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Sample records for split plot experiment

  1. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  2. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...

  3. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  4. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  5. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  6. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular

  7. The Use of Plackett-Burman Designs to Construct Split Plot Designs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulahci, M.; Bisgaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract When some factors are hard to change and others are relatively easier, split-plot experiments are often an economic alternative to fully randomized designs. Split-plot experiments, with their structure of subplot arrays imbedded within whole-plot arrays, have a tendency to become large,

  8. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....

  10. Checking the Adequacy of Fit of Models from Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almini, A. A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    models. In this article, we propose the computation of two R-2, R-2-adjusted, prediction error sums of squares (PRESS), and R-2-prediction statistics to measure the adequacy of fit for the WP and the SP submodels in a split-plot design. This is complemented with the graphical analysis of the two types......One of the main features that distinguish split-plot experiments from other experiments is that they involve two types of experimental errors: the whole-plot (WP) error and the subplot (SP) error. Taking this into consideration is very important when computing measures of adequacy of fit for split-plot...... of errors to check for any violation of the underlying assumptions and the adequacy of fit of split-plot models. Using examples, we show how computing two measures of model adequacy of fit for each split-plot design model is appropriate and useful as they reveal whether the correct WP and SP effects have...

  11. Paired split-plot designs of multireader multicase studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Gong, Qi; Gallas, Brandon D

    2018-07-01

    The widely used multireader multicase ROC study design for comparing imaging modalities is the fully crossed (FC) design: every reader reads every case of both modalities. We investigate paired split-plot (PSP) designs that may allow for reduced cost and increased flexibility compared with the FC design. In the PSP design, case images from two modalities are read by the same readers, thereby the readings are paired across modalities. However, within each modality, not every reader reads every case. Instead, both the readers and the cases are partitioned into a fixed number of groups and each group of readers reads its own group of cases-a split-plot design. Using a [Formula: see text]-statistic based variance analysis for AUC (i.e., area under the ROC curve), we show analytically that precision can be gained by the PSP design as compared with the FC design with the same number of readers and readings. Equivalently, we show that the PSP design can achieve the same statistical power as the FC design with a reduced number of readings. The trade-off for the increased precision in the PSP design is the cost of collecting a larger number of truth-verified patient cases than the FC design. This means that one can trade-off between different sources of cost and choose a least burdensome design. We provide a validation study to show the iMRMC software can be reliably used for analyzing data from both FC and PSP designs. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of the PSP design with a reader study comparing full-field digital mammography with screen-film mammography.

  12. Estimation of Missing Observations in Two-Level Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Inserting estimates for the missing observations from split-plot designs restores their balanced or orthogonal structure and alleviates the difficulties in the statistical analysis. In this article, we extend a method due to Draper and Stoneman to estimate the missing observations from unreplicated...... two-level factorial and fractional factorial split-plot (FSP and FFSP) designs. The missing observations, which can either be from the same whole plot, from different whole plots, or comprise entire whole plots, are estimated by equating to zero a number of specific contrast columns equal...... to the number of the missing observations. These estimates are inserted into the design table and the estimates for the remaining effects (or alias chains of effects as the case with FFSP designs) are plotted on two half-normal plots: one for the whole-plot effects and the other for the subplot effects...

  13. Relative Efficiency of Split-plot Design (SPD) to Randomized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.7 No. 1 June .... effects. They concluded that the proposed efficiency measures provide feasible solutions for .... Fm = d.f for the whole-plot treatment; Fb= d.f for the ...

