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Sample records for split radix ffts

  1. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone's lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector

  2. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Movassagh; Ghahari; Heidari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris) or buccal root (radix paramolaris) can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, c...

  3. In vivo effect of guiding-herb Radix platycodonis and Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It consists of 11 herbs and two of them, Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae, have been traditionally considered as guiding herbs and deeply valued by tens of millions of Chinese medicine practitioners. Do Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae affect the pharmacokinetics of the effective constituent-paeoniflorin of ...

  4. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movassagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris or buccal root (radix paramolaris can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, constant pain in the lower mandibular molars was referred to the department of endodontics of Hamedan Dental university. The patient’s medical history was noncontributory. The buccal object rule (same-lingual opposite-buccal technique confirmed the additional root as a distolingual root (radix entomolaris. Following the evaluation of vitality tests, we began endodontic treatment for this patient, after administration of local anesthesia using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Daroupakhsh, Tehran, Iran and rubber dam isolation. The working length was determined by a Root ZX apex locator (Dentaport ZX, J Morita and later confirmed by parallel periapical radiograph. Canals were shaped in a crown down fashion with Protaper Nickel Titanium rotary instruments (Dentsply, Maillefer under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and lubrication with RC-Prep. After drying the canals with paper points, the master gutta-percha points were fitted within the canals and confirmation radiography was taken. The root canal system was obturated with the cold lateral compaction technique. Conclusions This case is about a mandibular molar with radix entomolaris and the radiographic exploration and endodontic order. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular molars. The initial diagnosis of a radix entomolaris or paramolaris before root canal treatment is important to facilitate the endodontic procedure.

  5. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  6. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific...... publications related to Radix Ginseng and microbial infections. The authors read, classified, and discussed the associated scientific results or evidences, and summarized the corresponding results. RESULTS: In this review, recent studies on the beneficial effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on microbial...... and biofilm infections were reviewed. The importance and significance of Radix Ginseng's beneficial effects are discussed. Evidence for the favorable effects of Radix Ginseng extracts on viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections and the possible underlying mechanisms are summarized. CONCLUSION: Radix...

  7. Reviewing High-Radix Signed Digit Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    for the accumulation of many terms, generally redundant representations are employed, most often binary carry-save or borrow-save, but in a number of publications it has been suggested to recode the addends into a higher radix. It is shown that there are no speed advantages in doing so if the radix is a power of~2...

  8. Preparation and properties of compound Arnebiae radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to prepare a compound Arnebiae radix microemulsion gel for transdermal delivery system and evaluate its characteristics. Materials and Methods: Based on ... previous used formulations. Keywords: Compound Arnebiae radix oil, microemulsion gel, pseudo-ternary phase diagram, characterization ...

  9. [Study on distribution division of Codonopsis Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Yu, Yi; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    This paper is aimed to clarify the distribution of Codonopsis Radix in China and search the main ecological factors that affect the suitability distribution. Through literature reading, National Specimen Information Infrastructure researching, field investigation and general survey of Chinese medicine resources, the distribution information was acquired. The MaxEnt model and ArcGIS technology were applied to analyze the main environmental factors influencing the suitability of Codonopsis Radix with integrated 55 environmental factors. The results showed the precipitation and altitude were the major factors impacting the ecology suitable of Codonopsis Radix. The ecological suitable region of C. pilosula was mainly concentrated in south Gansu, Shanxi, Shanxi, Ningxia and, and the ecological suitable region of C. pilosula var. modesta was mainly concentrated in south Gansu, northwest Guizhou, northeast Sichuan, and the ecological suitable region of C. tangshen was mainly concentrated in west Hubei, east Chongqing, middle Sichuan. Combined with the investigation and cultivation of Codonopsis Radix distribution information, the results of ecological suitability of Codonopsis Radix were verified. The ecological suitability distribution result of Codonopsis Radix was consistent with each species actual distribution, which could provide scientific basis for carrying out the rational cultivation of Codonopsis Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. [Production regionalization study of Isatidis Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Long; Jin, Ling; Wang, Hui-Zhen; Cui, Zhi-Jia; Hou, Jia; Lu, You-Yuan; Du, Tao

    2017-11-01

    In this research, we collected information of eighty nine sampling points of Isatidis Radix nationwide through data query and field survey, and the medicinal component contents of samples were determined by HPLC. By using Maxent Model and ArcGIS, along with ecological factor data, the national habitat suitability distribution of Isatidis Radix was predicted. R-language was adopted to establish a model of the relationship between the medicinal component contents and ecological factors. The medicinal quality was divided by ArcGIS grid computing. The results indicated that the three main ecological factors affecting the distribution of Isatidis Radix were precipitation in the driest season, mean annual temperature and mean temperature in the wet season. The suitable cultivation region of Isatidis Radix is mainly distributed in the north of China, but the medicinal quality is quite different, Isatidis Radix in Xinjiang province has higher medicinal quality. This study provides a reference for rational selection of planting areas of Isatidis Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. [Fingerprint analysis of Glehniae Radix by TLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing; Li, Xiang-kun; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Zhen-tao

    2012-02-01

    To establish TLC fingerprint of Glehniae Radix for the identification and quality control of the drug. 10 batches of Glehniae Radix commercial drugs collected from different gathering areas and 3 batches from Laiyang, Shandong were used as qualitative identification samples. Falcarindiol, scopoletin umbelliferone and isoimperatorin were used as the chemical reference substances. Double wavelength TLCS was performed with petroleum and ethyl acetate (4:1) as developer,detection wavelength at 300 nm and reference wavelength at 260 nm. TLC chromatogram of 13 samples had 8 well-resolved characteristic peaks, in which 4 peaks were falcarindiol, umbelliferone, scopoletin and isoimperatorin, respectively. The method is accurate and simple, and can be used for the quality control of Glehniae Radix.

  12. Embryo splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Illmensee; Mike Levanduski

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board appr...

  13. Radix Sophorae flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Minghui; Shi, Rui

    2003-01-01

    biochemical effects, and improved symptoms and signs compared with non-specific treatment and other herbal medicines. The combination of matrine and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), thymosin, or basic treatment showed better effects on viral and liver biochemical responses. The antiviral and biochemical......To evaluate the effects of radix Sophorae fiavescentis for chronic hepatitis B, a systematic review of randomized clinical trials was conducted. Randomized trials comparing extract of radix Sophorae flavescentis versus placebo, no intervention, non-specific treatment, other active medicines...

  14. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  15. Fractal tiles associated with shift radix systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthé, Valérie; Siegel, Anne; Steiner, Wolfgang; Surer, Paul; Thuswaldner, Jörg M

    2011-01-15

    Shift radix systems form a collection of dynamical systems depending on a parameter r which varies in the d -dimensional real vector space. They generalize well-known numeration systems such as beta-expansions, expansions with respect to rational bases, and canonical number systems. Beta-numeration and canonical number systems are known to be intimately related to fractal shapes, such as the classical Rauzy fractal and the twin dragon. These fractals turned out to be important for studying properties of expansions in several settings. In the present paper we associate a collection of fractal tiles with shift radix systems. We show that for certain classes of parameters r these tiles coincide with affine copies of the well-known tiles associated with beta-expansions and canonical number systems. On the other hand, these tiles provide natural families of tiles for beta-expansions with (non-unit) Pisot numbers as well as canonical number systems with (non-monic) expanding polynomials. We also prove basic properties for tiles associated with shift radix systems. Indeed, we prove that under some algebraic conditions on the parameter r of the shift radix system, these tiles provide multiple tilings and even tilings of the d -dimensional real vector space. These tilings turn out to have a more complicated structure than the tilings arising from the known number systems mentioned above. Such a tiling may consist of tiles having infinitely many different shapes. Moreover, the tiles need not be self-affine (or graph directed self-affine).

  16. Raw rehmannia radix polysaccharide can effectively release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duck viral hepatitis (DVH), caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), is a fatal contagious infectious disease which spreads rapidly with high morbidity and high mortality, and there is no effective clinical drug against DVH. Materials and Methods: Raw Rehmannia Radix Polysaccharide (RRRP), Lycii Fructus ...

  17. Effects of radix ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  18. Radix-16 Combined Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Division and square root, based on the digitrecurrence algorithm, can be implemented in a combined unit. Several implementations of combined division/square root units have been presented mostly for radices 2 and 4. Here, we present a combined radix-16 unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4...... result digit selection functions, as it is normally done for division only units. The latency of the unit is reduced by retiming and low power methods are applied as well. The proposed unit is compared to a radix-4 combined division/square root unit, and to a radix-16 unit, obtained by cascading two...

  19. Discrimination and Proper Use of Polygoni Multiflori Radix, Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix, and Cynanchi Auriculati Radix in Korea: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Joon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR, Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix (CWR, and Cynanchi Auriculati Radix (CAR are very popular herbal medicines in Traditional Korean Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo Medicine. However, the plant origins, efficacies, and traditional uses of these herbal medicines differ. In Korea, PMR is called Ha Su O (He Shou Wu in China, and CWR is called Baek Ha Su O or Baek Su O (Bai Shou Wu in China. Baek Su O refers to CWR in Korea and CAR in China. CAR has not been used as a traditional herbal medicine, and it cannot be legally used as a food or food ingredient in Korea. However, CAR is cultivated in Korea and imported from China. Because the morphology of CWR and CAR is very similar, they are often confused and misused in Korea. This review discusses the reasons for the confusion and misuse of these substances in Korea and provides the exact plant origins, efficacies, uses, components, and toxicities of PMR, CWR, and CAR so that they can be correctly understood and used.

  20. Radix Sophorae flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Minghui; Shi, Rui

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of radix Sophorae fiavescentis for chronic hepatitis B, a systematic review of randomized clinical trials was conducted. Randomized trials comparing extract of radix Sophorae flavescentis versus placebo, no intervention, non-specific treatment, other active medicines......, or interferon for chronic hepatitis B were identified by electronic and manual searches. Trials of Sophorae herb plus other drugs versus other drugs alone were also included. No blinding and language limitations were applied. The methodological quality of trials was assessed by the Jadad scale plus allocation...... responses were not significantly different between matrine and IFN-alpha. No serious adverse event was reported. Based on the review, Sophorae flavescentis extract (matrine) may have antiviral activity and positive effects on liver biochemistry in chronic hepatitis B. However, the evidence is not sufficient...

  1. [Effects of Astragali Radix combined with Angelicae Sinensis Radix on the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells senescence model in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-Sheng; Chen, Ling-Bo; Huang, Xiao-Ping; Deng, Chang-Qing

    2017-11-01

    The aim is to study the effect and its mechanism of Astragalus Radix combined with Angelicae Sinensis Radix on the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells(HSCs) in senescence model. After drug-containing plasma of rats was prepared via intragastric administration, HSCs of mice were cultured in vitro, and then they were divided into blank control group, model group, blank plasma group, Astragalus Radix + Angelicae Sinensis Radix 1∶1 group and 10∶1 group, Angelicae Sinensis Radix plasma group, and Astragalus Radix plasma group. HSCs senescence model was induced by using tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide(t-BHP), and intervened by drug-containing plasma. Cells senescence rate was tested by SA-β-galactosidase staining method; cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry; Cyclin D1, P21, and P53 mRNA were measured with RT-PCR, and Cyclin D1 protein expression was measured by Western blot. Results showed that after being induced by t-BHP, senescence rate of HSCs was increased; cell proliferation ability was decreased; count of G₀/G₁ phase cells was increased; count of G₂/M+S phase cells was reduced; Cyclin D1 expression was down-regulated while P53, P21 expression was up-regulated, which were reversed by Astragalus Radix + Angelicae Sinensis Radix 1∶1 and 10∶1, single Angelicae Sinensis Radix, and single Astragalus Radix plasma. Furthermore, the above effects were most obvious in Astragalus Radix+Angelicae Sinensis Radix 1∶1 group. These results suggested that t-BHP can promote HSCs senescence and reduce cell proliferation ability. Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragalus Radix and their combinations can inhibit HSCs senescence, promote HSCs proliferation as well as cell cycle conversion; moreover, the effects of 1∶1 Astragalus Radix+Angelicae Sinensis Radix were strongest. The mechanisms may be related to up-regulating the expression of cell cycle positive regulator, down-regulating the expression of cell cycle negative regulator, thus promoting

  2. Fractal tiles associated with shift radix systems☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthé, Valérie; Siegel, Anne; Steiner, Wolfgang; Surer, Paul; Thuswaldner, Jörg M.

    2011-01-01

    Shift radix systems form a collection of dynamical systems depending on a parameter r which varies in the d-dimensional real vector space. They generalize well-known numeration systems such as beta-expansions, expansions with respect to rational bases, and canonical number systems. Beta-numeration and canonical number systems are known to be intimately related to fractal shapes, such as the classical Rauzy fractal and the twin dragon. These fractals turned out to be important for studying properties of expansions in several settings. In the present paper we associate a collection of fractal tiles with shift radix systems. We show that for certain classes of parameters r these tiles coincide with affine copies of the well-known tiles associated with beta-expansions and canonical number systems. On the other hand, these tiles provide natural families of tiles for beta-expansions with (non-unit) Pisot numbers as well as canonical number systems with (non-monic) expanding polynomials. We also prove basic properties for tiles associated with shift radix systems. Indeed, we prove that under some algebraic conditions on the parameter r of the shift radix system, these tiles provide multiple tilings and even tilings of the d-dimensional real vector space. These tilings turn out to have a more complicated structure than the tilings arising from the known number systems mentioned above. Such a tiling may consist of tiles having infinitely many different shapes. Moreover, the tiles need not be self-affine (or graph directed self-affine). PMID:24068835

  3. Inhibitory effect of saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different Radix ranunculi ternati extracts on human gastric cancer BGC823 cells were investigated, different methods were used to extract the saponins and polysaccharides from Radix ranunculi ternati, and MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the effects of saponins and ...

  4. Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Liao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth retardant (PGR refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells or primordial meristem cell. They are widely used in the cultivation of rhizomatous functional plants; such as Codonopsis Radix, that is a famous Chinese traditional herb. However, it is still unclear whether PGR affects the medicinal quality of C. Radix. In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS and gas chromatography-MS were used to analyze and compare the composition of untreated C. Radix and C. Radix treated with PGR. The contents of two key bioactive compounds, lobetyolin and atractylenolide III, were not affected by PGR treatment. The amounts of polysaccharides and some internal volatiles were significantly decreased by PGR treatment; while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS. Five of the up-regulated compounds have been reported to show immune activity, which might contribute to the healing efficacy (“buqi” of C. Radix. The results of this study showed that treatment of C. Radix with PGR during cultivation has economic benefits and affected some main bioactive compounds in C. Radix.

  5. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  6. Radix entomolaris dificultad y reto endodóntico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lliliana Rodríguez Ballesteros

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa variante anatómica más importante que presenta el primer molar inferior es una tercera raíz adicional distolingual llamada radix entomolaris o bucal llamada radix paramolaris. En un tratamiento de endodoncia es importante tener la información completa sobre las variaciones de los conductos radiculares en la medida en que esta asegura el resultado sustancialmente. Para que un tratamiento endodóntico pueda tener éxito, es necesario localizar todos los conductos radiculares, limpiarlos a fondo y sellarlos completamente con un material inerte. El endodoncista debe conocer la morfología interna de los dientes permanentes y las posibles variaciones que estos puedan tener como es el caso de una raíz adicional situada en lingual (el radix entomolaris o en vestibular (el radix paramolaris. La anatomía del conducto radicular es muy compleja e impredecible, y la comprensión de la presencia de una raíz adicional es esencial ya que determinara el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. El presente caso clínico describe un primer molar inferior con RE sometido a tratamiento endodóntico con tres raíces: una mesial (con un conducto mesio vestibular y otro mesio lingual, una distal (con un conducto y otra raíz disto lingual: radix entomolaris (con un conducto. (DUAZARY 2011, 74 - 79 AbstractThe most important anatomical variant which presents the first molar is third distolingual additional root called radix entomolaris paramolaris call or oral. In root canal treatment is important to have complete information on variations of the root canals to the extent that this ensures the result substantially. For endodontic treatment to succeed, it is necessary to locate all the canals, clean them thoroughly and completely sealed with an inert material. The endodontist must know the internal morphology of permanent teeth and possible variations that they can have as is the case of an additional root located on the tongue (the radix entomolaris or

  7. Differentiating Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix using HPTLC coupled with multivariate classification analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2014-07-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR), the root of Pueraria lobata, is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Puerariae Thomsonii Radix (PTR), the root of Pueraria thomsonii, is a closely related species to PLR and has been used as a PLR substitute in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare the classification accuracy of high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with that of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in differentiating PLR from PTR. The Matlab functions were used to facilitate the digitalisation and pre-processing of the HPTLC plates. Seven multivariate classification methods were evaluated for the two chromatographic methods. The results demonstrated that the HPTLC classification models were comparable to the UPLC classification models. In particular, k-nearest neighbours, partial least square-discriminant analysis, principal component analysis-discriminant analysis and support vector machine-discriminant analysis showed the highest rate of correct species classification, whilst the lowest classification rate was obtained from soft independent modelling of class analogy. In conclusion, HPTLC combined with multivariate analysis is a promising technique for the quality control and differentiation of PLR and PTR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Radix-10 Digit-Recurrence Division Unit: Algorithm and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm. The previous decimal division designs do not include recent developments in the theory and practice of this type of algorithm, which were developed for radix-2^k dividers. In addition...... to the adaptation of these features, the radix-10 quotient digit is decomposed into a radix-2 digit and a radix-5 digit in such a way that only five and two times the divisor are required in the recurrence. Moreover, the most significant slice of the recurrence, which includes the selection function, is implemented...

  9. A study on the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from Radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different concentrations of polysaccharide extracts were selected, and MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to investigate their growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides had varying degrees of effects on the growth of ...

  10. Inhibition of Three Novel Radix Scutellariae Extracts on Immediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: To investigate the anti-immediate hypersensitivity of three extracts including ethanol extracts, acetone extracts, ethyl acetate extracts from Radix Scutellariae, four pharmacological screening model were chose, such as 4-Aminopyridine induced pruritus model, histamine-induced mouse paw edema ...

  11. Effects of a Chinese Medicinal Plant Radix Astragali on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perimenopausal syndrome occurs during the transition to menopause. Complementary and alternative medicine, especially ... The present study aimed to explore the effects of Radix Astragali (RA) on the sex hormone levels and the interleukins of the ovariectomized female rats. 24 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ...

  12. Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Radix Puerariae | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an efficient method for the purification of flavonoids from Radix puerariae. Methods: Optimal extraction technology was obtained using orthogonal test. Through adsorption and desorption tests, 8 resins with different polarity, diameter, and surface area were studied. Finally, a novel macroporous resin, ...

  13. Evaluation of Embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae Based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the potential embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae (RS) extract using an embryonic stem cell test (EST) and to evaluate its effect on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Methods: All the test samples were obtained by water extraction method. The embryotoxicity of RS was assessed ...

  14. Effects of ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper mainly studied the inhibitory effect of total ethanol extract of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on proliferation of colon cancer HT29 cells. By reflux extraction method and with ethanol as extraction solvent, different extracts were obtained at different ethanol concentrations, different solid-liquid ratios, and at different ...

  15. Evaluation of Embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae Based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the potential embryotoxicity of Radix scutellariae (RS) extract using an embryonic stem cell test (EST) and to evaluate its effect on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem. (ES) cells. Methods: All the test samples were obtained by water extraction method. The embryotoxicity of RS was assessed ...

  16. Analysis on the Application and Characteristics of Chinese Patent Medicines Containing Dried Rehmanniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yanyan; Miao, mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Dried Rehmanniae Radix has sweet taste, and its drug property is cold.It acts on heart, liver and kidney.It has the effect of clearing heat and cooling blood, nourishing yin and promoting fluid production.The active constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix are mainly iridoid glycosides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and so on.This article sorted and analyzed the application forms, efficacy, applicable symptomsh and the frequency of the use of single traditional Chinese medicine in the Chinese patent medicines containing dried Rehmanniae Radix in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia of 2015. This method provides a train of thought for the further study of the pharmacological constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix, and supplements the pharmacodynamics of Chinese herbal medicine of dried Rehmanniae Radix. It also provides ideas for the improvement of dried Rehmanniae Radix prescription and the new usage of its old prescription.

  17. Comparing morphological, chemical and anti-diabetic characteristics of Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka H; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, Kong M; Li, George Q; Chan, Kelvin

    2015-04-22

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix (PTR) are traditional Chinese medicines used for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These two herbs are used interchangeably in clinical practice, even though they possess significantly different chemical profiles. In the case of Pueraria species, the misidentification is related to the multiple Chinese common names in clinical practice and variable pharmaceutical Latin names in different versions of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. In addition, there is lack of evidence demonstrating how the differences in the chemical profile would impact on the pharmacological activity of the two herbs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the microscopic, phytochemical profiles and anti-diabetic activity of PLR and PTR so that the two species can be differentiated. The microscopic characteristics of the PLR and PTR were observed and measured by an optical microscope. The major compounds were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) colorimetric assay. The free radical scavenging capacity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assays. Anti-diabetic activity was determined by the inhibition of porcine pancreatic α-amylase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase activities. Microscopic results illustrated that the size of xylem vessels (PLR: 0.1390 ± 0.0184 mm; PTR: 0.0471 ± 0.0109 mm), number of fibre per bundle (PLR: 32.6800 ± 2.8780; PTR: 16.5900 ± 0.9982) and the size of fibre (PLR: 0.0075 ± 0.0003 mm(2); PTR: 0.0025 ± 0.0002 mm(2)) in PLR were significantly greater than that in PTR (pfibre content (PLR: 4.2886 ± 0.3466 g/100g DM; PTR: 12.4148 ± 0.4541 g/100g DM) as compared to PTR. Isoflavonoids including puerarin, daidzin, genistin and daidzein were the major chemical constituents in both species. However, the average content of puerarin in PLR was found to be eleven times greater

  18. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    OpenAIRE

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient’s knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, ap...

  19. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Baysak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient’s knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported.

  20. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported.

  1. [Chemical constituents from water extract of Radix isatidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Wei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-Wei; Sun, Dong-Dong; Jü, Wen-Zheng; Wang, Kang-Cai

    2006-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents from water extract of Radix isatidis. (Isatis indigotica Fort. ). The water extract was underwent absorption by D101 macroporous resin, the portion eluted by ethanol of different concentrations was isolated and purified on silica gel column repeatedly. The obtained compounds were identified and structurally elucidated by their physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis. Five compounds were isolated from water extract of Radix isatidis, and were partly identified separately: 3-[2'-(5'-hydroxymethyl) furyl] -1 (2H) -isoquinolinone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (I), lariciresinol-4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (II), lariciresinol-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (III), 2-hydroxy-1, 4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (IV), mannitol (V). Compound I is a new compound and compounds IV and V were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  2. [Grades evaluation of Scutellariae Radix slices based on quality constant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhong, Wen; Cui, Wen-Jin; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Sha; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-05-01

    By measuring the morphological indexes and the marker components content of 22 batches of Scutellariae Radix slices as well as calculating the quality constant, this research was aimed to establish a new method of evaluating the specifications and grades of Scutellariae Radix slices. The quality constants of these samples were in the range of 0.04-0.49, which can be divided into several grades based on the real requirement. If they were divided into three grades, the quality constant was ≥0.39 for the first grade, quality constants characterizing both apparent parameters and intrinsic quality can be used as a comprehensive evaluation index to classify the grades of traditional Chinese medicine quantitatively, clearly and objectively. The research results in this paper would provide new ideas and references for evaluating the specifications and grades of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    OpenAIRE

    Haonan Zhou; Pengjie Zhang; Zhiguo Hou; Jiabin Xie; Yuming Wang; Bin Yang; Yanyan Xu; Yubo Li

    2016-01-01

    Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were availabl...

  4. Radix Bupleuri: A Review of Traditional Uses, Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fude; Dong, Xiaoxv; Yin, Xingbin; Wang, Wenping; You, Longtai; Ni, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Radix Bupleuri (Chaihu) has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that this plant contains essential oils, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, lignans, fatty acids, and sterols. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from Radix Bupleuri exhibited various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Radix Bupleuri could also lead to hepatotoxicity, particularly in high doses and with long-term use. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive compounds (saikosaponins a, b 2 , c, and d) were absorbed rapidly in rats after oral administration of the extract of Radix Bupleuri . This review aims to comprehensively summarize the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics of Radix Bupleuri reported to date with an emphasis on its biological properties and mechanisms of action.

  5. [Classification study on commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Han, Bang-Xing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xiao, Cheng-Hong; Xiong, Hou-Xi; Chen, Xue-Mei

    2014-08-01

    To study the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellaria Radix, for standardizing market order and achieving industrialization, standardization and modernization of Pseudostellariae Radix. The different areas and grade medicinal materials of Pseudostellariae Radix were respectively measured in quantitative characteristics of appearance, and the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was scientifically verified by the content of polysaccharide. Then the determination data were evaluated by spss correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. So combining with the actual production, the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix was formulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was reasonable, and the more the grade of Pseudostellariae Radix was high, the more the content of polysaccharide was high. Meanwhile, length as a classification index was not suitable for the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, combining actual production, the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber were filtrated and the grade was divided into 5 ranks: big, mid- dle, small selected goods, big ungraded goods and small ungraded goods. the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix that mainly included the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber was formulated, the standard was divided into 5 grade. Each grade was not only consistent with the present situation of medicinal materials market, it could also reflected the intrinsic quality of Pseudostellariae Radix. In conclusion, the standard could be used as a classifica- tion basis to the commodity specification and grade.

  6. Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui on cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Ching-Liang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radix Angelica Sinensis, the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui, is a herb used in Chinese medicine to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and modulate the immune system. It is also used to treat chronic constipation of the elderly and debilitated as well as menstrual disorders. Research has demonstrated that Danggui and its active ingredients, as anti-arthrosclerotic, anti-hypertensive, antioxidant anti-inflammatory agents which would limit platelet aggregation, are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores.

  7. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  8. Inhibition of three novel Radix Scutellariae extracts on immediate hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Jiangning; Shi, Haiyun; Gao, Lei; Wang, Xueyan

    2014-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae, a few papers reported its pharmacology activities including alleviate small intestines smooth muscles spasm, sedation, antihypertensive effect. However, the inhibition of its different organic extracts on immediate hypersensitivity has not bee researched. To investigate the anti-immediate hypersensitivity of three extracts including ethanol extracts, acetone extracts, ethyl acetate extracts from Radix Scutellariae, four pharmacological screening model were chose, such as 4-Aminopyridine induced pruritus model, histamine-induced mouse paw edema model, PCA(passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) in ear of mouse, activie cutaneous anaphylaxismouse (mouse ear edema test), furthermore, total IgE level in the sensitized mice serum was evaluated deeply. Ethanol group at 1.42 g/kg and 0.71 g/kg could greatly decrease the licking number to 1.2 and 12.7 respectively; also keep mice paw swelling at 0.29 ml and 0.51 ml at 15 min after injection of histamine. Both ear passive cutaneous allergic reaction and active cutaneous anaphylaxis-ear swelling test demonstrated that ethanol group exhibit great inhibition on immediate hypersensitivity.Low IgE level was found in ethanol group, but high in other two groups. The ethanol extracts exhibits obvious strong inhibition, however, the acetone ones and ethyl acetate showed a little.

  9. Study on Quality Standard of Processed Curcuma Longa Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Quan, Liang; Zhou, Haiting; Cao, Dong; Li, Wenbing; Yang, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    To control the quality of Curcuma Longa Radix by establishing quality standards, this paper increased the contents of extract and volatile oil determination. Meanwhile, the curcumin was selected as the internal marker, and the relative correlation factors (RCFs) of demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of multicomponents were calculated based on their RCFs. The rationality and feasibility of the methods were evaluated by comparison of the quantitative results between external standard method (ESM) and quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS). Ethanol extracts ranged from 9.749 to 15.644% and the mean value was 13.473%. The volatile oil ranged from 0.45 to 0.90 mL/100 g and the mean value was 0.66 mL/100 g. This method was accurate and feasible and could provide a reference for further comprehensive and effective control of the quality standard of Curcuma Longa Radix and its processed products. PMID:29375640

  10. [Effect on quality of Scrophulariae Radix with modern drying technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-wei; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-wei; Lu, Xue-jun; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-11-01

    Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

  11. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of radix astragali based on soxhlet extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nengrong; Shao, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Shi, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Due to its high sensitivity, flexibility, and "fingerprints" sensing capability, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a very powerful method for characterization of substances. In this paper, two kinds of Radix Astragali with different quality were firstly extracted through continuous circumfluence extraction method and then mixed with silver nanoparticles for SERS detection. Most Raman bands obtained in Radix Astragali extraction solution are found at 300-7000cm-1 and 900-1390 cm-1. Although, major peak positions at 470, 556, 949, 1178 and 1286 cm-1 found in these two kinds of Radix Astragali appear nearly the same, Raman bands of 556 and 1178 cm-1 are different in intensity, thus may be used as a characteristic marker of Radix Astragali quality. In detail, we can make full use of the different intensity of two different kinds but the same state at 556 cm-1 to describe the quality standard of Radix Astragali. Our preliminary results show that SERS combining with continuous circumfluence extraction method may provide a direct, accurate and rapid detection method of Radix Astragali.

  12. A sensitive TLC method to identify Echinaceae pallidae radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicke, B; Hagels, H; Freudenstein, J; Wätzig, H

    2004-08-01

    In this work a fast, simple and sensitive qualitative TLC method was developed to identify Echinaceae pallidae radix and to distinguish this drug from similar ones. The TLC method is based on the lipophilic compounds of E. pallida. Three mobile phases provided good separation, e.g. toluene/ethylacetate 7 + 3 (v/v). A marker substance was found which shows a blue fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm after detection with a spray agent containing 95 volume parts ethanol 96%, 5 parts trifluoroacetic acid 99% and zinc ions in 0.15 molar concentration. After spraying the chromatogram was heated at 110 degrees C for 7 min. This method is superior to HPLC methods to characterise mixtures of Echinacea extracts in terms of selectivity due to this post-chromatographic derivatisation and subsequent fluorescence detection.

  13. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  14. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  15. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Tian; Li, Rui; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu

    2016-05-01

    To collect the historical origin, processing methods and clinical application of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata in Compendium of Materia Medica, compare and analyze the theoretical knowledge and relevant practical operation of national physician master Jin Shiyuan, which is beneficial for the inheritance and development of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata's clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI was searched with "Rehmanniae Radix Preparata", "Processing method", "Clinical application" "Li Shizhen", "Jin Shiyuan", and "Dispensing technology" as keywords. In addition, Shennong's Herbal Classic, Bencao Tujing (illustrated Classics of Materia Medica), Compendium of Materia Medica, Jingyue Quanshu (Jingyue's Complete Works) and related ancient books were accessed systematically to summarize the historical change of processing methods and efficacy of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata. Professor Jin Shiyuan emphasizes the clinical dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, including its nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, prescription audit technology, prescription coping technology, drug delivery technology, clinical decocting technology, purchasing management technology as well as storage, maintenance and supply technology. Through the collation and research, it was confirmed that historical origin, processing methods and clinical application of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata were recorded in details in Compendium of Materia Medica. Steaming method of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata was originated from Synopsis of Golden Chamber. Li Shizhen attached great importance to the processing method of "steaming and drying alternatively for nine times" for Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, and differentiated it from Radix Rehmanniae Recen and fresh rehmannia root in clinical applications. Professor Jin Shiyuan has developed and improved the clinical dispensing technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, and carried forward the essence of Li

  16. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  17. IN VIVO EFFECT OF GUIDING-HERB RADIX PLATYCODONIS AND RADIX CYATHULAE ON PAEONIFLORIN PHARMACOKINETICS OF XUEFU ZHUYU TANG IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Song-Qi; Chen, Yun-Hui; Chen, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Xuefu Zhuyu Tang (XFZYT), first recorded in Correction of Errors in Medical Works by Qing-ren Wang, has been proven reliable and effective for curing various diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and angina pectoris. It consists of 11 herbs and two of them, Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae , have been traditionally considered as guiding herbs and deeply valued by tens of millions of Chinese medicine practitioners. Do Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae affect the pharmacokinetics of the effective constituent-paeoniflorin of XFZYT? If yes, in what way? This study aims to answer these questions. The medicinal solutions of XFZYT, XFZYT without Radix platycodonis (XFZYT-JG), XFZYT without Radix cyathulae (XFZYT-NX), and XFZYT without Radix platycodonis and Radix cyathulae (XFZYT-JG-NX) were prepared and administrated to rats in the normal group and the blood-stasis model group by gavage, respectively. The blood samples of rats in the normal group were obtained 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after gavage; whereas the blood samples of rats in the blood-stasis model group were obtained 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 90, 150, and 240 minutes after gavage. Biological samples were processed; the assays of specificity, precision, linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, recovery and stability were conducted; high performance liquid chromatography was performed to detect paeoniflorin content; and DAS software was adopted to generate pharmacokinetic parameters. Mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and water (16:84), detection wavelength was 230 nm, and riboflavin was set as internal standard substance. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the rats in the normal group after oral gavage of XFZYT, XFZYT-JG, XFZYT-NX, and XFZYT-JG-NX were C max = (0.363±0.248, 0.065±0.020, 0.099±0.033, 0.099±0.020) mg/L, T max = (0.276±0.084, 0.583±0.342, 0.555±0.228, 0.317±0.033)h, t 1/2 = (0.501±0.241, 1.021±0.522, 0.853±0.377, 1.227±0

  18. Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis: A review of traditional Chinese medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenyue; Ma, Rufeng; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Ruyuan; Liu, Haixia; Guo, Yubo; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhao, Shangang; Tang, Jinfa; Li, Yu; Niu, Jianzhao; Fu, Min; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua

    2017-02-23

    Emerging clinical usage and pharmacological effects have been achieved in using Rehmanniae Radix either singly or in combination with other herbs to treat skeletal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the recent years. This study is aimed to provide a comprehensive review about the historical TCM interpretation of the action of Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis, its usage in clinical trials and osteoporotic models, its main phytochemical constituents, and its pharmacokinetics. Several databases included PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, National Science and Technology Library and the Web of Science Database were consulted to locate the publications pertaining to Rehmanniae Radix. The initial inquiry was conducted for the presence of the following terms combinations in the abstracts: Rehmanniae Radix, Dihuang, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, osteoporosis, bone, osteoclast and osteoblast. About 330 research papers and reviews were consulted. In TCM, Rehmanniae Radix exerts the anti-osteoporotic effect via regulating the functions of kidney and liver as well as improving blood circulation. 107 clinical trials are identified that used Rehmanniae Radix in combination with other herbs to treat post-menopausal, senile and secondary osteoporosis. Most of the clinical trials are characterized by high efficacy and no obvious adverse effects. However, the efficacies of these clinical trials are limited because of small patient sample size, short treatment duration and poor clinical design. In addition, TCM herbs under the clinical study are not clear because of a lack of standardization and authentication. The pharmacokinetics data demonstrate that the ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix are widely distributed after administration, and that catalpol and ajugol as well as acetoside are supposed to be the active constituents. More than 140 individual compounds have been currently isolated from this

  19. Effect of Ampelopsis Radix on wound healing in scalded rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Lee, Byonghee; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Bumjung; Chinannai, Khanita Suman; Ham, Inhye; Choi, Ho-Young

    2015-07-08

    Ampelopsis Radix has been used as a traditional Korean medicine for the treatment of burns and scalds. However, there has been no scientific research to date on the wound healing properties of Ampelopsis Radix for scald burns. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effect of Ampelopsis japonica root tuber ethanol extract (AJE) on induced cutaneous scald injury in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Hot water scalds were induced in SD rats, who were then divided into the following 5 groups; 1) control group without treatment, 2) positive control group with 1% Silver sulfadiazine (SSD), 3) Vaseline group, and groups 4) and 5) that used Vaseline containing 5% and 20% AJE, respectively. The ointment was applied topically to the experimental rats, once daily for 21 days, starting at 24 h post induction of the scald injury. Gross examination, measurement of wound size, and histopathological examination were performed. And quantitative measurement of cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical evaluation showed that the AJE and Vaseline groups, rapidly desquamated scab on day 12 post-scalding; in particular, the 20% AJE group achieved the greatest extent of skin recovery. Sizes of scald wound were significantly lower on days 12, 15, 18, and 21 in the AJE treated groups compared to the control groups. Histopathological evaluation showed a well-organized epithelial layer, angiogenesis, tissue granulation and collagen formation with the exception of inflammatory cells in the AJE-treated groups compared to the control groups on day 14, indicating that tissue regeneration had occurred. AJE treatment decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 levels on days 2 and 14, indicating the anti-inflammatory action of AJE. The AJE groups also showed a decrease in TGF-β1 levels on day 7 and VEGF on day 14 in the

  20. Edematous erythema at the hands and feet probably caused by the traditional herb "radix astragali".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    To describe a patient with erhythema and edema after Radix Astragali was added to a kampo formula. A 21-year-old male, who was diagnosed as having atopic dermatitis in 1989, demonstrated systemic dry eruptions and consulted our department for treatment with traditional herbal medicine (THM) in 2004. The oral administration of herbal medicine resulted in decreased symptoms as well as a reduction in the serum IgE level. In August 2007, he complained of sweating on the neck and we added Radix Astragali to the previous formula. About 18 hours after he ingested the new formula including Radix Astragali, erhythema appeared with swelling of the bilateral hands and feet. Administration of the formula was discontinued and about 48 hours later, his symptoms had almost disappeared. Astragaloside, which is the main ingredient of Radix Astragali, was negative on lymphocyte transforming test (LTT) and we could not determine the ingredient that induced erhythema. We consider that the Radix Astragali induced acute erhythema with swelling based on the clinical course. Acute edematous erythema due to THM is very rare and we discuss allergic reactions to traditional herbs and review the litrature.

