizer, and final cooling. 3 figures.

  15. Split quaternions and semi-Euclidean projective spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ata, Erhan [Department of Mathematics, Dumlupinar University, 43100 Kutahya (Turkey); Department of Mathematics, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:; Yayli, Yusuf [Department of Mathematics, Dumlupinar University, 43100 Kutahya (Turkey); Department of Mathematics, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)


    In this study, we give one-to-one correspondence between the elements of the unit split three-sphere S(3,2) with the complex hyperbolic special unitary matrices SU(2,1). Thus, we express spherical concepts such as meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude on SU(2,1) by using the method given in Toth [Toth G. Glimpses of algebra and geometry. Springer-Verlag; 1998] for S{sup 3}. The relation among the special orthogonal group SO(R{sup 3}), the quotient group of unit quaternions S{sup 3}/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace} and the projective space RP{sup 3} given as SO(R{sup 3}){approx_equal}S{sup 3}/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace}=RP{sup 3} is known as the Euclidean projective spaces [Toth G. Glimpses of algebra and geometry. Springer-Verlag; 1998]. This relation was generalized to the semi-Euclidean projective space and then, the expression SO(3,1){approx_equal}S(3,2)/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace}=RP{sub 2}{sup 3} was acquired. Thus, it was found that Hopf fibriation map of S(2,1) can be used for Twistors (in not-null state) in quantum mechanics applications. In addition, the octonions and the split-octonions can be obtained from the Cayley-Dickson construction by defining a multiplication on pairs of quaternions or split quaternions. The automorphism group of the octonions is an exceptional Lie group. The split-octonions are used in the description of physical law. For example, the Dirac equation in physics (the equation of motion of a free spin 1/2 particle, like e.g. an electron or a proton) can be represented by a native split-octonion arithmetic.

  16. Risk spreading, connectivity, and optimal reserve spacing. (United States)

    Blowes, Shane A; Connolly, Sean R


    Two important processes determining the dynamics of spatially structured populations are dispersal and the spatial covariance of demographic fluctuations. Spatially explicit approaches to conservation, such as reserve networks, must consider the tension between these two processes and reach a balance between distances near enough to maintain connectivity, but far enough to benefit from risk spreading. Here, we model this trade-off. We show how two measures of metapopulation persistence depend on the shape of the dispersal kernel and the shape of the distance decay in demographic covariance, and we consider the implications of this trade-off for reserve spacing. The relative rates of distance decay in dispersal and demographic covariance determine whether the long-run metapopulation growth rate, and quasi-extinction risk, peak for adjacent patches or intermediately spaced patches; two local maxima in metapopulation persistence are also possible. When dispersal itself fluctuates over time, the trade-off changes. Temporal variation in mean distance that propagules are dispersed (i.e., propagule advection) decreases metapopulation persistence and decreases the likelihood that persistence will peak for adjacent patches. Conversely, variation in diffusion (the extent of random spread around mean dispersal) increases metapopulation persistence overall and causes it to peak at shorter inter-patch distances. Thus, failure to consider temporal variation in dispersal processes increases the risk that reserve spacings will fail to meet the objective of ensuring metapopulation persistence. This study identifies two phenomena that receive relatively little attention in empirical work on reserve spacing, but that can qualitatively change the effectiveness of reserve spacing strategies: (1) the functional form of the distance decay in covariance among patch-specific demographic rates and (2) temporal variation in the shape of the dispersal kernel. The sensitivity of metapopulation

  17. A structure-preserving split finite element discretization of the split 1D linear shallow-water equations (United States)

    Bauer, Werner; Behrens, Jörn


    We present a locally conservative, low-order finite element (FE) discretization of the covariant 1D linear shallow-water equations written in split form (cf. tet{[1]}). The introduction of additional differential forms (DF) that build pairs with the original ones permits a splitting of these equations into topological momentum and continuity equations and metric-dependent closure equations that apply the Hodge-star. Our novel discretization framework conserves this geometrical structure, in particular it provides for all DFs proper FE spaces such that the differential operators (here gradient and divergence) hold in strong form. The discrete topological equations simply follow by trivial projections onto piecewise constant FE spaces without need to partially integrate. The discrete Hodge-stars operators, representing the discretized metric equations, are realized by nontrivial Galerkin projections (GP). Here they follow by projections onto either a piecewise constant (GP0) or a piecewise linear (GP1) space. Our framework thus provides essentially three different schemes with significantly different behavior. The split scheme using twice GP1 is unstable and shares the same discrete dispersion relation and similar second-order convergence rates as the conventional P1-P1 FE scheme that approximates both velocity and height variables by piecewise linear spaces. The split scheme that applies both GP1 and GP0 is stable and shares the dispersion relation of the conventional P1-P0 FE scheme that approximates the velocity by a piecewise linear and the height by a piecewise constant space with corresponding second- and first-order convergence rates. Exhibiting for both velocity and height fields second-order convergence rates, we might consider the split GP1-GP0 scheme though as stable versions of the conventional P1-P1 FE scheme. For the split scheme applying twice GP0, we are not aware of a corresponding conventional formulation to compare with. Though exhibiting larger

  18. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  19. Metallicity Spreads in M31 Globular Clusters (United States)

    Bridges, Terry


    Our recent deep HST photometry of the M31 halo globular cluster {GC} Mayall II, also called G1, has revealed a red-giant branch with a clear spread that we attribute to an intrinsic metallicity dispersion of at least 0.4 dex in [Fe/H]. The only other GC exhibiting such a metallicity dispersion is Omega Centauri, the brightest and most massive Galactic GC, whose range in [Fe/H] is about 0.5 dex. These observations are obviously linked to the fact that both G1 and Omega Cen are bright and massive GC, with potential wells deep enough to keep part of their gas, which might have been recycled, producing a metallicity scatter among cluster stars. These observations dramatically challenge the notion of chemical homogeneity as a defining characteristic of GCs. It is critically important to find out how common this phenomenon is and how it can constrain scenarios/models of GC formation. The obvious targets are other bright and massive GCs, which exist in M31 but not in our Galaxy where Omega Cen is an isolated giant. We propose to acquire, with ACS/HRC, deep imaging of 3 of the brightest M31 GCs for which we have observed velocity dispersion values similar to those observed in G1 and Omega Cen. A sample of GCs with chemical abundance dispersions will provide essential information about their formation mechanism. This would represent a major step for the studies of the origin and evolution of stellar populations.

  20. Spread of pathogens through rain drop impact (United States)

    Kim, Seungho; Gruszewski, Hope; Gidley, Todd; Schmale, David G., III; Jung, Sunghwan


    Rain drop impact can disperse micron-sized pathogenic particles over long distances. In this study, we aim to elucidate mechanisms for disease dispersal when a rain drop impacts a particle-laden solid surface. Three different dispersal types were observed depending on whether the dispersed glass particles were dry or wet. For a dry particle dispersal, the movement of contact line made the particles initially jump off the surface with relatively high velocity. Then, air vortex was formed due to the air current entrained along with the falling drop, and advected the particles with relatively low velocity. For a wet particle dispersal, the contact line of a spreading liquid became unstable due to the presence of the particles on the substrate. This caused splashing at the contact line and ejected liquid droplets carrying the particles. Finally, we released a drop onto wheat plants infected with the rust fungus, Puccinia triticina, and found that nearly all of the satellite droplets from a single drop contained at least one rust spore. Also, we visualized such novel dispersal dynamics with a high-speed camera and characterized their features by scaling models. This research was partially supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  1. Spreading Optics in the primary school (United States)

    Gargallo, Ana; Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; Gónzalez-Nuñez, Héctor; Delgado, Tamara; Almaguer, Citlalli; Cambronero, Ferran; García-Sánchez, Ángel; Pallarés, David; Aymerich, María; Aragón, Ángel L.; Flores-Arias, Maria T.


    The USC-OSA is a student chapter located at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) whose objective is to bring optics and photonics knowledge closer to general public. In order to arouse kids' interest in Optics we developed an activity called Funny Light. This activity consisted on a visit of some USC-OSA members to a several local primary schools where we organized several optics experiments. In this work we present the optics demonstrations and the reaction of the 6 years-old students. The activities with greater acceptance include an explanation of light properties as polarization, refraction or reflection, and the workshop where they learnt how to build their own kaleidoscope and made a chromatic disk. Besides, they also participated in a demonstration and explanation of color properties and some optical illusions. We think that this activity has several benefits including spreading Optics through children meanwhile they have fun and experiment science in real life, as well as helping teachers to explain some complex properties and Physics phenomena of light. Given the broad acceptance of this activity, we are intending to make it a routine event of our student chapter repeating it every year.

  2. Spreading Optics in the primary school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargallo, Ana; Gómez-Varela, Ana I; Gónzalez-Nuñez, Héctor; Delgado, Tamara; Almaguer, Citlalli; Cambronero, Ferran; García-Sánchez, Ángel; Pallarés, David; Aymerich, María; Aragón, Ángel L; Flores-Arias, Maria T


    The USC-OSA is a student chapter located at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) whose objective is to bring optics and photonics knowledge closer to general public. In order to arouse kids' interest in Optics we developed an activity called Funny Light. This activity consisted on a visit of some USC-OSA members to a several local primary schools where we organized several optics experiments. In this work we present the optics demonstrations and the reaction of the 6 years-old students. The activities with greater acceptance include an explanation of light properties as polarization, refraction or reflection, and the workshop where they learnt how to build their own kaleidoscope and made a chromatic disk. Besides, they also participated in a demonstration and explanation of color properties and some optical illusions. We think that this activity has several benefits including spreading Optics through children meanwhile they have fun and experiment science in real life, as well as helping teachers to explain some complex properties and Physics phenomena of light. Given the broad acceptance of this activity, we are intending to make it a routine event of our student chapter repeating it every year. (paper)

  3. Numerical unit spread assessment pedigree (NUSAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffhauser, A. Jr.


    Data estimates and information require a system for signaling the uncertainty and quality of the entries for users. Few of the entries will be known with certainty, or even generally agreed upon as the prevalent quantity or relation. For example, the ecological or health responses of resources exposed to energy-related pollutants cannot be known with certainty given current knowledge of the relationships. The monetary valuations associated with the imperfectly known impacts are also uncertain and sometimes controversial. To leave entries standing alone without signaling their uncertainty and quality would overstate the precision with which the entries are known. In addition, signaling the uncertainty and quality for entries will indicate areas where further study is needed most. Uncertainty and quality are signaled through a notational system named NUSAP as an acronym for its categories. NUSAP was developed by Funtowicz and Ravetz to provide a 'quality control' of quantitative information.' We have adapted the NUSAP system for signaling the uncertainty and quality of quantitative information to be used in estimating the emissions, impacts, NUSAP and external costs of fuel cycles. Uncertainty refers to the spread of plausible values for a cell entry and the level of confidence placed in a quantitative statement. Quality refers to both an entry's worth as a piece of information and the credibility of the theory, data, and methods used to generate the entry