  1. Antithrombotic Effect and Mechanism of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyao Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounds of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR were isolated and identified by bioassay-guided method, and antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated by the acute blood stasis rat model. The RPR extract was evaluated by APTT, TT, PT, and FIB assays in vitro. Results indicated that RPR extract exhibited the anticoagulant activity. In order to find active compounds, six compounds were isolated and identified, and four compounds, paeoniflorin (Pae, pentagalloylglucose (Pen, albiflorin (Ali, and protocatechuic acid (Pro, exhibited the anticoagulant activity in vitro. Therefore, the antithrombosis effects of RPR extract and four active compounds were investigated in vivo by measuring whole blood viscosity (WBV, plasma viscosity (PV, APTT, PT, TT, and FIB. Meanwhile, the levels of TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α, eNOS, and ET-1 were detected. Results suggested that RPR extract and four active compounds had the inhibition effect on thrombus formation, and the antithrombotic effects were associated with the regulation of vascular endothelium active substance, activating blood flow and anticoagulation effect.

  2. Vector Radix 2 × 2 Sliding Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yung Byun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional (2D discrete Fourier transform (DFT in the sliding window scenario has been successfully used for numerous applications requiring consecutive spectrum analysis of input signals. However, the results of conventional sliding DFT algorithms are potentially unstable because of the accumulated numerical errors caused by recursive strategy. In this letter, a stable 2D sliding fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm based on the vector radix (VR 2 × 2 FFT is presented. In the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, each 2D DFT bin is hierarchically decomposed into four sub-DFT bins until the size of the sub-DFT bins is reduced to 2 × 2; the output DFT bins are calculated using the linear combination of the sub-DFT bins. Because the sub-DFT bins for the overlapped input signals between the previous and current window are the same, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm by reusing previously calculated sub-DFT bins in the sliding window scenario. Moreover, because the resultant DFT bins are identical to those of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, numerical errors do not arise; therefore, unconditional stability is guaranteed. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm has the lowest computational requirements among the existing stable sliding DFT algorithms.

  3. A systematic summary of natural compounds in Radix Glycyrrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To accumulate data from studies on the compounds identified from Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC, and then systematically summarize and classify these compounds according to their structural characteristics. Methods: Five databases (CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data, CBM, and Pubmed were used to search for studies on the chemical structure of compounds from GC. The retrieval time of the respective databases was from their inception to March 2016. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the papers were carefully screened, and the data were extracted. Results: A total of 653 compounds from GC were collated from 252 articles, including flavonols (n = 201 belonging to 10 subgroups, terpenes and saponins (n = 167, coumarins (n = 30 belonging to 3 subgroups, aliphatics (n = 206, aromatics (n = 35, and others (n = 14. The flavones, represented by liquiritin and liquiritigenin, were the most reported compounds isolated from GC, followed by terpenes and saponins such as glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. Conclusion: The more than 600 natural compounds in GC may be responsible for GC’s anti-inflammatory, phlegm-expelling, cough- and pain-relieving activities.

  4. Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7, were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4 showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6 and tokinolide C (6 exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4. We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1, Z-butylidenephthalide (3 and tokinolide A (6 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects.

  5. Effects of Lead Phytochemicals of Radix Scutellariae on Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pauline; Shi, Guangsen; Yap, Maurice; Boost, Maureen V

    2016-12-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is associated with noncompliant use of contact lenses, remains difficult to treat due to delayed diagnosis and paucity of therapeutic agents. Although improvements in activity against Acanthamoeba infection have been achieved in disinfecting solutions for soft contact lenses, such modifications have not been extended to those for special rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses, which are increasingly used for myopia control in children. Phytochemicals present in herbs used for traditional Chinese medicine may be effective as therapeutic or preventive agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate amoebicidal properties of lead phytochemicals of Radix scutellariae alone and in combination with multipurpose (disinfecting) solutions (MPS) for RGP lenses. Viability of Acanthamoeba castellani and A. polyphaga trophozoites was determined following exposure to four phytochemicals: baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, and oroxylin A and both alone and in combination with four RGP MPS, using a modified stand-alone technique. As individual agents, wogonoside and oroxylin A showed highest activity against A. castellani and A. polyphaga trophozoites, respectively. For both organisms, the combination of baicalein and oroxylin A was superior. Effectiveness of MPS alone did not exceed 0.27 log reduction, but addition of combined baicalein and oroxylin A resulted in 0.92 and 0.64 log reductions of A. castellani and A. polyphaga, respectively. The combination of baicalein and oroxylin A enhanced the activity of MPS for RGP contact lenses against trophozoites of two pathogens, A. castellani, and A. polyphaga, and offers a potential therapeutic and/or preventative agent for AK.

  6. [National physician master Jin Shiyuan's dispensing technology of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata based on Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-Ping; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Guo, Zhao-Juan; Zhang, Tian; Kong, Li-Ting; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Tian, Wei-Lan; Li, Rui

    2016-05-01

    To collect Li Shizhen's experience in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata identification and clinical application, compare and analyze national physician master Jin Shiyuan's practical operation and theoretical knowledge, which is beneficial for the inheritance and improvement of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata clinical dispensing technology. In the analysis process, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were searched with "Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata", "Li Shizhen", "pharmacological method state theory" "Jin Shiyuan" and "Chinese medicine dispensing technology" as the key words. In addition, Treatise on Febrile Disease, Compendium of Materia Medica, Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition), Notes to Medical Professions(Yi Zong Shuo Yue), and other medicine books were accessed to summarize the processing methods and decoction dosage of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata in both ancient and modern medicine, and in consideration of technical research and practice operation, Li Shizhen's description of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Professor Jin Shiyuan's research on Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata dispensing technology were analyzed and collected. Li Shizhen recorded the nature identification and clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by using pharmacological method state theory in Compendium of Materia Medica. National physician master Jin Shiyuan carries forward the essence of Li Shizhen's pharmaceutical academic thought with his own proficient knowledge structure in medicine, providing scientific pharmaceutical service for clinical application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata Professor. Jin Shiyuan put forward the dispensing technology for the first time, including nature identification technology, clinical processing technology, clinical decocting technology, prescription coping technology, and class specifications of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. In this paper, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was used as an example

  7. [Adsorption and isolation of macroporous resin for three isoflavonoids from puerariae lobatae radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Hua; Yang, Ke

    2013-04-01

    To study the adsorption function of macroporous resins for the separation and purification of three isoflavonoids (3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, daidzin) in Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The contents of 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin, daidzin were determined by HPLC. D101, AB-8, XDA-5, HP-20 and other five resins were systematically investigated for their adsorption capability, adsorption isothermal curve, adsorption and elution properties with static and dynamic experiments. Experimental results showed that macroporous resin XDA-5 owned optimum adsorption and elution parameters. Optimal conditions for adsorption and elution the three components were: per 1 mL solution contained Puerariae Lobatae Radix 0.5 - 0.8 g, flow rate 2BV/h, adsorbed 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin and daidzin could be desorbed by alcohol at flow rate 1BV/h. The purity of 3'-hydroxypuerarin, puerarin and daidzin of the product obtained from Puerariae Lobatae Radix with optimum technology is 23.39%, 52.09% and 19.21%, respectively.

  8. [Optimization of stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix by orthogonal test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dianhua; Su, Benzheng; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Jun; Qu, Yongsheng

    2011-05-01

    To optimize the stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix. The intrinsic quality (the content of Curcumin) and traditional outward appearance were chosen as indexes. The best technology was determined by orthogonal test L9 (3(4)). The factors of the moistening time, stir-baking temperature and stir-baking time were investigated. The optimal technology was as follows: the quantity of vinegar was 10%, the moistening time was 10 min, the stir-baking temperature was 130 degrees C and the stir-baking time was 10 min. The optimal stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix is reasonable, which can be used to guide the standardized production of Curcumae Radix stir-baked with vinegar.

  9. [Preliminary study on standardization of production and processing of Angelicae Sinensis Radix pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rui-Jie; Wang, Ying-Zi; Sun, Zhen-Yang; Wang, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jing-Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Study on the standardization of Chinese materia medica is an important action for modernization and globalization for traditional Chinese medicine. Standardization on the processing of Chinese herbal pieces is an important part in the study on standardization of Chinese materia medica, so it is of great significance to establish the technical processing standards of Angelicae Sinensis Radix pieces for improving its quality. In this study, single factor experiment was designed to optimize the softening, cutting and drying processes of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. With ferulic acid, Angelicae Sinensis Radix polysaccharide, volatile oil and extracts (water and ethanol) content as the quality index, the effects of different softening, cutting and drying processes on the contents of the five components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were analyzed, and the normalized distance evaluation method was used to analyze the experimental data. The results showed that the content of five components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix was affected by different softening methods and drying temperature, but the thickness of slice had little effect on the content. The best preparation process for Angelicae Sinensis Radix was as follows: Non-medicinal parts were removed; mildewed and rot as well as moth-eaten parts were removed; washed by the flowing drinking water; stacked in the drug pool; moistening method was used for softening, where 125 mL water was sprayed for every 1 kg of herbs every 2.5 h; upper part of herbs covered with clean and moist cotton, and cut into thin slices (1-2 mm) after 15 h moistening until appropriate softness, with disk thickness of 1-2 cm, then received blast drying for 6 h at 55 ℃, and turned over for 2 times during the drying. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Aspects of Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, N; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Romanino, A

    2005-01-01

    We explore some fundamental differences in the phenomenology, cosmology and model building of Split Supersymmetry compared with traditional low-scale supersymmetry. We show how the mass spectrum of Split Supersymmetry naturally emerges from theories where the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking preserves an $R$ symmetry, characterize the class of theories where the unavoidable $R$-breaking by gravity can be neglected, and point out a new possibility, where supersymmetry breaking is directly communicated at tree level to the visible sector via renormalizable interactions. Next, we discuss possible low-energy signals for Split Supersymmetry. The absence of new light scalars removes all the phenomenological difficulties of low-energy supersymmetry, associated with one-loop flavor and CP violating effects. However, the electric dipole moments of leptons and quarks do arise at two loops, and are automatically at the level of present limits with no need for small phases, making them accessible to several ongo...

  11. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form M = U + ∑ j I j with U a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any I j a well described ideal of satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if ≠ .

  12. Splitting of Comets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Splitting of Comets. Utpal Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 11-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/01/0011-0022. Keywords. Cometary ...

  13. Antispasmodic effect of shakuyakukanzoto extract on experimental muscle cramps in vivo: role of the active constituents of Glycyrrhizae radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keiko K; Omiya, Yuji; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-09

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT) composed of Glycyrrhizae radix (G. radix) and Paeoniae radix (P. radix) has been traditionally used in Japan, Korea and China as an antispasmodic drug for the treatment of skeletal muscle cramps and intestinal cramps. To evaluate the antispasmodic activity of SKT and its two components, as well as to identify the key constituents of the components which mediate this effect in skeletal muscles in vivo. An experimental cramp model was constructed to evaluate the effects of peripherally-acting muscle relaxants on electrically-induced cramps under physiological conditions. This was accomplished by surgically isolating the motor supply to the gastrocnemius muscle in an anesthetized rat and delivering electrical stimuli to an isolated tibial nerve to induce tetanic contractions. We first tested dantrolene, a well-known peripherally-acting relaxant, to determine the sensitivity and reliability of our experimental model. We then evaluated the effects of SKT, P. radix, G. radix, and the eight active constituents of G. radix against tetanic contractions. We found that dantrolene (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.d.) rapidly and significantly inhibited tetanic contractions (Pcramps as treatment requires a two-pronged approach, i.e., inhibition of hyperexcitable skeletal tissues and modulation of the pain accompanying cramps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effects of Mongolia Astragali Radix in protecting early cardiac and nephritic functions of patients of hypertension with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning-Yin; Li, Xiu-Li; Zhai, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Qiong-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Fan, Jian-Yun; Bai, Feng; Yu, Jing

    2016-11-01

    To explore the effect of Mongolia Astragali Radix produced in Longxi of Gansu province in protecting cardiac and nephritic functions of patients of essential hypertension(EH) with metabolic syndrome(MetS). A total of two hundred and twenty-six EH patients with MetS aged above 18 were selected. Patients were randomly divided to control group(adopted conventional medical treatment), Astragali Radix group 1(added Astragali Radix capsules 10 g•d⁻¹ besides conventional medical treatment) and Astragali Radix group 2(added Astragali Radix capsules 5 g•d⁻¹ besides conventional medical treatment). Cardiac anatomy structure, cardiac systolic function and diastolic function were measured by M-mode echocardiography, two-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler echocardiographic determination and tissue Doppler imaging. The level of microalbuminuria(MAU) was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. In addition, the estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) was calculated by modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. The changes of relevant indicators for cardiac and nephritic functions before and after treatment were compared during the 12-month follow-up. The study protocol was registered at the website of Chinese clinical trial register and approved by the ethics committee of second hospital of Lanzhou university. Each patient was required to sign an informed consent. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. According to the result, compare with before treatment, the three groups show no difference in efficacy of metablic indicators. Left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESd) of all patients were improved after treatment. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups. After the addition of Astragali Radix, the mitral flow velocity(Vp) of patients was improved to some extent(P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference among the three groups. Astragali Radix had a significant

  15. [Research model on commodity specification standard of radix Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2016-03-01

    As an important part of the market commodity circulation, the standard grade of Chinese traditional medicine commodity is very important to restrict the market order and guarantee the quality of the medicinal material. The State Council issuing the "protection and development of Chinese herbal medicine (2015-2020)" also make clear that the important task of improving the circulation of Chinese herbal medicine industry norms and the commodity specification standard of common traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, as a large class of Chinese herbal medicines, the standard grade of the radix is more confused in the market circulation, and lack of a more reasonable study model in the development of the standard. Thus, this paper summarizes the research background, present situation and problems, and several key points of the commodity specification and grade standard in radix herbs. Then, the research model is introduced as an example of Pseudostellariae Radix, so as to provide technical support and reference for formulating commodity specifications and grades standard in other radix traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. [Enrichment of saponins in Radix et Rhizoma Cynanchi Atrati with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yong-hai; Yang, Yun; Yan, Shi-kai; Liang, Ming-jin; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2008-06-01

    To develop an approach to the determination of saponins in Radix Cynanchi Atrati, and to optimize the parameters for purified the preparation of total saponins by macroporous resin column chromatography. Using cynanversicoside A as a reference, the determination of saponins was performed; according to the elution rate and the purity of the products, the preparation performance of total saponins by macroporous resin was investigated, and its parameters were optimized. The saponins in Radix Cynanchi Atrati were successfully determined at 518 nm by vanillin-perchloric acid as spray reagent. The macroporous resin HP-20 showed static absorption ratio of 59. 3 mg x g(-1); the 70% ethanol extraction of Radix Cynanchi Atrati was eluted from column of macroporous resin HP-20 by water and 30% ethanol, and the saponins were concentrated in 90% ethanol solution. The content of saponin part eluted from HP-20 column was 77.62%. The proposed approach allows convenient and efficient preparation and purification of saponin in Radix Cynanchi Atrati.

  17. Protective effect of Radix Bupleuri extract against liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some DENinduced rats were also treated with RBE, which was obtained by extracting dried Radix Bupleuri in water, for 8 weeks. Afterwards, biochemical indices and oxidative stress markers were assessed. Results: RBE significantly decreased serum concentrations of both alanine transaminase (137.3 ± 4.4 U/L, p < 0.01) ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of r.a.p . ( Radix Angelicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (R.A.P) ethanol extracts. Three classic anti-inflammatory models and two analgesic models were used in this research. In anti-inflammatory tests, all the extracts have a certain inhibition on the acute ...

  19. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  20. [Establishment of a TLC identification method for xuanshen(radix scrophulariae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L H; Wang, J H; Liu, H Y; Cai, S

    2000-11-01

    To establish a TLC identification method for Xuanshen(Radix Scrophulariae). Using TLC with harpagoside and harpagide as reference substances. A TLC identification method of Xuanshen has been established. The specificity of the method has been proved by a comparative detection of Xuanshen from different habitats and several crude drugs which are easily confused with Xuanshen. The method is simple, accurate and reliable.

  1. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  2. Study on anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from radix paeoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the paper was to study the anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from Radix paeoniae rubra in S180 tumor-bearing mice, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action. Mice were made into S180 solid tumor model, grouped and administered with the extracts; tumor inhibition rate was measured by ...

  3. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  4. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also introduced in [1] techniques of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie algebras. In the present paper we extend these techniques to the framework of split Lie triple systems so as to obtain a generalization of the results in [1]. We consider the wide class of split Lie triple systems (which contains the class of.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  6. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5 is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  7. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haonan; Zhang, Pengjie; Hou, Zhiguo; Xie, Jiabin; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yubo

    2016-11-25

    Radix Aconiti , a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5) is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  8. Action of crude Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi) and its processed products on splenic lymphocytes growth investigated by microcalorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tiantian; Zhao, Yanling; Wang, Jiabo; Zhou, Xu; Sun, Zhiyong; Zheng, Quanfu; Li, Ruisheng; Zhang, Ping; Li, Jianyu; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This article investigated the effects of crude Radix Aconiti Lateralis and its processed products on splenic lymphocytes. • The results showed that bioeffects of crude Radix Aconiti Lateralis could be obtained by thermodynamic parameters. • This study gave the hint that the microcalorimetry is a useful tool to estimate the efficiency and toxicity of medicine. - Abstract: Using the TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter, the HFP–time curves of splenic lymphocytes growth were measured, and the effects of crude Radix Aconiti Lateralis and its processed products including Yanfuzi, Danfupian, Baifupian on splenic lymphocytes growth were investigated. Some quantitative information, such as k, P max etc. was obtained from the HFP–time curves. The results revealed that crude Radix Aconiti Lateralis and Yanfuzi had inhibitory effect on mice splenic lymphocytes growth: crude Radix Aconiti Lateralis with IC 50 of 18 mg mL −1 showed stronger inhibitory effect than Yanfuzi with IC 50 of 32 mg mL −1 . Danfupian and Baifupian promoted splenic lymphocytes growth: Baifupian with EC 50 of 25 mg mL −1 showed a little stronger promotion effect than Danfupian with EC 50 of 28 mg mL −1 . The result may be related to their toxicity and we could evaluate different bioeffects of crude Radix Aconiti Lateralis and its processed products on splenic lymphocytes growth from microcalorimetric measurement

  9. Simultaneous, simple and rapid determination of five bioactive free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei by quantitative 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Fang, Yun-Shan; Duan, Wei-He; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has been recognized for centuries in traditional medicine for its multiple pharmacological actions. The free anthraquinones including physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin are the main bioactive components in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. In the present study, a fast quantitative 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (q-HNMR) method for the determination and quantitation of five free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was developed. Validation of the quantitative method was performed in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, and stability. The results showed that the solvent acetone-d 6 enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated. Five anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei could be quantified accurately using featured signals from 1 H NMR. This work implied that q-HNMR represents a feasible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods for quantitation of anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and is suitable for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. (author)

  10. A radix-4 on-line division design and its application to networks of on-line modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, Alexandre F.; Shantilal, Ajay; Sinky, Mohammed

    2003-12-01

    On-line division is one of the slowest operations among the basic arithmetic operations and naturally becomes a bottleneck in networks of on-line modules that use it. A higher radix divider has a good potential to attain higher throughput than radix-2 dividers and therefore improve the overall throughput of networks where division is needed. The improvement in throughput when using radix 4 is not straightforward since several components of the divider become more complex than in the radix-2 case. Previously proposed radix-4 designs were based on operand pre-scaling to simplify the selection function and reduce the critical path delay, at the cost of more complexity in the algorithm conditions and operations, plus a variable on-line delay, which is a very unattractive feature when small precision values are used (usually the case for DSP). These designs include several phases for pre-scaling and actual division. This paper proposes a design approach based on overlapped replication that results in a radix-4 on-line division module with low algorithm complexity, single division phase, less restrictions to the input values, and a small and fixed on-line delay.

  11. Discrete Fourier transformation processor based on complex radix (−1 + j number system

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    Anidaphi Shadap

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex radix (−1 + j allows the arithmetic operations of complex numbers to be done without treating the divide and conquer rules, which offers the significant speed improvement of complex numbers computation circuitry. Design and hardware implementation of complex radix (−1 + j converter has been introduced in this paper. Extensive simulation results have been incorporated and an application of this converter towards the implementation of discrete Fourier transformation (DFT processor has been presented. The functionality of the DFT processor have been verified in Xilinx ISE design suite version 14.7 and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumption have been calculated by Virtuoso platform in Cadence. The proposed DFT processor has been implemented through conversion, multiplication and addition. The performance parameter matrix in terms of delay and power consumption offered a significant improvement over other traditional implementation of DFT processor.

  12. Mandibular second molar with 3 mesial canals and a radix paramolaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ragavendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular first molar commonly has two roots, the mesial and the distal root. Surprisingly in some mandibular first molar has an unusual extra third root in between mesial and distal root. This extra root is the most commonly seen in lingual side and is called as radix entomolaris. If this extra root is seen on the buccal side, it is termed as radix paramolaris (RP, which is a very rare phenomenon. Recently, various case report studies has shown the presence of third canal in the mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars. They are named as middle mesial and middle distal canal, respectively. Here, we present a case report of mandibular second molar showing three canals in the mesial root and a RP.

  13. Potential Quality Evaluation Method for Radix Astragali Based on Sweetness Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Li; Fanrong Gao; Zhenyu Li; Xuemei Qin; Haifeng Sun; Jie Xing; Lizeng Zhang; Guanhua Du

    2015-01-01

    Sweetness is a traditional sensory indicator used to evaluate the quality of the popular Chinese herb Radix Astragali (RA). RA roots with strong sweetness are considered to be of good quality. However, neither a thorough analysis of the component(s) contributing to RA sweetness, nor a scientific investigation of the reliability of this indicator has been conducted to date. In this study, seven kinds of sweetness components were identified in RA and a quality evaluation method based on these c...

  14. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  15. Mechanisms of P-Glycoprotein Modulation by Semen Strychni Combined with Radix Paeoniae Alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen Strychni has been extensively used as a Chinese herb, but its therapeutic window is narrowed by the strong toxicity of the compound, which limits its effectiveness. Radix Paeoniae Alba has been reported to reduce the toxic effects and increase the therapeutic effects of Semen Strychni, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This research aimed to explore the mechanism through which P-glycoprotein (P-gp is modulated by Semen Strychni combined with Radix Paeoniae Alba in vitro. An MTT assay was used to study cytotoxicity in an MDCK-MDR1 cell model. Rh123 efflux and accumulation were measured to assess P-gp function. The expression levels of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp protein in MDCK-MDR1 cells were investigated. A P-gp ATPase activity assay kit was applied to detect the effect on P-gp ATPase activity. Semen Strychni combined with Radix Paeoniae Alba could induce P-gp-mediated drug transport by inhibiting brucine and strychnine transport in MDCK-MDR1 cells, enhancing the P-gp efflux function, upregulating the P-gp expression and MDR1 mRNA levels, and stimulating P-gp ATPase activity.

  16. [Correspondence analysis between traditional commercial specifications and quantitative quality indices of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shun-Yuan; Sun, Hong-Bing; Sun, Hui; Ma, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Yi

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to explore a comprehensive assessment method combined traditional Chinese medicinal material specifications with quantitative quality indicators. Seventy-six samples of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix were collected on market and at producing areas. Traditional commercial specifications were described and assigned, and 10 chemical components and volatile oils were determined for each sample. Cluster analysis, Fisher discriminant analysis and correspondence analysis were used to establish the relationship between the traditional qualitative commercial specifications and quantitative chemical indices for comprehensive evaluating quality of medicinal materials, and quantitative classification of commercial grade and quality grade. A herb quality index (HQI) including traditional commercial specifications and chemical components for quantitative grade classification were established, and corresponding discriminant function were figured out for precise determination of quality grade and sub-grade of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. The result showed that notopterol, isoimperatorin and volatile oil were the major components for determination of chemical quality, and their dividing values were specified for every grade and sub-grade of the commercial materials of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. According to the result, essential relationship between traditional medicinal indicators, qualitative commercial specifications, and quantitative chemical composition indicators can be examined by K-mean cluster, Fisher discriminant analysis and correspondence analysis, which provide a new method for comprehensive quantitative evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine quality integrated traditional commodity specifications and quantitative modern chemical index. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. [Application of relative quality constant in grades evaluation of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Xian, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Chang; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

    2017-07-01

    Quality constant evaluation is a comprehensive method for grades evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine pieces, but when it comes to Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces, grades evaluation is diverged due to significant difference in contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid and unreasonable weight of index. To solve this problem, we have established a relative quality constant method in this paper to evaluate grades of Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces. Twenty-nine batches of different quality samples were collected and tested, and finally, 17 batches of them were chosen as researcher objects. The results revealed that the range of the relative quality constant of these samples was from 1.78 to 11.49. When Glycyrrizae Radix et Rhizome pieces are divided into three grades: the relative quality constant of first grade is greater than or equal to 9.19; the second grade is greater than or equal to 5.75 but less than 9.19; while the third grade is less than 5.75. This research indicates that relative quality constant can divide the grades of herbal pieces in a scientific, reasonable, objective and specific way and remedy the shortage of quality constant perfectly. It provides a novel mode for grading pieces of Chinese medicine that contains multi-target ingredients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K.

    2004-01-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable

  19. Effect of compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection combined with Xiaoyao pill on breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the influence of compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection and Xiaoyao pill combined therapy on tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations of breast cancer patients, thus provide relevant assistance on clinical therapy for breast cancer patients. Methods: A total of 170 breast cancer patients treated in our hospital were selected and divided to be the observe group and control group at random, 85 cases for each group. For patients in control group, AC chemotherapeutic project was utilized, and for patients in observe group, compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection and Xiaoyao pill combined therapy were provided on the basis of AC chemotherapy. Tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations of breast cancer patients in each group were detected before and after therapy. Results: Comparison of tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations levels between the two groups of breast cancer patients before therapy showed no statistical significant difference (P>0.05. Compared with prior therapy, the tumor markers (CA153, CEA and CYRA21-1, CD8+ and cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 on both the two groups of breast cancer patients were dramatically decreased, while lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4+ /CD8+ , IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly increased (P<0.05. Conclusions: Compound radix sophorae flavescentis injection and Xiaoyao pill combined therapy can significantly improve the tumor markers, cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations of the breast cancer patients. It is of vital clinical significance for treatment on breast cancer patients.

  20. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.-B.; Jeong, I.-Y.; Park, H.-R.; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, S.-K. E-mail: skjo@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-10-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that {gamma}-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  1. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  2. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-κB was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-κB modulation.

  3. Preclinical evidence of rapid-onset antidepressant-like effect in Radix Polygalae extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im-Joon Shin

    Full Text Available Radix Polygalae (the root of Polygala tenuifolia is a herb widely used in traditional Asian medicine that is thought to exert a variety of neuropsychiatric effects. Radix Polygalae extract can protect against N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA neurotoxicity and induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression, suggesting modulatory roles at glutamatergic synapses and possible antidepressant action. In accordance with this hypothesis, Radix Polygalae extract demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in 8-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice by decreasing behavioral despair in the forced swim and tail suspension tasks and increasing hedonic-like behavior in the female urine sniffing test 30 minutes after a single oral administration of 0.1 mg/kg. Reduced latency to acquire a food pellet in the novely suppressed feeding paradigm, without change in anxiety-like behaviors suggested a rapid-onset nature of the antidepressant-like effect. In addition, it decreased the number of failed escapes in the learned helplessness paradigm after two oral administrations 24 hours and 30 minutes before the first test. Finally, it reversed anhedonia as measured by saccharin preference in mice exposed to the chronic stress model after two administrations of 0.1 mg/kg, in contrast to the repeated administration generally needed for similar effect by monoamergic antidepressants. Immobility reduction in tail suspension task was blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX, a pattern previously demonstrated by ketamine and other ketamine-like rapid-onset antidepressants. Also similarly to ketamine, Radix Polygalae appeared to acutely decrease phosphorylation of GluR1 serine-845 in the hippocampus while leaving the phosphorylation of hippocampal mTOR serine 2448 unchanged. These findings serve as preclinical evidence that Radix Polygalae extract exerts rapid-onset antidepressant effects by modulating glutamatergic synapses in

  4. Edematous Erythema at the Hands and Feet Probably Caused By the Traditional Herb “Radix Astragali”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe a patient with erhythema and edema after Radix Astragali was added to a kampo formula. Case summary: A 21-year-old male, who was diagnosed as having atopic dermatitis in 1989, demonstrated systemic dry eruptions and consulted our department for treatment with traditional herbal medicine (THM) in 2004. The oral administration of herbal medicine resulted in decreased symptoms as well as a reduction in the serum IgE level. In August 2007, he complained of sweating on the neck and we added Radix Astragali to the previous formula. About 18 hours after he ingested the new formula including Radix Astragali, erhythema appeared with swelling of the bilateral hands and feet. Administration of the formula was discontinued and about 48 hours later, his symptoms had almost disappeared. Astragaloside, which is the main ingredient of Radix Astragali, was negative on lymphocyte transforming test (LTT) and we could not determine the ingredient that induced erhythema. Conclusion: We consider that the Radix Astragali induced acute erhythema with swelling based on the clinical course. Acute edematous erythema due to THM is very rare and we discuss allergic reactions to traditional herbs and review the litrature. PMID:21614162

  5. Edematous Erythema at the Hands and Feet Probably Caused by the Traditional Herb “Radix Astragali”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kogure

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe a patient with erhythema and edema after Radix Astragali was added to a kampo formula. Case summary A 21-year-old male, who was diagnosed as having atopic dermatitis in 1989, demonstrated systemic dry eruptions and consulted our department for treatment with traditional herbal medicine (THM in 2004. The oral administration of herbal medicine resulted in decreased symptoms as well as a reduction in the serum IgE level. In August 2007, he complained of sweating on the neck and we added Radix Astragali to the previous formula. About 18 hours after he ingested the new formula including Radix Astragali, erhythema appeared with swelling of the bilateral hands and feet. Administration of the formula was discontinued and about 48 hours later, his symptoms had almost disappeared. Astragaloside, which is the main ingredient of Radix Astragali, was negative on lymphocyte transforming test (LTT and we could not determine the ingredient that induced erhythema. Conclusion We consider that the Radix Astragali induced acute erhythema with swelling based on the clinical course. Acute edematous erythema due to THM is very rare and we discuss allergic reactions to traditional herbs and review the litrature.

  6. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  7. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  8. How rivers split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, H. F.; Yi, R.; Devauchelle, O.; Petroff, A.; Rothman, D.