  4. Spreading depression: evidence of five electroencephalogram phases. (United States)

    Broberg, Marita; Pope, Kenneth J; Olsson, Torsten; Shuttleworth, C William; Willoughby, John O


    Spreading depression (SD), a self-propagating wave of astroglial and neuronal depolarization, is an accompaniment of several neurological disorders including epilepsy. Its well-described features are initial depolarization, followed by EEG flattening. In this in vivo study in awake animals, the relationship of SDs to epileptiform activity was re-examined. We assessed SDs generated by mechanical stimulation and by metabolic inhibition with fluorocitrate. In addition to identifying prolonged EEG depression, we identified two periods, one prior to and another during depression, characterized by increases in power of specific frequencies that were sometimes associated with epileptiform discharges. The first period was characterized by ripple activity close to the induction site (88% of SDs with intracortical electrodes). The second period was characterized by localized low-frequency spikes (100% with dural screw electrodes, 65% with intracortical electrodes). By using fluorocitrate to induce SDs, the initial period was also characterized by runs of spikes (52%). Finally, with SDs induced by both methods, there was a period at the end of depression when additional, unprovoked SDs occurred (20%). Five stages of SD were defined by these phenomena, in the order: excitation, depression, excitation, depression, SD, with metabolic inhibition enhancing the expression of epileptiform spiking. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pharmaceutical counselling about different types of tablet-splitting methods based on the results of weighing tests and mechanical development of splitting devices. (United States)

    Somogyi, O; Meskó, A; Csorba, L; Szabó, P; Zelkó, R


    The division of tablets and adequate methods of splitting them are a complex problem in all sectors of health care. Although tablet-splitting is often required, this procedure can be difficult for patients. Four tablets were investigated with different external features (shape, score-line, film-coat and size). The influencing effect of these features and the splitting methods was investigated according to the precision and "weight loss" of splitting techniques. All four types of tablets were halved by four methods: by hand, with a kitchen knife, with an original manufactured splitting device and with a modified tablet splitter based on a self-developed mechanical model. The mechanical parameters (harness and friability) of the products were measured during the study. The "weight loss" and precision of splitting methods were determined and compared by statistical analysis. On the basis of the results, the external features (geometry), the mechanical parameters of tablets and the mechanical structure of splitting devices can influence the "weight loss" and precision of tablet-splitting. Accordingly, a new decision-making scheme was developed for the selection of splitting methods. In addition, the skills of patients and the specialties of therapy should be considered so that pharmaceutical counselling can be more effective regarding tablet-splitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rumor spreading model considering hesitating mechanism in complex social networks (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Ling; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Bo; Song, Yu-Rong


    The study of rumor spreading has become an important issue on complex social networks. On the basis of prior studies, we propose a modified ​susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) model with hesitating mechanism by considering the attractiveness and fuzziness of the content of rumors. We derive mean-field equations to characterize the dynamics of SEIR model on both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Then a steady-state analysis is conducted to investigate the spreading threshold and the final rumor size. Simulations on both artificial and real networks show that a decrease of fuzziness can effectively increase the spreading threshold of the SEIR model and reduce the maximum rumor influence. In addition, the spreading threshold is independent of the attractiveness of rumor. Simulation results also show that the speed of rumor spreading obeys the relation ;BA network > WS network;, whereas the final scale of spreading obeys the opposite relation.

  7. Minimizing Energy Spread In The REX/HIE-ISOLDE Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Yucemoz, Mert


    This report tries to minimize the energy spread of the beam at the end of the REX-HIE-ISOLDE Linac using the last RF cavity as a buncher. Beams with very low energy spread are often required by the users of the facility In addition, one of the main reason to have minimum energy spread in longitudinal phase space is that higher beam energy spread translates in to a position spread after interacting with target. This causes an overlap in the position of different particles that makes it difficult to distinguish them. Hence, in order to find the operation settings for minimum energy spread at the end of the REX-HIE-ISOLDE linac and to inspect the ongoing physics, several functions on Matlab were created that runs beam dynamics program called “TRACKV39” that provides some graphs and values as a result for analysis.

  8. Investigation of the Effects of Split Sleep Schedules on Commercial Vehicle Driver Safety and Health (United States)


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences for safety and health of split sleep versus consolidated sleep by comparing the effects of consolidated nighttime sleep, split sleep, and consolidated daytime sleep on total sleep time, per...

  9. Identifying node spreading influence for tunable clustering coefficient networks (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Han, Jing-Ti; Zhao, Jun


    Identifying the node spreading influence is of significant for information and innovation diffusion. In this paper, we argue that the spreading process should be taken into account for identifying the node spreading influence and investigate the effect of the network structure, measured by the clustering coefficient, on the performance of spreading dynamics. Firstly, we generate a series of networks with tunable clustering coefficients. Then, taking into account the spreading process, we explore the performances among the Dynamics-sensitive (DS) index and the degree, between, closeness, eigenvector indices. Comparing with the Susceptible-Infective-Removed (SIR) model, the extensive results show that, for different spreading time steps and clustering coefficients, the DS centrality outperforms the performance, τ > 0 . 97, of degree, betweenness, closeness and eigenvector measures. Moreover, the accuracy of closeness and eigenvector centrality is similar and conducts better in networks with larger spreading rate β = 0 . 20 , τ > 0 . 93. As the clustering coefficient increases, all the performances decrease but DS centrality with least percent of 1.16 at most under β = 0 . 10, and Closeness with the largest percent of 9.75 under β = 0 . 05. This work suggests that the spreading influence not only depends on the network structure, more importantly, the spreading dynamic process also affect the performance greatly, which should be taken into account simultaneously.

  10. The Influence of Ridge Geometry at Ultraslow Spreading Rates (United States)

    Dick, H. J.; Standish, J.


    Ridges spreading at ultraslow rate less than 20 mm/yr have been identified as a unique class of ocean ridge as different from slow spreading as slow spreading are from fast 1. Ridge characteristics, such as the presence or absence of amagmatic accretionary segments, transform faults, axial valleys or axial rises, however, are not a simple function of spreading rate, and it is therefore difficult to define precisely ridge classes simply on this criterion. Ridge morphology, tectonics, and geochemistry are also largely a function of mantle thermal structure, upwelling rate, fertility, and ridge geometry. However, examination of ridge crustal structure with spreading rate clearly shows a sharp break, with seismic measurements of crustal thickness indicating highly variable, generally thin crust associated with spreading rates below 20 mm/yr. In contrast, crust formed at spreading rates greater than 20 mm/yr is generally thicker and less variable thickness, averaging between 6 and 7 km, without a clear relationship to spreading rate. The generally accepted explanation is the influence of conductive heat loss and the formation of a thick axial lithosphere due to slow mantle upwelling rates, thereby limiting melt production at ultraslow spreading rates 2. Comparatively, the influence of conductive heat loss at spreading rates greater than 20 mm/yr is likely negligible except near major large offset transforms. The latter effect is predicted by modeling to increase sharply with decreasing spreading rate below 20 mm/yr. Thus perturbations in ridge geometry that would otherwise have a negligible effect, can dramatically influence melt production and ridge tectonics at ultraslow spreading rates. Investigation of the SW Indian Ridge and along the Gakkel Ridge, for example, shows that where the effective spreading rate for mantle upwelling, which ridge obliquity, falls below ~12 mm/yr, long amagmatic accretionary ridge segments form and replace both magmatic accretionary ridge

  11. SIR rumor spreading model in the new media age (United States)

    Zhao, Laijun; Cui, Hongxin; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jiajia


    With the prevalence of new media, e.g., microblogging, rumors spread faster and wider than ever before. On the basis of prior studies, this paper modifies a flow chart of the rumor spreading process with the SIR (Susceptible, Infected, and Recovered) model, and thus makes the rumor spreading process more realistic and apparent. The authors believe that ignorants will inevitably change their status once they are made aware of a rumor by spreaders; the probabilities that a spreader becomes a stifler are differentiated in accordance with reality. In the numerical simulation part, the impact that variations of different parameters have on the rumor spreading process will be analyzed.

  12. Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in Northwest and Central Nigeria.

  13. Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling


    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.

  14. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Applied Before and After Split-Thickness Skin Graft Helps Healing of Fournier Gangrene (United States)

    Ye, Junna; Xie, Ting; Wu, Minjie; Ni, Pengwen; Lu, Shuliang


    Abstract Fournier gangrene is a rare but highly infectious disease characterized by fulminant necrotizing fasciitis involving the genital and perineal regions. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; KCI USA Inc, San Antonio, TX) is a widely adopted technique in many clinical settings. Nevertheless, its application and effect in the treatment of Fournier gangrene are unclear. A 47-year-old male patient was admitted with an anal abscess followed by a spread of the infection to the scrotum, which was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. NPWT was applied on the surface of the scrotal area and continued for 10 days. A split-thickness skin graft from the scalp was then grafted to the wound, after which, NPWT utilizing gauze sealed with an occlusive dressing and connected to a wall suction was employed for 7 days to secure the skin graft. At discharge, the percentage of the grafted skin alive on the scrotum was 98%. The wound beside the anus had decreased to 4 × 0.5 cm with a depth of 1 cm. Follow-up at the clinic 1 month later showed that both wounds had healed. The patient did not complain of any pain or bleeding, and was satisfied with the outcome. NPWT before and after split-thickness skin grafts is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in the treatment of Fournier gangrene. PMID:25654376

  15. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song


    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  16. Chargino pair production at linear collider and split supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shouhua


    Recently Arkani-Hamed and Dimopoulos proposed a supersymmetric model [hep-th/0405159], dubbed 'Split supersymmetry' in [hep-ph/0406088], which can remove most of the unpleasant shortcomings of TeV Supersymmetry. In this model all scalars except one finely tuned Higgs boson are ultra heavy while the neutralino and chargino might remain light in order to achieve gauge coupling unification and accord with the dark matter density. In this Letter, we investigated the impact of this new model on chargino pair production at next generation linear colliders. Our numerical results show that this process can be used to probe sneutrino mass up to 10 TeV. Therefore, precise measurements of chargino pair production at the linear colliders could distinguish split supersymmetry from TeV supersymmetry

  17. Using Protection Layers for a 2-Photon Water Splitting Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Mei, Bastian Timo; Frydendal, Rasmus


    The 2-photon tandem device for photocatalytic water splitting has been theoretically shown to provide a higher efficiency than a single photon device(1). This increased efficiency can be achieved by having one material optimized to absorb high energy photons (large bandgap) and another material...... optimized to absorb low energy photons (small bandgap). To a large degree this approach has been hindered by corrosion issues. In this talk I will first discuss how our computational screening of 2,400 materials showed that very few materials can efficiently absorb light without corroding in water splitting...... conditions.(2) I will follow this up by discussing how protection layers bypass the corrosion issue by creating a buffer layer.(3) Finally I will show how we integrated a photocatalyst/protection layer/(co-catalyst) scheme to produce highly efficient H2 evolution photocathodes and O2 evolution photoanodes.(3...

  18. Photoelectrochemical water splitting standards, experimental methods, and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhebo; Miller, Eric


    This book outlines many of the techniques involved in materials development and characterization for photoelectrochemical (PEC) - for example, proper metrics for describing material performance, how to assemble testing cells and prepare materials for assessment of their properties, and how to perform the experimental measurements needed to achieve reliable results towards better scientific understanding. For each technique, proper procedure, benefits, limitations, and data interpretation are discussed. Consolidating this information in a short, accessible, and easy to read reference guide will allow researchers to more rapidly immerse themselves into PEC research and also better compare their results against those of other researchers to better advance materials development. This book serves as a "how-to" guide for researchers engaged in or interested in engaging in the field of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. PEC water splitting is a rapidly growing field of research in which the goal is to deve...

  19. Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle

    KAUST Repository

    Alderman, N. P.


    The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.

  20. Toward visible light response: Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    Extensive energy conversion of solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces a mixture of H 2 and O2 (chemical energy) in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. Development of highly efficient photocatalysts is desired. This review addresses why visible light responsive photocatalysts are essential to be developed. The state of the art for the photocatalysts for overall water splitting is briefly described. Moreover, various fundamental aspects for developing efficient photocatalysts, such as particle size of photocatalysts, cocatalysts, and reaction kinetics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 De Gruyter.

  1. Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells (United States)

    Landman, Avigail; Dotan, Hen; Shter, Gennady E.; Wullenkord, Michael; Houaijia, Anis; Maljusch, Artjom; Grader, Gideon S.; Rothschild, Avner


    Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells. The ion exchange in our cells is mediated by auxiliary electrodes, and the cells are connected to each other only by metal wires, enabling centralized hydrogen production. We demonstrate hydrogen generation in separate cells with solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 7.5%, which can readily surpass 10% using standard commercial components. A basic cost comparison shows that our approach is competitive with conventional photoelectrochemical systems, enabling safe and potentially affordable solar hydrogen production.

  2. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM


    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  3. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing and splitting (United States)

    Tilton, James C.


    The spatially constrained clustering (SCC) iterative parallel region-growing technique is applied to image analysis. The SCC algorithm is implemented on the massively parallel processor at NASA Goddard. Most previous region-growing approaches have the drawback that the segmentation produced depends on the order in which portions of the image are processed. The ideal solution to this problem (merging only the single most similar pair of spatially adjacent regions in the image in each iteration) becomes impractical except for very small images, even on a massively parallel computer. The SCC algorithm overcomes these problems by performing, in parallel, the best merge within each of a set of local, possibly overlapping, subimages. A region-splitting stage is also incorporated into the algorithm, but experiments show that region splitting generally does not improve segmentation results. The SCC algorithm has been tested on various imagery data, and test results for a Landsat TM image are summarized.

  4. Isospin Mass Splittings and the $\\ms$ Corrections in the Semibosonized SU(3)-NJL-Model


    Blotz, Andree; Goeke, K.; Praszalowicz, M.


    The mass splittings of hyperons including the isospin splittings are calculated with $O(\\ms^2)$ and $O(\\ms \\dm)$ accuracy respectively within the semibosonized SU(3)-NJL model. The pattern of the isospin splittings is not spoiled by the terms of the order $O(\\ms \\dm)$, and both splittings between the different isospin multiplets and within the same multiplet are well reproduced for acceptable values of $\\ms$ and $\\dm$.

  5. Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus): Spreading by fire (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph


    In many forest ecosystems, fire is critical in maintaining indigenous plant communities, but can either promote or arrest the spread of invasive species depending on their regeneration niche and resprouting ability. We examined the effects of cutting and burning treatments on the vegetative response (cover, stem density) and root resources of Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), a liana invasive to North America that was introduced from East Asia. Treatments were control, spring cut, spring burn, spring cut & burn, summer cut, fall cut, fall burn, fall cut & burn, and fall herbicide. Cover was reduced the greatest by herbicide and summer cutting treatments, but increased more in the second year on moraine soils than on sandy soils. Burning and cutting & burning combined resulted in a resprout density four times greater than stem density prior to treatment for stems <2.5 mm diameter than cutting alone. For stems, across all diameter classes, there was a more than 100% increase in stem density with burning and almost a 300% increase in stem density with cutting & burning in the spring. Density of resprouts and root-suckers, and survival increased with increasing stem size. While cutting of C. orbiculatus during the growing season (summer) reduced total nonstructural carbohydrates by 50% below early growing season levels and 75% below dormant season levels, burning did not significantly reduce total nonstructural carbohydrates. Thus, Oriental bittersweet is quite responsive to burning as a disturbance and resprouting and root-suckering creates additional opportunities for growth and attainment of the forest canopy. The positive response of Oriental bittersweet to burning has important implications for management of invasive lianas in fire-dependent forest landscapes.

  6. Transfer Pricing Profit Split Methods : A Practical Solution?


    Quttineh, Yousef


    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to explain and analyze whether today’s existing regulations provide sufficient guidance on how to apply the Profit Split Method (PSM) in practice. Since the enterprises’ profits arising from intra-group transactions increases, the tax base for any government also becomes larger and more important. This issue will likely become even more problematic as the globalization branches out and the majority of the global trade is undertaken between associated ent...

  7. Left-right splitting for electromagnetic scattering in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Spivack, M; Sillence, C; 10.1049/ip-smt:20040945


    The left-right splitting method and its application to electromagnetic scattering by large 3D scatterers are described. Exact numerical solutions to the governing integral equations can be prohibitively expensive for large scatterers. Under the assumption that energy is predominantly forward-scattered, the solution is expressed as a series of terms, each of which is rapidly and efficiently evaluated. In many cases only one or two terms are needed, and the formulation provides additional physical insight.

  8. Chitosan Nanoparticle Encapsulated Hemagglutinin-Split Influenza Virus Mucosal Vaccine


    Sawaengsak, Chompoonuch; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mitrevej, Ampol; Sinchaipanid, Nuttanan


    Subunit/split influenza vaccines are less reactogenic compared with the whole virus vaccines. However, their immunogenicity is relatively low and thus required proper adjuvant and/or delivery vehicle for immunogenicity enhancement. Influenza vaccines administered intramuscularly induce minimum, if any, mucosal immunity at the respiratory mucosa which is the prime site of the infection. In this study, chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking of the CS with sodium tripol...

  9. Point splitting regularization of classical string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.


    We regulate Witten's star algebra using point splitting and conformal field theory techniques. Certain products of nonassociative operators and states are defined. This involves a refinement of star that exists in cases where Witten's star is ill-defined. A simple derivation of a recently discovered associativity anomaly is given. It is shown that there is no anomaly obstructing the equivalence of Witten's string theory action and the cubic action for string fields in the open string Fock space. (orig.)

  10. Shear-wave splitting measurements – Problems and solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vecsey, Luděk; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav


    Roč. 462, č. 1-4 (2008), s. 178-196 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300120605; GA AV ČR IAA3012405; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismic anisotropy * shear-wave splitting * comparison of cross- correlation * eigenvalue * transverse minimization methods Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2008

  11. Hanford tank wastes; salt splitting: FY92 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.


    For the first time, sodium nitrate was split into the nitric acid and sodium hydroxide from which it originated. Current-voltage characteristics were determined and found to be in the range normally judged to be economically feasible. Six different membranes were exposed to 1M NaOH or 1M HN0 3 for 100 days without apparent deterioration. It is concluded that this technology holds significant promise for the processing of Hanford Tank Wastes

  12. Split-based computation of majority-rule supertrees. (United States)

    Kupczok, Anne


    Supertree methods combine overlapping input trees into a larger supertree. Here, I consider split-based supertree methods that first extract the split information of the input trees and subsequently combine this split information into a phylogeny. Well known split-based supertree methods are matrix representation with parsimony and matrix representation with compatibility. Combining input trees on the same taxon set, as in the consensus setting, is a well-studied task and it is thus desirable to generalize consensus methods to supertree methods. Here, three variants of majority-rule (MR) supertrees that generalize majority-rule consensus trees are investigated. I provide simple formulas for computing the respective score for bifurcating input- and supertrees. These score computations, together with a heuristic tree search minmizing the scores, were implemented in the python program PluMiST (Plus- and Minus SuperTrees) available from The different MR methods were tested by simulation and on real data sets. The search heuristic was successful in combining compatible input trees. When combining incompatible input trees, especially one variant, MR(-) supertrees, performed well. The presented framework allows for an efficient score computation of three majority-rule supertree variants and input trees. I combined the score computation with a heuristic search over the supertree space. The implementation was tested by simulation and on real data sets and showed promising results. Especially the MR(-) variant seems to be a reasonable score for supertree reconstruction. Generalizing these computations to multifurcating trees is an open problem, which may be tackled using this framework.

  13. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren


    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....

  14. Some Fixed Points Results of Quadratic Functions in Split Quaternions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chel Kwun


    Full Text Available We attempt to find fixed points of a general quadratic polynomial in the algebra of split quaternion. In some cases, we characterize fixed points in terms of the coefficients of these polynomials and also give the cardinality of these points. As a consequence, we give some simple examples to strengthen the infinitude of these points in these cases. We also find the roots of quadratic polynomials as simple consequences.