    2012-12-01

    River networks have fascinated mankind for centuries. They exhibit a striking geometry with similar shapes repeating on all scales. Yet, how these networks form and create these geometries remains elusive. Recently we have shown that channels fed by subsurface flow split at a characteristic angle of 2π/5 unambiguously consistent with our field measurements in a seepage network on the Florida Panhandle (Fig.1). Our theory is based only on the simple hypothesis that the channels grow in the direction at which the ground water enters the spring and classical solutions of subsurface hydrology. Here we apply our analysis to the ramification of large drainage basins and extend our theory to include slope effects. Using high resolution stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), we scrutinize our hypothesis in arbitrary channel networks and investigate the branching angle dependence on Horton-Strahler order and the maturity of the streams.; High-resolution topographic map of valley networks incised by groundwater flow, located on the Florida Panhandle near Bristol, FL.

  9. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  10. Global Locator, Local Locator, and Identifier Split (GLI-Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Menth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The locator/identifier split is an approach for a new addressing and routing architecture to make routing in the core of the Internet more scalable. Based on this principle, we developed the GLI-Split framework, which separates the functionality of current IP addresses into a stable identifier and two independent locators, one for routing in the Internet core and one for edge networks. This makes routing in the Internet more stable and provides more flexibility for edge networks. GLI-Split can be incrementally deployed and it is backward-compatible with the IPv6 Internet. We describe its architecture, compare it to other approaches, present its benefits, and finally present a proof-of-concept implementation of GLI-Split.

  11. Comparison of a Resonant Mirror Biosensor (IAsys) and a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) for the Study on Interaction between Paeoniae Radix 801 and Endothelin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiadong; Lin, Qing; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Li, Jing; Yu, Min; Zhao, Zixia; Wang, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiuming; He, Xiaorui; Yuan, Liang; Yin, Huijun; Osa, Tetsuo; Chen, Keji; Chen, Qiang

    2008-12-15

    A resonant mirror biosensor, IAsys, and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are known independently as surface sensitive analytical devices capable of label-free and in situ bioassays. In this study, an IAsys and a QCM are employed for a new study on the action mechanism of Paeoniae Radix 801 (P. radix 801) by detecting the specific interaction between P. radix 801 and endothelin-1 (ET-1). In the experiments, ET-1 was immobilized on the surfaces of the IAsys cuvette and the QCM substrate by surface modification techniques, and then P. radix 801 solution was contacted to the cuvette and the substrate, separately. Then, the binding and interaction process between P. radix 801 and ET-1 was monitored by IAsys and QCM, respectively. The experimental results showed that P. radix 801 binds ET-1 specifically. The IAsys and QCM response curves to the ET-1 immobilization and P. radix 801 binding are similar in reaction process, but different in binding profiles, reflecting different resonation principles. Although both IAsys and QCM could detect the interaction of P. radix 801 and ET-1 with high reproducibility and reliability through optimization of the ET-1 coating, the reproducibility and reliability obtained by IAsys are better than those obtained by QCM, since the QCM frequency is more sensitive to temperature fluctuations, atmospheric changes and mechanical disturbances. However, IAsys and QCM are generally potent and reliable tools to study the interaction of P. radix 801 and ET-1, and can conclusively be applied to the action mechanism of P. radix 801.

  12. Comparison of a Resonant Mirror Biosensor (IAsys and a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM for the Study on Interaction between Paeoniae Radix 801 and Endothelin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Osa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A resonant mirror biosensor, IAsys, and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM are known independently as surface sensitive analytical devices capable of label-free and in situ bioassays. In this study, an IAsys and a QCM are employed for a new study on the action mechanism of Paeoniae Radix 801 (P. radix 801 by detecting the specific interaction between P. radix 801 and endothelin-1 (ET-1. In the experiments, ET-1 was immobilized on the surfaces of the IAsys cuvette and the QCM substrate by surface modification techniques, and then P. radix 801 solution was contacted to the cuvette and the substrate, separately. Then, the binding and interaction process between P. radix 801 and ET-1 was monitored by IAsys and QCM, respectively. The experimental results showed that P. radix 801 binds ET-1 specifically. The IAsys and QCM response curves to the ET-1 immobilization and P. radix 801 binding are similar in reaction process, but different in binding profiles, reflecting different resonation principles. Although both IAsys and QCM could detect the interaction of P. radix 801 and ET-1 with high reproducibility and reliability through optimization of the ET-1 coating, the reproducibility and reliability obtained by IAsys are better than those obtained by QCM, since the QCM frequency is more sensitive to temperature fluctuations, atmospheric changes and mechanical disturbances. However, IAsys and QCM are generally potent and reliable tools to study the interaction of P. radix 801 and ET-1, and can conclusively be applied to the action mechanism of P. radix 801.

  13. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  14. Application of clear polymethylmethacrylate dosimeter Radix W to a few MeV electron in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seito, Hajime; Ichikawa, Tatsuya; Hanaya, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshishige; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kojima, Takuji

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of clear PMMA dosimeter (Radix W) were studied for electron irradiation and compared with the response for gamma irradiation. The dose-response curves were nearly linear up to 30 kGy and become sublinear at higher doses. The radiation-induced absorbance was reduced with 6% within 4 h after irradiation. Dose comparisons were performed for 2, 3, 4 and 5 MeV electron irradiation using cellulose triacetate dosimeter (CTA) (FTR-125) and Radix W dosimeters which were independently calibrated for 2 MeV electrons and 60 Co gamma-rays using calorimeter and ionizing chamber, respectively. The doses estimated by CTA and Radix W were different by about 20%. The magnitude of this difference was, however, independent of electron energy.

  15. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  16. Preparative separation of minor saponins from Platycodi Radix by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, In J; Kang, Minseok; Na, Yun C; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong S

    2011-10-01

    Platycosides (PSs), the saponins found in the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (Platycodi Radix), are typically composed of oleanene backbones with two side chains; one is a 3-O-glucose linked by a glycosidic bond, and the other is a 28-O-arabinose-rhamnose-xylose-apiose linked by an ester bond. Minor saponins, acetylated isomers of the major saponin on either the 2'' or 3'' position of rhamnose, were isolated from Platycodi Radix using a multi-step process including high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). After the separation of the major components, the enriched minor saponin fraction was used for this study. A two-phase solvent system consisting of chloroform-methanol-isopropanol-water (3:2:2:3, v/v) was used for HSCCC. HSCCC separation of the enriched minor saponin fraction yielded 2''-O-acetylplatycodin D, 3''-O-acetylpolygalacin D, 2''-O-acetylpolygalacin and a mixture of 3''-O-acetylplatycodin D and polygalacin D. The mixture fraction from HSCCC separation was further purified by preparative RP-HPLC, giving 3''-O-acetylplatycodin D and polygalacin D at a purity of over 98.9%. The developed method provides the preparative and rapid separation of minor saponins in the crude extract of Platycodi Radix. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first on the separation of acetylated PSs by HSCCC. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [Separation and purification of alkaloids from radix of Zanthoxylum nitidum by macroporous adsorption resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Peng; Li, Xin-Zhong; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2008-02-01

    To obtain the optimal conditions for separating the alkaloids from the extract of Radix of Zanthoxylum nitidum by selecting appropriate macroporous adsorption resins. Eight types of macroporous adsorption were evaluated in separating efficiency with measuring the adsorption ratio and eluting ratio of Alkaloids as indexes. The XDA-5 macroporous adsorption resin had the best separating efficiency. After enrichment and purification with it, the product purity and yield of alkaloids were up to 33.25% and 90.15%, respectively. This method is simple, feasible and fit for industry production.

  18. Partial hepatectomy in a Plains garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis radix) with biliary cystadenoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeněk Knotek; Elvira Grabensteiner; Zora Knotková; Anna Kübber-Heiss; Gerald Benyr

    2012-01-01

    A four-year-old, captive-bred, female Plains garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis radix) was presented with a large midbody distension (5 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm) in the second third of the body length (total body length 123 cm). Contrast radiography technique excluded an envolvement of the oesophagus or stomach. Aspiration of 8 ml of acellular straw coloured fluid negative for presence of bacteria, fungi or parasites, reduced the swelling to a third of its original size. Surgical exploration revealed ...

  19. Large scale purification of puerarin from Puerariae Lobatae Radix through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguang, Xin-Cheng; Guo, Yu-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Puerarin is the major isoflavone of Puerariae Lobatae Radix. A method for large scale purification of puerarin was developed through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis. The adsorption properties of six macroporous resins (D101, S-8, H103, X-5, HPD600, AB-8) were compared through the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherms. Results showed that H103 resin had the best adsorption rate and capacity. The mass transfer zone motion model was further used for analyzing the fixed bed adsorption of H103 resin. Its length of mass transfer zone with 2mg/ml of puerarin in water and 10% ethanol at flow rate of 10ml/min were 41.6 and 47.5cm, while the equilibrium adsorption capacity was 165.03 and 102.88mg/g, respectively. By using 75% ethanol, puerarin could be well desorbed from the resin with recovery of 97.4%. Subsequently, H103 resin was successfully used for puerarin purification from Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The content of total isoflavones and puerarin in the resin adsorption product were 69.25% and 41.78%, respectively, which were about three times increased compared to the crude extract. Then, the product was hydrolyzed by 2.5M HCl at 90°C for 1h. Puerarin with purity of 90% and a byproduct daidzein with purity of 78% were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of Point and Range Queries for In-memory Databases using Radix Trees on GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul [ORNL; Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In in-memory database systems augmented by hardware accelerators, accelerating the index searching operations can greatly increase the runtime performance of database queries. Recently, adaptive radix trees (ART) have been shown to provide very fast index search implementation on the CPU. Here, we focus on an accelerator-based implementation of ART. We present a detailed performance study of our GPU-based adaptive radix tree (GRT) implementation over a variety of key distributions, synthetic benchmarks, and actual keys from music and book data sets. The performance is also compared with other index-searching schemes on the GPU. GRT on modern GPUs achieves some of the highest rates of index searches reported in the literature. For point queries, a throughput of up to 106 million and 130 million lookups per second is achieved for sparse and dense keys, respectively. For range queries, GRT yields 600 million and 1000 million lookups per second for sparse and dense keys, respectively, on a large dataset of 64 million 32-bit keys.

  1. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  2. [Analysis of variation of monoterpene glycosides and polyhydroxy compounds in paeoniae radix alba during preliminary processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-05-01

    To investigate variation of monoterpene glycosides and polyhydroxy compounds in Paeoniae Radix Alba dried by different processing methods. The crude drugs were processed sequentially as washed, removed the head, tail, fine roots and dried. The samples were divided into eight groups by whether peeled and decocted or not. Each group was dried by 35, 45, 60, 80,100, 120 degrees C, sun-dried and shade-dried. HPLC-PDA method was adopted to determine the content of monoterpene glycosides compounds (paeoniflorin alibiflorin, oxypaeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin), polyhydroxy compounds (catechin and gallic acid) and benzoic acid. Chromatographic conditions: Phecad C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). A principal component analysis (PCA) method was used subsequently to get data processed. The retained content of seven constituents decreased in those peeled crude drug, and after cooked, monoterpene glycosides and polyhydroxy compounds increased while the benzoic acid decreased. It was believed that rele- vant enzymes were inactivated while being cooked so that drying temperature showed little influence on the biotransformation. Contents of effective ingredients in Paeoniae Radix Alba are influenced by drying processing. The preferable method shows to be that crude drug should be cooked before being peeled and dried. As a matter of processing convtence, it is suggested to be peeled and sliced before being dried.

  3. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiu Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  4. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects human foreskin melanocytes from oxidative stress in vitro and potentiates hair follicle pigmentation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sextius, P; Betts, R; Benkhalifa, I; Commo, S; Eilstein, J; Massironi, M; Wang, P; Michelet, J-F; Qiu, J; Tan, X; Jeulin, S

    2017-08-01

    To examine the ability of an extract from traditional Chinese medicine, Polygonum multiflorum Radix, to protect melanocyte viability from oxidative stress, a key mechanism in the initiation and progression of hair greying. To assess the antioxidant capacity of Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract, primary human foreskin melanocytes were treated with a commercially available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract added to culture medium and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), using intracellular reactive oxygen species concentrations and glutathione/protein ratios as endpoints. To improve solubility for cosmetic uses, a new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract was derived. As hair greying is the consequence of melanocyte disappearance in an oxidative stress environment, we checked whether the antioxidant capacity of the new Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract could preserve melanocyte viability in response to H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, and preserve pigmentation within ex vivo human hair follicles. In vitro treatment of primary human foreskin melanocytes with traditional available Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in decreased intracellular ROS accumulation in response to H 2 O 2 exposure with a concomitant preservation of glutathione-to-protein ratio, consistent with a protective response against H 2 O 2 exposure and demonstrating the promise of this extract for protecting melanocytes against oxidative stress. Melanocytes treated with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract exhibited attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, demonstrating a clear cytoprotective effect. Treatment of ex vivo human hair follicles with the improved Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract resulted in a higher level of melanin compared to vehicle-treated controls, demonstrating an ex vivo protective effect on hair pigmentation. Polygonum multiflorum Radix extract protects in vitro primary human foreskin melanocytes from the deleterious effects of H 2 O 2

  5. In vitro and in vivo study of anti-tuberculosis effect of extracts isolated from Ranunculi Ternati Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ruyi; Li, Mengzhu; Qi, Zhongjie; Tian, Jingkui

    2015-01-05

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-tuberculosis activities of Ranunculi Ternati Radix extracts to demonstrate the effect of active part of Ranunculi Ternati Radix, which could be enriched through macroporous resin, on mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. In vitro, the anti-tuberculosis activity of its water extract (WE), 70% ethanol extract (EE), water eluted part of EE from D101 macroporous resin (WEPMR), 70% ethanol eluted part of EE from D101 macroporous resin (EEPMR) was conducted using H37Rv. Then EEPMR of better anti-tuberculosis activity was chosen to carry out anti-tuberculosis activity test against MDR2314-2 and XDR1220. In vivo, the anti-tuberculosis activities of EEPMR, Ranunculi Ternati Capsules and Isoniazid alone or in combination with different doses were evaluated on mouse model infected H37Rv. In vitro, EEPMR had inhibitory effect on H37Rv, MDR2314-2 and XDR1220. In vivo study, both medium and high dose of EEPMR alone had therapeutic effect on chronic tuberculosis in mouse. No acute toxicity was identified of EEPMR at a dose of 12.0 g·kg-1. EEPMR possessed better anti-tuberculosis effects than other extracts and Radix Ranunculi Ternati Capsules. This supported the use of macroporous resin to enrich the active part of Ranunculi Ternati Radix to cure mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

  6. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variability in the European freshwater snail Radix labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schniebs, K.; Glöer, P.; Vinarski, M.V.; Hundsdoerfer, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radix labiata is a widely distributed Palaearctic freshwater snail. This work aims to improve the knowledge of the intraspecific variability in the most important characters used for its determination. To find out which characters are really suitable to distinguish this species from other similar

  7. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  8. Comparison of raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhitao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Polygoni Multiflori is the dried root tuber of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Fam. Polygonaceae. According to Chinese medicine theory, raw (R-RPM and processed (P-RPM Radix Polygoni Multiflori possess different properties. The present study investigates the differences in chemistry between raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori. Methods Five pairs of R-RPM and P-RPM as well as 15 commercial decoction pieces were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS. Results Two anthraquinones, namely emodin-8-O-(6'-O-malonyl-glucoside and physcion-8-O-(6'-O-malonyl-glucoside disappeared or decreased significantly and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside decreased after the R-RPM samples being processed. On the other hand, the contents of emodin and physcion generally increased after processing. Conclusion The present study indicates that processing Radix Polygoni Multiflori may change the contents and types of chemicals in it. These changes are probably responsible for the various pharmacological effects of R-RPM and P-RPM as well as hepatotoxicity.

  9. [Effect of growth hormone combined with Radix Dipsaci on the body growth and the bone metabolism of hypophysectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-ke; Zhang, Zhi-xin; Zhang, Qiong

    2011-12-01

    To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) combined with Radix Dipsaci on the body growth and the bone mineral content (BMC) of hypophysectomized rats. The GH deficiency rats model was established using the hypophysectomized operation through the skull and the throat. Qualified rats were divided into the sham-operation group (n = 15), the negative control group (n = 13), the GH intervention group (n = 13), and the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group(n = 12). GH (0.25 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected from the cervical part in the GH intervention group and the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group at the same time, while equal volume of normal saline was injected to the rest groups. 0.7 mL/100 kg Radix Dipsaci was given by gastrogavage to the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group at the same time, while equal volume of normal saline was given by gastrogave to the rest groups. The body weight, the tail length, and the body length were measured during the intervention period. Blood was withdrawn after 14-day intervention. The femoral bone and the tibial bone were taken out. The levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) were measured. The width of the tibial epiphyseal plate was measured. The bilateral femur bone mineral density (BMD) and BMC were measured using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The body weight, the body length, the length of the femoral bone, the length of the tibial bone, the width of the epiphyseal plate, the levels of the GH, IGF-1, ALP, and OC increased in the GH intervention group and the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group after 2-week intervention, showing statistical difference when compared with the model group (P 0.05). There was insignificant difference in the aforesaid indices between the two groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the model group, the BMD of the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group increased with statistical difference (P growth. But it could elevate BMD and BMC

  10. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-01

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)

  11. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W ...

  12. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.

    2018-01-12

    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  13. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. November 2006 physics pp. 793–802. Split supersymmetry in brane models. IGNATIOS ANTONIADIS∗. Department of Physics, CERN-Theory Division, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. E-mail: Ignatios. ... that LEP data favor the unification of the three SM gauge couplings are smoking guns for the presence of new ...

  14. Water splitting by cooperative catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2009-01-01

    A mononuclear Ru complex is shown to efficiently split water into H2 and O2 in consecutive steps through a heat- and light-driven process (see picture). Thermally driven H2 formation involves the aid of a non-innocent ligand scaffold, while dioxygen is generated by initial photochemically induced

  15. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system; system of roots; root space; split Lie algebra; structure theory. 1. Introduction and previous definitions. Throughout this paper, Lie triple systems T are considered of arbitrary dimension and over an arbitrary field K. It is worth to mention that, unless otherwise stated, there is not any restriction on dim Tα or {k ...

  16. On split Lie triple systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 25 January 2008. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences.

  17. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  18. Simultaneous, simple and rapid determination of five bioactive free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei by quantitative {sup 1}H NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Fang, Yun-Shan; Duan, Wei-He; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao, E-mail: ztding@ynu.edu.cn, E-mail: caile@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming (China)

    2016-07-01

    Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has been recognized for centuries in traditional medicine for its multiple pharmacological actions. The free anthraquinones including physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin are the main bioactive components in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. In the present study, a fast quantitative {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (q-HNMR) method for the determination and quantitation of five free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was developed. Validation of the quantitative method was performed in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, and stability. The results showed that the solvent acetone-d{sub 6} enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated. Five anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei could be quantified accurately using featured signals from {sup 1}H NMR. This work implied that q-HNMR represents a feasible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods for quantitation of anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and is suitable for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. (author)

  19. Area efficient radix 4/sup 2/ 64 point pipeline fft architecture using modified csd multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, F.; Muhammad, T.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-01-01

    A modified Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based radix 42 algorithm for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is presented. When compared with similar schemes like Canonic signed digit (CSD) Constant Multiplier, the modified CSD multiplier can provide a improvement of more than 36% in terms of multiplicative complexity. In Comparison of area being occupied the amount of Full adders is reduced by 32% and amount of half adders is reduced by 42%. The modified CSD multiplier scheme is implemented on Xilinx ISE 10.1 using Spartan-III XC3S1000 FPGA as a target device. The synthesis results of modified CSD Multiplier on Xilinx show efficient Twiddle Factor ROM Design and effective area reduction in comparison to CSD constant multiplier. (author)

  20. Aquatic Macrophytes as Microhabitats of Radix auricularia (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: A Case Study from Southeast Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Y. Vasileva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to investigate the abundance of thefreshwater pulmonate snail Radix auricularia among different aquatic plants communities, with the view of understanding if there is any particular habitat preference, comparing two freshwater basins having similar environmental conditions. The freshwater plant species were collected by net from two ponds at the end of May 2009 - 650 g wet plant mass, micro dam at Chernoochene Village, East Rhodopes Mts.; 138 g wet plant mass, small flood pond near the Maritza River, Plovdiv City, Upper Thracian Lowland. The plant mass was weighted in the laboratory after the alive snails were collected from the plant surface. Totally three species of freshwater plants were inhabited by R. auricularia, but its abundance and possible preference was highest on the Rigid Hornworth (Ceratophyllum demersum.

  1. Genotoxicological safety of the γ-ray irradiated herbs: astragali radix, atractylodes rhizoma and cimicifugae rhizoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Y. H.; Oh, H.; Park, H. R.; Beon, M. W.; Cho, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment was performed to test the genotoxicological safety of the three medicinal herbs-Astragali Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma and Cimicifugae Rhizoma-irradiated with γ-rays. The hot water extracts of the herbs irradiated with γ-rays (10 kGy) were examined in two short-term in vitro tests : (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and Ta 100, (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No mutagenicity was detected in these two assays with or without metabolic activation by S9 mix. From these results, the safety of the herbs irradiated with γ-rays at practical doses could be revealed in further tests of genotoxicity in vivo, chronic and reproductive toxicity

  2. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  3. Polygalasaponin XXXII, a triterpenoid saponin from Polygalae Radix, attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng; Xue, Wei; Chu, Shi-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Chuang-Jun; Jiang, Yi-Na; Luo, Lin-Ming; Luo, Piao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that the extract of a Chinese herb Polygalae Radix exerts cognition-enhancing actions in rats and humans. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacological profiles of active compounds extracted from Polygalae Radix. Two fractions P3 and P6 and two compounds PTM-15 and polygalasaponin XXXII (PGS32) were prepared. Neuroprotective effects were evaluated in primary cortical neurons exposed to high concentration glutamate, serum deficiency or H2O2. Anti-dementia actions were assessed in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice using step-through avoidance tests and channel water maze tests. After conducting the channel water maze tests, TrkB phosphorylation in mouse hippocampus was detected using Western blotting. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced in the dentate gyrus in adult rats; PGS32 (5 μL 400 μmol/L) was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle 20 min after high frequency stimulation (HFS). Compared to the fraction P6, the fraction P3 showed more prominent neuroprotective effects in vitro and cognition-enhancing effects in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. One active compound PGS32 in the fraction P3 exerted potent cognition-enhancing action: oral administration of PGS32 (0.125 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 19 days abolished scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Furthermore, PGS32 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of TrkB in the hippocampus. Intracerebroventricular injection of PGS32 significantly enhanced HFS-induced LTP in the dentate gyrus of rats. PGS32 attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice, suggesting that it has a potential for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and dementia.

  4. Polyporus and Bupleuri radix effectively alter peripheral circadian clock phase acutely in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hiroaki; Sukigara, Haruna; Tahara, Yu; Saito, Keisuke; Yamazaki, Mayu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-07-01

    In mammals, daily physiological events are precisely regulated by an internal circadian clock system. An important function of this system is to readjust the phase of the clock daily. In Japan, traditional herb medicines, so-called crude drugs (Shoyaku), are widely used for many diseases, and some are reported to affect circadian clock impairment, suggesting that some of them might have an ability to modify clock gene expression rhythms. Therefore, from selected 40 crude drugs, finding candidates that control the circadian clock phases was the first purpose of this study. As there are several crude drugs used for liver- and/or kidney-related diseases, the second aim of the present study was to find some crude drugs affecting liver/kidney circadian clock in vivo. To assess phase changes in the daily circadian rhythm, bioluminescence from the core clock gene product Period 2 was continuously monitored in mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro and in some peripheral tissues (kidney, liver, and submandibular gland) of PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice in vivo. In our screening, Polyporus and Bupleuri radix were found to be good candidates to effectively manipulate the peripheral circadian clock phase acutely, with stimulation time-of-day dependency in vitro as well as in vivo. Interestingly, Polyporus and Bupleuri radix are traditional herb medicines use for treating edema and promoting diuresis, and for chronic hepatitis, respectively. These crude drugs may be therefore good modulators of the circadian peripheral clocks including liver and kidney, and circadian clock genes become new molecular targets for these crude drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Primary study on shapes of fruits and germination characters of seeds of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Su-ping; Chen, Min; Huang, Lu-qi; Gao, Feng

    2007-02-01

    To explore the difference of the shapes of fruits and germination characters of seeds of Rheum palmatum, R. tanguticum and R. officinale. The seeds of three Rheum species including wild and cultivation one were collected from different regions. Character of the fruits appearance were observed. The purification, weights per thousand seeds, content of moisture, seed vigor and different germination rates of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei were measured. The germination rates of the seeds of R. palmatum were determined under different temperature and hormone treatment . It was markedly variant in shapes of the fruits, rates of germination and all quality characters of the three category of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. As reported, the size of the fruit and seed and weights per thousand seeds of R. officinale was the biggest. The seed vigor and germination rate of R. palmatum caltivated in Ming county of Gangsu were 95.7% and 94% respectively. The rate of seed vigor was closely correlated with the rate of germination for other species. Results indicated that temperature had some effects on the germination, and there were obvious difference in the active effect of gibberellin, kinetin and 6-benzyl aminopurine on the germination of the seed. Our experimental results showed that the kinetin concentration of 50 x 10(-6) g x L(-1) had the most active effect, and its rates of germination increase 18 percent than the control one. Significant differences exist in the shapes of fruits, rates of germination of the seeds of Rheum, which are affected by the factors of temperatures and hormones. The result of this study provides scientific evidences for identify, growth and cultivation of Rheum.

  6. Effect of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on cerebral ischemia reperfusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the effects of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis on mouse model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mice were orally given different doses of total flavonoids of Radix Ilicis pubescentis 10 d, and were administered once daily. On the tenth day after the administration of 1 h in mice after anesthesia, we used needle to hook the bilateral common carotid artery (CCA for 10 min, with 10 min ischemia reperfusion, 10 min ischemia. Then we restored their blood supply, copy the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion; We then had all mice reperfused for 24 h, and then took their orbital blood samples and measured blood rheology. We quickly removed the brain, with half of the brain having sagittal incision. Then we fixed the brains and sectioned them to observe the pathological changes of brain cells in the hippocampus and cortex. We also measured the other half sample which was made of brain homogenate of NO, NOS, Na+-K+-, ATP enzyme Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Acupuncture needle hook occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries can successfully establish the model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. After comparing with the model mice, we concluded that Ilex pubescens flavonoids not only reduce damage to the brain nerve cells in the hippocampus and cortex, but also significantly reduce the content of NO in brain homogenate, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and increases ATP enzyme activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. In this way, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is improved. Different dosages of Ilex pubescens flavonoids on mouse cerebral ischemia reperfusion model have good effects.

  7. Implementation of High Speed FFTs for Radar Signal Processing,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    and the WFTA in terms of execution time and stor- age requirements. He concluded that the WFTA offers neither time nor space advantages over the FFT...are required in all parallel branches to ensure synchronized operation. PConsequently , the number of latches increases rapidly as the number of

  8. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waele, A T A M de; Liang, W

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the cold finger are connected by a flexible tube. The displacer in the cold head is suspended by a spring. Its motion is pneumatically driven by the pressure oscillations generated by the compressor. In this paper we give the basic dynamic equations of split Stirling refrigerators and investigate the possibility of spontaneous mechanical oscillations if a large temperature gradient develops in the cold finger, e.g. during or after cool down. These oscillations would be superimposed on the pressure oscillations of the compressor and could ruin the cooler performance.

  9. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  11. Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Channels in Sophorae Radix-induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells - Sophorae Radix and TRPM7 -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Byung Joo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Sophorae Radix (SR plays a role in a number of physiologic and pharmacologic functions in many organs. Methods:The aim of this study was to clarify the potential role for transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7 channels in SR-inhibited growth and survival of AGS and MCF-7 cells, the most common human gastric and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. Results:The AGS and the MCF-7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of SR. Analyses of the caspase-3 and - 9 activity, the mitochondrial depolarization and the poly (ADPribose polymerase (PARP cleavage were conducted to determine if AGS and MCF-7 cell death occured by apoptosis. TRPM7 channel blockers (Gd3+ or 2-APB and small interfering RNA (siRNA were used in this study to confirm the role of TRPM7 channels. Furthermore, TRPM7 channels were overexpressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells to identify the role of TRPM7 channels in AGS and MCF-7 cell growth and survival. Conclusions:The addition of SR to a culture medium inhibited AGS and MCF-7 cell growth and survival. Experimental results showed that the caspase-3 and -9 activity, the mitochondrial depolarization, and the degree of PARP cleavage was increased. TRPM7 channel blockade, either by Gd3+ or 2-APB or by suppressing TRPM7 expression with small interfering RNA, blocked the SR-induced inhibition of cell growth and survival. Furthermore, TRPM7 channel overexpression in HEK 293 cells exacerbated SR-induced cell death. These findings indicate that SR inhibits the growth and survival of gastric and breast cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel activity. Therefore, TRPM7 channels may play an important role in the survival of patients with gastric and breast cancer.

  12. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF TWO MINOR COMPOUNDS FROM RADIX ISATIDIS BY INTEGRATIVE MPLC AND HSCCC WITH PREPARATIVE HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zhenjie; Li, Bin; Liang, Yong; Su, Yaping; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Radix isatidis has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for its anti-virus and anticancer activities where the minor components may contribute to these beneficial pharmaceutical effects. In order to enrich the target minor compounds effectively and rapidly, extraction, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) were integratively used for separation and purificat...

  13. Long-Term Treatment of Puerariae Radix Extract Ameliorated Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Ovariectomy in Mature Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li Dong; Quan-Gui Gao; Sa-Sa Gu; Hao-Tian Feng; Man-Sau Wong; Liya Denney

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disorder characterized by the progressive bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women. This imbalance affects calcium–phosphate metabolism and results in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Purariae Radix (PR), the root of P. lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, is one of the earliest medicinal herbs employed in ancient China. PR contains a high quantity of isoflavones and their glycosides, which are regarded as phytoestrogen. Few investig...

  14. [Analytical Methods with Qualitative HPLC Fingerprint and Quantitative Measurement of Effective Components of Processed Asari Radix et Rhizoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-qing; Jiang, Xing-ming; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Wei; Liao, Duan-fang; Yan, Jian-ye

    2015-07-01

    In order to provide the basis for quality standard and processing principle of processed Asari Radix et Rhizoma, an HPLC fingerprint of processed Asari Radix et Rhizoma was established and the contents of methyl eugenol and asarinin were determined. The analytical column was Agligent Tc-C18 (250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 µm); A mixture of acetonitrile-0. 2% acetic acid solution was used as the mobile phase with gradient elution at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min. The wavelength was set at 285 nm and the column temperature was 30 °C. The fingerprint of processed Asari Radix et Rhizoma was established. The asarinin peak was taken as the reference peak. 22 common peaks were assigned, and two peaks were confirmed by comparing with the reference standards. The difference of components was not significant among the various processed products except ginger, honey and fried coke products, but the contents of effective constituents were different among the processed products. The retention rate of methyl eugenol in processed products was in a descending order as follows: wine > vinegar > liquorice > alkali-vinegar > fried coke > rice water system > honey > ginger > salt system > alkali. Methyl eugenol was increased 10% ~ 20% with wine processing and retained more than 95% with vinegar. The retention rate of asarinin in processed products was in declining as: rice water system > liquorice > alkali-vinegar > honey > salt system > wine > ginger > vinegar > alkali > fried coke. The processing techniques increased the content of asarinin except the alkali and fried coke products, and asarinin was increased more than 35% with rice water, alkali-vinegar or liquorice processing. The method is accurate and reliable, which can be used for the quality control of processed products of Asari Radix et Rhizoma.

  15. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  16. Novel characterization of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process by combining high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredients determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jingjing; Cai, Hao; Li, Songlin; Ma, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qin, Kunming; Guan, Hongyue; Cai, Baochang

    2014-07-01

    Harmful sulfur-fumigation processing method is abused during Radix Angelicae Dahuricae preparation. However, the analytical technique characterizing Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process is absent. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was adopted to develop methods combining finger-print analysis and multi-ingredients simultaneous determination for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. The chromatographic fingerprint method was established for qualitative analysis coupled with statistical cluster analysis basing on Euclidean distance. Additionally, a determination method was developed for quantitative analysis, which was able to assay the concentrations of the major coumarins including imperatorin, isoimperatorin, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isoimpinellin, oxypeucedanin, and bergapten in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae simultaneously. The separations of the two methods were both achieved on a Hypersil octadecylsilyl C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 35°C under different strategic gradient elution programs. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm all the time. Method validation data indicated that the methods were both reliable and applicable. They were then used to assay different Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples collected from good agricultural practice (GAP) bases and local herbal markets. The successful application demonstrated that the combination of HPLC fingerprint and simultaneous quantification of multi-ingredients offers an efficient approach for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. In order to discriminate Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process, oxypeucedanin, and xanthotoxol were the most sensitive biomarkers and should be determined.