  15. Fluorescence of molecules placed near a spherical particle: Rabi splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dvoynenko


    Full Text Available Theoretical study of spontaneously emitted spectra of point-like source placed near spherical Ag particle was performed. It was shown that near-field electromagnetic interaction between a point-like emitter and spherical Ag particle leads to strong coupling between them at very small emitter-metal surface distances. It was shown that values of Rabi splitting are quantitatively close to that of emitter-flat substrate interaction.

  16. Ultrafast reduction of exchange splitting in ferromagnetic nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G P; Bai, Y H; George, Thomas F


    A decade ago Rhie et al (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett . 90 247201) reported that when ferromagnetic nickel is subject to an intense ultrashort laser pulse, its exchange splitting is reduced quickly. But to simulate such reduction remains a big challenge. The popular rigid band approximation (RBA), where both the band structure and the exchange splitting are held fixed before and after laser excitation, is unsuitable for this purpose, while the time-dependent density functional theory could be time-consuming. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a time-dependent Liouville and density functional theory (TDLDFT) that integrates the time-dependent Liouville equation into the density functional theory. As a result, the excited charge density is reiterated back into the Kohn–Sham equation, and the band structure is allowed to change dynamically. Even with the ground-state density functional, a larger demagnetization than RBA is found; after we expand Ortenzi’s spin scaling method into an excited-state (laser) density functional, we find that the exchange splitting is indeed strongly reduced, as seen in the experiment. Both the majority and minority bands are shifted toward the Fermi level, but the majority shifts a lot more. The ultrafast reduction in exchange splitting occurs concomitantly with demagnetization. While our current theory is still unable to yield the same percentage loss in the spin moment as observed in the experiment, it predicts a correct trend that agrees with the experiments. With a better functional, we believe that our results can be further improved. (paper)

  17. Interpretation and inverse analysis of the wedge splitting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik


    to the wedge splitting test and that it is well suited for the interpretation of test results in terms of s(w). A fine agreement between the hinge and FEM-models has been found. It has also been found that the test and the hinge model form a solid basis for inverse analysis. The paper also discusses possible...... three dimensional problems in the experiment as well as the influence of specimen size....

  18. Split-Stirling-cycle displacer linear-electric drive (United States)

    Ackermann, R. A.; Bhate, S. K.; Byrne, D. V.


    The retrofit of a 1/4-W split-Stirling cooler with a linear driven on the displacer was achieved and its performance characterized. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a small linear motor could be designed to meet the existing envelope specifications of the cooler and that an electric linear drive on the displacer could improve the cooler's reliability and performance. The paper describes the characteristics of this motor and presents cooler test results.

  19. A split accumulation gate architecture for silicon MOS quantum dots (United States)

    Rochette, Sophie; Rudolph, Martin; Roy, Anne-Marie; Curry, Matthew; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Dominguez, Jason; Manginell, Ronald; Pluym, Tammy; King Gamble, John; Lilly, Michael; Bureau-Oxton, Chloé; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    We investigate tunnel barrier modulation without barrier electrodes in a split accumulation gate architecture for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The layout consists of two independent accumulation gates, one gate forming a reservoir and the other the QD. The devices are fabricated with a foundry-compatible, etched, poly-silicon gate stack. We demonstrate 4 orders of magnitude of tunnel-rate control between the QD and the reservoir by modulating the reservoir gate voltage. Last electron charging energies of app. 10 meV and tuning of the ST splitting in the range 100-200 ueV are observed in two different split gate layouts and labs. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Photoelectrochemical devices for solar water splitting - materials and challenges. (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Junwang


    It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This review commences with a fundamental understanding of semiconductor properties and charge transfer processes in a PEC device. We then describe various configurations of PEC devices, including single light-absorber cells and multi light-absorber devices (PEC, PV-PEC and PV/electrolyser tandem cell). Recent progress on both photoelectrode materials (light absorbers) and electrocatalysts is summarized, and important factors which dominate photoelectrode performance, including light absorption, charge separation and transport, surface chemical reaction rate and the stability of the photoanode, are discussed. Controlling semiconductor properties is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting. Accordingly, strategies to address the challenges for materials development in this area, such as the adoption of smart architectures, innovative device configuration design, co-catalyst loading, and surface protection layer deposition, are outlined throughout the text, to deliver a highly efficient and stable PEC device for water splitting.

  1. SKS splitting observed at Romanian broad-band seismic network (United States)

    Ivan, Marian; Popa, Mihaela; Ghica, Daniela


    Shear-wave splitting results are presented for the broad-band stations of the Romanian seismic network. For stations BUC1 and CRAR (located in Moesian Platform), IAS (in East-European Platform), TIRR and CVD (in Central Dobrudja-Black Sea microplate), TIM and DRGR (in Dacia-Tisza plate, including Apuseni Mts.), BURAR, BZS and GZR (in, or very close to the Carpathian Arc), the fast directions ( φ) are around 135°. The mean delay values ( δt) of the slow wave are slightly greater for the stations placed in platform areas ( δt ~ 1.5 s) than for the stations situated in the (proximity) of Carpathians ( δt ~ 1.2 s). For the MLR station located in the South-Western part of Vrancea area, at the Carpathian Bend, the fast direction is 48°, similar to VOIR station (located in Southern Carpathians, 70 km West of MLR). At VRI and PLOR, located in the North-Eastern part of Vrancea, the fast axis is oriented approximately on North-South direction, with a possible dependence of the splitting parameters with back azimuth. At least for some stations, the splitting results are not consistent with vertical coherent lithospheric anisotropy.

  2. Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by Inorganic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Xiaohui


    Hydrogen has been identified as a potential energy carrier due to its high energy capacity and environmental harmlessness. Compared with hydrogen production from hydrocarbons such as methane and naphtha in a conventional hydrogen energy system, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water splitting offers a more economic approach since it utilizes the abundant solar irradiation as energy source and water as initial reactant. Powder photocatalyst, which generates electrons and holes under illumination, is the origin where the overall reaction happens. High solar energy conversion efficiency especially from visible range is commonly the target. Besides, cocatalyst for hydrogen and oxygen evolution is also playing an essential role in facilitating the charge separation and enhancing the kinetics. In this thesis, the objective is to achieve high energy conversion efficiency towards water splitting from diverse aspects. The third chapter focuses on a controllable method to fabricate metal pattern, which is candidate for hydrogen evolution cocatalyst while chapter 4 is on the combination of strontium titanium oxide (SrTiO3) with graphene oxide (GO) for a better photocatalytic performance. In the last chapter, photoelectrochemical water splitting by Ta3N5 photoanode and FeOOH as a novel oxygen evolution cocatalyst has been investigated.

  3. Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H. M.


    Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in irradiated Zircaloy cladding have been investigated by microstructural characterization and analytical modeling, with emphasis on application of the results to understand high-burnup fuel failure under RIA situations. Optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM were conducted on BWR and PWR fuel cladding tubes that were irradiated to fluence levels of 3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 to 5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) and tested in hot cell at 292--325 C in Ar. The morphology, distribution, and habit planes of macroscopic and microscopic hydrides in as-irradiated and posttest cladding were determined by stereo-TEM. The type and magnitude of the residual stress produced in association with oxide-layer growth and dense hydride precipitation, and several synergistic factors that strongly influence axial-splitting behavior were analyzed. The results of the microstructural characterization and stress analyses were then correlated with axial-splitting behavior of high-burnup PWR cladding reported for simulated-RIA conditions. The effects of key test procedures and their implications for the interpretation of RIA test results are discussed

  4. A Beta-splitting model for evolutionary trees. (United States)

    Sainudiin, Raazesh; Véber, Amandine


    In this article, we construct a generalization of the Blum-François Beta-splitting model for evolutionary trees, which was itself inspired by Aldous' Beta-splitting model on cladograms. The novelty of our approach allows for asymmetric shares of diversification rates (or diversification 'potential') between two sister species in an evolutionarily interpretable manner, as well as the addition of extinction to the model in a natural way. We describe the incremental evolutionary construction of a tree with n leaves by splitting or freezing extant lineages through the generating, organizing and deleting processes. We then give the probability of any (binary rooted) tree under this model with no extinction, at several resolutions: ranked planar trees giving asymmetric roles to the first and second offspring species of a given species and keeping track of the order of the speciation events occurring during the creation of the tree, unranked planar trees, ranked non-planar trees and finally (unranked non-planar) trees. We also describe a continuous-time equivalent of the generating, organizing and deleting processes where tree topology and branch lengths are jointly modelled and provide code in SageMath/Python for these algorithms.

  5. Nanoscale strontium titanate photocatalysts for overall water splitting. (United States)

    Townsend, Troy K; Browning, Nigel D; Osterloh, Frank E


    SrTiO(3) (STO) is a large band gap (3.2 eV) semiconductor that catalyzes the overall water splitting reaction under UV light irradiation in the presence of a NiO cocatalyst. As we show here, the reactivity persists in nanoscale particles of the material, although the process is less effective at the nanoscale. To reach these conclusions, Bulk STO, 30 ± 5 nm STO, and 6.5 ± 1 nm STO were synthesized by three different methods, their crystal structures verified with XRD and their morphology observed with HRTEM before and after NiO deposition. In connection with NiO, all samples split water into stoichiometric mixtures of H(2) and O(2), but the activity is decreasing from 28 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (bulk STO), to 19.4 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (30 nm STO), and 3.0 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (6.5 nm STO). The reasons for this decrease are an increase of the water oxidation overpotential for the smaller particles and reduced light absorption due to a quantum size effect. Overall, these findings establish the first nanoscale titanate photocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  6. Investigation of the splitting of quark and gluon jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Ghodbane, N; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F


    The splitting processes in identified quark and gluon jets are investigated using longitudinal and transverse observables. The jets are selected from symmetric three-jet events measured in Z decays L with the {\\sc Delphi} detector in 1991-1994. Gluon jets are identified using heavy quark anti-tagging. Scaling violations in identified gluon jets are observed for the first time. The scale energy dependence of the gluon fragmentation function is found to be about two times larger than for the corresponding quark jets, consistent with the QCD expectation $C_A/C_F$. The primary splitting of gluons and quarks into subjets agrees with fragmentation models and, for specific regions of the jet resolution $y$, with NLLA calculations. The maximum of the ratio of the primary subjet splittings in quark and gluon jets is $2.77\\pm0.11\\pm0.10$. Due to non-perturbative effects, the data are below the expectation at small $y$. The transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative domain appears at smaller $y$ for quark ...

  7. Noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts for water splitting. (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Yu


    Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts.

  8. Sonochemical water splitting in the presence of powdered metal oxides. (United States)

    Morosini, Vincent; Chave, Tony; Virot, Matthieu; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I


    Kinetics of hydrogen formation was explored as a new chemical dosimeter allowing probing the sonochemical activity of argon-saturated water in the presence of micro- and nano-sized metal oxide particles exhibiting catalytic properties (ThO2, ZrO2, and TiO2). It was shown that the conventional sonochemical dosimeter based on H2O2 formation is hardly applicable in such systems due to catalytic degradation of H2O2 at oxide surface. The study of H2 generation revealed that at low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) the sonochemical water splitting is greatly improved for all studied metal oxides. The highest efficiency is observed for relatively large micrometric particles of ThO2 which is assigned to ultrasonically-driven particle fragmentation accompanied by mechanochemical water molecule splitting. The nanosized metal oxides do not exhibit particle size reduction under ultrasonic treatment but nevertheless yield higher quantities of H2. The enhancement of sonochemical water splitting in this case is most probably resulting from better bubble nucleation in heterogeneous systems. At high-frequency ultrasound (362 kHz), the effect of metal oxide particles results in a combination of nucleation and ultrasound attenuation. In contrast to 20 kHz, micrometric particles slowdown the sonolysis of water at 362 kHz due to stronger attenuation of ultrasonic waves while smaller particles show a relatively weak and various directional effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The nature of photocatalytic "water splitting" on silicon nanowires. (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Li, Leilei; Gao, Yang; Wang, Chengming; Jiang, Jun; Xiong, Yujie


    Silicon should be an ideal semiconductor material if it can be proven usable for photocatalytic water splitting, given its high natural abundance. Thus it is imperative to explore the possibility of water splitting by running photocatalysis on a silicon surface and to decode the mechanism behind it. It is reported that hydrogen gas can indeed be produced from Si nanowires when illuminated in water, but the reactions are not a real water-splitting process. Instead, the production of hydrogen gas on the Si nanowires occurs through the cleavage of Si-H bonds and the formation of Si-OH bonds, resulting in the low probability of generating oxygen. On the other hand, these two types of surface dangling bonds both extract photoexcited electrons, whose competition greatly impacts on carrier lifetime and reaction efficiency. Thus surface chemistry holds the key to achieving high efficiency in such a photocatalytic system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Numerical modeling of isothermal compositional grading by convex splitting methods

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yiteng


    In this paper, an isothermal compositional grading process is simulated based on convex splitting methods with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. We first present a new form of gravity/chemical equilibrium condition by minimizing the total energy which consists of Helmholtz free energy and gravitational potential energy, and incorporating Lagrange multipliers for mass conservation. The time-independent equilibrium equations are transformed into a system of transient equations as our solution strategy. It is proved our time-marching scheme is unconditionally energy stable by the semi-implicit convex splitting method in which the convex part of Helmholtz free energy and its derivative are treated implicitly and the concave parts are treated explicitly. With relaxation factor controlling Newton iteration, our method is able to converge to a solution with satisfactory accuracy if a good initial estimate of mole compositions is provided. More importantly, it helps us automatically split the unstable single phase into two phases, determine the existence of gas-oil contact (GOC) and locate its position if GOC does exist. A number of numerical examples are presented to show the performance of our method.

  11. Beyond the Interconnections: Split Manufacturing in RF Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bi


    Full Text Available With the globalization of the integrated circuit (IC design flow of chip fabrication, intellectual property (IP piracy is becoming the main security threat. While most of the protection methods are dedicated for digital circuits, we are trying to protect radio-frequency (RF designs. For the first time, we applied the split manufacturing method in RF circuit protection. Three different implementation cases are introduced for security and design overhead tradeoffs, i.e., the removal of the top metal layer, the removal of the top two metal layers and the design obfuscation dedicated to RF circuits. We also developed a quantitative security evaluation method to measure the protection level of RF designs under split manufacturing. Finally, a simple Class AB power amplifier and a more sophisticated Class E power amplifier are used for the demonstration through which we prove that: (1 the removal of top metal layer or the top two metal layers can provide high-level protection for RF circuits with a lower request to domestic foundries; (2 the design obfuscation method provides the highest level of circuit protection, though at the cost of design overhead; and (3 split manufacturing may be more suitable for RF designs than for digital circuits, and it can effectively reduce IP piracy in untrusted off-shore foundries.

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (United States)


    ... a split-dollar life insurance arrangement (or the estate or beneficiary of that party) that are not... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In...

  13. Influence of the large-small split effect on strategy choice in complex subtraction. (United States)

    Xiang, Yan Hui; Wu, Hao; Shang, Rui Hong; Chao, Xiaomei; Ren, Ting Ting; Zheng, Li Ling; Mo, Lei


    Two main theories have been used to explain the arithmetic split effect: decision-making process theory and strategy choice theory. Using the inequality paradigm, previous studies have confirmed that individuals tend to adopt a plausibility-checking strategy and a whole-calculation strategy to solve large and small split problems in complex addition arithmetic, respectively. This supports strategy choice theory, but it is unknown whether this theory also explains performance in solving different split problems in complex subtraction arithmetic. This study used small, intermediate and large split sizes, with each split condition being further divided into problems requiring and not requiring borrowing. The reaction times (RTs) for large and intermediate splits were significantly shorter than those for small splits, while accuracy was significantly higher for large and middle splits than for small splits, reflecting no speed-accuracy trade-off. Further, RTs and accuracy differed significantly between the borrow and no-borrow conditions only for small splits. This study indicates that strategy choice theory is suitable to explain the split effect in complex subtraction arithmetic. That is, individuals tend to choose the plausibility-checking strategy or the whole-calculation strategy according to the split size. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. (United States)


    ... acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.20 Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  15. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a class...

  16. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained so...

  17. Effect of superconducting electrons on the energy splitting of tunneling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.C.; Granato, A.V.


    We consider the effect of superconducting electrons on the magnitude of the energy splitting of a tunneling system. A specific example is a hydrogen atom tunneling in niobium. We find that in this case the splitting is roughly 20% smaller in the normal state than in the superconducting state. This difference in the splitting should be observable in neutron scattering and ultrasonic measurements

  18. Pump induced normal mode splittings in phase conjugation in a Kerr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For sufficient strengths of the pump a normal mode splitting is demonstrated in both the specular and the phase conjugated reflectivities of the probe wave. The splitting is explained in terms of a simple model under undepleted pump approximation. Keywords. Phase conjugation; nonlinear waveguide; normal mode splitting.

  19. Multiple seafloor spreading modes in the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre (United States)

    Searle, R. C.


    Multibeam bathymetry and TOBI deep-towed sidescan sonar data have been used to produce a preliminary geological map of the ultra-slow (~16 km/Ma) Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre (MCSC, the world's deepest spreading centre. The MCSC consists of two spreading segments, the northern of which is offset some 10 km dextrally from the southern, separated by an oceanic core complex (OCC), Mt. Dent. Each segment contains an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) displaying typical young, hummocky volcanic terrain. The northern AVR runs the length of the segment and its southern end abuts the north flank of Mt. Dent, suggesting it is about to cut off and terminate slip on the OCC detachment. A prominent ridge to the east of the northern AVR is not, as appears from the bathymetry, a separate AVR, but a fault block in the eastern MV wall. Recent-looking lavas erupt from partway up this fault. The southern AVR occupies the southern part of the southern segment. Both AVRs, but most prominently the northern one, exhibit NE trending volcanic spurs on their eastern flanks, which may be attributed to the action of dextral shear stresses associated with the plate boundary. The world's deepest hydrothermal vents (Beebe Vent Field) is located at the foot of one of these spurs. Between the southern AVR and Mt. Dent is a linear ridge, displaying considerable evidence of faulting but little recognisable volcanic terrain. The most likely tectonic interpretation is that this is a peridotite ridge produced by direct exhumation of mantle material, similar to those seen in 'smooth' seafloor on the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. Its NNW-SSE orientation is somewhat paradoxical in this N-S spreading centre. This tectonised ridge is flanked by two flat-floored basins characterised by fairly uniform, moderate backscatter terrain typical of relatively young flat-lying lava flows. There are several smaller areas of young, flat-lying lavas, including the one to the east of the northern AVR. Another

  20. A split hand-split foot (SHFM3) gene is located at 10q24{yields}25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurrieri, F.; Genuardi, M.; Nanni, L.; Sangiorgi, E.; Garofalo, G. [Catholic Univ. of Rome (Italy)] [and others


    The split hand-split foot (SHSF) malformation affects the central rays of the upper and lower limbs. It presents either as an isolated defect or in association with other skeletal or non-skeletal abnormalities. An autosomal SHSF locus (SHFM1) was previously mapped to 7q22.1. We report the mapping of a second autosomal SHSF locus to 10q24{yields}25 region. Maximum lod scores of 3.73, 4.33 and 4.33 at a recombination fraction of zero were obtained for the loci D10S198, PAX2 and D10S1239, respectively. An 19 cM critical region could be defined by haplotype analysis and several genes with a potential role in limb morphogenesis are located in this region. Heterogeneity testing indicates the existence of at least one additional autosomal SHSF locus. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Dynamics of a spreading thin film with gravitational counterflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, dynamics of a thin film spreading due to a thermocapillary stress is mod- eled within lubrication approximation. In microscale flows, the large surface to volume ratios allow interfacial stresses to exert a driving influence. This ability to drive thin film using thermo- capillary stress is used to spread film for ...

  2. Regime-dependent determinants of Euro area sovereign CDS spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommestein, H.J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester; Qian, Zongxin

    We study the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads of five Euro area countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. We find that global and/or European Monetary Union (EMU)-wide factors are the main drivers of changes in the sovereign CDS spreads in

  3. Immunization against the Spread of Rumors in Homogenous Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijun Zhao

    Full Text Available Since most rumors are harmful, how to control the spread of such rumors is important. In this paper, we studied the process of "immunization" against rumors by modeling the process of rumor spreading and changing the termination mechanism for the spread of rumors to make the model more realistic. We derived mean-field equations to describe the dynamics of the rumor spread. By carrying out steady-state analysis, we derived the spreading threshold value that must be exceeded for the rumor to spread. We further discuss a possible strategy for immunization against rumors and obtain an immunization threshold value that represents the minimum level required to stop the rumor from spreading. Numerical simulations revealed that the average degree of the network and parameters of transformation probability significantly influence the spread of rumors. More importantly, the simulations revealed that immunizing a higher proportion of individuals is not necessarily better because of the waste of resources and the generation of unnecessary information. So the optimal immunization rate should be the immunization threshold.