  17. Parallel BLAST on split databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathog, David R

    2003-09-22

    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from ftp://saf.bio.caltech.edu/

  18. Commercial Carlinae radix herbal drug: botanical identity, chemical composition and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović-Radić, Zorica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Radulović, Niko; Blagojević, Polina; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Rajković, Jelena

    2012-08-01

    Carlinae radix is an herbal drug, commonly used by the locals in southeastern Serbia for the treatment of respiratory and urogenital diseases and, externally, for various skin conditions. There still seems to be no detailed studies correlating the chemical composition of this drug and its ethnopharmacological uses. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and mode of action of C. radix essential oil, isolated from commercial samples (confirmation of whose true biological identity was also the aim of this work) were analyzed. Antimicrobial potential of decoctions (extracts prepared by boiling plant material in a given solvent), used in ethnomedicine preferentially to the pure essential oil, was also investigated. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was screened for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Effects of the oil on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus cells were investigated using turbidimetric measurements and visualized using scanning electron microscopy. Analyses of the chemical composition of the oils were done using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both the essential oil and the decocts exhibited a very high antimicrobial activity against all tested strains, with S. aureus as the most sensitive one [e.g., for the oil sample the values for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 0.02, 0.04 µL/mL, respectively]. Growth curves of S. aureus demonstrated a significant decrease in turbidity (for the MIC concentration this amounted to ca. 70%) showing a concentration-dependent lysis of the cells, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition, anatomical and morphological features of the sample pointed to Carlina acanthifolia L. (Asteraceae) instead of Carlina acaulis L. (Asteraceae). The results showed significant antimicrobial effect of the essential oil and the decoctions and support the use of this plant in

  19. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-17

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix (Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy

  20. Platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) for the Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonho; Kang, Sehyeon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Song, Kwangho; Lee, You Jeong; Kim, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yeong Shik; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2018-01-01

    A green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles is described in the present report using platycodon saponins from Platycodi Radix ( Platycodon grandiflorum) as reducing agents. Platycodin D (PD), a major triterpenoidal platycodon saponin, was enriched by an enzymatic transformation of an aqueous extract of Platycodi Radix. This PD-enriched fraction was utilized for processing reduction reactions of gold and silver salts to synthesize gold nanoparticles (PD-AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (PD-AgNPs), respectively. No other chemicals were introduced during the reduction reactions, providing an entirely green, eco-friendly, and sustainable method. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance bands of PD-AuNPs at 536 nm and PD-AgNPs at 427 nm. Spherically shaped nanoparticles were observed from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with average diameters of 14.94 ± 2.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 18.40 ± 3.20 nm for PD-AgNPs. Minor triangular and other polygonal shapes were also observed for PD-AuNPs along with spherical ones. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images also demonstrated that both nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shape. Curvature-dependent evolution was employed to enhance the AFM images and precisely measure the sizes of the nanoparticles. The sizes were measured as 19.14 nm for PD-AuNPs and 29.93 nm for PD-AgNPs from the enhanced AFM images. Face-centered cubic structures for both nanoparticles were confirmed by strong diffraction patterns from high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the contribution of -OH, aromatic C=C, C-O, and C-H functional groups to the synthesis. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of PD-AuNPs was assessed with a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. The catalytic activity results suggest the potential application of these gold nanoparticles as catalysts in the future. The green strategy reported in this

  1. Radix Puerariae modulates glutamatergic synaptic architecture and potentiates functional synaptic plasticity in primary hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Haque, Md Nazmul; Mohibbullah, Md; Kim, Yung Kyu; Moon, Il Soo

    2017-09-14

    Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology. Radix Puerariae, the root of Pueraria monatana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa&Pradeep, is a Chinese ethnomedicine, traditionally used for the treatment of memory-related nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. In the previous study, we showed that the ethanolic extracts of Radix Puerariae (RPE) and its prime constituent, puerarin induced neuritogenesis and synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons, and thus could improve memory functions. In the present study, we specifically investigated the abilities of RPE and puerarin to improve memory-related brain disorders through modulating synaptic maturation and functional potentiation. Rat embryonic (E19) brain neurons were cultured in the absence or presence of RPE or puerarin. At predetermined times, cells were live-stained with DiO or fixed and immunostained to visualize neuronal morphologies, or lysed for protein harvesting. Morphometric analyses of dendritic spines and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. Functional pre- and postsynaptic plasticity was measured by FM1-43 staining and whole-cell patch clamping, respectively. RPE or puerarin-mediated changes in actin-related protein 2 were assessed by Western blotting. Neuronal survivals were measured using propidium iodide exclusion assay. RPE and puerarin both: (1) promoted a significant increase in the numbers, and maturation, of dendritic spines; (2) modulated the formation of glutamatergic synapses; (3) potentiated synaptic transmission by increasing the sizes of

  2. Preparative isolation and purification of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin from Radix Eupatorii Chinensis by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the isolation and purification of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin from Radix Eupatorii Chinensis by high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was established in this paper. The ether extracts of Radix Eupatorii Chinensis were purified by HSCCC with a solvent system of hexyl hydride–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:2:1:2, v/v/v/v. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase. About 8.4 mg of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin was obtained from 200 mg of ether extracts from Radix Eupatorii Chinensis in one-step HSCCC separation, with the purity of 96.71%, as determined by HPLC. After methanol–water recrystallization, the purity of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin reached 99.83%. Such a simple and effective method was fairly useful to prepare pure compound as reference substances for related study on Radix Eupatorii Chinensis. Keywords: Radix Eupatorii Chinensis, High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin

  3. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tongsong, E-mail: jiangtongsong@sina.com [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China); Department of Mathematics, Heze University, Heze, Shandong 274015 (China); Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  4. Testing PVLAS axions with resonant photon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, E; Gabrielli, Emidio; Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The photon splitting gamma -> gamma gamma in a time-independent and inhomogeneous magnetized background is considered when neutral and ultralight spin-0 particles are coupled to two-photons. Depending on the inhomogeneity scale of the external field, resonant photon splitting can occur. If an optical laser crosses a magnetic field of few Tesla with typical inhomogeneity scale of the order of the meter, a potentially observable rate of photon splittings is expected for the PVLAS range of couplings and masses.

  5. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  6. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  7. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. The enhancement mechanism of wine-processed Radix Scutellaria on NTG-induced migraine rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng-Long; He, Xin; Dong, Cui-Lan; Song, Zi-Jing; Ji, Jun; Wang, Xue; Wang, Ling; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Du, Wen-Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Guo, Chang-Run; Zhang, Chun-Feng

    2017-07-01

    To elucidate the increasing dissolution and enhancement mechanism of wine-processed Radix Scutellaria (RS) by fractal theory in nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine rats. We prepared three RS from the process with 10% (S1), 15% (S2), 20% (S3) (v/m) rice wine. Mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscope were employed to explore the internal structure of RS and the components dissolution of RS was analyzed by HPLC. Rats were randomly allocated into following groups and orally given different solutions for 10days: normal group (NOR, normal saline), model group (MOD, normal saline), Tianshu capsule group (TSC, 0.425mg/kg), ibuprofen group (IBU, 0.0821mg/kg), crude RS group (CRU, 1.04mg/kg) and wine-processed RS group (WP, 1.04mg/kg) followed by bolus subcutaneously injection of NTG (10mg/kg) to induce migraine model except NOR. Biochemical indexes (nitric oxide-NO, calcitonin-gene-related peptide-CGRP, and endothelin-ET) and c-fos positive cells were measured with commercial kits and immunohistochemical method, separately. Total surface area significantly increased in wine-processed RS (pWine-processed RS could be a promising candidate medicine for migraine treatment due to its increased component dissolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and its processed products (PMRP on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT to 1536±47.69 pg/mL (P<0.001 and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL to 23.59±0.2758 U/mL (P<0.05. HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A. Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r=0.756, P<0.05 was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP.

  10. Behaviour of freshwater snails (Radix balthica) exposed to the pharmaceutical sertraline under simulated predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgespeth, Melanie Lea; Karasek, Tomasz; Ahlgren, Johan; Berglund, Olof; Brönmark, Christer

    2018-03-01

    Due to their potential for affecting the modulation of behaviour, effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the environment are particularly interesting regarding interspecies interactions and non-consumptive effects (NCEs) induced by predator cues in prey organisms. We evaluated the effects of sertraline (0.4, 40 ng/L, 40 µg/L) over 8 days on activity and habitat choice in the freshwater snail Radix balthica, on snails' boldness in response to mechanical stimulation (simulating predator attack), and their activity/habitat choice in response to chemical cues from predatory fish. We hypothesised that sertraline exposure would detrimentally impact NCEs elicited by predator cues, increasing predation risk. Although there were no effects of sertraline on NCEs, there were observed effects of chemical cue from predatory fish on snail behaviour independent of sertraline exposure. Snails reduced their activity in which the percentage of active snails decreased by almost 50% after exposure to fish cue. Additionally, snails changed their habitat use by moving away from open (exposed) areas. The general lack of effects of sertraline on snails' activity and other behaviours in this study is interesting considering that other SSRIs have been shown to induce changes in gastropod behaviour. This raises questions on the modes of action of various SSRIs in gastropods, as well as the potential for a trophic "mismatch" of effects between fish predators and snail prey in aquatic systems.

  11. Dynamic of population-dynamics in a medically important snail species Lymnaea (Radix Luteola (Lamarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Misra

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length and body weight (419.87 mg. All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch to 443.67 (May batch eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.

  12. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei; Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI 50 ) concentration of 2.35 μM. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  14. Binary chromatographic fingerprint analysis of stemonae radix from three Stemona plants and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lan-Lan; Xu, Feng; Hu, Jun-Ping; Yang, Dong-Hui; Chen, Hu-Biao; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Shang, Ming-Ying; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-07-01

    The dried root tubers of Stemona tuberosa, S. japonica and S. sessilifolia are the original sources of Stemonae Radix (SR) for antitussive and insecticidal activities. The products of SR which are available on the market are variable, and imitations exist. In order to characterize the overall chemical constituents of SR and evaluate its quality, a novel, binary high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprinting method, describing the pattern of alkaloids (fingerprint I) and non-alkaloids (fingerprint II) of SR was developed. It was also applied to determine whether the medicinal parts and the processing methods affect the quality of SR. Similarity and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) were utilized to compare or identify the chemical constituents of SR. The results indicate that the chemical constituents from different parts of the underground material of Stemona plants are diverse and that the processing methods affect certain constituents in the root tuber samples. The similarity and the resulting chemical consitituents obtained show that the binary chromatographic fingerprint method can be used to differentiate the three official Stemona species or the adulterants of SR, which is helpful for the identification and quality evaluation of SR.

  15. Correlation between Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Contents of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelicae Sinensisis (RAS is one of the most popular traditional Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, six RAS extracts (i.e., phenolic extract PE, petroleum ether extract PEE, ethyl acetate extract EAE, absolute ethanol extract AEE, 95% ethanol extract 95 EE, and water extract WE were prepared and their antioxidant activities measured by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt], Reducing power, •O2– and lipid peroxidation assays. In general, PE, PEE and EAE had relatively high antioxidant activity, followed by AEE with moderate activity, as compared with 95 EE and WE that had low activity. Their phenolic contents (including total phenolic, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, same as below were then determined by HPLC or spectrophotometry. The sequence of phenolic contents was roughly identical with that of antioxidant activity. When the values of 1/IC50 of various antioxidant assays were used to evaluate the level of antioxidant of the RAS extracts, (plot between 1/IC50 values and phenolic contents, the correlation coefficient (R ranged from 0.642 to 0.941, with an average value of 0.839. Significant positive correlations demonstrated that the antioxidant effects of RAS might generally be considered a result of the presence of the phenolic compounds, especially ferulic acid and caffeic acid.

  16. Experimental infection of Radix natalensis and Culiseta longiareolata larvae with Plagiorchiid xiphidiocercariae in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yasser Disoky; El-Husseny, Iman Mohamad

    2013-12-01

    To clarify the life cycle of a plagiorchiid species which uses Radix natalensis as a first intermediate host for its larval development in Egypt, this study was carried out to investigate subsequent invertebrates where xiphidiocercariae of this digenean might encyst. Laboratory-bred R. natalensis and Culiseta longiareolata larvae (mosquito) were experimentally exposed to xiphidiocercariae under laboratory conditions. At 24h post-exposure, 70% of exposed juvenile R. natalensis were found harboring encysted cercariae in their tissues. In addition, C. longiareolata larvae of each developmental stage were infected with these xiphidiocercariae. Compared to unexposed mosquito larvae, a significantly higher mortality rate in first- and second-stage (L1 & L2) larvae was noted. Prevalence of infection was also significantly higher in these L1 & L2 (90% & 88%, respectively) than in third- and fourth-stage larvae. Mosquitoes emerging from exposed L1 & L2 were significantly less numerous when compared to corresponding control groups. Significant disturbance in male and female sex ratio was noted in L1- & L2-developing mosquitoes; it was equal in L1-emerging adults and slightly male biased for those coming from L2.

  17. Radix natalensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, a potential intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Y.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis with French miracidia of Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if this snail might act as an intermediate host in the life cycle of this digenean in Egypt. Single exposures of R. natalensis to miracidia (2/snail and two successive exposures (a total of 4 miracidia/snail were performed using lymnaeids measuring 1 to 6 mm in height. Live larval forms of F. hepatica were noted in single- and double-exposed snails. In double exposures, a significant increase of snail survival on day 28 post-exposure (at 24 °C and an decrease in prevalence were noted when the height of snails at exposure was increasing. Cercariae of F. hepatica were shed by these snails (90.7/snail during a mean patent period of 24.3 days. All snails have released these cercariae during 2-13 waves of shedding. According to these results, R. natalensis can be considered a potential intermediate host of F. hepatica in Egypt.

  18. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  19. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  20. Scutellaria radix Extract as a Natural UV Protectant for Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Choi, Go Woon; An, Sang Mi; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Hyeong-Ho; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces oxidative injury and inflammation in human skin. Scutellaria radix (SR, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) contains flavonoids with high UV absorptivity and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential use of SR extract as an additive in cosmetic products for UV protection. SR extract and its butanol (BuOH) fraction strongly absorbed UV radiation and displayed free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radials and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. They also attenuated the UV-induced death of HaCaT cells. Sunscreen creams, with or without supplementation of SR extract BuOH fraction, were tested in vivo in human trials to evaluate potential skin irritation and determine the sun protection factor (SPF). Both sunscreen creams induced no skin irritation. A sunscreen cream containing 24% ZnO showed an SPF value of 17.8, and it increased to 22.7 when supplemented with 5% SR extract BuOH fraction. This study suggests that SR-derived materials are useful as safe cosmetic additives that provide UV protection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye-young [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Yeon [Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kskim@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    A study was carried out to find the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix (Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, (E)-carveol, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  2. Systems Pharmacological Approach of Pulsatillae Radix on Treating Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Asian traditional medicine, Pulsatillae Radix (PR is widely used to treat amoebic dysentery and renowned for its anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to confirm evidence regarding the potential therapeutic effect of PR on Crohn’s disease using a system network level based in silico approach. Study results showed that the compounds in PR are highly connected to Crohn’s disease related pathways, biological processes, and organs, and these findings were confirmed by compound-target network, target-pathway network, and gene ontology analysis. Most compounds in PR have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant effects, and we found that these compounds interact with multiple targets in a synergetic way. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of genes targeted by PR are elevated significantly in immunity-related organ tissues, small intestine, and colon. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and repair and immune system enhancing effects of PR might have therapeutic impact on Crohn’s disease.

  3. Effect of Lithospermi Radix on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluorobenzene in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han-Na

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (Lithospermi Radix, LR is a kind of heat clearing and blood cooling medicinal herbs. It can clear away heat and cool the blood, reduce toxins and disperse maculae. LR has long been used as efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we investigate anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of LR by using the 1-fluoro-2, 4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis mouse model. Results: Topical application of 10 mg/mL of LR effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. Topical application of LR also inhibited hyperplasia, edema, spongiosis and infiltrations of mononuclear cells. In addition, production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG1 in serum were decreased by using LR in vivo. Conclusions: These data suggest that LR acts as an antiinflammatory agent, improving skin lesions in CD mice.

  4. Rapid analysis of constituents of Radix Cyathulae using hydrophilic interaction-reverse phase LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Mei-Ting; Li, Hui-Jun; Sheng, Long-Sheng; Liu, Peng; Li, Ping

    2009-11-01

    A hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with electrospray TOF MS method was developed for the analysis and characterization of constituents in the radix of Cyathula officinalis Kuan. Separation parameters of HILIC such as buffer pH, mobile phase strength, and organic modifier were evaluated. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were identified by HILIC-ESI/TOF MS. Reverse-phase liquid chromatography-ESI/TOF MS were applied for quick and sensitive identification of major saponins in Cyathula officinalis. In-source collision-induced dissociation has been performed to elucidate the fragmentation pathways of oleanane-, hederagenin-, and gypsogmin-type saponins. Twelve saponins were characterized in this plant for the first time, and four of them were presumed to be new compounds. In addition, one phytoecdysteroid (cyasterone) and one coumarin (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) were detected at the same time. The present method was capable of rapid characterizing and providing structure information of constituents from herbal drugs.

  5. Potential Quality Evaluation Method for Radix Astragali Based on Sweetness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweetness is a traditional sensory indicator used to evaluate the quality of the popular Chinese herb Radix Astragali (RA. RA roots with strong sweetness are considered to be of good quality. However, neither a thorough analysis of the component(s contributing to RA sweetness, nor a scientific investigation of the reliability of this indicator has been conducted to date. In this study, seven kinds of sweetness components were identified in RA and a quality evaluation method based on these components was established and used to characterize the quality of 48 RA samples. The sweetness evaluation method of RA was first built based on the sweetness components, and a comprehensive evaluation index commonly used in quality control of RA was also derived, which was based on the contents of four indicators (astragaloside IV, calycosin glucoside, polysaccharides and extracts. After evaluating the correlation of these indexes the results showed that the level of sweetness exhibited a strong positive correlation with the proposed comprehensive index. Our results indicate that sweetness is one of the most important quality attributes of RA and thus provide a scientific basis for the utility of the sweetness indicator in quality assessment of this Chinese herb.

  6. Potential quality evaluation method for Radix Astragali based on sweetness indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Gao, Fanrong; Li, Zhenyu; Qin, Xuemei; Sun, Haifeng; Xing, Jie; Zhang, Lizeng; Du, Guanhua

    2015-02-13

    Sweetness is a traditional sensory indicator used to evaluate the quality of the popular Chinese herb Radix Astragali (RA). RA roots with strong sweetness are considered to be of good quality. However, neither a thorough analysis of the component(s) contributing to RA sweetness, nor a scientific investigation of the reliability of this indicator has been conducted to date. In this study, seven kinds of sweetness components were identified in RA and a quality evaluation method based on these components was established and used to characterize the quality of 48 RA samples. The sweetness evaluation method of RA was first built based on the sweetness components, and a comprehensive evaluation index commonly used in quality control of RA was also derived, which was based on the contents of four indicators (astragaloside IV, calycosin glucoside, polysaccharides and extracts). After evaluating the correlation of these indexes the results showed that the level of sweetness exhibited a strong positive correlation with the proposed comprehensive index. Our results indicate that sweetness is one of the most important quality attributes of RA and thus provide a scientific basis for the utility of the sweetness indicator in quality assessment of this Chinese herb.

  7. Chemical composition of the leaf and stem essential oil of Adenophorae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weijie; Lin, Shang; Li, Xindan; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen

    2017-03-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from leaves and stems of Adenophorae Radix was determined for the first time in this study. Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). n-Hexadecanoic acid (29.14%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (17.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(8.98%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (7.03%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (5.93%), phytol (5.50%), and estradiol (4.43%) were measured as the major compounds in stem oil. The leaf essential oil was dominated by n-hexadecanoic acid (50.78%), 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- (9.04%), phytol (8.47%), d-mannitol (5.81%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (4.31%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.19%) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(1.7%). The leaves yield was 0.12% (v/w) and the stems yield showed only 0.073% (v/w). The results might provide reference basis for further exploration of its application value.

  8. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9 < EG (2.391 × 10−9 < EN (2.483 × 10−9 < PL (4.917 × 10−9 < RN (1.707 × 10−8 < RL (1.778 × 10−8 < AE (1.952 × 10−8. Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r=0.751, p<0.05 and heat of form (r=0.701, p<0.05 were strongly positively correlated with Papp.

  9. Partial hepatectomy in a Plains garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis radix with biliary cystadenoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Knotek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-year-old, captive-bred, female Plains garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis radix was presented with a large midbody distension (5 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm in the second third of the body length (total body length 123 cm. Contrast radiography technique excluded an envolvement of the oesophagus or stomach. Aspiration of 8 ml of acellular straw coloured fluid negative for presence of bacteria, fungi or parasites, reduced the swelling to a third of its original size. Surgical exploration revealed a pathologically changed central part of the liver with multiple different sized cysts. Histopathologically the diagnosis was defined as biliary cystadenoma. As the liver had a physiological appearance cranial and caudal to the central area, a partial hepatectomy was performed. The snake recovered well and started to feed spontaneously two days after surgery. During the check up two, four and seven months after hepatectomy, the snake was active and in a good condition. Hypoproteinaemia and altered activity of lactate dehydrogenase were present two months after surgery, azurophilia and hyperuricaemia were present in the blood sampled four months after hepatectomy. Except for azurophilia, the other values of the blood profile were within the expected range for a healthy snake seven months after surgery, indicating full recovery. This is the first detailed report of a successful central resection of a large pathologically changed part of the liver in snakes which was diagnosed as biliary cystadenoma.

  10. Intestinal Transportations of Main Chemical Compositions of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in Caco-2 Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lin, Pei; Li, Yunfei; Mao, Xiaojian; Bao, Getuzhaori; Zhao, Ronghua

    2014-01-01

    Context. Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) is originated from the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and used in oriental countries for centuries. However, little researches pay close attention to the absorption of its major constituents. Objective. Transepithelial transport of TSG, RL, PL, and four anthraquinones is carried out. Materials and Methods. Caco-2 cell monolayer, which represented a well-established model for the study of intestinal transport of nutrients and xenobiotics, was used in this paper. Results. The apparent permeability coefficients (P app) in the Caco-2 cell monolayers were TSG (2.372 × 10−9) < EG (2.391 × 10−9) < EN (2.483 × 10−9) < PL (4.917 × 10−9) < RN (1.707 × 10−8) < RL (1.778 × 10−8) < AE (1.952 × 10−8). Thus, RN, RL, and AE were considered partly absorbed, while other constituents were hardly absorbed. Discussion and Conclusion. Glycosides showed poor permeabilities than aglycones. In the meantime, TSG and EN gave out poor recovery rates in this assay, which indicated that TSG and EN may accumulate or metabolise in the Caco-2 cells. In silico prediction indicated that Gibbs energy (r = 0.751, p < 0.05) and heat of form (r = 0.701, p < 0.05) were strongly positively correlated with P app. PMID:24693324

  11. Investigation of antioxidant interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and identification of synergistic antioxidant compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV λmax, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1∶1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs.

  12. Investigation of antioxidant interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and identification of synergistic antioxidant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Qu, Yi; Sun, Tianlei; Luo, Ting; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali) and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida) demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV λmax, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1∶1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs.

  13. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  14. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Floettmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  15. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  16. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  17. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  18. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2004-01-01

    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  19. Split Questionnaire Design for Massive Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiguzel, F.; Wedel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Companies are conducting more and longer surveys than ever before. Massive questionnaires are pervasive in marketing practice. As an alternative to the heuristic methods that are currently used to split questionnaires, this study develops a methodology to design the split questionnaire in a way that

  20. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  1. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  2. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  3. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  4. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of T is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Keywords.

  5. Geographical origin discrimination and polysaccharides quantitative analysis of Radix codonopsis with micro near-infrared spectrometer engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, Tradition Chinese Medicine (TCM industry in China is in the stage from the empirical development to industrial production. Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy has been widely used in the quality control of TCM’s modernization with its characteristics including rapidness, nondestruction, simplicity, economy, and so on. In this study, as one type of a portable micro NIR spectrometer, Micro NIR 1700 was used to establish the qualitative models for identification of geographical region and authenticity of Radix codonopsis based on discriminant analysis (DA method. Both of the DA models had better predictive ability with 100% accuracy. In addition, a method for rapid quantitative analysis of polysaccharide in Radix codonopsis was also developed based on Micro NIR 1700 spectrometer with partial least-squares (PLS algorithm. In the PLS calibration model, the NIR spectra of samples were pretreated with different preprocessing methods and the spectral region was selected with different variable selection methods as well. The performance of the final PLS model was evaluated according to correlation coefficient of calibration (Rc, correlation coefficient of prediction (Rp, root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV, and root mean squared of prediction (RMSEP. The values of Rc, Rp, RMSECV, and RMSEP were 0.9775, 0.9602, 2.496, and 2.734g/mL, respectively. This work demonstrated that micro infrared spectrometer could be more convenient and rapid for quality control of Radix codonopsis, and the presented models would be a useful reference for quality control of other similar raw materials of TCM.

  6. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  7. Applied orthogonal experiment design for the optimum microwave-assisted extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenglin; Xiao, Furen; Gong, Jingli; Yu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    An experiment on polysaccharides from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) extraction was carried out using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method with an objective to establishing the optimum MAE conditions of PRR. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions, and the optimum conditions were obtained using orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the optimum MAE conditions of PRR were as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:45 g/mL, irradiation power of 480 W, and irradiation time of 8 min, while extraction yield of PRR was 3.24 %.

  8. Molluscicidal activity of crude water and hexane extracts of Hypericum species to snails (Radix peregra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rainha, Nuno; Rosa, José Silvino; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José

    2012-04-01

    In spite of intense research on both chemical constituency and biological activity of Hypericum species, potential applications of their active components for pest control have been less well investigated. In the present study, Hypericum androsaemum (tutsan), Hypericum foliosum (malfurada), and Hypericum undulatum (wavy St. John's wort) aqueous and hexane extracts were studied for their molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Radix peregra. The molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts was low, except for H. androsaemum infusion (median lethal concentration [LC50](adults)  = 317.1 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 415 ppm), and less important compared with the toxicity of all three hexane extracts tested: H. androsaemum (LC50(adults)  = 30.47 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 73.25 ppm), H. undulatum (LC50(adults)  = 30.55 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 60.54 ppm), and H. foliosum (LC50(adults)  = 48.61 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 38.81 ppm). An ovicidal effect was observed only with H. androsaemum infusion (1.85% of hatching at 500 ppm) and H. foliosum hexane extract (0.0% of hatching at 100 ppm). A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the lipophylic extracts from these Hypericum sp. revealed a different chemical profile and confirmed the presence of ursolic acid only in H. undulatum as the main compound. The present study indicates that products from hexane extracts of the Hypericum sp. analyzed may be used as potential molluscicides to control snails responsible for transmitting fasciolosis. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. Quality Control of Valerianae Radix by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad-Langerodi, Ramin; Arth, Katharina; Klatte-Asselmeyer, Valerie; Bressler, Sabine; Saukel, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dobeš, Christoph

    2017-11-09

    (Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. species aggregate with its three major ploidy cytotypes (i.e., di-, tetra- and octoploid). Calibration models were built by orthogonal partial least squares regression for quantitative analysis of (acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content. For the latter, we propose a simplistic protocol involving apolar extraction followed by gas chromatography as a reference method for multivariate calibration in order to handle the analysis of samples taken from individual plants. We found good predictive ability of chemometric models for quantification of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid, total sesquiterpenoid acid, and essential oil content with a root mean squared error of cross-validation of 0.064, 0.043, and 0.09 and root mean squared error of prediction of 0.066, 0.057, and 0.09 (% content), respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed good discriminability between the most productive phenotype (i.e., the octoploid cytotype) in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids, and the less productive ones (i.e., di- and tetraploid). All in all, our results demonstrate the application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid, extractionless estimation of the most important quality attributes of valerian root and minimally invasive identification of the most productive phenotype in terms of sesquiterpenoid acids. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  10. Radix Astragali and Tanshinone Help Carboplatin Inhibit B16 Tumor Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinyi; Xu, Haiming; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying

    2016-08-01

    Excessive UV radiation causes increased melanoma incidence. Postoperation chemotherapy will destroy lymphocytes and compromise immune response. Immunodepression is also detected in patients with cancers. Previous studies suggested that polysaccharide-protein complexes manifested immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. Radix Astragali (RA) extract is a product of polysaccharide-protein complexes, which has been used in the treatment of a variety of diseases because of its low toxicity to the host. Tanshinone (TA) is a derivative of phenanthrenequinone isolated from Danshen, which is suggested to inhibit tumor growth by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. Carboplatin (CA) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug in melanoma treatment. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combination of RA and TA will help CA better inhibit the B16 cell growth. The study will test that the efficacy of growth inhibition of tumor cell produced by CA + RA + TA is better than CA + RA or CA + TA. The B16 tumor cells were injected to Swiss-Hauschka (ICR) mice subcutaneously. Twenty-four hours later, mice received CA intraperitoneally, CA + RA (RA were administered gastrically at the dosage of 10 g/kg body weight), CA + TA (TA were administered gastrically at the dosage of 0.5 g/kg body weight), or no treatment (model group). Tumor weight, volume, latency, incidence, the percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in spleen, and natural killer (NK), and cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) activities were measured and compared among different groups. Compared with mice treated with CA + RA, CA + TA, or CA alone, the mice treated with CA + RA + TA showed (1) significantly smaller tumor weight and tumor volume; (2) significantly longer tumor latency; (3) significantly lower tumor incidence; and (4) significantly increased percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in spleen and increased activities of NK and CTL. Combination of RA and TA can help CA produce more effective inhibition on B16 cell growth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Integrated work-flow for quantitative metabolome profiling of plants, Peucedani Radix as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Liu, Yao; Li, Jun; Wan, Jian-Bo; Wang, Yitao; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-02-08

    Universal acquisition of reliable information regarding the qualitative and quantitative properties of complicated matrices is the premise for the success of metabolomics study. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now serving as a workhorse for metabolomics; however, LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomics is suffering from some shortcomings, even some cutting-edge techniques have been introduced. Aiming to tackle, to some extent, the drawbacks of the conventional approaches, such as redundant information, detector saturation, low sensitivity, and inconstant signal number among different runs, herein, a novel and flexible work-flow consisting of three progressive steps was proposed to profile in depth the quantitative metabolome of plants. The roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn (Peucedani Radix, PR) that are rich in various coumarin isomers, were employed as a case study to verify the applicability. First, offline two dimensional LC-MS was utilized for in-depth detection of metabolites in a pooled PR extract namely universal metabolome standard (UMS). Second, mass fragmentation rules, notably concerning angular-type pyranocoumarins that are the primary chemical homologues in PR, and available databases were integrated for signal assignment and structural annotation. Third, optimum collision energy (OCE) as well as ion transition for multiple monitoring reaction measurement was online optimized with a reference compound-free strategy for each annotated component and large-scale relative quantification of all annotated components was accomplished by plotting calibration curves via serially diluting UMS. It is worthwhile to highlight that the potential of OCE for isomer discrimination was described and the linearity ranges of those primary ingredients were extended by suppressing their responses. The integrated workflow is expected to be qualified as a promising pipeline to clarify the quantitative metabolome of plants because it could not only

  12. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Yue Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kai-xin-san (KXS, a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.

  13. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma.

  14. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.

    1992-08-01

    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  15. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... absorption, this is the more difficult side to optimize. Nevertheless, by using TiO2 as a transparent cathode protection layer in conjunction with known H-2 evolution catalysts, protection is clearly feasible for a large bandgap photocathode. This suggests that there may be promising strategies...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  16. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  17. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  18. Enrichment and purification of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix by macroporous resins and quantification by HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Qing; Liu, Ran; Yin, Yidi; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-06-01

    Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine are six main Aconitum alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicine, Aconiti kusnezoffii radix, which possess highly bioactive as well as highly toxic character for medicinal use. In the present study, for the purpose of better utilizing the toxic herbal material, the performance characteristics of NKA-II, D101, X-5, AB-8, S-8, HPD722 and HPD750 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of these six Aconitum alkaloids were critically evaluated. Results showed that NKA-II offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities for six Aconitum alkaloids among the seven macroporous resins tested, which were affected significantly by the pH value. Subsequently, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments had been carried out with the column packed by NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process of six Aconitum alkaloids. After one run treatment with NKA-II resin, the content of total six Aconitum alkaloids were increased from 5.87% to 60.3%, the recovery was 75.8%. Meanwhile, a validated HPLC-MS method had been developed to qualitative and quantitative these six Aconitum alkaloids. This method would provide scientific references to the large-scale production of six Aconitum alkaloids from Aconiti kusnezoffii radix or other plants and might also expand the secure application of these highly toxic components for pharmacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Determination and analyse of soil fertility of Pseudostellariae Radix planting base of Shibing County and Huangping County in Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu-ping; Zhou, Mei; Qian, Zhi-yao; Qin, Rong-gui

    2014-11-01

    To determine soil fertility of the Pseudostellariac Radix planting base of Shibing County and Huangping County in Guizhou Province, and to provide experimental basis for soil improvement and balanced fertilization. 12 soil samples from Shibing County and 10 soil samples from Huangping County were involved in the detection. In the soil samples from Shibing County, the contents of organic matter, total N, available N, total P, available P and available K were higher, while the content of total P was at middle level. In the soil samples from Huangping County, the contents of total N, available P, total K and available K were higher,the contents of organic matter, total K and available N were at middle level. The level of soil fertility of the Pseudostellariae Radix planting base in Guizhou Province is common. The soil fertility of Shibing County is superior to that of Huangping County. The soil pH value of Shibing and Huangping County is low. In Shibing County, lime, farmyard manure and neutral fertilizer can be used to increase the pH of soil. Potash fertilizer can be increased, while nitrogen fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer can be reduced in the soil of Shibing County. Potash fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer will be increased, while nitrogen fertilizer can be reduced in the soil of Huangping County. The soil fertility can be improved by these measures.

  20. Field application of a set of cellular biomarkers in the digestive gland of the freshwater snail Radix peregra (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerlet, Edwige [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ledy, Karine [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Giamberini, Laure [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: giamb@sciences.univ-metz.fr

    2006-04-20

    An active biomonitoring study was performed in the vicinity of two pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) released in two different streams in northeastern France. Freshwater gastropods, Radix peregra (=Lymnaea peregra or Lymnaea pereger), were transplanted for 0, 3, 14 and 21 days at two to three sites located upstream and downstream from the mill discharge points in both rivers. Lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, as well as lipofuscin and neutral lipids, were tested using histochemical methods on cryostat sections of digestive gland tissues, and stereological data were obtained by image analysis. Evidence of structural changes in the lysosomal system was found in animals exposed to both effluents, comprising general stress responses such as enlarged and more numerous lysosomes; and also possible specific pluri-phasic effects. Modifications of the lysosomal and cytoplasmic contents of lipid-related materials were also described, namely enhanced lipofuscin deposit and neutral lipid depletion. The peroxisomal proliferation in exposed snails seems to show its implication in oxidative stress detoxication, without preventing higher lipoperoxidation, as indicated by the increased amounts of digestive lipofuscin. Structural changes of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, digestive lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents have potential for use as early cellular biomarkers in Radix peregra exposed to environmental stressors, which deserve further investigations.