  4. Topology dependent epidemic spreading velocity in weighted networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, W.; Quax, R.; Lees, M.; Qiu, X.; Sloot, P.M.A.


    Many diffusive processes occur on structured networks with weighted links, such as disease spread by airplane transport or information diffusion in social networks or blogs. Understanding the impact of weight-connectivity correlations on epidemic spreading in weighted networks is crucial to support

  5. Dynamics of a spreading thin film with gravitational counterflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thin liquid films can be made to spread along a solid surface by appli- cation of temperature gradients at the liquid–gas interface. The surface tension of usual liquids decreases linearly with temperature thus producing the driving thermo- capillary stresses due to the applied temperature gradient. These spreading ...

  6. An examination of fire spread thresholds in discontinuous fuel beds (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Kara M. Yedinak


    Many fuel beds, especially live vegetation canopies (conifer forests, shrub fields, bunch-grasses) contain gaps between vegetation clumps. Fires burning in these fuel types often display thresholds for spread that are observed to depend on environmental factors like wind, slope, and fuel moisture content. To investigate threshold spread behaviours, we conducted a set...

  7. Immunization against the Spread of Rumors in Homogenous Networks. (United States)

    Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Rongbing


    Since most rumors are harmful, how to control the spread of such rumors is important. In this paper, we studied the process of "immunization" against rumors by modeling the process of rumor spreading and changing the termination mechanism for the spread of rumors to make the model more realistic. We derived mean-field equations to describe the dynamics of the rumor spread. By carrying out steady-state analysis, we derived the spreading threshold value that must be exceeded for the rumor to spread. We further discuss a possible strategy for immunization against rumors and obtain an immunization threshold value that represents the minimum level required to stop the rumor from spreading. Numerical simulations revealed that the average degree of the network and parameters of transformation probability significantly influence the spread of rumors. More importantly, the simulations revealed that immunizing a higher proportion of individuals is not necessarily better because of the waste of resources and the generation of unnecessary information. So the optimal immunization rate should be the immunization threshold.

  8. Effects of Language Spread on a People' Phenomenology: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Language Spread on a People' Phenomenology: The Case of Sheng' in Kenya. ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... In this paper, I will first discuss the distribution and spread of Sheng' in Kenya, and secondly, I will show the effects of Sheng' on its speakers' phenomenology, ...

  9. The potential and realized spread of wildfires across Canada (United States)

    Xianli Wang; Marc-Andre Parisien; Mike D. Flannigan; Sean A. Parks; Kerry R. Anderson; John M. Little; Steve W. Taylor


    Given that they can burn for weeks or months, wildfires in temperate and boreal forests may become immense (eg., 100 - 04 km2). However, during the period within which a large fire is 'active', not all days experience weather that is conducive to fire spread; indeed most of the spread occurs on a small proportion (e.g., 1 - 15 days) of not necessarily...

  10. Analysis of wave directional spreading using neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    The short-term directional spreading of wave energy at a given location is popularly modeled with the help of the Cosine Power model. This model is oriented mainly around value of the spreading parameter involved in its expression. This paper...

  11. Raman hyperspectral imaging and analysis of fat spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, van G.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Heussen, P.C.M.; Sovago, M.; Malssen, van K.F.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.


    The microstructure of fat spreads is of fundamental importance to their sensorial properties such as texture, mouthfeel and spreadability. Fat spreads are water in oil emulsions,with a continuous phase supported by a fat crystal network. Confocal Raman microscopy offers the possibility for the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Sharma


    Full Text Available Since their discovery during the 20th century, antimicrobial agents (antibiotics and related medicinal drugs have substantially reduced the threat posed by infectious diseases. The use of these “wonder drugs”, combined with improvements in sanitation, housing, and nutrition, and the advent of widespread immunization programmes, has led to a dramatic drop in deaths from diseases that were previously widespread, untreatable, and frequently fatal. Over the years, antimicrobials have saved the lives and eased the suffering of millions of people. By helping to bring many serious infectious diseases under control, these drugs hav also contributed to the major gains in life expectancy experienced during the latter part of the last century. These gains are now seriously jeopardized by another recent development: the emergence and spread of microbes that are resistant to cheap and effective first-choice, or “first- line” drugs. The bacterial infections which contribute most to human disease are also those in which emerging microbial resistance is most evident: diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory tract infections, meningitis, sexually transmitted infections, and hospital-acquired infections. Some important examples include penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multi-resistant salmonellae, and multi-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The development of resistance to drugs commonly used to treat malaria is of particular concern, as is the emerging resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Treatment, resu.lting in prolonged illness and greater risk of death, Treatment failures also lead to longer periods of infectivity, which increase the numbers of infected people moving in the community and thus expose the general population to the risk of contracting a resistant strain of infection. When infections become resistant to first-line antimicrobials, treatment has to be switched

  13. The Origin And Spread Of Airborne Bacteria (United States)

    Henderson-Begg, S. K.; Moffett, B. F.


    wind speed and direction, marine organisms would have been airborne for at least 16 hours in the Thursley sample and for at least 4 hours in the East London sample. The origin and spread of airborne organisms warrants further investigation.

  14. Gene expression profiling of laterally spreading tumors. (United States)

    Minemura, Shoko; Tanaka, Takeshi; Arai, Makoto; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Oyamada, Arata; Saito, Keiko; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yokosuka, Osamu


    Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as lesions >10 mm in diameter, are characterized by lateral expansion along the luminal wall with a low vertical axis. In contrast to other forms of tumor, LSTs are generally considered to have a superficial growth pattern and the potential for malignancy. We focused on this morphological character of LSTs, and analyzed the gene expression profile of LSTs. The expression of 168 genes in 41 colorectal tumor samples (17 LST-adenoma, 12 LST-carcinoma, 12 Ip [pedunculated type of the Paris classification)-adenoma, all of which were 10 mm or more in diameter] was analyzed by PCR array. Based on the results, we investigated the expression levels of genes up-regulated in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma, by hierarchical and K-means clustering. To confirm the results of the array analysis, using an additional 60 samples (38 LST-adenoma, 22 Ip-adenoma), we determined the localization of the gene product by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of 129 genes differed in colorectal tumors from normal mucosa by PCR array analysis. As a result of K-means clustering, the expression levels of five genes, AKT1, BCL2L1, ERBB2, MTA2 and TNFRSF25, were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the BCL2L1 protein was significantly and meaningfully up-regulated in LST-adenoma compared to Ip-adenoma (p = 0.010). With respect to apoptosis status in LST-Adenoma, it assumes that BCL2L1 is anti-apoptotic protein, the samples such as BCL2L1 positive and TUNEL negative, or BCL2L1 negative and TUNEL positive are consistent with the assumption. 63.2 % LST-adenoma samples were consistent with the assumption. LSTs have an unusual profile of gene expression compared to other tumors and BCL2L1 might be concerned in the organization of LSTs.

  15. Solar Water Splitting and Nitrogen Fixation with Layered Bismuth Oxyhalides. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Hao; Zhan, Guangming; Zhang, Lizhi


    Hydrogen and ammonia are the chemical molecules that are vital to Earth's energy, environmental, and biological processes. Hydrogen with renewable, carbon-free, and high combustion-enthalpy hallmarks lays the foundation of next-generation energy source, while ammonia furnishes the building blocks of fertilizers and proteins to sustain the lives of plants and organisms. Such merits fascinate worldwide scientists in developing viable strategies to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Currently, at the forefronts of hydrogen and ammonia syntheses are solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, because they go beyond the high temperature and pressure requirements of methane stream reforming and Haber-Bosch reaction, respectively, as the commercialized hydrogen and ammonia production routes, and inherit the natural photosynthesis virtues that are green and sustainable and operate at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The key to propelling such photochemical reactions lies in searching photocatalysts that enable water splitting into hydrogen and nitrogen fixation to make ammonia efficiently. Although the past 40 years have witnessed significant breakthroughs using the most widely studied TiO 2 , SrTiO 3 , (Ga 1-x Zn x )(N 1-x O x ), CdS, and g-C 3 N 4 for solar chemical synthesis, two crucial yet still unsolved issues challenge their further progress toward robust solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, including the inefficient steering of electron transportation from the bulk to the surface and the difficulty of activating the N≡N triple bond of N 2 . This Account details our endeavors that leverage layered bismuth oxyhalides as photocatalysts for efficient solar water splitting and nitrogen fixation, with a focus on addressing the above two problems. We first demonstrate that the layered structures of bismuth oxyhalides can stimulate an internal electric field (IEF) that is capable of efficiently separating electrons and holes after their formation and of

  16. The spreading time in SIS epidemics on networks (United States)

    He, Zhidong; Van Mieghem, Piet


    In a Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) process, we investigate the spreading time Tm, which is the time when the number of infected nodes in the metastable state is first reached, starting from the outbreak of the epidemics. We observe that the spreading time Tm resembles a lognormal-like distribution, though with different deep tails, both for the Markovian and the non-Markovian infection process, which implies that the spreading time can be very long with a relatively high probability. In addition, we show that a stronger virus, with a higher effective infection rate τ or an earlier timing of the infection attempts, does not always lead to a shorter average spreading time E [Tm ] . We numerically demonstrate that the average spreading time E [Tm ] in the complete graph and the star graph scales logarithmically as a function of the network size N for a fixed fraction of infected nodes in the metastable state.

  17. A rumor spreading model with variable forgetting rate (United States)

    Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Wanlin; Gao, H. Oliver; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shuhai


    A rumor spreading model with the consideration of forgetting rate changing over time is examined in small-world networks. The mean-field equations are derived to describe the dynamics of rumor spreading in small-world networks. Further, numerical solutions are conducted on LiveJournal, an online social blogging platform, to better understand the performance of the model. Results show that the forgetting rate has a significant impact on the final size of rumor spreading: the larger the initial forgetting rate or the faster the forgetting speed, the smaller the final size of the rumor spreading. Numerical solutions also show that the final size of rumor spreading is much larger under a variable forgetting rate compared to that under a constant forgetting rate.