  1. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  2. Intestinal Absorption of Triterpenoids and Flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma in the Human Caco-2 Monolayer Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; Liu, Gui-Yan; Yang, Yan-Fang; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2017-09-29

    Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Triterpenoids and flavonoids from the plant have many beneficial effects and their chemical structures are modified in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. However, absorption of these triterpenoids and flavonoids still needs to be defined. Here, the uptake and transepithelial transport of the selected major triterpenoids, glycyrrhizin ( 1 ), glycyrrhetic acid-3- O -mono-β-d-glucuronide ( 2 ), and glycyrrhetinic acid ( 3 ); and the selected major flavonoids, licochalcone A ( 4 ), licochalcone B ( 5 ), licochalcone C ( 6 ), echinatin ( 7 ), isoliquiritin apioside ( 8 ), liquiritigenin ( 9 ), liquiritin apioside ( 10 ) isolated from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma , were investigated in the human intestinal epithelium-like Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Compounds 3 , 5 - 7 , and 9 were designated as well-absorbed compounds, 2 and 4 were designated as moderately absorbed ones, and 1 , 8 , and 10 were assigned for the poorly absorbed ones. The absorption mechanism of well and moderately absorbed compound was mainly passive diffusion to pass through the human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer. These findings provided useful information for predicting their oral bioavailability and the clinical application.

  3. Screening and determination of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2013-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitors play an important role in the treatment of gout and many other diseases related to the superoxide anion metabolism. In this study, an ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UF-LC-MS) method was developed for the screening and identification of potential XOD inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract. Eleven lipophilic diterpenoid quinines were identified as XOD inhibitors from the extract. The relationship between the structure and activity of the detected compounds was estimated on the basis of the UF-LC-MS data. The results demonstrate that the 1,2-naphthoquinone group is necessary for the XOD inhibitory activity of the compounds, and that furan and hydroxyl on the alicyclic ring could enhance the activity of the compounds at different levels. These results may explain and support the medical use of the extract of Radix S. Miltiorrhizae for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing the efficacy of morphologic and DNA-based taxonomy in the freshwater gastropod genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Bruno

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable taxonomic identification at the species level is the basis for many biological disciplines. In order to distinguish species, it is necessary that taxonomic characters allow for the separation of individuals into recognisable, homogeneous groups that differ from other such groups in a consistent way. We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditionally used shell morphology and DNA-based methods to distinguish among species of the freshwater snail genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata. Results Morphometric analysis showed that shell shape was unsuitable to define homogeneous, recognisable entities, because the variation was continuous. On the other hand, the Molecularly defined Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTU, inferred from mitochondrial COI sequence variation, proved to be congruent with biological species, inferred from geographic distribution patterns, congruence with nuclear markers and crossing experiments. Moreover, it could be shown that the phenotypically plastic shell variation is mostly determined by the environmental conditions experienced. Conclusion Contrary to DNA-taxonomy, shell morphology was not suitable for delimiting and recognising species in Radix. As the situation encountered here seems to be widespread in invertebrates, we propose DNA-taxonomy as a reliable, comparable, and objective means for species identification in biological research.

  5. Therapeutic effect of norisoboldine, an alkaloid isolated from Radix Linderae, on collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y; Liu, M; Xia, Y; Dai, Y; Chou, G; Wang, Z

    2010-08-01

    The alkaloid fraction of Radix Linderae, the main active component of this herb drug, has been proven to exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of norisoboldine, the major isoquinoline alkaloid present in Radix Linderae, in collagen II -induced arthritis (CIA) of mice as well as the possible mechanisms. CIA was induced in mice by immunization with chicken type II collagen (II). After boosted on day 21, mice were treated with norisoboldine (10, 20, 40 mg/kg) for twenty consecutive days. The clinical scores, body weight changes and joint histopathology were evaluated. Norisoboldine treatment significantly alleviated the severity of the disease, based on the reduced clinical scores and elevated the lowered body weights of model mice. Meanwhile, this alkaloid dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells, synovial hyperplasia and protected joint from destruction. Additionally, the serum level of anti-CII IgG and the CII-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation were remarkably decreased in the groups administered with norisoboldine. An assessment of Th1 function using the delayed-type hypersensitivity model confirmed that norisoboldine also significantly suppressed the enhanced T cell responses in vivo. These findings suggest that norisoboldine might be a potential therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis, and it functions through protecting joint destruction as well as regulating the abnormal immune responses. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Surfactant-Assisted Pressurized Liquid Extraction at Room Temperature for Radix glycyrrhizae by a New Class of Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Ong, Eng Shi

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-assembled surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction system at room temperature was used for the extraction of glycyrrhizin (GLY) in Radix glycyrrhizae. Environmentally friendly saccharide fatty acid ester such as glucose oleic acid ester is proposed to replace chemical-based surfactants. As the chemical properties of the surfactant obtained were unknown initially, lipase-catalyzed synthesis and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were used to ascertain the identity. Surfactant-assisted pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was carried out dynamically and the extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using different concentration of glucose oleic acid ester were compared with sonication using an organic solvent (ethanol/water, 70:30). The extraction efficiencies of GLY in Radix glycyrrhizae using surfactant-assisted PLE was observed to be higher compared with sonication. The method precision was found to vary from 1.3 to 5.1% (relative standard deviation, RSD, n= 6) on different days. The new method demonstrated the possibility for the extraction to be carried out at room temperature for the production of botanical extracts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Polygalae Radix Extract Prevents Axonal Degeneration and Memory Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Hiroo; Tohda, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur due to degenerated axons and disrupted neural networks. Since only limited recovery is possible after the destruction of neural networks, preventing axonal degeneration during the early stages of disease progression is necessary to prevent AD. Polygalae Radix (roots of Polygala tenuifolia ; PR) is a traditional herbal medicine used for sedation and amnesia. In this study, we aimed to clarify and analyze the preventive effects of PR against memory deficits in a transgenic AD mouse model, 5XFAD. 5XFAD mice demonstrated memory deficits at the age of 5 months. Thus, the water extract of Polygalae Radix (PR extract) was orally administered to 4-month-old 5XFAD mice that did not show signs of memory impairment. After consecutive administrations for 56 days, the PR extract prevented cognitive deficit and axon degeneration associated with the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques in the perirhinal cortex of the 5XFAD mice. PR extract did not influence the formation of Aβ plaques in the brain of the 5XFAD mice. In cultured neurons, the PR extract prevented axonal growth cone collapse and axonal atrophy induced by Aβ. Additionally, it prevented Aβ-induced endocytosis at the growth cone of cultured neurons. Our previous study reported that endocytosis inhibition was enough to prevent Aβ-induced growth cone collapse, axonal degeneration, and memory impairments. Therefore, the PR extract possibly prevented axonal degeneration and memory impairment by inhibiting endocytosis. PR is the first preventive drug candidate for AD that inhibits endocytosis in neurons.

  8. A novel nasal delivery system of a Chinese traditional medicine, Radix Bupleuri, based on the concept of ion-activated in situ gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi-Lei; Chen, En; Zhang, Qi-Zhi; Jiang, Xin-Guo

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a nasal in situ gel system for Radix Bupleuri employing gellan gum as a polymer. Radix Bupleuri in situ gel containing 0.2 mL essential oil extracted from 450 g Radix Bupleuri, proper solubilizing agents and gellan gum (0.5% w/v) was prepared and characterized. The antipyretic effect produced by in situ gel formulation was investigated in fevered rabbits and compared to an intranasal solution. The resulting in situ gel was a clear and light-yellow liquid, with viscosity of 346 mPa x s and caproic acid content of 1.31 +/- 0.01 mg/mL. Intranasal administration of this preparation to fevered rabbits decreased body temperature markedly (1.1 degree C at the doses of oil from 1.5 g Bupleuri/body) and the effect could last for 20-30 h. The results suggest that Radix Bupleuri in situ gel can be greater effective than the solution in the treatment of fever.

  9. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS (with depression and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future.

  10. Synergetic effects of aqueous extracts of Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) and Tubeimu (Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis) on MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Cao, Rui; He, Jinghua; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Liping; Ji, Wei; Wu, Xiongzhi

    2016-02-01

    To test the synergistic effects of theaqueous extract of Tubeimu (Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis) and Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) on MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 breast cancer cells. A combined index was created for the effects of Tubeimu (Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis) and Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) extracts. Cell proliferation was performed by trypan blue exclusion and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assays. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Cell migration was determined by wound-healing and transwell assays. Confocal microscopy was used to detect E-cadherin and actin filaments. The aqueous extract from Tubeimu (Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis) and Fuzi (Radix AconitiLateralis Preparata) exerted synergetic effects on the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and G1 phase arrest. When exposed to extracts at concentrations of 62.5 :62.5 and 62.5: 31.3 µg/mL, the combination index was 0.83 and 0.74, respectively. Interestingly, 62.5: 31.3 pg/mL of combined drugs enhanced the inhibitory effect of Tubeimu (Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis) on the migration of SKBR3 cells and reduced the stimulative effect of Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata) (P SKBR3 cells.

  11. Simultaneous determination of iridoid glycosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides and furfural derivatives in Rehmanniae Radix by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Jie; Zhu, Ling-Ying

    2012-01-01

    was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and successfully applied to determine the contents of the eight analytes in different batches of raw and processed Rehmanniae Radix, which confirmed that the established method was reliable and useful for “holistic” quality...

  12. Multi-component analysis in sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix by single marker quantitation and chemometric discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yajing; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Gang; Tu, Sicong; Li, Songlin; Ma, Xiaoqing; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix before and after sulfur-fumigation using quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS). The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ferulic acid as the internal reference substance, and the contents of senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide were calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meanwhile, the influence of sulfur-fumigation on these chemical components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were evaluated and discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. There was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method. Furthermore, sulfur-fumigation reduced the contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix by some degree, and the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigation processing could be easily discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. QAMS is a convenient and accurate approach to analyzing multi-component when reference substances are unavailable, simultaneously, chemometrics is an effective way to discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

  13. Dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup combined with accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of carbamate pesticide residues in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples by UPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru-zhen; Wang, Jin-hua; Wang, Ming-lin; Zhang, Rong; Lu, Xiao-yu; Liu, Wei-hua

    2011-10-01

    Dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) cleanup combined with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is described here as a new approach for the extraction of carbamate pesticides in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples prior to UPLC-MS-MS. In the DSPE-ASE method, 15 carbamate pesticides were extracted from Radix Glycyrrhizae samples with acetonitrile by the ASE method at 60 °C with a 5 min heating time and two static cycles. Cleanup of a 1 mL aliquot of the extract by the DSPE method used 20 mg PSA (primary secondary amine), 50 mg Al(2)O(3)-N, and 20 mg GCB (graphitized carbon black) (as cleanup sorbents) under the determined optimum conditions. The linearity of the method was in the range of 10 to 200 ng/mL with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of more than 0.996. The limits of detection were approximately 0.2 to 5.0 µg/kg. The method was successfully used for the analysis of target pesticides in Radix Glycyrrhizae samples. The recoveries of the carbamate pesticides at the spiking levels of 50, 100, and 200 µg/kg ranged from 79.7% to 99.3% with relative standard deviations lower than 10%. This multi-residue analytical method allows for a rapid, efficient, sensitive and reliable determination of target pesticides in Radix Glycyrrhizae and other medicinal herbs.

  14. Deciphering the Differential Effective and Toxic Responses of Bupleuri Radix following the Induction of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress and in Healthy Rats Based on Serum Metabolic Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxia; Liang, Meili; Fang, Yuan; Zhao, Fang; Tian, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    The petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix which is contained in the traditional Chinese medicine prescription of Xiaoyaosan (XYS) may have a therapeutic effect in depressed subjects based on the results of our previous study. It has been reported that Bupleuri Radix can cause liver toxicity following overdosing or long-term use. Therefore, this study aimed to decipher the differential effective and toxic responses of Bupleuri Radix in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) (with depression) and healthy rats based on serum metabolic profiles. Serum metabolic profiles were obtained using the UHPLC- Q Exactive Orbitrap-MS technique. Our results demonstrated that the petroleum ether fraction of Bupleuri Radix (PBR) produces an antidepressant effect through regulating glycometabolism, amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. It also induces more severe toxic reactions in the liver or kidney in healthy rats than in CUMS rats, which exhibited a comparatively mild drug-induced toxic reaction. The altered lysine degradation, sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and bile acid metabolism could be at least partly responsible for the PBR toxic responses in healthy rats. The differential effective and toxic response of PBR in CUMS rats and healthy rats provide a new standard for the more rational and safer application of clinical drugs in the future.

  15. Preparative isolation and purification of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin fromRadix Eupatorii Chinensisby high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Xu, Xin-Jun; Xie, Chun-Yan; Huang, Jie-Yun; Xie, Zhi-Sheng; Yang, De-Po

    2012-08-01

    An efficient method for the isolation and purification of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin from Radix Eupatorii Chinensis by high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established in this paper. The ether extracts of Radix Eupatorii Chinensis were purified by HSCCC with a solvent system of hexyl hydride-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase. About 8.4 mg of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin was obtained from 200 mg of ether extracts from Radix Eupatorii Chinensis in one-step HSCCC separation, with the purity of 96.71%, as determined by HPLC. After methanol-water recrystallization, the purity of 12,13-dihydroxyeuparin reached 99.83%. Such a simple and effective method was fairly useful to prepare pure compound as reference substances for related study on Radix Eupatorii Chinensis.

  16. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  17. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn 4 CaO 5 -cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed

  18. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  20. A split SUSY model from SUSY GUT

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, FeiDepartment of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, P.R. China; Wang, Wenyu(Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P.R. China); Yang, Jin(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P.R. China)

    2015-01-01

    We propose to split the sparticle spectrum from the hierarchy between the GUT scale and the Planck scale. A split supersymmetric model, which gives non-universal gaugino masses, is built with proper high dimensional operators in the framework of SO(10) GUT. Based on a calculation of two-loop beta functions for gauge couplings (taking into account all weak scale threshold corrections), we check the gauge coupling unification and dark matter constraints (relic density and direct detections). We...

  1. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  3. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  4. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  5. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate purpose...

  6. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang, Prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by A High-Fructose Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Min Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT, a Chinese medicinal decoction contains Radix Angelicae sinensis (Danggui and Radix Astragali (Huangqi at a ratio of 1 : 5, is used commonly for treating women's ailments. This study was conducted to explore the effects of this preparation on insulin resistance in rats fed with 6-week diet containing 60% fructose. Similar to the action of rosiglitazone (4 mg kg-1 per day by an oral administration, repeated oral administration of DBT (2.5 g kg-1 per day for 14 days was found to significantly alleviate the hyperglycemia but made no influence on plasma lipid profiles nor weight gain in fructose chow-fed rats. Also, the higher degree of insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance in fructose chow-fed rats was significantly decreased by repeated DBT treatment. DBT displays the characteristic of rosiglitazone by increasing the whole-body insulin sensitivity in fructose chow-fed rats after 2-week treatment, as evidenced by the marked elevation of composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index during the oral glucose tolerance test. DBT improves insulin sensitivity through increased post-receptor insulin signaling mediated by enhancements in insulin receptor substrate-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase step and glucose transporter subtype 4 translocation in soleus muscles of animals exhibiting insulin resistance. DBT is therefore proposed as potentially useful adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance and/or the patients who wish to increase insulin sensitivity.

  7. Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Winnie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS, DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae.

  8. Fano resonance Rabi splitting of surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2017-08-14

    Rabi splitting and Fano resonance are well-known physical phenomena in conventional quantum systems as atoms and quantum dots, arising from strong interaction between two quantum states. In recent years similar features have been observed in various nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic systems. Yet, realization of strong interaction between two or more Fano resonance states has not been accomplished either in quantum or in optical systems. Here we report the observation of Rabi splitting of two strongly coupled surface plasmon Fano resonance states in a three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vertical asymmetric split-ring resonators. The plasmonic system stably supports triple Fano resonance states and double Rabi splittings can occur between lower and upper pairs of the Fano resonance states. The experimental discovery agrees excellently with rigorous numerical simulations, and is well explained by an analytical three-oscillator model. The discovery of Fano resonance Rabi splitting could provide a stimulating insight to explore new fundamental physics in analogous atomic systems and could be used to significantly enhance light-matter interaction for optical sensing and detecting applications.

  9. Photochemical Water-Splitting with Organomanganese Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadassery, Karthika J; Dey, Suman Kr; Cannella, Anthony F; Surendhran, Roshaan; Lacy, David C

    2017-08-21

    Certain organometallic chromophores with water-derived ligands, such as the known [Mn(CO) 3 (μ 3 -OH)] 4 (1) tetramer, drew our attention as possible platforms to study water-splitting reactions. Herein, we investigate the UV irradiation of various tricarbonyl organomanganese complexes, including 1, and demonstrate that dihydrogen, CO, and hydrogen peroxide form as products in a photochemical water-splitting decomposition reaction. The organic and manganese-containing side products are also characterized. Labeling studies with 18 O-1 suggest that the source of oxygen atoms in H 2 O 2 originates from free water that interacts with 1 after photochemical dissociation of CO (1-CO) constituting the oxidative half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Hydrogen production from 1 is the result of several different processes, one of which involves the protons derived from the hydroxido ligands in 1 constituting the reductive half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Other processes that generate H 2 are also operative and are described. Collectively the results from the photochemical decomposition of 1 provide an opportunity to propose a mechanism, and it is discussed within the context of developing new strategies for water-splitting reactions with organomanganese complexes.

  10. Split-hand/split-foot malformation with paternal mutation in the p63 gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, I.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Goossens, A.; Assche, F.A. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation of bilateral split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHSFM) with severe lobster claw deformity of hands and feet in a male fetus without associated malformations. A minor manifestation of SHSFM was present in the father with only mild bilateral

  11. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-06

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  12. [Preparative separation of gentiopicrin from Radix Gentianae by high-speed counter-current chromatography with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, You-Wei; Qi, Yan; Han, Xu; Xu, Li-Na; Xu, Qi-Wei; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2007-12-01

    To develop a method for the preparative separation of gentiopicrin from Radix Gentianae by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The crude alcohol extracts were eluted on a macroporous resin column and then purified by high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate: n-butanol: water (2 : 1 : 3) was used, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL x min(-1), while the apparatus rotated at 800 r x min(-1) and the eluate was detected at 254 nm. 136 mg gentiopicrin with purity of 99.6% determined by HPLC were obtained from 300 mg crude extraction only in one-step separation and less than 200 minutes. The established method is simple, high efficiency and suitable for large-scale separation of gentiopicrin.

  13. New isoflavonoid glycosides and related constituents from astragali radix ( Astragalus membranaceus ) and their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Liu, Hui-Kang; Hsiao, Ping-Chun; Kuo, Li-Ming Yang; Lee, I-Jung; Wu, Tian-Shung; Chiou, Wen-Fei; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2011-02-23

    Twenty-four secondary metabolites, including 16 isoflavonoids, 7 astragalasides, and 1 benzoquinone, have been isolated from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus (Astragali radix). Among these isolated isoflavonoids, (-)-methylinissolin 3-O-β-d-(6'-acetyl)-glucoside (1), (-)-methylinissolin 3-O-β-d-{6'-[(E)-but-2-enoyl]}-glucoside (2), and calycosin 7-O-β-d-(6''-acetyl)-glucoside (3) have been identified as new compounds on the basis of spectroscopic analysis; (-)-methylinissolin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (4) was isolated from the natural products for the first time. The nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory activity of the major compounds has been assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. To identify A. membranaceus, a fingerprint method was developed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method. Furthermore, characteristic peaks for the 11 major compounds in the chromatogram were unambiguously confirmed.

  14. Analysis of Fast Radix-10 Digit Recurrence Algorithms for Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Dividers on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Baesler

    2013-01-01

    and decimal formats, for instance, commercial, financial, and insurance applications. In this paper we present five different radix-10 digit recurrence dividers for FPGA architectures. The first one implements a simple restoring shift-and-subtract algorithm, whereas each of the other four implementations performs a nonrestoring digit recurrence algorithm with signed-digit redundant quotient calculation and carry-save representation of the residuals. More precisely, the quotient digit selection function of the second divider is implemented fully by means of a ROM, the quotient digit selection function of the third and fourth dividers are based on carry-propagate adders, and the fifth divider decomposes each digit into three components and requires neither a ROM nor a multiplexer. Furthermore, the fixed-point divider is extended to support IEEE 754-2008 compliant decimal floating-point division for decimal64 data format. Finally, the algorithms have been synthesized on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, and implementation results are given.

  15. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... (bismuth vanadate) was investigated in view of combining this 2.4 eV large bandgap semiconductor with a Si back-illuminated photocathode. A device obtained by mechanical stacking of BiVO4 photoanode and standard Si photocathode performs non-assisted water splitting under illumination with Solar......-to-Hydrogen efficiency lower than 0.5%. In addition, BiVO4 was synthesized on the back-side of a Si back-illuminated photocathode to produce a preliminary monolithic solar water splitting device.The Faradaic efficiency of different types of catalysts for the electrochemical production of hydrogen or oxygen was evaluated...

  16. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  17. Split Notochord Syndrome: A Rare Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Vidhu; Kapoor, Kanchan; Singh, Balbir; Kochhar, Suman; Sehgal, Alka; Dada, Rima

    2017-01-01

    Split notochord syndrome represents an extremely rare and pleomorphic form of spinal dysraphism characterized by a persistent communication between the endoderm and the ectoderm, resulting in splitting or deviation of the notochord. It manifests as a cleft in the dorsal midline of the body through which intestinal loops are exteriorized and even myelomeningoceles or teratomas may occur at the site. A rare variant was diagnosed on autopsy of a 23+4-week-old fetus showing a similar dorsal enteric fistula and midline protruding intestinal loops in thoracolumbar region. The anteroposterior radiograph showed a complete midline cleft in the vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 region, and a split in the spinal cord was further confirmed by ultrasonography. Myelomeningocele was erroneously reported on antenatal ultrasound. Thus, awareness of this rare anomaly is necessary to thoroughly evaluate the cases of such spinal defects or suspected myelomeningoceles. PMID:28904581

  18. Fuzzy split and merge for shadow detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya K. Sasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Presence of shadow in an image often causes problems in computer vision applications such as object recognition and image segmentation. This paper proposes a method to detect the shadow from a single image using fuzzy split and merge approach. Split and merge is a classical algorithm used in image segmentation. Predicate function in the classical approach is replaced by a Fuzzy predicate in the proposed approach. The method follows a top down approach of recursively splitting an image into homogeneous quadtree blocks, followed by a bottom up approach by merging adjacent unique regions. The method has been compared with previous approaches and found to be better in performance in terms of accuracy.

  19. Rapid Determination of Puerarin by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Percolation and Concentration Process of Puerariae Lobatae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintao, Xue; Quanwei, Yang; Yun, Jing; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Jing, Yang; Yanfang, Wu; Peng, Li; Guangrui, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Gegen (Puerariae Labatae Radix) is one of the important medicines in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The studies showed that Gegen and its preparation had effective actions for atherosclerosis. Near-infrared (NIR) was used to develop a method for rapid determination of puerarin during percolation and concentration process of Gegen. About ten batches of samples were collected with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis values as reference, calibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN) as nonlinear regression. The root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r (2)) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. The NIR model for the rapid analysis of puerarin can be used for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process. Near-infrared was used to develop a method for on-line quality control in the percolation and concentration process of GegenCalibration models are generated by partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regressionThe root mean square error of prediction for the PLS and ANN model was 0.0396 and 0.0365 and correlation coefficients (r (2)) was 97.79% and 98.47%, respectively. Abbreviations used: NIR: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy; Gegen: Puerariae Loabatae Radix; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; PLS: Partial least-squares; ANN: Artificial neural networks; RMSEP: Root mean square error of validation; R2: Correlation coefficients; PAT: Process analytical technology; FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; Rcal: Calibration set; RMSECV: Root mean square errors of cross-validation; RPD: Residual predictive deviation; SLS: Straight Line Subtraction; MLP: Multi-Layer Perceptron; MSE: Mean square error.

  20. Polygalae Radix Extract Prevents Axonal Degeneration and Memory Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoharu Kuboyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairments in Alzheimer’s disease (AD occur due to degenerated axons and disrupted neural networks. Since only limited recovery is possible after the destruction of neural networks, preventing axonal degeneration during the early stages of disease progression is necessary to prevent AD. Polygalae Radix (roots of Polygala tenuifolia; PR is a traditional herbal medicine used for sedation and amnesia. In this study, we aimed to clarify and analyze the preventive effects of PR against memory deficits in a transgenic AD mouse model, 5XFAD. 5XFAD mice demonstrated memory deficits at the age of 5 months. Thus, the water extract of Polygalae Radix (PR extract was orally administered to 4-month-old 5XFAD mice that did not show signs of memory impairment. After consecutive administrations for 56 days, the PR extract prevented cognitive deficit and axon degeneration associated with the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ plaques in the perirhinal cortex of the 5XFAD mice. PR extract did not influence the formation of Aβ plaques in the brain of the 5XFAD mice. In cultured neurons, the PR extract prevented axonal growth cone collapse and axonal atrophy induced by Aβ. Additionally, it prevented Aβ-induced endocytosis at the growth cone of cultured neurons. Our previous study reported that endocytosis inhibition was enough to prevent Aβ-induced growth cone collapse, axonal degeneration, and memory impairments. Therefore, the PR extract possibly prevented axonal degeneration and memory impairment by inhibiting endocytosis. PR is the first preventive drug candidate for AD that inhibits endocytosis in neurons.

  1. Faster multiple emulsification with drop splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A

    2011-06-07

    Microfluidic devices can form emulsions in which the drops have an intricate, controlled structure; however, a challenge is that the droplets are produced slowly, typically only a few millilitres per hour. Here, we present a simple technique to increase the production rate. Using a large drop maker, we produce large drops at a fast volumetric rate; by splitting these drops several times in a splitting array, we create drops of the desired small size. The advantage of this over forming the small drops directly using a small drop maker is that the drops can be formed at much faster rates. This can be applied to the production of single and multiple emulsions.

  2. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  3. Hyperfine splitting in lithium-like bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmann, Matthias; Froemmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Will, Elisa [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Andelkovic, Zoran; Kuehl, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri; Winters, Danyal; Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Botermann, Benjamin; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Geppert, Christopher [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Richard [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Volotka, Andrey [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang [IMP Lanzhou (China)

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurements of the hyperfine splitting values on Li- and H-like bismuth ions, combined with precise atomic structure calculations allow us to test QED-effects in the regime of the strongest magnetic fields that are available in the laboratory. Performing laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Darmstadt, we have now succeeded in measuring the hyperfine splitting in Li-like bismuth. Probing this transition has not been easy because of its extremely low fluorescence rate. Details about this challenging experiment will be given and the achieved experimental accuracy are presented.

  4. Molecular and morphological characterization of the cercariae of Lecithodendrium linstowi (Dollfus, 1931), a trematode of bats, and incrimination of the first intermediate snail host, Radix balthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enabulele, Egie E; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J; Kirk, Ruth S

    2018-03-01

    Lecithodendrium linstowi is one of the most prevalent and abundant trematodes of bats, but the larval stages and intermediate hosts have not been identified. We present the first molecular and morphological characterization of the cercariae of L. linstowi based on a phylogenetic analysis of partial fragments of LSU and ITS2 rDNA. The first intermediate host was incriminated as Radix balthica by DNA barcoding using cox1 and ITS2 sequences, although the snail morphologically resembled Radix peregra, emphasizing the requirement for molecular identification of lymnaeids as important intermediate hosts of medical and veterinary impact. The application of molecular data in this study has enabled linkage of life cycle stages and accurate incrimination of the first intermediate host.

  5. Discrete objects, splitting closure and connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notions of discrete and indiscrete classes with respect to a closure operator are introduced and studied. These notions are strongly related to splitting and cosplitting closure operators. By linking the above concepts, two Galois connections arise whose composition provides a third Galois connection that can be used as a ...

  6. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...

  7. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  8. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Concept of split beta. -lactamase protein fragment complementation assay. (A) and (B) are vector systems involved in the assay. As an example, a vector system for bacterial host is described here. (C) Co-transformation of complementation vectors in appropriate bacterial host. (D) and (E) are types of inter- actions expected ...

  9. Molecular catalytic system for efficient water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to construct and explore artificial oxygen evolving complexes that are synthetically accessible, stable, functionally robust and efficient. To achieve this, a class of mono metal water splitting catalysts is introduced in this manuscript and exploitation of these

  10. Splitting up Beta’s change

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  11. Shear-wave splitting and moonquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.; Savage, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Shear-wave splitting is a powerful tool for measuring anisotropy in the Earth's crust and mantle, and is sensitive to geological features such as fluid filled cracks, thin alternating layers of rock with different elastic properties, and preferred mineral orientations caused by strain. Since a shear wave splitting measurement requires only a single 3-component seismic station, it has potential applications for future single-station planetary seismic missions, such as the InSight geophysical mission to Mars, as well as possible future missions to Europa and the Moon. Here we present a preliminary shear-wave splitting analysis of moonquakes detected by the Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment. Lunar seismic data suffers from several drawbacks compared to modern terrestrial data, including severe seismic scattering, low intrinsic attenuation, 10-bit data resolution, thermal spikes, and timing errors. Despite these drawbacks, we show that it is in principle possible to make a shear wave splitting measurement using the S-phase arrival of a relatively high-quality moonquake, as determined by several agreeing measurement criteria. Encouraged by this finding, we further extend our analysis to clusters of "deep moonquake" events by stacking multiple events from the same cluster together to further enhance the quality of the S-phase arrivals that the measurement is based on.

  12. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-05-01

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  14. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  15. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...

  16. Identification of novel autophagic Radix Polygalae fraction by cell membrane chromatography and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS for degradation of neurodegenerative disease proteins

    OpenAIRE

    An-Guo Wu; Vincent Kam-Wai Wong; Wu Zeng; Liang Liu; Betty Yuen-Kwan Law

    2015-01-01

    With its traditional use in relieving insomnia and anxiety, our previous study has identified onjisaponin B from Radix Polygalae (RP), as a novel autophagic enhancer with potential neuroprotective effects. In current study, we have further identified a novel active fraction from RP, contains 17 major triterpenoid saponins including the onjisaponin B, by the combinational use of cell membrane chromatography (CMC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to (quadrupole) time-of-fligh...

  17. Investigation of the Effect of the Degree of Processing of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuang on Shu Dihuangtan Carbonization Preparation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Meng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Dihuangtan via stir-frying could increase its homeostasis maintaining and antidiarrheal effects. To ensure these pharmacological functions, the quality of the raw material (processed Rehmanniae Radix must be well controlled. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different degrees of processing and adjuvants on processed Rehmanniae Radix (Shu Dihuang by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC chromatographic fingerprints, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Based on the results from HPLC fingerprints combined with similarity analysis (SA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA the optimum processing method for Shu Dihuang was five cycles of steaming and polishing, which follows the ancient processing theory. The intensity of thermal weight loss rate peaked near 210.33 ± 4.32 °C or 211.33 ± 2.62 °C, which was an important indicator for the degree of processing of Shu Dihuang. A temperature near 290.89 ± 2.51 °C was the upper limit for carbonizing Shu Dihuangtan. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed that the overall chemical composition of Shu Dihuangtan was affected by both the degree of processing and adjuvant, which are very important for its quality.

  18. Unusual root morphology in second mandibular molar with a radix entomolaris, and comparison between cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, Elisardo; Castelo-Baz, Pablo; De Moor, Roland; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Varela-Patiño, Purificación

    2015-09-22

    Radix entomolaris presents with an unusual morphology and is a rare occurrence. It is mainly observed in mandibular first molars. The incidence varies in different populations but it is far from common. This is especially true for mandibular second molars which possess the lowest prevalence. Some case reports have shown the presence of this finding in mandibular second molars; however, cases of patients of a white background have not been reported. The diagnosis and treatment of an infected radix entomolaris in a mandibular second molar in a 45-year-old white man is presented. The diagnosis was made with standard endodontic techniques. Conventional radiographic imaging was augmented with cone-beam computed tomography scans and three-dimensional images which were constructed with dedicated software. The endodontic treatment was done using accepted endodontic procedures. Clinical and radiographic evidence of healing was seen after a 14-month follow-up. The implications of complex and unpredictable root anatomy are discussed in this report. The clinician should consider the possibility of encountering a mandibular second molar with a radix entomolaris. Cone-beam computed tomography is a useful tool in the diagnosis and improvement of root canal therapy.

  19. A practical strategy for the characterization of coumarins in Radix Glehniae by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ye, Min; Liu, Man; Kong, Dezhi; Shi, Rui; Shi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kerong; Wang, Qiao; Lantong, Zhang

    2010-07-02

    The aim of the present study was to develop a practical method for the characterization of coumarins in Radix Glehniae by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). First, 10 coumarin standards (including two pairs of isomers) were studied, and mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns and elution time rules for the coumarins were found. Then, an extract of Radix Glehniae was analyzed by the combination of two scan modes, i.e., multiple ion monitoring-information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (MIM-IDA-EPI) and precursor scan information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion mode (PREC-IDA-EPI) on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A total of 41 coumarins were identified on the basis of their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. This is the first time that these two scan modes have been combined to characterize chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. This new method allowed the identification of coumarins in Radix Glehniae in trace amounts. The methodology proposed in this study could be valuable for the structural characterization of coumarins from complex natural and synthetic sources. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-Mendelian transmission in a human developmental disorder: split hand/split foot.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvik, G. P.; Patton, M. A.; Homfray, T.; Evans, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The study of Mendelian disorders that do not meet some Mendelian expectations has led to an increased understanding of such previously obscure genetic phenomena as anticipation. Split hand/split foot (SHSF), a human developmental malformation, demonstrates such distinctive genetic features as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. In this study, new pedigrees with defined ascertainment confirm the existence of non-Mendelian transmission characterized by the overtransmission of SHSF fro...

  1. Splitting, splitting and splitting again: A brief history of the development of regional government in Indonesia since independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the changes in the structure and role of provincial and sub-provincial governments in Indonesia since independence. Particular attention is paid to the process of splitting both provinces and districts (kabupaten and kota into smaller units. The paper points out that this process has been going on since the 1950s, but has accelerated in the post-Soeharto era. The paper examines why the splitting of government units has occurred in some parts of the Outer Islands to a much greater extent than in Java, and also examines the implications of developments since 1999 for the capacity of local government units to deliver basic services such as health and education.

  2. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  3. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  4. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  5. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-10-07

    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  6. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  7. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  8. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow

    2011-08-01

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e + e - annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  9. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  10. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.

    1994-01-01

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  11. On split Lie triple systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1 M Forero Piulestán1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 24 June 2009 ...

  12. Larval trematode communities in Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in a reservoir system of the Ruhr River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-del-Olmo Ana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of the data available from traditional faunistic approaches to mollusc-trematode systems covering large spatial and/or temporal scales in Europe convinced us that a parasite community approach in well-defined aquatic ecosystems is essential for the substantial advancement of our understanding of the parasite response to anthropogenic pressures in urbanised areas which are typical on a European scale. Here we describe communities of larval trematodes in two lymnaeid species, Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in four man-made interconnected reservoirs of the Ruhr River (Germany focusing on among- and within-reservoir variations in parasite prevalence and component community composition and structure. Results The mature reservoir system on the Ruhr River provides an excellent environment for the development of species-rich and abundant trematode communities in Radix auricularia (12 species and Lymnaea stagnalis (6 species. The lake-adapted R. auricularia dominated numerically over L. stagnalis and played a major role in the trematode transmission in the reservoir system. Both host-parasite systems were dominated by bird parasites (13 out of 15 species characteristic for eutrophic water bodies. In addition to snail size, two environmental variables, the oxygen content and pH of the water, were identified as important determinants of the probability of infection. Between-reservoir comparisons indicated an advanced eutrophication at Baldeneysee and Hengsteysee and the small-scale within-reservoir variations of component communities provided evidence that larval trematodes may have reflected spatial bird aggregations (infection 'hot spots'. Two life history groupings of dominant species, the 'cyprinid' and 'anatid' parasites, that depict two aspects of progressive eutrophication in this mature reservoir system, were identified. Conclusions We conclude that trematode communities in the lake-adapted R. auricularia are

  13. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  14. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General rules—(1... split-dollar loan depend upon the relationship between the parties and upon whether the loan is a demand...-dollar demand loan is any split-dollar loan that is payable in full at any time on the demand of the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  16. A study of Semen Strychni-induced renal injury and herb-herb interaction of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract and/or Rhizoma Ligustici extract on the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqiang; Wang, Xiaofan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ju, Ping; Zhang, Lunhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the renal injury caused by Semen strychni and its major toxic constituents, strychnine and brucine, was reported in many clinical cases. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the renal injury induced by Semen Strychni and the protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici. The protective mechanisms were related to the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine. Serum and urine uric acid and creatinine were used as renal function markers to evaluate the condition of kidney, and renal injury was directly reflected by histopathological changes. Compared with rats in blank group and protective herb groups, rats in Semen Strychni high-dose group showed significant differences in the results of renal function markers, and various glomerular and tubular degenerations were found in the histopathological study. The decreased AUC (only strychnine) and Cmax, the increased Tmax by Radix Glycyrrhizae and the decreased T1/2 by Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici were found in model groups. Results indicated that high dose of Semen Strychni might induce renal injury. Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici might work together and have effects on the elimination of strychnine and brucine. The protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae might also be explained by the slow absorption of the alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  18. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-05-01

    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets.

  19. [Growth rings in roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and its application on identification of Paeoniae Radix Rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shan-Shan; Zha, Liang-Ping; Duan, Hai-Yan; Xu, Tao; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The growth years of medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, and "Herb-chronology" has been used to determine the growth years of perennial dicotyledonous plants in recent years. On the basis of conventional paraffin section and freehand section, the anatomical study on roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and main roots of cultivated Paeonia lactiflora was conducted in this paper. The results showed that, there existed some differences in microstructure of the seven species such as P. lactiflora, P. obovata, P. veitchii, P. mairei, P. anomala, P. sinjiangensis and P. anomala var. intermedia, and this could be used to distinguish different species. In the roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species, distinct growth rings were formed because that the different diameters or density of xylem vessels in the secondary xylem formed clusters and arranged interrupted rings in tangential direction. There were growth rings in the main roots of P. lactiflora cultivated 1-4 years in Siping, Jilin, which were all consistent with their growth years. Due to the similar growth characteristics between wild Sect. Paeonia species and cultivated P. lactiflora, the growth rings can provide a basis for the age identification and lay the foundation for the quality evaluation of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Endodontic treatment of the permanent mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štamfelj Iztok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The success of endodontic treatment is based on correct determination of the number of roots and root canals. Therefore, variants in root number and root canal number are a constant therapeutic challenge. The permanent mandibular first molar (PMFM usually has a mesial root with two canals and a distal root with one or two canals, but may also have a supernumerary root located distolingually - a radix entomolaris (RE. Case report: Recent studies have shown that RE invariably contains a single root canal. Although RE occurs with a relatively low prevalence in Caucasian patients, it may be the cause of endodontic failure if not identified before or during the treatment. The knowledge about the location of the additional root canal orifice will result in a modified access cavity design. Moreover, morphological features of the RE in terms of root inclination and curvature must be taken into account during root canal preparation to avoid procedural errors, such as straightening and ledging of the root canal, perforation or instrument fracture. Conclusion: This paper presents the endodontic retreatment of a PMFM with RE in a Caucasian patient and highlights the importance of a thorough radiographic and clinical examination.

  1. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations, coming from parents infected with this parasite, resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence and intensity of snail infection. This may explain high prevalence of fasciolosis noted in several cattle-breeding farms when the common snail host of this digenean, G. truncatula, is lacking. PMID:24986589

  2. [Qualitative and quantitative research on sulfur fumigation of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (Baizhi) by near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Yi; Chao, Zhi-Mao; Sun, Wen; Wang, Chun

    2014-05-01

    The contents of coumarins in the sulfur fumigated Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (Baizhi, ADR) were reduced significantly. To achieve the quality control of ADR, the qualitative identification of sulfur fumigated ADR and quantitative model of imperatorin content should be established. The near-infrared (NIR) spectrograms of non-sulfur and sulfur fumigated ADR were collected by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technology and pretreated by the method of first derivative derivation and vector normalization. The Ward's Algorithm method was used for the cluster analysis. The non-sulfur and sulfur fumigated ADR can be quickly identified in the range of 8,806. 0-3 811.0 cm(-1) based on the cluster analysis. The NIR quantitative model of imperatorin was established by the contents of imperatorin determined by HPLC in combination with partial least squares regression analysis. According to the calibration model established in this study, correlation coefficients (R2), the root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) for imperatorin were 0.982 8, 0.006 8, 0.011 8, respectively. The quantitative model of imperatorin can be applied to determine the content of imperatorin in ADR accurately.

  3. Actions of four organic acids in radix isatidis on endotoxin-neutralization investigated by kinetic turbidimetric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; He, Ying-jun; Li, You; Gong, Mu-xin

    2012-06-01

    To investigate anti-endotoxin action of four OAs reacted with endotoxin by the LAL assay with KTA. Using a incubating kinetic tube reader and kinetic turbidimetric assay (KTA), the concentration-response time curve of endotoxin reacted with limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) at 37 degrees C were obtained and the action of four organic acids (OAs) on it were investigated. The four OAs were benzoic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid and 2-amino-benzoic acid from Radix isatidis. Meanwhile, the temperature variation caused by endotoxin with the four OAs was studied by the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT). It was showed that a low concentration (1 mg/mL) of the four OAs had a little effect of anti-endotoxin, and when the concentrations of the four OAs were 30 mg/mL, the endotoxin was neutralized completely. The relationships between the concentrations of endotoxin and the OAs were all linear with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.9995, indicating that the four OAs all had strong anti-endotoxin action, while syringic acid had the strongest action among the four OAs with IC50 of 12.84 mg/mL. The investigations of KTA agreed well with the results obtained by means of RPT.

  4. Effects of Metaldehyde and Niclosamide on The Behavior and Reproductive Capacity of Radix Quadrasi Von Moellendorf (Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae

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    Bambang Retnoaji

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of molluscicides exposure, metaldehyde and niclosamide, on the behavior and reproductive capacity of Radix quadrasi was studied under laboratory conditions. R quadrasi were exposed to different concentration-rates of niclosamide: 0, 0.045, 0.058 and 0.075 mg/L, and of metaldehyde: 0, 100, 112 and 130 mg/L. The symptoms of poisoning of treated snails were observed closely throughout the duration of the experiment. Observations were made three times: at the beginning of treatment (0 hour, 12 hours, and 24 hours after exposure. The surviving R. quadrasi were maintained for one month to determine their reproductive capacity. Results indicated that there was immediate reaction of the snails to molluscicide exposure. Lower concentration-rates of molluscicide triggered water-leaving behavior. Such behavior occurred in all of the low and medium concentration-rates of niclosamide and metaldehyde, as well as in some snails from the control group. By contrast, higher concentration-rates caused almost instantaneous immobility. Niclosamide and metaldehyde also significantly reduced the reproductive capacity of R. quadrasi. The number of egg masses and eggs laid varied with the treatments. However, the incubation period of the treated eggs was not statistically different from the treated ones. This study showed that both niclosamide and metaldehyde significantly affected the behavior and reproductive capacity of the R. quadrasi. Between the two molluscicides used in this experiment, niclosamide was more toxic than metaldehyde.

  5. Detection of Emodin Derived Glutathione Adduct in Normal Rats Administered with Large Dosage of Polygoni Multiflori Radix

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    Li-Long Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR has been commonly used as a tonic in China for centuries. PMR-associated hepatotoxicity has been drawing increasingly more attention in recent years in parallel with its wide utilization. Anthraquinones (AQs are recognized as the main hepatotoxic components in PMR. However, the exact underlying mechanism of AQs poisoning is still not fully understood. Herein, we proposed a hypothesis that metabolic activation of AQs such as emodin was involved in PMR-induced liver injury, AQs followed to generate the electrophilic reactive metabolites and subsequently formed covalent adduct with cellular nucleophiles in the liver to exert hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the link of cytotoxicity of PMR in primary human hepatocytes and the depletion of glutathione (GSH was investigated by MTT assay and UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS analysis. The results showed that PMR depleted GSH and therefore induced cytotoxicity. Then, emodin-GSH adduct was identified in bile of liver injured rats after intragastric administration of PMR or emodin with the aid of UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Our findings not only provided confirmative evidence that the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by AQs in PMR involved key metabolic steps, but also revealed that emodin-GSH adduct had potential to be further developed as a sensitive and traceable biomarker for the assessment of PMR-induced liver injury.

  6. Discrimination of Radix Polygoni Multiflori from different geographical areas by UPLC-QTOF/MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-Fa; Li, Wei-Xia; Zhang, Fan; Li, Yu-Hui; Cao, Ying-Jie; Zhao, Ya; Li, Xue-Lin; Ma, Zhi-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM, Heshouwu in Chinese) from different geographical origins were used in clinic. In order to characterize the chemical profiles of different geographical origins of RPM samples, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) combined with chemometrics (partial least squared discriminant analysis, PLS‑DA) method was applied in the present study. The chromatography, chemical composition and MS information of RPM samples from 18 geographical origins were acquired and profiled by UPLC-QTOF/MS. The chemical markers contributing the differentiation of RPM samples were observed and characterized by supervised PLS‑DA method of chemometrics. The chemical composition differences of RPM samples derived from 18 different geographical origins were observed. Nine chemical markers were tentatively identified which could be used as specific chemical markers for the differentiation of geographical RPM samples. UPLC-QTOF/MS method coupled with chemometrics analysis has potential to be used for discriminating different geographical TCMs. Results will help to develop strategies for conservation and utilization of RPM samples.

  7. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

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    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  9. Prediction of Radix Astragali Immunomodulatory Effect of CD80 Expression from Chromatograms by Quantitative Pattern-Activity Relationship

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    Michelle Chun-har Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of a single chemical component as the representative quality control marker of herbal food supplement is inadequate. In this CD80-Quantitative-Pattern-Activity-Relationship (QPAR study, we built a bioactivity predictive model that can be applicable for complex mixtures. Through integrating the chemical fingerprinting profiles of the immunomodulating herb Radix Astragali (RA extracts, and their related biological data of immunological marker CD80 expression on dendritic cells, a chemometric model using the Elastic Net Partial Least Square (EN-PLS algorithm was established. The EN-PLS algorithm increased the biological predictive capability with lower value of RMSEP (11.66 and higher values of Rp2 (0.55 when compared to the standard PLS model. This CD80-QPAR platform provides a useful predictive model for unknown RA extract’s bioactivities using the chemical fingerprint inputs. Furthermore, this bioactivity prediction platform facilitates identification of key bioactivity-related chemical components within complex mixtures for future drug discovery and understanding of the batch-to-batch consistency for quality clinical trials.

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of scutellariae radix extract in mice fed a high fat diet with chronic alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Seok; Park, Soojin; Park, Kyungho; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-09-01

    Scutellariae radix (SR) is an herbal medicine used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. To investigate whether the SR water extract has a hepatoprotective effect in mice fed a high fat diet with chronic alcohol consumption, ICR mice were fed one of the following diets: a control diet (CD, 16% fat), a high fat diet (HFD, 40% fat), a high fat diet with either ethanol (HFDE, 25% v/v, ad libitum) alone or ethanol with SR extract (HFDESR, 100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days, respectively. The combination of high fat diet with ethanol exposure induced hepatic damage that was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of functional enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum. Also, the liver and visceral fat weights were increased and the lipid profiles in serum and liver homogenate including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. The SR supplements significantly reversed these altered parameters to near the values of the CD mice. Specifically, the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver homogenate was significantly lowered in the HFDESR group compared with that of either the HFD or HFDE groups, which revealed that the SR extract could afford protection in the alleviation of high fat and alcoholic liver damage. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Determination of cytotoxicity of traditional Chinese medicine herbs, Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, and Cortex phellodendri, by three methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, Maureen; Yau, Philip; Yap, Maurice; Cho, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Many herbs are used in traditional Chinese medicine TCM) for treatment of infections but their properties, in particular, their effects on normal cells have received little attention. This study investigated the cytotoxic properties of three TCM herbs with potential use in prevention and treatment of ocular infections, including Acanthamoeba keratitis. The study investigated cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts of Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, and Cortex phellodendri on human corneal epithelial cells using trypan blue staining, MTT production, and flow cytometry. Differences between herbs were determined using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance, followed by paired t-tests where appropriate. These three herbs appeared to lack cytotoxicity when tested with trypan blue and MTT, but flow cytometry revealed that R. coptidis led to cell membrane damage. Lack of cytotoxicity of R. scutellariae and C. phellodendri extracts suggest that these are potentially suitable for use in ocular preparations. Only flow cytometry was able to accurately predict cytotoxic effects of extracts of TCM herbs on HCEC, demonstrating the importance of using a sensitive method of detection of cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Protective effects of Pharmacopuncture Solutions made by Carthmi Flos, Cnidii Rhizoma and Astragali Radix on C6 glioma cells

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    Hyung Woo Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried out to investigate protective effects of Pharmacopuncture Solutions (PSs made by Carthmi Flos (CF, Cnidii Rhizoma (CR and Astragali Radix (AR on C6 glioma cells Methods : We investigated the effects of PSs on proliferation rates and types of C6 cells, and also investigated the effects on LDH release. In addition, protective effects of PSs on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and SOD-like activities were also investigated. Results : PSs made by CF, CR and AR did not show cytotoxicity in various concentrations. CF-PS and AR-PS elevated levels of proliferation rates significantly. Treatment with CF-PS lowered level of LDH release in C6 cells. In addition, CF-PS and CR-PS showed protective effects on cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide respectively. Finally, CF-PS group showed high level of SOD-like activity compared to that in CR-PS group. Conclusion : These results suggest that CF-PS can accelerate proliferation of neuroglial cells, and has protective action against oxidative stress, which was involved in anti-oxidative effects such as SODlike activities. In addition, CR has protective effects against oxidative stress, and AR can accelerate proliferation of neuroglial cells.

  13. Purification of polar compounds from Radix isatidis using conventional C18 column coupled with polar-copolymerized C18 column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Guo, Zhimou; Xiao, Yuansheng; Wang, Chaoran; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Xinmiao

    2010-11-01

    Regarding hydrophilic interaction chromatography and normal phase liquid chromatography, RPLC is another choice used to separate polar compounds with the improvement of polar-modified C18 stationary phase. In this study, a method using conventional C18 column coupled with polar-copolymerized C18 column was successfully developed for the separation and purification of polar compounds from Radix isatidis, which is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). An XTerra MS C18 column was used to fractionate the extract of R. isatidis and a homemade polar-copolymerized C18 column was utilized for the final purification due to its good separation selectivity and high resolution for polar compounds. The established purification system demonstrated good orthogonality for the polar compounds. As a result, ten compounds were purified and three of them were identified as 3-methyl-5-vinyloxazolidin-2-one (compound A), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (compound B) and 3-methylfuran-2-carboxylic acid (compound G) based on the MS, IR and extensive NMR data, respectively. It was demonstrated to be a feasible and powerful technique for the purification of polar compounds under RPLC mode and more chemical information of TCMs will be obtained to interpret the efficiency of TCMs.

  14. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS 2 of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Reduced Consolidation, Reinstatement, and Renewal of Conditioned Fear Memory by Repetitive Treatment of Radix Polygalae in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic goal for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is to promote extinction and to prevent the relapse of fearful memories. Research has identified pharmacological treatments that may regulate the formation and extinction of fear memories, but not many reagents that block the relapse of extinguished fear are known. Radix Polygalae (RP is an Asian herb used for sedation, and its ingredients have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. As various neurological effects have been identified, we tested whether RP affects the relapse of fear. Freezing in response to a conditioned context and cues was used to measure the effects of RP in mice. In cohort 1 (n = 30, consolidation, extinction, and reinstatement were tested during the course of 18 days of treatment. In cohort 2 (n = 30, consolidation, extinction, and renewal were tested during 10 days of treatment. The consolidation, extinction, reinstatement, and possibly the renewal of context-induced freezing were inhibited due to the administration of RP in animal subjects. However, the effects of RP on the freezing responses of subjects elicited by conditioned auditory cues were less obvious. Because it effectively suppresses the consolidation of fear memories, RP may be used for primary and secondary prevention of symptoms in PTSD patients. Additionally, because it effectively suppresses the reinstatement and renewal of fear memories, RP may be applied for the prevention of fear relapse in PTSD patients who have undergone exposure therapy.

  17. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua

    2018-01-24

    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  18. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  19. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  20. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  1. Randomized clinical trial comparing fixed-time split dosing and split dosing of oral Picosulfate regimen for bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Hyuck; Han, Koon Hee; Park, Jong Kyu; Seo, Hyun Il; Kim, Young Don; Lee, Sang Jin; Jun, Baek Gyu; Hwang, Min Sik; Park, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Myeong Jong; Cheon, Gab Jin

    2017-08-28

    To compare the efficacy of fixed-time split dose and split dose of an oral sodium picosulfate for bowel preparation. This is study was prospective, randomized controlled study performed at a single Institution (2013-058). A total of 204 subjects were assigned to receive one of two sodium picosulfate regimens ( i.e ., fixed-time split or split) prior to colonoscopy. Main outcome measurements were bowel preparation quality and subject tolerability. There was no statistical difference between the fixed-time split dose regimen group and the split dose regimen group (Ottawa score mean 2.57 ± 1.91 vs 2.80 ± 2.51, P = 0.457). Cecal intubation time and physician's satisfaction of inspection were not significantly different between the two groups ( P = 0.428, P = 0.489). On subgroup analysis, for afternoon procedures, the fixed-time split dose regimen was equally effective as compared with the split dose regimen (Ottawa score mean 2.56 ± 1.78 vs 2.59 ± 2.27, P = 0.932). There was no difference in tolerability or compliance between the two groups. Nausea was 21.2% in the fixed-time split dose group and 14.3% in the split dose group ( P = 0.136). Vomiting was 7.1% and 2.9% ( P = 0.164), abdominal discomfort 7.1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.484), dizziness 1% and 4.8% ( P = 0.113), cold sweating 1% and 0% ( P = 0.302) and palpitation 0% and 1% ( P = 0.330), respectively. Sleep disturbance was two (2%) patients in the fixed-time split dose group and zero (0%) patient in the split dose preparation ( P = 0.143) group. A fixed-time split dose regimen with sodium picosulfate is not inferior to a split dose regimen for bowel preparation and equally effective for afternoon colonoscopy.

  2. The Regularity of Functions on Dual Split Quaternions in Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows some properties of dual split quaternion numbers and expressions of power series in dual split quaternions and provides differential operators in dual split quaternions and a dual split regular function on Ω⊂ℂ2×ℂ2 that has a dual split Cauchy-Riemann system in dual split quaternions.

  3. Cytoprotective effects of Glycyrrhizae radix extract and its active component liquiritigenin against cadmium-induced toxicity (effects on bad translocation and cytochrome c-mediated PARP cleavage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Chan; Byun, Sung Hui; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2004-01-01

    Glycyrrhizae radix has been popularly used as one of the oldest and most frequently employed botanicals in herbal medicine in Asian countries, and currently occupies an important place in food products. Cadmium (Cd) induces both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death, in which alterations in cellular sulfhydryls participate. In the present study, we determined the effects of G. radix extract (GRE) and its representative active components on cell death induced by Cd and explored the mechanistic basis of cytoprotective effects of G. radix. Incubation of H4IIE cells with GRE inhibited cell death induced by 10 μM Cd. Also, GRE effectively blocked Cd (1 μM)-induced cell death potentiated by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) without restoration of cellular GSH. GRE prevented both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell injury induced by Cd (10 μM) or Cd (0.3-1 μM) + BSO. Inhibition of Cd-induced cell injury by pretreatment of cells with GRE suggested that the cytoprotective effect result from alterations in the levels of the protein(s) responsible for cell viability. GRE inhibited mitochondrial Bad translocation by Cd or Cd+BSO, and caused restoration of mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c levels. Cd-induced poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage in control cells or in cells deprived of sulfhydryls was prevented by GRE treatment. Among the major components present in GRE, liquiritigenin, but not liquiritin, isoliquiritigenin or glycyrrhizin, exerted cytoprotective effect. These results demonstrated that GRE blocked Cd-induced cell death by inhibiting the apoptotic processes involving translocation of Bad into mitochondria, decreases in mitochondrial Bcl xL and cytochrome c, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage

  4. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1990-12-01

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semisimple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggest that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.)

  5. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  6. An Iterative Algorithm for the Split Equality and Multiple-Sets Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoyi Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP requires finding a point x∈∩i=1NCi, y∈∩j=1MQj such that Ax=By, where N and M are positive integers, {C1,C2,…,CN} and {Q1,Q2,…,QM} are closed convex subsets of Hilbert spaces H1, H2, respectively, and A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 are two bounded linear operators. When N=M=1, the MSSEP is called the split equality problem (SEP. If  B=I, then the MSSEP and SEP reduce to the well-known multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSSFP and split feasibility problem (SFP, respectively. One of the purposes of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm to solve the SEP and MSSEP in the framework of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces under some more mild conditions for the iterative coefficient.

  7. Effects of Radix Adenophorae and Cyclosporine A on an OVA-Induced Murine Model of Asthma by Suppressing to T Cells Activity, Eosinophilia, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Soo Roh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Radix Adenophorae extract (RAE on ovalbumin-induced asthma murine model. To study the anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic effects of RAE, we examined the development of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and inhibitory effects of T cells in murine by RAE and cyclosporine A (CsA. We examined determination of airway hyperresponsiveness, flow cytometric analysis (FACS, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, quantitative real time (PCR, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and Masson trichrome staining in lung tissue, lung weight, total cells, and eosinophil numbers in lung tissue. We demonstrated how RAE suppressed development on inflammation and decreased airway damage.

  8. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  9. Blockade of nicotine sensitization by methanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix mediated via antagonism of accumbal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng Lin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, Hong Feng; Wu, Yi Yan; Li, Li Bo; Wang, Yu Hua; Jiao, Yu; Fan, Yu; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Bong Hyeo; Cho, Il Je; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, Rong Jie

    2017-11-16

    We previously reported that a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (MEGR) blocked methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in rats. In the present study, the effects of MEGR on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated administrations of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous) or saline twice a day for 7 d and were challenged with nicotine 4 d after the last daily dosing. During the 4-d withdrawal period, the rats were treated once a day with MEGR (60 or 180 mg/kg/d). Extracellular DA levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis, the malondialdehyde levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the Nacc were biochemically evaluated, and the expression of antioxidant proteins was confirmed by Western blot assays. All data were assessed with analysis of variance tests followed by post-hoc comparison tests and p values nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization was dose-dependently attenuated by MEGR, and 180 mg/kg/d MEGR significantly inhibited augmented accumbal DA release induced by a direct local challenge of nicotine. Moreover, 180 mg/kg/d MEGR reversed increases in malondialdehyde production, decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and the reduced expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1 in the nicotine-sensitized Nacc. These results suggest that MEGR inhibited nicotine-induced locomotion and dopaminergic sensitization via antioxidant action.

  10. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix Inhibits Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (AR suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis (AD-like skin lesions induced by Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice. To investigate the effect of AR, we measured the AD severity score, measured plasma levels of IgE and histamine, and performed histological analysis in NC/Nga mice. We also confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of AR by measuring TARC/CCL17 production from LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells and mRNA levels of TARC and MDC/CCL22 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells. 10 mg/day of AR extract was applied for 4 weeks to NC/Nga mice. Both the AR extract and 0.1% tacrolimus suppressed the development of AD-like skin lesions and reduced dermatitis scores of the back and ear skin. AR extracts caused an inhibition of histological changes induced by repeated application of D. farinae and a reduction of IgE and histamine levels in plasma (P<0.05. Furthermore, NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells was diminished in a dose-dependent manner, and hTARC production and TARC and MDC mRNA levels in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells were diminished by AR. The inhibitory effect of AR on NO, TARC and MDC production may be associated with the suppression of AD-like skin lesions in D. farinae-induced NC/Nga mice.

  11. Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce fuel hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao

    Solar energy is regarded as a promising source for clean and sustainable energy. However, it is not a continuous energy source, thus certain strategies have to be developed to effectively convert and store it. Solar-driven electrocatalytic water splitting, which converts solar energy into chemical energy for storage as fuel hydrogen, can effectively mitigate the intermittence of solar radiation. Water splitting consists of two half reactions: water oxidation and hydrogen evolution. Both reactions rely on highly effective electrocatalysts. This dissertation is an account of four detailed studies on developing highly effective low-cost electrocatalysts for both reactions, and includes a preliminary attempt at system integration to build a functional photoanode for solar-driven water oxidation. For the water oxidation reaction, we have developed an electrochemical method to immobilize a cobalt-based (Co-OXO) water oxidation catalyst on a conductive surface to promote recyclability and reusability without affecting functionality. We have also developed a method to synthesize a manganese-based (MnOx) catalytic film in situ, generating a nanoscale fibrous morphology that provides steady and excellent water oxidation performance. The new method involves two series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) over different potential ranges, followed by calcination to increase crystallinity. The research has the potential to open avenues for synthesizing and optimizing other manganese-based water oxidation catalysts. For the hydrogen evolution reaction, we have developed a new electrodeposition method to synthesize Ni/Ni(OH)2 catalysts in situ on conductive surfaces. The new method involves only two cycles of CV over a single potential range. The resulting catalytic film has a morphology of packed walnut-shaped particles. It has superior catalytic activity and good stability over long periods. We have investigated the feasibility of incorporating manganese-based water oxidation catalysts

  12. The impact of payment splitting on liquidity requirements in RTGS

    OpenAIRE

    Denbee, Edward; Norman, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact that payment splitting could have upon the liquidity requirements and efficiency of a large-value payment system, such as the United Kingdom’s CHAPS. Using the Bank of Finland Payment and Settlement Simulator and real UK payments data we find that payment splitting could reduce the liquidity required to settle payments. The reduction in required liquidity would increase as the payment splitting threshold decreased but the relationship is non-linear. Liquidity sa...

  13. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  14. A Power System Network Splitting Strategy Based on Contingency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawani Saharuddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a network splitting strategy following critical line outages based on N-1 contingency analysis. Network splitting is the best option for certain critical outages when the tendency of severe cascading failures is very high. Network splitting is executed by splitting the power system network into feasible set of islands. Thus, it is essential to identify the optimal splitting solution (in terms of minimal power flow disruption that satisfies certain constraints. This paper determines the optimal splitting solution for each of the critical line outage using discrete evolutionary programming (DEP optimization technique assisted by heuristic initialization approach. Heuristic initialization provides the best initial cutsets which will guide the optimization technique to find the optimal splitting solution. Generation–load balance and transmission line overloading analysis are carried out in each island to ensure the steady state stability is achieved. Load shedding scheme is initiated if the power balance criterion is violated in any island to sustain the generation–load balance. The proposed technique is validated on the IEEE 118 bus system. Results show that the proposed approach produces an optimal splitting solution with lower power flow disruption during network splitting execution.

  15. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    Most of today’s complex systems and processes involve several stages through which input or the raw material has to go before the final product is obtained. Also in many cases factors at different stages interact. Therefore, a holistic approach for experimentation that considers all stages...... on the Kronecker product representation of orthogonal designs and can be used for any number of stages, for various numbers of subplots and for different number of subplots for each stage. The procedure is demonstrated on both regular and nonregular designs and provides the maximum number of factors that can...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  16. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator....... Finally the velocity estimates from each frequency band are averaged to obtain an improved velocity estimate. The FS method has been evaluated in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS. In both simulations and experiments...

  17. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  18. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Stuerner

    Full Text Available Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs, but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS. A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  19. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Affinity selection-based two-dimensional chromatography coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for discovering xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Mo, Hua-Yan; Gao, Wen; Hong, Jia-Ying; Lu, Jun; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a key oxidative enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and certain diseases induced by excessive reactive oxygen species. XOD inhibitors could provide an important therapeutic approach to treat such diseases. A new method using affinity selection-based two-dimensional chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the online screening of potential XOD inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. Based on our previous study, the two-dimensional, turbulent-flow chromatography (TFC) was changed to a mixed-mode anion-exchange/reversed-phase column and one reversed-phase column. The developed method was validated to be selective and sensitive for screening XOD-binding compounds, especially weak acidic ones, in the extracts. Three salvianolic acids were screened from the Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract via the developed method. The XOD inhibitory activities of salvianolic acid C and salvianolic acid A were confirmed, and their inhibitory modes were measured. Salvianolic acid C exhibited potent XOD inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 9.07 μM. This work demonstrated that the developed online, two-dimensional TFC/LC-MS method was effective in discovering the binding affinity of new compounds from natural extracts for target proteins, even at low concentrations.

  1. Radix isatidis Polysaccharides Inhibit Influenza a Virus and Influenza A Virus-Induced Inflammation via Suppression of Host TLR3 Signaling In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza remains one of the major epidemic diseases worldwide, and rapid virus replication and collateral lung tissue damage caused by excessive pro-inflammatory host immune cell responses lead to high mortality rates. Thus, novel therapeutic agents that control influenza A virus (IAV propagation and attenuate excessive pro-inflammatory responses are needed. Polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exerted potent anti-IAV activity against human seasonal influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 and avian influenza viruses (H6N2 and H9N2 in vitro. The polysaccharides also significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and chemokines (IP-10, MIG, and CCL-5 stimulated by A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 at a range of doses (7.5 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, and 30 mg/mL; however, they were only effective against progeny virus at a high dose. Similar activity was detected against inflammation induced by avian influenza virus H9N2. The polysaccharides strongly inhibited the protein expression of TLR-3 induced by PR8, suggesting that they impair the upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors induced by IAV by inhibiting activation of the TLR-3 signaling pathway. The polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis root therefore has the potential to be used as an adjunct to antiviral therapy for the treatment of IAV infection.

  2. Preparative Separation and Purification of Four Glycosides from Gentianae radix by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography and Comparison of Their Anti-NO Production Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Secoiridoid and iridoid glycosides are the main active components of Gentianae radix. In this work, one iridoid and three secoiridoid glycosides from Gentianae radix have been purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography in two runs using different solvent systems. Ethyl acetate–n-butanol–water (2:1:3, v/v/v was the optimum solvent system to purify ca. 4.36 mg of loganic acid, 3.05 mg of swertiamarin, and 35.66 mg of gentiopicroside with 98.1%, 97.2% and 98.6% purities, respectively, while 31.15 mg of trifloroside with 98.9% purity was separated using hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:3:1:3, v/v/v/v. The structures of the glycosides were identified by mass spectrometry and NMR. After separation, the anti-nitric oxide production effects of the compounds on lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 murine microglial cells were also evaluated. All of the compounds inhibited the production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 cells with high cell viabilities in a concentration-dependent manner, which demonstrated that were able to be used as a nitric oxide inhibitor.

  3. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  4. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...

  5. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...

  6. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  7. April / May 2006. 108 Harvesting split thickness skin in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Background: In the third world countries like Ethiopia the majority of Hospitals have difficulties in harvesting split thickness skin ... The grafts were well taken by the recipient areas and technically there was no danger of deep bite. Conclusion: Split ... to meet the hospital needs. Thus we need to improvise and use appropriate.

  8. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    to a singularity in the transverse plane. Instead, the pulse spreads out along the direction of negative dispersion and splits up into small-scale cells, which may undergo further splitting events. The analytical results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the three dimensional cubic Schrodinger...

  9. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  10. Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, M.; Jonsson, M.P.; Biskos, G.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Smith, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar

  11. Enhanced residual mean circulation during the evolution of split type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    keywords: split events, stratospheric sudden warming, residual mean circulation. 1 Introduction ... sudden warming. It is characterized by a rapid cooling of the polar cap tempera- ture (Kuroda, 2008). The competition between planetary waves and gravity waves to the residual .... any automated scheme. The split events ...

  12. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assistance of metal nanostructures and quantum dots to semiconductors attains vital importance as they are exuberant visible light harvesters and charge carrier amplifiers. Benevolent use of quantum dots in solar water splitting and photoelectrochemical water splitting provides scope to revolutionize the quantum efficiency ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  14. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  15. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  16. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Hisatomi, Takashi

    2014-10-16

    Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The split cylinder testis subjected to an analysis combining nonlinear fracture mechanics and plasticity. The fictitious crack model is applied for the analysis of splitting tensile fracture, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is adopted for modelling the compressive crushing/sliding failure. Two...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...... properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...

  18. Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...