  18. Epidemic spread in bipartite network by considering risk awareness (United States)

    Han, She; Sun, Mei; Ampimah, Benjamin Chris; Han, Dun


    Human awareness plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases and the control of propagation patterns. Exploring the interplay between human awareness and epidemic spreading is a topic that has been receiving increasing attention. Considering the fact, some well-known diseases only spread between different species we propose a theoretical analysis of the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic spread from the perspective of bipartite network and risk aversion. Using mean field theory, the epidemic threshold is calculated theoretically. Simulation results are consistent with the proposed analytic model. The results show that, the final infection density is negative linear with the value of individuals' risk awareness. Therefore, the epidemic spread could be effectively suppressed by improving individuals' risk awareness.

  19. Yangian and SUSY symmetry of high spin parton splitting amplitudes in generalised Yang-Mills theory (United States)

    Kirschner, Roland; Savvidy, George


    We have calculated the high spin parton splitting amplitudes postulating the Yangian symmetry of the scattering amplitudes for tensor gluons. The resulting splitting amplitudes coincide with the earlier calculations, which were based on the BCFW recursion relations. The resulting formula unifies all known splitting probabilities found earlier in gauge field theories. It describes splitting probabilities for integer and half-integer spin particles. We also checked that the splitting probabilities fulfil the generalised Kounnas-Ross 𝒩 = 1 supersymmetry relations hinting to the fact that the underlying theory can be formulated in an explicit supersymmetric manner.

  20. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.


    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  1. Stacked Transformer for Driver Gain and Receive Signal Splitting (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin R.


    In a high-speed signal transmission system that uses transformer coupling, there is a need to provide increased transmitted signal strength without adding active components. This invention uses additional transformers to achieve the needed gain. The prior art uses stronger drivers (which require an IC redesign and a higher power supply voltage), or the addition of another active component (which can decrease reliability, increase power consumption, reduce the beneficial effect of serializer/deserializer preemphasis or deemphasis, and/or interfere with fault containment mechanisms), or uses a different transformer winding ratio (which requires redesign of the transformer and may not be feasible with high-speed signals that require a 1:1 winding ratio). This invention achieves the required gain by connecting the secondaries of multiple transformers in series. The primaries of these transformers are currently either connected in parallel or are connected to multiple drivers. There is also a need to split a receive signal to multiple destinations with minimal signal loss. Additional transformers can achieve the split. The prior art uses impedance-matching series resistors that cause a loss of signal. Instead of causing a loss, most instantiations of this invention would actually provide gain. Multiple transformers are used instead of multiple windings on a single transformer because multiple windings on the same transformer would require a redesign of the transformer, and may not be feasible with high-speed transformers that usually require a bifilar winding with a 1:1 ratio. This invention creates the split by connecting the primaries of multiple transformers in series. The secondary of each transformer is connected to one of the intended destinations without the use of impedance-matching series resistors.

  2. [Split-thickness skin graft donor site: which dressing use?]. (United States)

    Caliot, J; Bodin, F; Chiriac, S; Correia, N; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François-Fiquet, C


    The management of split-thickness skin graft donor sites is targeted towards promoting the healing process, reducing pain. This has been an inconclusive topic. The aim of this study was to list and to discuss the French practices in term of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor site dressing. Multicentric national study by questionnaire (Google Drive(®)) for the attention of the plastic and/or pediatric surgeons. The type of dressing used on skin and sclap and the rhythm of dressing changes were analyzed. The study included 26 surgical centers on 40 contacted. The alginate is mainly used (Algostéril(®)) (17/26). It is left in position until healing (13/17). Five other types of dressings have been reported: paraffin gauze (3/26), lipidocolloides (1/26), Mepitel(®) (1/26), Mepilex(®) (1/26), indifferent use of gauze or alginate dressings (4/26). Twenty-two out of 26 centers make no difference in dressing choice between skin and scalp. Medical practices did not differ between adult or pediatric departments. Cost-effectiveness has become an important issue in wound management, requiring judicious use. The lack of consensus regarding split-thickness skin graft donor site dressing and our clinical practices force us to reconsider the best therapeutic option. This study coupled with the analysis of the literature highlights the difficulties of the practitioner in choosing the best dressing. The alginate seems to get the preference of our practices by its ease of use, its absence of change (reduces pain by limiting manipulations) and its moderate cost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicon/Carbon Nanotube Photocathode for Splitting Water (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Greer, Harold F.; Hall, Lee J.; Gray, Harry B.; Subbert, Bryan


    A proof-of-concept device is being developed for hydrogen gas production based on water-splitting redox reactions facilitated by cobalt tetra-aryl porphyrins (Co[TArP]) catalysts stacked on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that are grown on n-doped silicon substrates. The operational principle of the proposed device is based on conversion of photoelectron energy from sunlight into chemical energy, which at a later point, can be turned into electrical and mechanical power. The proposed device will consist of a degenerately n-doped silicon substrate with Si posts covering the surface of a 4-in. (approximately equal to 10cm) wafer. The substrate will absorb radiation, and electrons will move radially out of Si to CNT. Si posts are designed such that the diameters are small enough to allow considerable numbers of electrons to transport across to the CNT layer. CNTs will be grown on top of Si using conformal catalyst (Fe/Ni) deposition over a thin alumina barrier layer. Both metallic and semiconducting CNT will be used in this investigation, thus allowing for additional charge generation from CNT in the IR region. Si post top surfaces will be masked from catalyst deposition so as to prevent CNT growth on the top surface. A typical unit cell will then consist of a Si post covered with CNT, providing enhanced surface area for the catalyst. The device will then be dipped into a solution of Co[TArP] to enable coating of CNT with Co(P). The Si/CNT/Co [TArP] assembly then will provide electrons for water splitting and hydrogen gas production. A potential of 1.23 V is needed to split water, and near ideal band gap is approximately 1.4 eV. The combination of doped Si/CNT/Co [TArP] will enable this redox reaction to be more efficient.

  4. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.


    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate

  5. Vertebral split fractures: Technical feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huwart, Laurent, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Foti, Pauline, E-mail: [Department of Biostatistics, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Andreani, Olivier, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Cervantes, Elodie, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Brunner, Philippe, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Princesse Grasse de Monaco (Monaco); Boileau, Pascal, E-mail: [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France)


    Objective: The treatment of vertebral split fractures remains controversial, consisting of either corset or internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral split fractures. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. Sixty-two consecutive adult patients who had post-traumatic vertebral split fractures (A2 according to the AO classification) without neurological symptoms were prospectively treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty. All these procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance by using only local anaesthesia. Postoperative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. Results: Vertebroplasty was performed on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, creating a cement bridge between the displaced fragment and the rest of the vertebral body. Seven discal cement leakages (11%) were observed, without occurrence of adjacent vertebral compression fractures. The mean VAS measurements ± standard deviation (SD) significantly decreased from 7.9 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 day, 2.2 ± 2.0 at 1 month, and 1.8 ± 1.4 at 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean ODI scores ± SD had also a significant improvement: 62.3 ± 17.2 preoperatively and 15.1 ± 6.0 at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests that type A2 vertebral fractures could be successfully treated by CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty.

  6. Vertebral split fractures: Technical feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwart, Laurent; Foti, Pauline; Andreani, Olivier; Hauger, Olivier; Cervantes, Elodie; Brunner, Philippe; Boileau, Pascal; Amoretti, Nicolas


    Objective: The treatment of vertebral split fractures remains controversial, consisting of either corset or internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral split fractures. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. Sixty-two consecutive adult patients who had post-traumatic vertebral split fractures (A2 according to the AO classification) without neurological symptoms were prospectively treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty. All these procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance by using only local anaesthesia. Postoperative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. Results: Vertebroplasty was performed on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, creating a cement bridge between the displaced fragment and the rest of the vertebral body. Seven discal cement leakages (11%) were observed, without occurrence of adjacent vertebral compression fractures. The mean VAS measurements ± standard deviation (SD) significantly decreased from 7.9 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 day, 2.2 ± 2.0 at 1 month, and 1.8 ± 1.4 at 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean ODI scores ± SD had also a significant improvement: 62.3 ± 17.2 preoperatively and 15.1 ± 6.0 at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests that type A2 vertebral fractures could be successfully treated by CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty

  7. Survey of patients' view on functional split of consultant psychiatrists. (United States)

    Begum, Millia; Brown, Keith; Pelosi, Anthony; Crabb, Jim; McTaggart, John; Mitchell, Caroline; Julyan, Everett; Donegan, Tony; Gotz, Michael


    The functional split model of consultant psychiatrist care for inpatients has been one of the major service redesign that has occurred in the NHS in the last decade. It is unclear if this new split model offers any advantages over the previous sectorised model of working. More recent evidence has suggested that patients, carers and professionals have varied views regarding the benefits of this model. This survey of patient's views on models of consultant working is the first in Scotland and we have attempted to include a large sample size. The results suggest that after providing sufficient information on both models, the majority of patients from various Scottish health boards have opted for the traditional sectorised model of working. During a four week period consecutive patients across 4 health boards attending the General Adult consultant outpatient clinics and those who were admitted to their inpatient ward were offered a structured questionnaire regarding their views on the functional split versus traditional sectorised model. Space was provided for additional comments. The study used descriptive statistical measures for analysis of its results. Ethical approval was confirmed as not being required for this survey of local services. We had a response rate of 67%. A significant majority (76%) of service users across the four different health boards indicated a preference for the same consultant to manage their care irrespective of whether they were an inpatient or in the community (Chi-squared = 65, df = 1, p survey suggests that most patients prefer the traditional model where they see a single consultant throughout their journey of care. The views of patients should be sought as much as possible and should be taken into account when considering the best way to organize psychiatric services.

  8. Generational Spreading Speed and the Dynamics of Population Range Expansion. (United States)

    Bateman, Andrew W; Neubert, Michael G; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A


    Some of the most fundamental quantities in population ecology describe the growth and spread of populations. Population dynamics are often characterized by the annual rate of increase, λ, or the generational rate of increase, R0. Analyses involving R0 have deepened our understanding of disease dynamics and life-history complexities beyond that afforded by analysis of annual growth alone. While range expansion is quantified by the annual spreading speed, a spatial analog of λ, an R0-like expression for the rate of spread is missing. Using integrodifference models, we derive the appropriate generational spreading speed for populations with complex (stage-structured) life histories. The resulting measure, relevant to locations near the expanding edge of a (re)colonizing population, incorporates both local population growth and explicit spatial dispersal rather than solely growth across a population, as is the case for R0. The calculations for generational spreading speed are often simpler than those for annual spreading speed, and analytic or partial analytic solutions can yield insight into the processes that facilitate or slow a population's spatial spread. We analyze the spatial dynamics of green crabs, sea otters, and teasel as examples to demonstrate the flexibility of our methods and the intuitive insights that they afford.