  19. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  20. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2015-06-02

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  1. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  2. Photoswitchable Rabi Splitting in Hybrid Plasmon-Waveguide Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Wang, Mingsong; Wei, Xiaoling; Peng, Xiaolei; Xie, Chong; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-12-14

    Rabi splitting that arises from strong plasmon-molecule coupling has attracted tremendous interests. However, it has remained elusive to integrate Rabi splitting into the hybrid plasmon-waveguide modes (HPWMs), which have advantages of both subwavelength light confinement of surface plasmons and long-range propagation of guided modes in dielectric waveguides. Herein, we explore a new type of HPWMs based on hybrid systems of Al nanodisk arrays covered by PMMA thin films that are doped with photochromic molecules and demonstrate the photoswitchable Rabi splitting with a maximum splitting energy of 572 meV in the HPWMs by controlling the photoisomerization of the molecules. Through our experimental measurements combined with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, we reveal that the photoswitchable Rabi splitting arises from the switchable coupling between the HPWMs and molecular excitons. By harnessing the photoswitchable Rabi splitting, we develop all-optical light modulators and rewritable waveguides. The demonstration of Rabi splitting in the HPWMs will further advance scientific research and device applications of hybrid plasmon-molecule systems.

  3. Wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Jiameng; Xu, Jianchun; Wang, Qingmin; Zhao, Ruochen; Liu, Hao; Dong, Guoyan; Hao, Yanan; Bi, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A wideband metasurface filter based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR) has been prepared. The frequency and transmission bandwidth of the metasurface filters with different split widths are discussed. After analyzing the mechanism of the metasurface, the proposed metasurface filters are fabricated. The electromagnetic properties of the metasurface are measured by a designed test system. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated ones, which shows that the metasurface filter has a wideband property. As the split width of the CSRR increases, the frequency of the passband shifts to higher frequency regions and the transmission bandwidth decreases.

  4. A splitting algorithm for directional regularization and sparsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    We present a new split-type algorithm for the minimization of a p-harmonic energy with added data fidelity term. The half-quadratic splitting reduces the original problem to two straightforward problems, that can be minimized efficiently. The minimizers to the two sub-problems can typically...... be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...

  5. Ridge Splitting Technique for Horizontal Augmentation and Immediate Implant Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanasiou Ioannis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient width of the alveolar ridge often prevents ideal implant placement. Guided bone regeneration, bone grafting, alveolar ridge splitting and combinations of these techniques are used for the lateral augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Ridge splitting is a minimally invasive technique indicated for alveolar ridges with adequate height, which enables immediate implant placement and eliminates morbidity and overall treatment time. The classical approach of the technique involves splitting the alveolar ridge into 2 parts with use of ostetomes and chisels. Modifications of this technique include the use of rotating instrument, screw spreaders, horizontal spreaders and ultrasonic device.

  6. Market Split based Congestion Management for Networks with Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmiroli, Marta; Tanimoto, Masahiko; Tsukamoto, Yukitoki; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    Market splitting is one of the methods to solve the transmission congestion problem associated with the introduction of competitive electricity market and transmission access. Based on the concept of price difference among congested areas, the market splitting approach produces a solution that strongly informs market participants of congestion path. In this paper, an algorithm to solve the market splitting problem for complex networks including loop structures is proposed. The method, based on an algebraic approach, ensures a feasible optimal solution verifiable and easily understandable by the market participants. Complex networks are transformed into simple radial ones using the delta-star approach. The method was tested on large problems to evaluate the performances.

  7. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohang; Cui, Jin; Yu, Yang; Li, Wei; Hou, Yujun; Wang, Xin; Qin, Dapeng; Zhao, Cun; Yao, Xinsheng; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO) is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ) reduction activity to identify active constituent(s) of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery.

  8. Traditional Chinese Nootropic Medicine Radix Polygalae and Its Active Constituent Onjisaponin B Reduce β-Amyloid Production and Improve Cognitive Impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohang Li

    Full Text Available Decline of cognitive function is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD, regardless of the pathological mechanism. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to combat cognitive impairments and has been shown to improve learning and memory. Radix Polygalae (RAPO is a typical and widely used herbal medicine. In this study, we aimed to follow the β-amyloid (Aβ reduction activity to identify active constituent(s of RAPO. We found that Onjisaponin B of RAPO functioned as RAPO to suppress Aβ production without direct inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 and γ-secretase activities. Our mechanistic study showed that Onjisaponin B promoted the degradation of amyloid precursor protein (APP. Further, oral administration of Onjisaponin B ameliorated Aβ pathology and behavioral defects in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, our results indicate that Onjisaponin B is effective against AD, providing a new therapeutic agent for further drug discovery.

  9. Separation and purification of three stilbenes from the radix of Polygonum cillinerve (Nakai Ohwl by macroporous resin column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for the rapid separation and purification of three stilbenes from the radix of Polygonum cillinerve (Nakai Ohwl by macroporous resin column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successfully established. In the present study, a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:1:4:2, v/v/v/v was used for HSCCC separation. A one-step separation in 4 h from 150 mg of crude extract produced 26.3 mg of trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside, 42.0 mg of pieceid-2"-O-gallate, and 17.9 mg of trans-resveratrol with purities of 99.1%, 97.8%, and 99.4%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Stachyose: One of the Active Fibroblast-proliferating Components in the Root of Rehmanniae Radix (地黃 dì huáng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kwok-Kin Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate and compare the fibroblast-proliferating activities of different Rehmanniae Radix (RR samples and its chemical components using human normal fibroblast cells Hs27. Those active components were quantified in differently treated RR samples using UPLC so as to correlate activity with component content. Our results showed that dried RR aqueous extract exhibited the most potent fibroblast-proliferating activity. Stronger effect was observed when ethanol with heating was applied in the extraction process. Stachyose and verbascoside were demonstrated for their first time to exhibit significant stimulatory effects on fibroblast proliferation. However, the proliferating effect of dried RR extract did not correlate with the stachyose content, and verbascoside was not responsible for the fibroblast proliferative effect of RR since it was undetectable in all samples. In conclusion, stachyose only contributed in part to the activity of RR, suggesting that other active components might be present and yet to be found.

  11. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo.

  12. The effective fraction isolated from Radix Astragali alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in db/db diabetic mice through its anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Ruby Lc; Wong, Janice Yl; Qiao, Cf; Xu, A; Xu, Hx; Lam, Karen Sl

    2010-08-24

    Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue together with the aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been identified as the key link between obesity and its related metabolic disorders. This study aims to isolate bioactive ingredients from the traditional Chinese herb Radix Astragali (Huangqi) that alleviate obesity-induced metabolic damage through inhibiting inflammation. Active fraction (Rx) that inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production was identified from Radix Astragali by repeated bioactivity-guided high-throughput screening. Major constituents in Rx were identified by column chromatography followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass-spectrometry. Anti-diabetic activity of Rx was evaluated in db/db mice. Treatment with Rx, which included calycosin-7-β-D-glucoside (0.9%), ononin (1.2%), calycosin (4.53%) and formononetin (1.1%), significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1) in human THP-1 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NF-κB in mouse RAW-Blue macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Chronic administration of Rx in db/db obese mice markedly decreased the levels of both fed and fasting glucose, reduced serum triglyceride, and also alleviated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance when compared to vehicle-treated controls. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cell markers CD68 and F4/80, and cytokines MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in epididymal adipose tissue while the alternatively activated macrophage marker arginase I was markedly increased in the Rx-treated mice. These findings suggest that suppression of the inflammation pathways in macrophages represents a valid strategy for high-throughput screening of lead compounds with anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties, and further support the etiological role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  13. The effective fraction isolated from Radix Astragali alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in db/db diabetic mice through its anti-inflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo Ruby LC

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue together with the aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been identified as the key link between obesity and its related metabolic disorders. This study aims to isolate bioactive ingredients from the traditional Chinese herb Radix Astragali (Huangqi that alleviate obesity-induced metabolic damage through inhibiting inflammation. Methods Active fraction (Rx that inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production was identified from Radix Astragali by repeated bioactivity-guided high-throughput screening. Major constituents in Rx were identified by column chromatography followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass-spectrometry. Anti-diabetic activity of Rx was evaluated in db/db mice. Results Treatment with Rx, which included calycosin-7-β-D-glucoside (0.9%, ononin (1.2%, calycosin (4.53% and formononetin (1.1%, significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in human THP-1 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced activation of NF-κB in mouse RAW-Blue macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Chronic administration of Rx in db/db obese mice markedly decreased the levels of both fed and fasting glucose, reduced serum triglyceride, and also alleviated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance when compared to vehicle-treated controls. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cell markers CD68 and F4/80, and cytokines MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in epididymal adipose tissue while the alternatively activated macrophage marker arginase I was markedly increased in the Rx-treated mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that suppression of the inflammation pathways in macrophages represents a valid strategy for high-throughput screening of lead compounds with anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties, and further support the etiological role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of

  14. Shear wave splitting in the Isparta Angle, southwestern Turkey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    broadband station in the Isparta Angle,southwestern Turkey.We selected 21 good quality seismic events out of nearly 357 earthquakes and calculated splitting parameters (polarization direction of fast wave, and delay time between fast and ...

  15. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  16. Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015

  17. Possibilities of Intermodal Passenger Transport between Split Airport and Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Roguljić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of passengers landing at Split Airportduring the tourist season continue their journey to the destinationson the central Dalmatian islands. Today the transfer isdone mainly through the ferry port in Split. The insufficient capacitiesof roads from the airport to the city centre which accommodatesthe ferry port and waiting for the embarkation onthe ferries and the transport itself to the islands and the finaldestinations take much longer than the air transport itself toSplit. The paper studies the possible improvements of the existingcondition as well as the construction completion and openingto traffic of the passenger sea port next to Split Airport whichwould provide a much better solution of passenger transfer tothe islands.

  18. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  19. Acoustic Split-Beam Echosounder Data (EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories collects data using Simrad EK60 scientific split-beam acoustic echosounders during resource...

  20. The homogeneous property and flux splitting in gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerat, A.

    The homogeneous property of fluxes in gas dynamics is investigated, and its consequences concerning the flux splitting introduced by Steger and Warming (1981) are examined. It is shown that, for any hyperbolic system w sub t + f(w) sub x = 0 which satisfies the homogeneous property, the flux f(w) can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix A(w) = df(w)/dw. This same result is also found to hold for the split fluxes f(+)(w) and f(-)(w). The problem of the validity of flux splitting is studied using these results. Three applications of flux splitting are then considered. The first application concerns uncentered schemes and particularly a precise analysis of their stability, the second is connected with a method for correcting the dispersive error of second-order accurate schemes, and the third deals with a nonreflective boundary condition.

  1. Recent Progress in Energy-Driven Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Si Yin; Win, Khin Yin; Teo, Wee Siang; Koh, Leng-Duei; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Han, Ming-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness. As the most abundant energy resource, the direct conversion of solar energy to hydrogen is considered the most sustainable energy production method without causing pollutions to the environment. In overall, this review briefly summarizes thermolytic, electrolytic, photolytic and biolytic water splitting. It highlights photonic and electrical driven water splitting together with photovoltaic-integrated solar-driven water electrolysis.

  2. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  3. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Endoscopic classification of representations of quasi-split unitary groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Chung Pang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author establishes the endoscopic classification of tempered representations of quasi-split unitary groups over local fields, and the endoscopic classification of the discrete automorphic spectrum of quasi-split unitary groups over global number fields. The method is analogous to the work of Arthur on orthogonal and symplectic groups, based on the theory of endoscopy and the comparison of trace formulas on unitary groups and general linear groups.

  5. Spectral splitting for thermal management in photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Chiou, Yu-Cheng; Chiesa, Matteo; Almansouri, Ibraheem

    2017-09-01

    Spectral splitting is widely employed as a way to divide light between different solar cells or processes to optimize energy conversion. Well-understood but less explored is the use of spectrum splitting or filtering to combat solar cell heating. This has impacts both on cell performance and on the surrounding environment. In this manuscript we explore the design of spectral filtering systems that can improve the thermal and power-conversion performance of commercial PV modules.

  6. Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa

  7. Visualization of the sequence of a couple splitting outside shop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'......Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'...

  8. A Modified Halpern's Iterative Scheme for Solving Split Feasibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitsupa Deepho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a modified Halpern’s iterative scheme for solving the split feasibility problem (SFP in the setting of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Under suitable conditions a strong convergence theorem is established. The main result presented in this paper improves and extends some recent results done by Xu (Iterative methods for the split feasibility problem in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, Inverse Problem 26 (2010 105018 and some others.

  9. Herb pairs containing Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui): A review of bio-active constituents and compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Qu, Cheng; Tang, Yuping; Pang, Hanqing; Liu, Liling; Zhu, Zhenhua; Shang, Erxin; Huang, Shengliang; Sun, Dazheng; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-04-02

    Herb compatibility is one of the most important characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Rather than being used singly, Chinese herbs are often used in formulae to obtain synergistic effects or to diminish possible adverse reactions. Herb pair, the most fundamental and simplest form of multi-herb formulae, is a centralized representative of herb compatibility. Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix), a widely used Chinese medicine, is usually combined with another herb to treat women's diseases in the clinic. A series of herb pairs containing Danggui have gradually become a focus of modern research, and they exhibit encouraging prospects for development. A systematic search for studies related to herb pairs containing Danggui was performed via a library search (books, theses, reports, newspapers, magazines, and conference proceedings) and an electronic search (Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar). These sources were scrutinized for information on Danggui herb pairs. Based on a previous statistical analysis, a database containing 16,529 formulae of Danggui from the "Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae" was reviewed. The results showed a high frequency of compatibility between Danggui and other 22 herbs. The most common ratio among these chosen herb pairs was 1:1, and a majority of the pairs were applied for the treatment of diseases in internal medicine. The present paper reviews ethnopharmacology and advances in variations of the bio-active components and compatibility effects of the herb pairs containing Danggui, especially Danggui-Huangqi, Danggui-Chuanxiong, and Danggui-Shaoyao, which are used at high frequency. It was also observed that there were fewer studies of Danggui-Fuzi, Danggui-Huanglian, Danggui-Gancao, Danggui-Fangfeng and Danggui-Ganjiang, although they have been recorded in classical books as commonly used herb pairs. Moreover, some herb pairs such as Danggui-Niuxi and Danggui-Chaihu have been used at high frequency

  10. In vitro effects of active components of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix on enzymes involved in the lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wangen; He, Yanran; Lin, Pei; Li, Yunfei; Sun, Ruifen; Gu, Wen; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2014-05-14

    Raw and processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and PMRP) are used in the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia or related diseases. In our previous research, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) displayed the most important role in the total cholesterol (TC) lowering effect among all the chemical constituents of Polygonum multiflorum. Emodin and physcion displayed more favorable triglyceride (TG) reducing effects than TSG. However, there are few researches focus on the approach and mechanism of how do Polygonum multiflorum exhibit good lipid regulation activity. The targeted sites of active substances of Polygonum multiflorum are still not clearly elucidated. This research pays close attention to how major chemical components of Polygonum multiflorum affect the TC and TG contents in liver cells. In this research, a sensitive, accurate and rapid in vitro model, steatosis hepatic L02 cell, was used to explore target sites of active chemical substances of Polygonum multiflorum for 48h. Steatosis hepatic L02 cell was exposed to emodin, physcion and TSG, respectively. The contents of four key enzymes in the pathway of synthesis and decomposition of TC and TG were investigated after exposure. Meanwhile, the contents of lipid transfer protein were also tested. The diacylgycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) controlled the biosynthesis of TG from free fatty acids while 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) limited the biosynthesis of TC. Hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A) played the key role in the lipolysis procedure of TG and TC. The synthesis of TC and TG in steatosis L02 cells were apparently increased in the model group compared to the control group. Intracellular contents of HMG-CoA reductase and DGAT1 increased 32.33% and 56.52%, while contents of CYP7A and HTGL decreased 21.61% and 47.37%. Emodin, physcion and TSG all showed down

  11. Distributed Computing Architecture for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing and 2 D FFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce H.; Haghani, Shadan

    2006-01-01

    Image-based wavefront sensing (WFS) provides significant advantages over interferometric-based wavefi-ont sensors such as optical design simplicity and stability. However, the image-based approach is computational intensive, and therefore, specialized high-performance computing architectures are required in applications utilizing the image-based approach. The development and testing of these high-performance computing architectures are essential to such missions as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Terrestial Planet Finder-Coronagraph (TPF-C and CorSpec), and Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT). The development of these specialized computing architectures require numerous two-dimensional Fourier Transforms, which necessitate an all-to-all communication when applied on a distributed computational architecture. Several solutions for distributed computing are presented with an emphasis on a 64 Node cluster of DSPs, multiple DSP FPGAs, and an application of low-diameter graph theory. Timing results and performance analysis will be presented. The solutions offered could be applied to other all-to-all communication and scientifically computationally complex problems.

  12. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  13. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  14. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Özdemir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  15. New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek

    2017-05-10

    The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type-$I$ splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type-$II$ criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.

  16. Experimental study on dynamic splitting of recycled concrete using SHPB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yubin; Yu, Shuisheng; Cai, Yong

    2015-09-01

    To study the recycled concrete splitting tensile properties and fracture state with various recycled coarse aggregate replacement percentage (i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), the dynamic splitting test of recycled concrete was carried out using large diameter (75 mm) split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The results show that the recycled concrete splitting tensile strength increases with the increase of loading rate, and the loading rate also affects the recycled concrete fracture state, which indicates that the recycled concrete has obvious rate sensitivity. The damage state of the recycled concrete is not only the destruction of the interface between coarse aggregate and cement mortar, but also associates with the fracture damage of aggregates. Under the same water cement ratio, when the replacement percentage of coarse aggregates is around 50%-75%, the gradation of natural and recycled coarse aggregate is optimal, and thus the splitting tensile strength is the largest. This study offers theoretical basis for the engineering applications of recycled concrete.

  17. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  18. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  19. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....

  20. Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2018-01-01

    Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.

  1. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-07-25

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Duysens, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in split-belt treadmill studies. We argue that the modified version of stride length for split-belt gait, which is different from the standard definition of stride length and actually is a measure of limb excursion, should be referred to as 'limb excursion' in future studies. Furthermore, the symmetry of stride length and stride time is specifically addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Geometric inductance effects in the spectrum of split transmon qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, R. T.; Blumoff, J.; Chou, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The low-energy spectra of transmon superconducting qubits in a cavity can be accurately calculated using the black-box quantization approach. This method involves finding the normal modes of the circuit with a linearized Josephson junction and using these as the basis in which to express the non-linear terms. A split transmon qubit consists of two Josephson junctions in a SQUID loop. This configuration allows the Josephson energy to be tuned by applying external flux. Ideally, the system otherwise behaves as a conventional transmon with a single effective Josephson junction. However, the finite geometric inductance of the SQUID loop causes deviations from the simplest ideal description of a split transmon. This alters both the linearized and non-linear behaviour of the Josephson junctions in the superconducting circuit. We study how these changes can be incorporated into the black-box quantization approach and their effects on the low-energy spectrum of the split transmon.

  4. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  5. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan

    1997-10-01

    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  6. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela Nurlaela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  7. Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, Marten

    2016-04-01

    The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R h =(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  8. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-04-03

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  9. Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.

  10. Immediate Loaded Implants in Split-Crest Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Bruschi, Giovanni B; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Capparé, Paolo; Gherlone, Enrico F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess survival rate of immediate loading implants placed after split-crest technique. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in the study. They underwent placement of 93 dental implants in edentulous region after split-crest ridge expansion procedure. Implants followed an immediate loading procedure. Crestal bone levels were measured at baseline, at temporary prosthesis placement, at 1 year, and at 2 years from implant placement. For dental implants, a survival rate of 98.92% was reported at 2-year follow-up, with a mean value bone loss of -1.02 ± 0.48. This study assessed immediate loading implant placement after split-crest procedure at 2-year follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2016-12-07

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  12. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  13. Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2016-10-12

    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.

  14. A comparison between kinetic flux vector splitting and flux difference splitting methods in solution of Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaei, M.; Shahverdi, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is proposed to compare the performances of deferent inviscid flux approximation methods in solution of two-dimensional Euler equations. The methods belong to two different group of flux splitting methods: flux difference splitting (FDS) methods and kinetic flux vector splitting (KFVS) method. Here Roe method and Osher method belonging to flux difference splitting (FDS) group have been employed and their performances are compared with that of kinetic flux vector splitting method (KFVS). Roe and Osher methods are based on approximate solution of Riemann problem over computational cell surfaces while the KFVS has a quit different base. In KFVS inviscid fluxes are approximated based on the kinetic theory and correlation between Boltzmann equation and Euler equations. For comparison the performances of the above mentioned methods three different problems have been solved. The first problem is flow over a 10 degree compression-expansion ramp with Mach number of 2.0, the second one is a transonic flow with Mach number of 0.85 over a 4.2% circular bump in a duct and the third is supersonic flow with Mach number of 3.0 over a circular blunt slab. (author)

  15. Splitting and non splitting are pollution models photochemical reactions in the urban areas of greater Tehran area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.

    2003-01-01

    During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data

  16. Screening current induced magnetic field in REBCO superconducting coil wound by using split wire having intermittent inner split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tetsuro; Jin, Xinzhe; Okamura, Tetsuji

    2017-09-01

    REBCO-coated conductor having a high critical current is promising for applications in next generation apparatuses such as ultra-high field NMR, high-resolution MRI, and high-precision accelerator. However, it has an important challenge for application in NMR and MRI, due to the single core in REBCO superconducting layer. The single core induces a large screening current-induced magnetic field (screening current field), and it influences the controlling of center field in NMR/MRI magnet. To reduce the screening current field, we have recently developed a split wire having multi-core structure by inner split method (electrical separation by bending stress, ESBS). In experiment, short samples with linear inner split by a large bending stress of 80 N were prepared and tested. However, to fabricate a long length wire with good quality, it is better to use a smaller bending stress. In this study, a low-bending-stress inner split method is used to fabricate superconducting tapes with longitudinal split in their superconducting layer. The fabrication and experimental assessments for the wire and coil are carried out.

  17. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-07-07

    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  18. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  19. Optimal Cross-Validation Split Ratio: Experimental Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts haveinvest......Cross-validation is a common method for assessing the generalisation ability of a model in order to tune a regularisation parameter or otherhyper-parameters of a learning process. The use of cross-validation requires to set yet an additional parameter, the split rati. While a few texts...

  20. Crystal Splitting in the Growth of Bi2S3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-06-15

    Novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures with a sheaf-like morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. We propose these structures form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By controlling the synthetic parameters, different forms of splitting, analogous to observed in minerals, are obtained in our case of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. These new and complex Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and ED.

  1. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  2. Cooper Pair Splitting by Means of Graphene Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z. B.; Cox, D.; Nieminen, T.; Lähteenmäki, P.; Golubev, D.; Lesovik, G. B.; Hakonen, P. J.

    2015-03-01

    A split Cooper pair is a natural source for entangled electrons which is a basic ingredient for quantum information in the solid state. We report an experiment on a superconductor-graphene double quantum dot (QD) system, in which we observe Cooper pair splitting (CPS) up to a CPS efficiency of ˜10 % . With bias on both QDs, we are able to detect a positive conductance correlation across the two distinctly decoupled QDs. Furthermore, with bias only on one QD, CPS and elastic cotunneling can be distinguished by tuning the energy levels of the QDs to be asymmetric or symmetric with respect to the Fermi level in the superconductor.

  3. Frobenius splitting and geometry of $G$-Schubert varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xuhua; Thomsen, Jesper Funch

    2008-01-01

    Let X be an equivariant embedding of a connected reductive group G over an algebraically closed field k of positive characteristic. Let B denote a Borel subgroup of G. A G-Schubert variety in X is a subvariety of the form diag(G) V , where V is a B×B -orbit closure in X. In the case where X...... admits a stable Frobenius splitting along an ample divisors. Although this indicates that G-Schubert varieties have nice singularities we present an example of a nonnormal G-Schubert variety in the wonderful compactification of a group of type G2 . Finally we also extend the Frobenius splitting results...

  4. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.

    1989-06-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  5. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...

  6. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, P<0.001). By 30 min, the split drain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  7. [Influence of metal ions on stability of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside contained in Polygoni Multiflori Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-yu; Feng, Wu-wen; Li, Xiao-fei; Zhang, Ding-kun; Li, Chun-yu; Meng, Ya-kun; Bai, Zhao-fang; Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Xia, Hou-lin; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2016-01-01

    Decoction is one of the most commonly used dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. The stability of chemical constituents in decoction is closely related to the clinical efficacy and safety. There were few reports about the influence of metal ions in the stability of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no evidence that metal ions in decoction water need to be controlled. In this study, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), one of the main constituents in Polygoni Multiflori Radix was studied. Ordinary tap water, deionized water, and water containing different metal ions were used to investigate and compare the influence on THSG. The results showed that after storage in a dark place at the room temperature for 10 days, the degradation of THSG was 7% in deionized water, while undetectable in tap water. The content of THSG could be decreased by different kinds of metal ions, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Moreover, Fe3+ and Fe2+ showed the greatest influence at the same concentration; and our study has shown that THSG decreased more than 98% in Fe and Fe2+ solutions at 500 ppm concentration. In the same time we found out p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (molecular weight: 122.036 7) and 2,3,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde-2-O-glycoside (molecular weight: 316.079 4) were the main degradation products of THSG in tap water and water containing Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Al3+. The product of THSG dimer with a water molecule was found in water containing Fe3+ and Fe2+. The above results showed that the metal ions in water could significantly influence the stability of THSG in water, indicating that the clinical efficacy and safety of decoction would be affected if the metal ions in water were not under control. It's suggested that deionized water should be used in the preparation of decoction containing Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the clinic to avoid degradation of THSG. Meanwhile, decoction prepared by tap water

  8. SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a semi-automatic, MATLAB-based GUI to combine standard seismological tasks such as the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting. Shear-wave splitting analysis is widely used to infer seismic anisotropy, which can be interpreted in terms of lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, shape-preferred orientation caused by fluid-filled cracks or alternating layers. Seismic anisotropy provides a unique link between directly observable surface structures and the more elusive dynamic processes in the mantle below. Thus, resolving the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere is of particular importance for geodynamic modeling and interpretations. The increasing number of seismic stations from temporary experiments and permanent installations creates a new basis for comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. However, the increasingly large data sets pose new challenges for the rapid and reliably analysis of teleseismic waveforms and for the interpretation of the measurements. Well-established routines and programs are available but are often impractical for analyzing large data sets from hundreds of stations. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same well-defined quality criteria which may complicate comparison with results from different studies. SplitRacer has been designed to overcome these challenges by incorporation of the following processing steps: i) downloading of waveform data from multiple stations in mseed-format using FDSNWS tools; ii) automated initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold; iii) particle-motion analysis of selected phases at longer periods to detect and correct for sensor misalignment; iv) splitting analysis of selected phases based on transverse-energy minimization for multiple, randomly-selected, relevant time windows; v) one and two-layer joint-splitting analysis for all phases at one station by

  9. Tangled up in mood : Exploring Panará split ergativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardagil-Mas, Bernat

    2015-01-01

    The two primary goals of this article are to present data concerning the mood-based alignment split that can be observed in Panará pronominal clitics and to put forward a tentative formal analysis that can capture the motivations of such phenomena in the grammar. This paper aims to explore an

  10. Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.

    2014-10-07

    Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.

  11. Deconstruction, G_2 Holonomy, and Doublet-Triplet Splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Edward

    2002-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for using discrete symmetries to solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem of four-dimensional supersymmetric GUT's. We present two versions of the mechanism, one via ``deconstruction,'' and one in terms of M-theory compactification to four dimensions on a manifold of G_2 holonomy.

  12. Split shielding plates in electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavor, Mikhail I.

    1995-09-01

    An analytical method is developed for calculation of the influence of the splitted shielding plates in inhomogeneous electrostatic sector analyzers and Wien filters on their electron optical properties. The method allows one to simplify considerably the choice of the mode of operation of the shielding plates needed to achieve a required electrostatic field distribution inside the analyzer.

  13. Split tensile strength of soilcrete blocks | Okere | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the ever increasing problems associated with dredging of rivers to obtain river sand, reduced dependence on river sand should be encouraged by using alternative materials in block production. This work deals with the production of soilcrete blocks using readily available and affordable laterite. Split tensile strength of ...

  14. Signature splitting in two quasiparticle rotational bands of Ta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-20

    Jun 20, 2016 ... ... of 182Ta are analysed within the framework of two-quasiparticle rotor model. The phase as well as magni- tude of the experimentally observed signature splitting in Kπ = 1+ band of 180Ta, which could not be explained in earlier calculations, is successfully reproduced. The conflict regarding placement of ...

  15. Split Hand and Foot Malformation | Salati | East and Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Split Hand and Foot Malformation. SA Salati ...

  16. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  17. Split calvarial graft and titanium mesh for reconstruction of post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of cranioplasty is to achieve a lifelong, stable and structural reconstruction of the cranium covered by a healthy skin and scalp flap. We present two cases of large frontal bone defect following a accident.. Cases: We describe the utilization of autogenous local split calvarial graft and titanium mesh for ...

  18. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  19. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.

    2013-01-01

    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in

  20. Relations among the crack growth modes resulting from tensor splitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-335 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : fracture mechanics * combination of crack-growth modes * non-local effect * tensor splitting Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://journal.it.cas.cz/60(15)4-Contents/60(15)4a.pdf

  1. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities. ~~~'<,. ~. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos ... general theory of relativity and the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury was a great triumph ..... neutrino counting rate, by nearly a factor of 3 over the. SSM prediction, constitutes the solar neutrino ...

  2. Splitting and Projection: Drawing on Psychodynamics in Educational Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reflects the author's journey into an area of psychology which is not dominant in Educational Psychology discourse, namely psychodynamic psychology. Two psychodynamic mechanisms, namely splitting and projection are explained, and then the author describes and critiques how these mechanisms have proved useful in his practice. Two case…

  3. Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Omar Mendoza Marin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient’s discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities.

  4. Transient Splitting of Conoscopic Isogyres of a Uniaxial Nematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Senuk, Bohdan; Tortora, Luana; Sprunt, Samuel; Lehmann, Matthias; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2012-02-01

    The phase identification is often based on conoscopic observations of homeotropic cells: A uniaxial nematic produces a pattern with crossed isogyres, while the biaxial nematic shows a split of isogyres. We demonstrate that the splitting of isogyres occurs even when the material remains in the uniaxial nematic phase. In particular, in the bent core material J35, splitting of isogyres is caused by change of the temperature. The effect is transient and the isogyres return to a uniaxial (crossed) configuration after a certain time that depends on sample thickness, temperature, and rate of temperature change; the time varies from a few seconds to tens of hours. The transient splitting is caused by the temperature-induced material flow that triggers a (uniaxial) director tilt in the cell. The flows and the director tilt are demonstrated by the CARS microscopy and fluorescent confocal polarizing microscopy (FCPM). This transient effect is general and can be observed even in E7 and 5CB. The effect should be considered in textural identifications of potential biaxial nematic materials.

  5. Mass Communication and Ticket Splitting in the 1972 General Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, L. Erwin; Sanders, Keith R.

    There is evidence of a growing trend toward ticket splitting, or independent voting patterns in all U.S. elections, especially in recent years. Independence of the electorate in 1972 was visible in the large Republican vote for President, during substantial voting for Democrats in Congress, and in gubernatorial elections. Analysis of mass media…

  6. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate h...

  7. A cyclic iterative method for solving multiple sets split feasibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (An iterative regularization method for the solution of the split feasibility problem in Banach spaces, Inverse Problems 24 (2008), 055008) and many important recent results in this direction. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010): 49J53, 65K10, 49M37, 90C25. Keywords: Bregman projection, strong convergence, metric ...

  8. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  9. The split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, C H; Dietrich, R B; Pais, M J; Demos, D S; Pribram, H F

    1993-01-01

    Split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that may be associated with meningomyelocele or meningocele, and genitourinary anomalies. This case presented with an additional finding of bladder exstrophy, raising the possibility of a relationship between this syndrome and the OEIS complex.

  10. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplishing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' problem of science.

  11. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2014-05-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Fundaments of transport equation splitting and the eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancic, V.

    2000-01-01

    In order to remove some singularities concerning the boundary conditions of one dimensional transport equation, a split form of transport equation describing the forward i.e. μ≥0, and a backward μ<0 directed neutrons is being proposed here. The eigenvalue problem has also been considered here (author)

  13. Split-mouth design in Paediatric Dentistry clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Guillén, A; Chavarría-Bolaños, D; Garrocho-Rangel, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the essential concepts of the split-mouth design, its underlying assumptions, advantages, limitations, statistical considerations, and possible applications in Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation. In Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation, and as part of randomised controlled trials, the split-mouth design is commonly used. The design is characterised by subdividing the child's dentition into halves (right and left), where two different treatment modalities are assigned to one side randomly, in order to allow further outcome evaluation. Each participant acts as their own control by making within- patient rather than between-patient comparisons, thus diminishing inter-subject variability and increasing study accuracy and power. However, the main problem with this design comprises the potential contamination of the treatment effect from one side to the other, or the "carry-across effect"; likewise, this design is not indicated when the oral disease to be treated is not symmetrically distributed (e.g. severity) in the mouth of children. Thus, in spite of its advantages, the split-mouth design can only be applied in a limited number of strictly selected cases. In order to obtain valid and reliable data from split mouth design studies, it is necessary to evaluate the risk of carry-across effect as well as to carefully analise and select adequate inclusion criteria, sample-size calculation and method of statistical analysis.

  14. Visible-light-induced water splitting on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoontjes, M.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, a photoelectrochemical water splitting cell concept is discussed, based on a combination of semiconductors comprising a Z-scheme. The motivation for the development of the cell is that in the future a transition will take place from a fossil fuel-based economy, to an economy based on

  15. Higgs, Binos and Gluinos: Split Susy within Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2012-09-14

    Recent results from the LHC for the Higgs boson with mass between 142 GeV {approx}< m{sub h{sup 0}} {approx}< 147 GeV points to PeV-scale Split Supersymmetry. This article explores the consequences of a Higgs mass in this range and possible discovery modes for Split Susy. Moderate lifetime gluinos, with decay lengths in the 25 {micro}m to 10 yr range, are its imminent smoking gun signature. The 7TeV LHC will be sensitive to the moderately lived gluinos and trilepton signatures from direct electroweakino production. Moreover, the dark matter abundance may be obtained from annihilation through an s-channel Higgs resonance, with the LSP almost purely bino and mass m{sub {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 70 GeV. The Higgs resonance region of Split Susy has visible signatures in dark matter direct and indirect detection and electric dipole moment experiments. If the anomalies go away, the majority of Split Susy parameter space will be excluded.