  9. Influence of trust in the spreading of information (United States)

    Wu, Hongrun; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio


    The understanding and prediction of information diffusion processes on networks is a major challenge in network theory with many implications in social sciences. Many theoretical advances occurred due to stochastic spreading models. Nevertheless, these stochastic models overlooked the influence of rational decisions on the outcome of the process. For instance, different levels of trust in acquaintances do play a role in information spreading, and actors may change their spreading decisions during the information diffusion process accordingly. Here, we study an information-spreading model in which the decision to transmit or not is based on trust. We explore the interplay between the propagation of information and the trust dynamics happening on a two-layer multiplex network. Actors' trustable or untrustable states are defined as accumulated cooperation or defection behaviors, respectively, in a Prisoner's Dilemma setup, and they are controlled by a memory span. The propagation of information is abstracted as a threshold model on the information-spreading layer, where the threshold depends on the trustability of agents. The analysis of the model is performed using a tree approximation and validated on homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. The results show that the memory of previous actions has a significant effect on the spreading of information. For example, the less memory that is considered, the higher is the diffusion. Information is highly promoted by the emergence of trustable acquaintances. These results provide insight into the effect of plausible biases on spreading dynamics in a multilevel networked system.

  10. Effects of individual popularity on information spreading in complex networks (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Li, Ruiqi; Shu, Panpan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Hui; Cai, Shimin


    In real world, human activities often exhibit preferential selection mechanism based on the popularity of individuals. However, this mechanism is seldom taken into account by previous studies about spreading dynamics on networks. Thus in this work, an information spreading model is proposed by considering the preferential selection based on individuals' current popularity, which is defined as the number of individuals' cumulative contacts with informed neighbors. A mean-field theory is developed to analyze the spreading model. Through systematically studying the information spreading dynamics on uncorrelated configuration networks as well as real-world networks, we find that the popularity preference has great impacts on the information spreading. On the one hand, the information spreading is facilitated, i.e., a larger final prevalence of information and a smaller outbreak threshold, if nodes with low popularity are preferentially selected. In this situation, the effective contacts between informed nodes and susceptible nodes are increased, and nodes almost have uniform probabilities of obtaining the information. On the other hand, if nodes with high popularity are preferentially selected, the final prevalence of information is reduced, the outbreak threshold is increased, and even the information cannot outbreak. In addition, the heterogeneity of the degree distribution and the structure of real-world networks do not qualitatively affect the results. Our research can provide some theoretical supports for the promotion of spreading such as information, health related behaviors, and new products, etc.

  11. Experimental investigation of spreading model melts in presence of solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, S.; Siegel, U.; Ehrhard, P.


    The complete spreading of the corium melt on the spreading area of the EPR has to be viewed as a basis for coolability. To understand the basic phenomena of spreading and solidification, model experiments have been performed using Woodsmetal (MCP58) as model melt. The melt is spreading on a horizontal plate, which is kept at constant temperature. Thus, for plate temperatures below the solidification temperature of the melt (T W ≤60 C) substantial solidification is obtained on the plate during spreading. Three series of experiments have been performed, covering the range of Reynolds-numbers 3,76≤Re≤39,92. The plate temperature has been varied within each series in the range 40 C≤T W ≤75 C. The Prandtl-number of the melt is Pr=0.74. We find for T W ≥60 C pure hydrodynamic spreading without solidification, featuring the typical properties of inertia-dominated spreading. For T W [de

  12. A model of spreading of sudden events on social networks (United States)

    Wu, Jiao; Zheng, Muhua; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Wang, Wei; Gu, Changgui; Liu, Zonghua


    Information spreading has been studied for decades, but its underlying mechanism is still under debate, especially for those ones spreading extremely fast through the Internet. By focusing on the information spreading data of six typical events on Sina Weibo, we surprisingly find that the spreading of modern information shows some new features, i.e., either extremely fast or slow, depending on the individual events. To understand its mechanism, we present a susceptible-accepted-recovered model with both information sensitivity and social reinforcement. Numerical simulations show that the model can reproduce the main spreading patterns of the six typical events. By this model, we further reveal that the spreading can be speeded up by increasing either the strength of information sensitivity or social reinforcement. Depending on the transmission probability and information sensitivity, the final accepted size can change from continuous to discontinuous transition when the strength of the social reinforcement is large. Moreover, an edge-based compartmental theory is presented to explain the numerical results. These findings may be of significance on the control of information spreading in modern society.

  13. Zero field spin splitting in asymmetric quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei


    Spin splitting of asymmetric quantum wells is theoretically investigated in the absence of any electric field, including the contribution of interface-related Rashba spin-orbit interaction as well as linear and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The effect of interface asymmetry on three types of spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The results show that interface-related Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be increased and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction can be decreased by well structure design. For wide quantum wells, the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction dominates under certain conditions, resulting in decreased spin relaxation time.

  14. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M


    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... correlations were noted between preoperative values for somatosensory function and changes in these variables after BSSO. Patients with low sensory thresholds before BSSO experienced more impairment than those patients with higher preoperative sensory thresholds. Conclusion These findings imply...... that somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels....

  15. Splitting method for computing coupled hydrodynamic and structural response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, J.E.


    A numerical method is developed for application to unsteady fluid dynamics problems, in particular to the mechanics following a sudden release of high energy. Solution of the initial compressible flow phase provides input to a power-series method for the incompressible fluid motions. The system is split into spatial and time domains leading to the convergent computation of a sequence of elliptic equations. Two sample problems are solved, the first involving an underwater explosion and the second the response of a nuclear reactor containment shell structure to a hypothetical core accident. The solutions are correlated with experimental data

  16. Strategies for stable water splitting via protected photoelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Seger, Brian; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar-fuel conversion is a promising approach to provide clean and storable fuel (e.g., hydrogen and methanol) directly from sunlight, water and CO2. However, major challenges still have to be overcome before commercialization can be achieved. One of the largest barriers...... photocathodes. In addition, we review protection layer approaches and their stabilities for a wide variety of experimental photoelectrodes for water reduction. Finally, we discuss key aspects which should be addressed in continued work on realizing stable and practical PEC solar water splitting systems....

  17. Photocatalytic water splitting: Quantitative approaches toward photocatalysis by design

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    A widely used term, “photocatalysis”, generally addresses photocatalytic (energetically down-hill) and photosynthetic (energetically up-hill) reactions and refers to the use of photonic energy as a driving force for chemical transformations, i.e., electron reorganization to form/break chemical bonds. Although there are many such important reactions, this contribution focuses on the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen by using light from the solar spectrum, which is one of the most investigated photosynthetic reactions. Photocatalytic water splitting using solar energy is considered to be artificial photosynthesis that produces a solar fuel because the reaction mimics nature’s photosynthesis not only in its redox reaction type but also in its thermodynamics (water splitting: 1.23 eV vs. glucose formation: 1.24 eV). To achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting, all of the parameters, though involved at different timescales and spatial resolutions, should be optimized because the overall efficiency is obtained as the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. The purpose of this review article is to provide the guidelines of a concept, “photocatalysis by design”, which is the opposite of “black box screening”; this concept refers to making quantitative descriptions of the associated physical and chemical properties to determine which events/parameters have the most impact on improving the overall photocatalytic performance, in contrast to arbitrarily ranking different photocatalyst materials. First, the properties that can be quantitatively measured or calculated are identified. Second, the quantities of these identified properties are determined by performing adequate measurements and/or calculations. Third, the obtained values of these properties are integrated into equations so that the kinetic/energetic bottlenecks of specific properties/processes can be determined, and the properties can

  18. Implementacion de Ipsec en una arquitectura TCP splitting


    Caubet Fernández, Juan; Muñoz Tapia, José Luis; Alins Delgado, Juan José; Mata Diaz, Jorge; Esparza Martín, Óscar


    El rendimiento de las aplicaciones que utilizan el protocolo de transporte TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) sobre enlaces vía satélite tiene una degradación significativa. Esto se debe principalmente a que el algoritmo de control de congestión estándar de TCP no es adecuado para superar las deficiencias de las redes satelitales. TCP splitting es una solución prometedora para mejorar el rendimiento general de TCP, incluso en el segmento satelital. La división de la conexión TCP se logra med...

  19. Model (1:10) of the Split-Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia


    The photo shows Klaus Brand from the ISR BOM group with the working model of the Split-Field Magnet, while setting up the field measuring bench. The bench used Hall probes for which he had developed the electronics instrumentation (ISR-BOM Int. Note 12-01-1977). The SFM model made of mild steel with copper coils had been measured in the years 1969-1970. This new mapping campaign was related to the installation of a large calorimeter to one side of the magnet.

  20. Comparative studies on different nanofiber photocatalysts for water splitting (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan


    Water splitting using photocatalyst has become a topic of recent investigation since it has the potential of producing hydrogen for clean energy from sunlight. An extensive number of solid photocatalysts have been studied for overall water splitting in recent years. In this study, two methods were employed to synthesize two different photocatalysts for water splitting. The first method describes the synthesis of nickel oxide-loaded strontium titanate (NiO-SrTiO3) particles on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers incorporated with graphene nanoplatelets for water splitting. The electrospun PAN fibers were first oxidized at 270°C for two hours and subsequently immersed in a solution containing ethanol, titanium (IV)-isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2]. This solution was then treated with NiO nanoparticles dispersed in toluene. The surface treated PAN fibers were annealed at 600°C in air for 1 hour to transform fibers into a crystalline form for improved photocatalyst performance. In the second method, coaxial electrospinning process was used to produce core/shell strontium titanate/nickel oxide (SrTiO3-NiO) nanofibers. In coaxial method, poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in deionized (DI) water, and then titanium (IV) isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2] were added into the solution to form the inner (core) layer. For outer (shell) solution, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) at a weight ratio of 10:90 and then nickel oxide was mixed with the solution. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry and static contact angle measurement techniques were employed to characterize the structural properties of photocatalysts produced by both methods and a comparison was made between the two photocatalysts. The morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure and crystallinity of the calcined nanofibers were also observed