  16. On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Spain. E-mail: ajesus.calderon@uca.es. MS received 24 May 2007. Abstract. We develop techniques of connections of roots for split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems. We show that any of such algebras L is of the form L = U +. ∑.

  17. Reduction of Biomass Moisture by Crushing/Splitting - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois; Colin Ashmore

    1986-01-01

    A biomass crusher/splitter concept is presented as a possible n&ant of tsafntainfng rights-of-way (ROW) or harvesting energy wood plantations. The conceptual system would cut, crush, and split small woody biomass leaving it in windrows for drying. A subsequent operation would bale and transport the dried material for use as an energy source. A survey of twenty...

  18. Robustness of the Rabi Splitting under Nonlocal Corrections in Plexcitonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2018-01-01

    , the influence of nonlocality is rather limited, as in most occasions the width of the Rabi splitting remains largely unaffected and the two hybrid modes are well distinguishable. We discuss how this behavior can be understood in view of the popular coupled-harmonic-oscillator model, while we also provide...

  19. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  20. Roadmap on solar water splitting: current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sheng; Li, Wei; Yan, Yanfa; Hamann, Thomas; Shih, Ishiang; Wang, Dunwei; Mi, Zetian

    2017-09-01

    Artificial photosynthesis via solar water splitting provides a promising approach to storing solar energy in the form of hydrogen on a global scale. However, an efficient and cost-effective solar hydrogen production system that can compete with traditional methods using fossil fuels is yet to be developed. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) tandem cell consisting of a p-type photocathode and an n-type photoanode, with the photovoltage provided by the two photoelectrodes, is an attractive route to achieve highly efficient unassisted water splitting at a low cost. In this article, we provide an overview of recent developments of semiconductor materials, including metal oxides, nitrides, chalcogenides, Si, III-V compounds and organics, either as photocathodes or photoanodes for water reduction and oxidation, respectively. In addition, recent efforts in constructing a PEC tandem system for unassisted water splitting are outlined. The importance of developing a single-photon photocathode and photoanode that can deliver high photocurrent in the low bias region for efficient PEC tandem system is highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future development of photoelectrode materials, and viable solutions to realize highly efficient PEC water splitting device for practical applications.

  1. Recent developments in solar H2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplish- ing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' prob-.

  2. The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Case of Missing Solar Neutrinos with their Split Personalities. S M Chitre is a Senior. Professor at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are in the areas of solar physics, physics and astrophysics of condensed objects and gravitational lenses. Keywords. Neutrino. Sun, solar structure.

  3. Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump: Optimization and Exergy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of a split condenser heat pump (SCHP). The SCHP setup differs from a traditional heat pump (THP) setup in the way that two separate water streams on the secondary side of the condenser are heated in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one s...

  4. On Split Lie Algebras with Symmetric Root Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and any I j a well described ideal of , satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if j ≠ k . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected.

  5. On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik] = 0 if j = k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected. Keywords. Infinite dimensional Lie ...

  6. On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected. Author Affiliations. Antonio J Calderón Martín1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 24 May 2007 ...

  7. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe; Pavlov, Patrik; Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre; Eladari, Dominique; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud; Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie; Houillier, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  8. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Renal Transplantation Department, Paris (France); Pavlov, Patrik [Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Eladari, Dominique [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 970, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Urology Department, Paris (France); Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 1151, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Houillier, Pascal [Paris Descartes University, INSERM, Unit umrs1138, and CNRS Unit erl8228, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  9. Studies on metabolism of total glucosides of paeony from Paeoniae Radix Alba in rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenli; Wang, Xinguo; Li, Haojie; Shi, Xuliang; Fan, Wencheng; Zhao, Shaohua; Liu, Minyan; Niu, Liying

    2015-11-01

    Total glucosides of paeony are the active constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba. In this study, a novel strategy was proposed to find more metabolites and the differences between paeoniflorin, albiflorin and total glucosides of paeony (TGP). This strategy was characterized as follows: firstly, the animals were divided into three groups (paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP) to identify the source of TGP metabolites from paeoniflorin or albiflorin; secondly, a generic information-dependent acquisition scan for the low-level metabolites was triggered by the multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction; thirdly, the metabolites were identified with a combination of data-processing methods including mass defect filtering, neutral loss filtering and product ion filtering; finally, a comparative study was used in the metabolism of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and TGP. Based on the strategy, 18 metabolites of TGP, 10 metabolites of paeoniflorin and 13 metabolites of albiflorin were identified respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis, conjugation reaction and oxidization were the major metabolic pathways, and the metabolic sites were the glycosidic linkage, the ester bond and the benzene ring. This study is first to explore the metabolism of TGP, and these findings enhance our understanding of the metabolism and the interactions of paeoniflrin and albiflorin in TGP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Prophylactic Neuroprotection of Total Glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba against Semen Strychni-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Reducing the Absorption of Toxic Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujuan; Chu, Yanjie; Zhang, Ruowen; Sun, Linjia; Chen, Xiaohui

    2018-04-20

    Strychnos alkaloids (SAs) are the main toxic constituents in Semen Strychni, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is known for its fatal neurotoxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of the total glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba (TGP). An SA brain damage model was firstly established. The neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of TGP were confirmed by physical and behavioral testing, biochemical assay, and histological examination. Then, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to investigate the time-course change and distribution of strychnine and brucine (two main SAs) in the brain after oral SA administration with or without TGP pretreatment. Biochemical analysis results indicated that TGP could ameliorate the oxidative stress status caused by SAs. Time-course change and distribution studies demonstrated that strychnine and brucine were rapidly absorbed into the brain, peaked early at 0.5 h, and were mainly located in the hippocampus and cerebellum. TGP showed a pre-protective effect against neurotoxicity by reducing the absorption of toxic alkaloids into the brain. These findings could provide beneficial information in facilitating future studies of Semen Strychni neurotoxicity and developing herbal medicines to alleviate neurotoxicity in the clinic.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  12. Effects of triptolide from Radix Tripterygium wilfordii (Leigongteng on cartilage cytokines and transcription factor NF-κB: a study on induced arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Linhua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triptolide, an active compound of Radix Tripterygium wilfordii, is immunosuppressive, cartilage protective and anti-inflammatory both in human and animal studies of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, but its therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of triptolide on cartilage cytokines in the CIA model. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were immunized with type II collagen and orally administered with triptolide. The arthritic scores and incidence changes of the rats were observed. The expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB in paw cartilage was studied with immunohistochemical staining. Results Triptolide, at both high and low doses, significantly lowered the arthritic scores, delayed the onset of arthritis and lowered the arthritis incidence. Triptolide treatment at both high and low doses lowered the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB in paw cartilage in arthritic rats. Conclusion Triptolide lowers the arthritic scores, delays the onset of collagen induced arthritis and reduces the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB and COX-2 in paw cartilage in arthritic rats.

  13. Discovery of discriminatory quality control markers for Chinese herbal medicines and related processed products by combination of chromatographic analysis and chemometrics methods: Radix Scutellariae as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Bo; Wang, Long; Xiong, Zi-Yue; Gao, Wen; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2017-05-10

    The processing procedure of traditional Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) plays an essential role in clinical applications. However, little progress has been made on the quality control of crude and processed products. The present work, taking Radix Scutellariae (RS), wine-processed RS and carbonized RS as a typical case, developed a comprehensive strategy integrating chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods for quality evaluation and discrimination of crude RS and its processed products. Chemical fingerprints were established by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and similarity analyses were calculated based on eleven common characteristic peaks. Subsequently, four chemical markers were discovered by back propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) modeling. The selected markers were quantified by the 'single standard to determine multi-components' (SSDMC) method, and then the quantitative data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Furthermore, support vector machine (SVM) was employed to predict the different processed products of RS. Finally, a hotmap visualization was conducted for clarifying the distribution of major flavonoids among different drugs. Collectively, the proposed strategy might be well-acceptable for quality control of CHMs and their related processed products from the processing mechanism-based perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  15. Spectrum Effect Relationship and Component Knock-Out in Angelica Dahurica Radix by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Q Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Angelica dahuricae were available for whitening or treating vitiligo clinically. They showed inhibitory or activating effects on tyrosinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. This study aimed to identify active compounds on tyrosinase in water extract of Angelica dahurica Radix. We applied spectrum-effect relationship and component knock-out methods to make it clear. HPLC was used to obtain the specific chromatograms. The effects on tyrosinase activity were examined by measuring the oxidation rate of levodopa in vitro. Partial least squares method was used to examine the spectrum-effect relationships. The knocked-out samples were prepared by HPLC method, and the identification of knocked-out compounds was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography-four stage rod-electrostatic field orbit trap high resolution mass spectrometry. Results showed that S6, S14, S18, S21, S35, S36, S37, S40, and S41 were positively correlated to inhibitory activity of Angelica dahuricae on tyrosinase whereas S9, S11, S8, S12, S22, and S30 were negatively correlated. When the concentration of each sample was 1 g·mL−1, equal to the amount of raw medicinal herbs, oxypeucedanin hydrate, imperatorin, cnidilin, and isoimperatorin had inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity whereas byakangelicin and bergapten had activating effects.

  16. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg. At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS. The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD. Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage.

  17. Identification of novel autophagic Radix Polygalae fraction by cell membrane chromatography and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS for degradation of neurodegenerative disease proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, An-Guo; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Zeng, Wu; Liu, Liang; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan

    2015-11-24

    With its traditional use in relieving insomnia and anxiety, our previous study has identified onjisaponin B from Radix Polygalae (RP), as a novel autophagic enhancer with potential neuroprotective effects. In current study, we have further identified a novel active fraction from RP, contains 17 major triterpenoid saponins including the onjisaponin B, by the combinational use of cell membrane chromatography (CMC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to (quadrupole) time-of-flight mass spectrometry {UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS}. By exhibiting more potent autophagic effect in cells, the active fraction enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin, and reduces protein level and aggregation of α-synuclein in a higher extent when compared with onjisaponin B. Here, we have reported for the first time the new application of cell-based CMC and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS analysis in identifying new autophagy inducers with neuroprotective effects from Chinese medicinal herb. This result has provided novel insights into the possible pharmacological actions of the active components present in the newly identified active fraction of RP, which may help to improve the efficacy of the traditional way of prescribing RP, and also provide new standard for the quality control of decoction of RP or its medicinal products in the future.

  18. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of freshwater snail (Radix balthica) to discover genes and pathways affected by exposure to oxazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitelli, Jean-Yves; Bonnafe, Elsa; Klopp, Christophe; Escudier, Frédéric; Geret, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are increasingly found in aquatic ecosystems due to the non-efficiency of waste water treatment plants. Therefore, aquatic organisms are frequently exposed to a broad diversity of pharmaceuticals. Freshwater snail Radix balthica has been chosen as model to study the effects of oxazepam (psychotropic drug) on developmental stages ranging from trochophore to hatching. In order to provide a global insight of these effects, a transcriptome deep sequencing has been performed on exposed embryos. Eighteen libraries were sequenced, six libraries for three conditions: control, exposed to the lowest oxazepam concentration with a phenotypic effect (delayed hatching) (TA) and exposed to oxazepam concentration found in freshwater (TB). A total of 39,759,772 filtered raw reads were assembled into 56,435 contigs having a mean length of 1579.68 bp and mean depth of 378.96 reads. 44.91% of the contigs have at least one annotation. The differential expression analysis between the control condition and the two exposure conditions revealed 146 contigs differentially expressed of which 144 for TA and two for TB. 34.0% were annotated with biological function. There were four mainly impacted processes: two cellular signalling systems (Notch and JNK) and two biosynthesis pathways (Polyamine and Catecholamine pathways). This work reports a large-scale analysis of differentially transcribed genes of R. balthica exposed to oxazepam during egg development until hatching. In addition, these results enriched the de novo database of potential ecotoxicological models.

  19. Botanical origin and chemical constituents of commercial Saposhnikoviae radix and its related crude drugs available in Shaanxi and the surrounding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Ezaki, Masami; Shiba, Mao; Yamaji, Hiroki; Yoshitomi, Taichi; Kawano, Noriaki; Zhu, Shu; Cheng, Xiao; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Sun, Hang; Komatsu, Katsuko; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    Saposhnikoviae radix (SR) is described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia as a crude drug derived from the root of Saposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin (Umbelliferae). According to Flora of China, the root of Peucedanum ledebourielloides K. F. Fu is used as a regional substitute for SR. Therefore, we surveyed the botanical origin of the drug used in China, especially Shaanxi and the surrounding regions, through nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. As a result, several samples from Shaanxi () and Shanxi () provinces were identified as Peucedanum ledebourielloides. To prevent this substitute from being distributed as genuine SR, we developed a thin-layer chromatography analysis condition to enable a specific compound of this species to be easily detected. The specific compound was identified as xanthalin, based on 1D- and 2D-NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The established TLC conditions were as follows-extraction solvent, n-hexane; applied volume, 5 µL; chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:ethyl acetate:acetic acid (20:10:1); developing length, 7 cm; detection, UV (365 nm); R f value, 0.4 (blue fluorescence; xanthalin).

  20. [Effects and mechanism of Angelicae Sinensis Radix on Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in mice with asthma and Yin deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-Ting; Feng, Xing-Zhong; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2017-02-01

    Angelicae Sinensis Radix, with nourishing Yin, promoting blood circulation, and moisturizing dryness functions, is commonly used in clinical medicine. In order to investigate the effects and mechanism of Angelica sinensis(AS) on Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in mice with asthma and Yin deficiency syndrome, asthmatic and Yin deficiency syndrome Balb/c mice models were established by injecting and inhaling ovalbumin(OVA) and thyroxin. The models were treated with dexamethasone(DXM), AS extract and AS extract+DXM, respectively. Pathological examination of lung tissues was conducted by HE staining, and ELISA was used to detect the levels of IL-4, IL-17, IFN-γ, TGF-β as well as retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (RORγt). Results showed that AS could significantly improve the situation of inflammation infiltration, increase ratios of IFN-γ/IL-4 and TGF-β/IL-17, decrease the levels of RORγt in lung tissues. The AS+DXM group showed a best treatment effect. The results indicated that AS played a therapeutic role for asthma with Yin deficiency syndrome and improved airway inflammation by inhibiting the expression of RORγt in lung tissues and regulating the balance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. A Herbal Composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae, and Fructus Schisandrae Shows Potent Protective Effects on Acute Alcoholic Intoxication in Rodent Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to evaluate the effects of a herbal composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae and Fructus Schisandrae (SRF against acute alcoholic intoxication. The animals were treated with SRF extract (SRFE for 14 days, and ethanol was conducted subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of SRFE on righting reflex, inebriety rates, kinetic parameters of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined. In addition; levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, the activities of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, selected antioxidative enzymes, and the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA were measured. SRFE-pretreated rodents exhibited lower rates of intoxication, longer times to loss of righting reflex, and shortened times to recovery of righting reflex than in controls. The peak concentrations and area under the time-concentration curves were lower in the pretreated animals than in controls, which corresponded to higher levels of ADH and ALDH in both gastrointestines and livers of the SRFE-treated animals. The activities of CYP2E1 were lower in SRFE-pretreated animals, which also exhibited higher activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lower hepatic MDA levels. These findings suggest that the anti-inebriation effects of SRFE may involve inhibition of ethanol absorption, promotion of ethanol metabolism, and enhancing hepatic anti-oxidative functions.

  2. [The transition of psychotropic drugs in Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) (Part 6): the knowledge and judgment about the sort as the medicine on valerianae radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, K; Yamada, M; Matsumoto, Y

    1993-01-01

    It was thought that valerianae had circulated as the public drugs in Japan since the middle of Edo period and also thought the European valerianae was introduced for the first time in the late Edo period. Then, Japanese valerianae was widely used as the same effective drug as European valerianae in the Meiji period. By the beginning of the First World War, Japanese government encouraged the use of domestic drugs in Japan. As a result, Japanese valerianae was widely grown all over Japan and became the majority of the circulation on the market. Japanese valerianae contained more volatile oil than European valerianae. Therefore, Japanese valelrianae was exported mainly to Germany until the Second World War and was highly evaluated from all over the world. After the Second World War, Japanese valerianae lost its economical advantage and the production of Japanese valerianae declined. Now, Japanese valerianae was barely grown only in Hokkaido. The pharmaceutical action of Japanese valerianae is generous. So, it is thought that valerianae radix may be used for raw materials of general drugs in the future, too.

  3. Simultaneous assessment of absorption characteristics of coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix: In vitro transport across Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2017-08-15

    Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used for the treatments of rheumatism and headache for centuries. To assess the absorption characteristics of coumarins from APR, a sensitive and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of sixteen coumarins from APR, including psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, bergaptol, isoimperatorin, imperatorin, columbianetin, columbianetin acetate, columbianadin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angelol B, umbelliferone, scopoletin, osthole, meranzin hydrate and nodakenetin. The specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability of the method were all validated to be satisfactory. The method was then applied to the in vitro transport of APR extract (APRE) across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration of APRE. All of the tested coumarins were well or moderately absorbed across Caco-2 monolayers, and could be quickly absorbed into rat blood circulation after oral administration. Columbianetin was the most easily absorbed compound across Caco-2 cell, and also had extremely highest plasma concentration in vivo. Excellent correlation between in vitro absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers and in vivo pharmacokinetics of coumarins from APRE was well verified. The results provided valuable information for the overall absorption characteristics of the coumarins from APR, as well as for its further studies of in vivo active substances in the further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prophylactic Neuroprotection of Total Glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba against Semen Strychni-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Reducing the Absorption of Toxic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Strychnos alkaloids (SAs are the main toxic constituents in Semen Strychni, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is known for its fatal neurotoxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of the total glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba (TGP. An SA brain damage model was firstly established. The neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of TGP were confirmed by physical and behavioral testing, biochemical assay, and histological examination. Then, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to investigate the time-course change and distribution of strychnine and brucine (two main SAs in the brain after oral SA administration with or without TGP pretreatment. Biochemical analysis results indicated that TGP could ameliorate the oxidative stress status caused by SAs. Time-course change and distribution studies demonstrated that strychnine and brucine were rapidly absorbed into the brain, peaked early at 0.5 h, and were mainly located in the hippocampus and cerebellum. TGP showed a pre-protective effect against neurotoxicity by reducing the absorption of toxic alkaloids into the brain. These findings could provide beneficial information in facilitating future studies of Semen Strychni neurotoxicity and developing herbal medicines to alleviate neurotoxicity in the clinic.

  5. Combination treatment with Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Puerariae radix offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Cao, Si-Si; Gao, Quan-Gui; Feng, Hao-Tian; Wong, Man-Sau; Denney, Liya

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Puerariae radix (PR) combination treatment in bone and mineral metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in our search for an alternative regimen for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old OVX rats were used as postmenopausal osteoporotic models, and PR water extract (PR) and FLL water extract (WE) were added to commercial diets individually or in combination and administered to OVX rats for 12 weeks. Bone properties, calcium and phosphorus absorption, and bone biochemical markers were measured to investigate the potential interactions between the actions of PR and the actions of WE on bone and mineral metabolism in OVX rats. Long-term treatment with PR did not significantly improve bone properties but greatly ameliorated the secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in the animals. WE significantly enhanced the intestinal calcium absorption rate and decreased the enlarged trabecular bone surface at the site of metaphysic tibia in OVX rats. However, the positive effects of WE or PR alone on bone and mineral metabolism were diminished when OVX rats were cotreated with WE and PR. The combination of these two herbs offsets their independent actions on bone and mineral metabolism in vivo. The results of the present study could provide insights to medical professionals to further their understanding of the potential negative impact of herb-herb interactions when a combination of herbal mixtures is used for the management of osteoporosis.

  6. A new A431/cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists from Radix sophorae flavescentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicen; Sun, Meng; Zhang, Yanmin; Du, Hui; He, Langchong

    2010-08-06

    The intracellular kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in some tumor cells such as human epidermal squamous cells (A(431) cells) are an important target for drug discovery. We have developed a new A(431)/cell membrane chromatography (A(431)/CMC)-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) method for screening EGFR antagonists from medicinal herbs such as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In this study, A(431) cells with high EGFR expression levels were used to prepare cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) in an A(431)/CMC model. The retention fractions eluted from the CMSP column were enriched onto an ODS pre-column and then switched into an HPLC/MS system by combining a 10 port columns switching valve. The screening results found that oxymatrine and matrine from Radix sophorae flavescentis (RSF) were the targeted components which could act on EGFR in similar manner of gefitinib as a control drug. There was a good relationship of their inhibiting effects on EGFR secretion and A(431) cell growth in vitro. This new A(431)/CMC-online-HPLC/MS method can be applied for screening EGFR antagonists from TCMs such as RSF. It will be a useful method for drug discovery with natural medicinal herbs as a leading compound resource. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named "Zi-Yu" in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  8. Assessment of metal contamination in the Hun River, China, and evaluation of the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei as potential biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing; Wang, Shaofeng; Chen, Hongxing; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hongwei; Gao, Mi; Bi, Ran; Klerks, Paul L; Wang, He; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2017-03-01

    The Hun River is a major tributary of the Liao River in the northeast area of China and provides drinking water for 23 million local residents. This study was designed to assess the severity of metal contamination in the Hun River and the potential use of indigenous organisms (the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei) as biomonitors of metal contamination. Water, sediment, and the native fish and snails were collected at four sampling sites that differed in their physicochemical characteristics and their contamination levels. The samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-MS. The results showed that although the overall potential ecological risks of the metals were low at our sampling sites, Cd posed a noteworthy ecological risk. Strong correlations were obtained between Cd concentrations in the organisms and in the environment. The results indicated that Z. platypus and R. swinhoei can be useful biomonitoring species for assessing Cd contamination. Biomonitoring with the snail may be most effective when focused on the gonad/digestive tissue (because of the high metal accumulation there), but further work is needed to confirm this.

  9. UHPLC-TQ-MS Coupled with Multivariate Statistical Analysis to Characterize Nucleosides, Nucleobases and Amino Acids in Angelicae Sinensis Radix Obtained by Different Drying Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoqing; Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Yan, Hui; Sha, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Zhenhua

    2017-06-01

    To explore the nutrients in roots of Angelica sinensis (Angelicae Sinensis Radix, ASR), a medicinal and edible plant, and evaluate its nutritional value, a rapid and reliable UHPLC-TQ-MS method was established and used to determine the potential nutritional compounds, including nucleosides, nucleobases and amino acids, in 50 batches of ASR samples obtained using two drying methods. The results showed that ASR is a healthy food rich in nucleosides, nucleobases and amino acids, especially arginine. The total average content of nucleosides and nucleobases in all ASR samples was 3.94 mg/g, while that of amino acids reached as high as 61.79 mg/g. Principle component analysis showed that chemical profile differences exist between the two groups of ASR samples prepared using different drying methods, and the contents of nutritional compounds in samples dried with the tempering-intermittent drying processing method (TIDM) were generally higher than those dried using the traditional solar processing method. The above results suggest that ASR should be considered an ideal healthy food and TIDM could be a suitable drying method for ASR when taking nucleosides, nucleobases and amino acids as the major consideration for their known human health benefits.

  10. A simple and rapid infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction method for total flavonoid aglycones extraction from Scutellariae Radix and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Duan, Haotian; Jiang, Jiebing; Long, Jiakun; Yu, Yingjia; Chen, Guiliang; Duan, Gengli

    2017-09-01

    A new, simple, and fast infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction (IRASEE) approach for the extraction of total flavonoid aglycones (TFA) mainly including baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A from Scutellariae Radix is presented to enhance extraction yield. Extraction enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis liquid-to-solid ratio, enzymolysis pH, enzymolysis time and infrared power, the factors affecting IRASEE procedure, were investigated in a newly designed, temperature-controlled infrared-assisted extraction (TC-IRAE) system to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The results illustrated that IRASEE possessed great advantages in terms of efficiency and time compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Furthermore, the mechanism of IRASEE was preliminarily explored by observing the microscopic change of the samples surface structures, studying the main chemical compositions change of the samples before and after extraction and investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics at three temperature levels during the IRASEE process. These findings revealed that IRASEE can destroy the surface microstructures to accelerate the mass transfer and reduce the activation energy to intensify the chemical process. This integrative study presents a simple, rapid, efficient, and environmental IRASEE method for TFA extraction which has promising prospects for other similar herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  12. Potential of Pseudoshikonin I Isolated from Lithospermi Radix as Inhibitors of MMPs in IL-1β-Induced SW1353 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Young Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoshikonin I, the new bioactive constituent of Lithospermi radix, was isolated from this methanol extract by employing reverse-phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC using acetonitrile/water solvent system as eluents. The chemical structure was determined based on spectroscopic techniques, including 1D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D NMR (gCOSY, gHMBC, gHMQC, and QTOF/MS data. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of pseudoshikonin I on matrix-metalloproteinase (MMPs activation and expression in interleukin (IL-1β-induced SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. MMPs are considered important for the maintenance of the extracellular matrix. Following treatment with PS, active MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -13 and TIMP-2 were quantified in the SW1353 cell culture supernatants using a commercially available ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of MMPs in SW1353 cells was measured by RT-PCR. Pseudoshikonin I treatment effectively protected the activation on all tested MMPs in a dose-dependent manner. TIMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated by pseudoshikonin I treatment. Overall, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of pseudoshikonin on MMPs, and we suggest its use as a potential novel anti-osteoarthritis agent.

  13. Involvement of herb-herb interactions in the influences of Radix Scutellaria and Coptis Chinensis on the bioavailability of the anthraquinones form Rhei Rhizoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongming; Ma, Bingliang; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-03-01

    Xiexin decoction (XXD) is composed of Rhei Rhizoma (DH), Radix Scutellaria (HQ), and Coptis Chinensis (HL). Free anthraquinones in DH are the basic effective constituents in XXD. Reportedly, HL decreases the bioavailability of the anthraquinones, while HQ antagonizes the effect of HL. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. The metabolisms of anthraquinones by intestinal flora were studied using rat fecal suspension (RFS); the metabolisms of rhein (a typical anthraquinone in DH) by rat intestine and liver were studied using rat intestine microsomes (RIMs) and rat liver microsomes (RLMs), respectively; the intestinal transport of rhein was studied using everted gut sacs. The results showed that HL decreased the amount of the free anthraquinones after incubation in RFS and inhibited the intestinal transport of rhein, but HQ antagonized the effect of HL. On the other hand, HQ strongly inhibited the glucuronidation of rhein in both RIMs and RLMs. The results suggested that HL decreased the oral bioavailability of the anthraquinones due to inhibiting the conversion of conjugated anthraquinones to free anthraquinones by intestinal flora and decreasing the intestinal transport of the anthraquinones; HQ confronted the effect of HL by inhibiting the glucuronidation of the anthraquinones in intestine and weakening the inhibitory effects of HL.

  14. A Biomedical Investigation of the Hepatoprotective Effect of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae and Network Pharmacology-Based Prediction of the Active Compounds and Molecular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen. However, Danshen treatment could not activate the internal enzymatic antioxidant system in ALD and NAFLD models. To further explore the hepatoprotective mechanism of Danshen, an in silico-based network pharmacology approach was employed in the present study. The pharmacological network analysis result revealed that six potential active ingredients such as tanshinone iia, salvianolic acid b, and Danshensu may contribute to the hepatoprotective effects of Danshen on ALD and NAFLD. The action mechanism may relate with regulating the intracellular molecular targets such as PPARα, CYP1A2, and MMP2 for regulation of lipid metabolism, antioxidant and anti-fibrogenesis by these potential active ingredients. Our studies suggest that the combination of network pharmacology strategy with in vivo experimental study may provide a forceful tool for exploring the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM herb and developing novel bioactive ingredients.

  15. Saikosaponin A, an active glycoside from Radix bupleuri, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells and HepG2/ADM cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2017-02-01

    1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

  16. Illumination on “Reserving Phloem and Discarding Xylem” and Quality Evaluation of Radix polygalae by Determining Oligosaccharide Esters, Saponins, and Xanthones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. or Polygala sibirica L. exhibits protective effects on the central nervous system and is frequently used to treat insomnia, amnesia, and other cognitive dysfunction. In our study, we studied nine bioactive compounds spanning oligosaccharide esters, saponins, and xanthones by using a sensitive, efficient, and validated method established on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The quantified result of interesting compounds proved that accumulation of those compounds were found in phloem rather than in xylem. By taking the standardized result of nine compound contents into account, the “Spider-web” analytical result of xylem and phloem from Radix polygalae (RP unveiled the rationality of RP’s classical use in clinic including discarding the xylem and reserving the phloem. Moreover, the remarkable variation was also revealed from the quantitative result of 45 samples with different diameters from the different origins, which did not significantly correlate with the variation of RP’s diameter. Our study could shed the light on the quality assessment of RP for further research and illustrate the scientific connotation of the processing method of “discarding the xylem and reserving the phloem”.

  17. 3,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamic acid (TMCA), one of the constituents of Polygalae Radix enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABAAergic systems in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Il; Han, Jin-Yi; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2013-10-01

    These experiments were performed to investigate whether 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (TMCA), one of the constituents derived from Polygalae Radix, enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors, and to alter sleep architecture through the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic systems in mice. TMCA decreased the locomotor activity. TMCA prolonged total sleep time, and reduced sleep latency induced by pentobarbital, similar to muscimol, a GABAA agonist. From the electrocencephalogram recording for 6 h after TMCA administration, the number of sleep/wake cycles were reduced by TMCA. TMCA also increased the total sleep time and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In addition, TMCA increased Cl(-) influx in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells of mice. TMCA increased the activation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the expressions of γ-subunit of GABAA receptors in the cerebellar granule cells. However, α- and β-subunits proteins of GABAA receptors were not increased. Therefore, TMCA would increase pentobarbital induced-sleep and NREM sleep in mice. These results indicate that TMCA may enhance sleep and alter sleep architecture through GABAAergic systyems.

  18. Methane splitting in the K plant at Heydebreck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-03-09

    This report consisted of two major topics. The first was methane splitting in equipment for gas for distant transmission. The amount to be split was 3500 m/sup 3//hr methane per system. The temperature in the converter outlet was 850/sup 0/C and the methane was preheated to 650/sup 0/C. The results of this showed oxygen requirements to be 0.487 m/sup 3//m/sup 3/ of methane, steam requirements to be 0.529 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, condensate requirements to be 0.518 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, and cooling-water requirements to be 16 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane. The second topic was methane splitting in equipment for long-distance gas with additional indirect cooling. A summary showed the oxygen requirements to be 0.487 m/sup 3//m/sup 3/ of methane, steam requirements to be 0.107 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, condensate requirements to be 0.526 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane, and cooling-water requirements to be 9.6 kg/m/sup 3/ of methane. The items discussed for each topic included calculations of methane converters, which included oxygen requirements and a heat balance of the converter; cooling of the split gas, which included heat content of the split gas at the catalyst converter outlet and heat exchangers; and the cooler-vaporizer system, which included a heat balance of the water circuit, determination of the amount of water in the cooler-vaporizer, and final cooling. 3 figures.

  19. Split quaternions and semi-Euclidean projective spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ata, Erhan [Department of Mathematics, Dumlupinar University, 43100 Kutahya (Turkey); Department of Mathematics, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: eata@dumlupinar.edu.tr; Yayli, Yusuf [Department of Mathematics, Dumlupinar University, 43100 Kutahya (Turkey); Department of Mathematics, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-08-30

    In this study, we give one-to-one correspondence between the elements of the unit split three-sphere S(3,2) with the complex hyperbolic special unitary matrices SU(2,1). Thus, we express spherical concepts such as meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude on SU(2,1) by using the method given in Toth [Toth G. Glimpses of algebra and geometry. Springer-Verlag; 1998] for S{sup 3}. The relation among the special orthogonal group SO(R{sup 3}), the quotient group of unit quaternions S{sup 3}/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace} and the projective space RP{sup 3} given as SO(R{sup 3}){approx_equal}S{sup 3}/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace}=RP{sup 3} is known as the Euclidean projective spaces [Toth G. Glimpses of algebra and geometry. Springer-Verlag; 1998]. This relation was generalized to the semi-Euclidean projective space and then, the expression SO(3,1){approx_equal}S(3,2)/{l_brace}{+-}1{r_brace}=RP{sub 2}{sup 3} was acquired. Thus, it was found that Hopf fibriation map of S(2,1) can be used for Twistors (in not-null state) in quantum mechanics applications. In addition, the octonions and the split-octonions can be obtained from the Cayley-Dickson construction by defining a multiplication on pairs of quaternions or split quaternions. The automorphism group of the octonions is an exceptional Lie group. The split-octonions are used in the description of physical law. For example, the Dirac equation in physics (the equation of motion of a free spin 1/2 particle, like e.g. an electron or a proton) can be represented by a native split-octonion arithmetic.

  20. A structure-preserving split finite element discretization of the split 1D linear shallow-water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Werner; Behrens, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    We present a locally conservative, low-order finite element (FE) discretization of the covariant 1D linear shallow-water equations written in split form (cf. tet{[1]}). The introduction of additional differential forms (DF) that build pairs with the original ones permits a splitting of these equations into topological momentum and continuity equations and metric-dependent closure equations that apply the Hodge-star. Our novel discretization framework conserves this geometrical structure, in particular it provides for all DFs proper FE spaces such that the differential operators (here gradient and divergence) hold in strong form. The discrete topological equations simply follow by trivial projections onto piecewise constant FE spaces without need to partially integrate. The discrete Hodge-stars operators, representing the discretized metric equations, are realized by nontrivial Galerkin projections (GP). Here they follow by projections onto either a piecewise constant (GP0) or a piecewise linear (GP1) space. Our framework thus provides essentially three different schemes with significantly different behavior. The split scheme using twice GP1 is unstable and shares the same discrete dispersion relation and similar second-order convergence rates as the conventional P1-P1 FE scheme that approximates both velocity and height variables by piecewise linear spaces. The split scheme that applies both GP1 and GP0 is stable and shares the dispersion relation of the conventional P1-P0 FE scheme that approximates the velocity by a piecewise linear and the height by a piecewise constant space with corresponding second- and first-order convergence rates. Exhibiting for both velocity and height fields second-order convergence rates, we might consider the split GP1-GP0 scheme though as stable versions of the conventional P1-P1 FE scheme. For the split scheme applying twice GP0, we are not aware of a corresponding conventional formulation to compare with. Though exhibiting larger