  14. Multi-reader ROC studies with split-plot designs: a comparison of statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Gallas, Brandon D; Hillis, Stephen L

    2012-12-01

    Multireader imaging trials often use a factorial design, in which study patients undergo testing with all imaging modalities and readers interpret the results of all tests for all patients. A drawback of this design is the large number of interpretations required of each reader. Split-plot designs have been proposed as an alternative, in which one or a subset of readers interprets all images of a sample of patients, while other readers interpret the images of other samples of patients. In this paper, the authors compare three methods of analysis for the split-plot design. Three statistical methods are presented: the Obuchowski-Rockette method modified for the split-plot design, a newly proposed marginal-mean analysis-of-variance approach, and an extension of the three-sample U-statistic method. A simulation study using the Roe-Metz model was performed to compare the type I error rate, power, and confidence interval coverage of the three test statistics. The type I error rates for all three methods are close to the nominal level but tend to be slightly conservative. The statistical power is nearly identical for the three methods. The coverage of 95% confidence intervals falls close to the nominal coverage for small and large sample sizes. The split-plot multireader, multicase study design can be statistically efficient compared to the factorial design, reducing the number of interpretations required per reader. Three methods of analysis, shown to have nominal type I error rates, similar power, and nominal confidence interval coverage, are available for this study design. Copyright © 2012 AUR. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of a Split-Plot Experimental Design Applied to a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to analyze a split-plot experimental design featuring two input factors, two levels of randomization, and two error structures in a low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a small-scale model of a fighter airplane configuration is described in this report. Standard commercially-available statistical software was used to analyze the test results obtained in a randomization-restricted environment often encountered in wind tunnel testing. The input factors were differential horizontal stabilizer incidence and the angle of attack. The response variables were the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment. Using split-plot terminology, the whole plot, or difficult-to-change, factor was the differential horizontal stabilizer incidence, and the subplot, or easy-to-change, factor was the angle of attack. The whole plot and subplot factors were both tested at three levels. Degrees of freedom for the whole plot error were provided by replication in the form of three blocks, or replicates, which were intended to simulate three consecutive days of wind tunnel facility operation. The analysis was conducted in three stages, which yielded the estimated mean squares, multiple regression function coefficients, and corresponding tests of significance for all individual terms at the whole plot and subplot levels for the three aerodynamic response variables. The estimated regression functions included main effects and two-factor interaction for the lift coefficient, main effects, two-factor interaction, and quadratic effects for the drag coefficient, and only main effects for the pitching moment coefficient.

  16. On the Kendrick Mass Defect Plots of Multiply Charged Polymer Ions: Splits, Misalignments, and How to Correct Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry N. J.; Cody, Robert B.; Ozeki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    The Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analysis of multiply charged polymeric distributions has recently revealed a surprising isotopic split in their KMD plots—namely a 1/z difference between KMDs of isotopes of an oligomer at charge state z. Relying on the KMD analysis of actual and simulated distributions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the isotopic split is mathematically accounted for and found to go with an isotopic misalignment in certain cases. It is demonstrated that the divisibility (resp. indivisibility) of the nominal mass of the repeating unit (R) by z is the condition for homolog ions to line up horizontally (resp. misaligned obliquely) in a KMD plot. Computing KMDs using a fractional base unit R/z eventually corrects the misalignments for the associated charge state while using the least common multiple of all the charge states as the divisor realigns all the points at once. The isotopic split itself can be removed by using either a new charge-dependent KMD plot compatible with any fractional base unit or the remainders of KM (RKM) recently developed for low-resolution data all found to be linked in a unified theory. These original applications of the fractional base units and the RKM plots are of importance theoretically to satisfy the basics of a mass defect analysis and practically for a correct data handling of single stage and tandem mass spectra of multiply charged homo- and copolymers.

  17. Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou

    2013-05-01

    A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.

  18. Experience with split transition lattices at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, C.; Tepikian, S.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    During the acceleration process, heavy ion beams in RHIC cross the transition energy. When RHIC was colliding deuterons and gold ions during Run-8, lattices with different integer tunes were used for the two rings. This resulted in the two rings crossing transition at different times, which proved beneficial for the 'Yellow' ring, the RF system of which is slaved to the 'Blue' ring. For the symmetric gold-gold run in FY2010, lattices with different transition energies but equal tunes were implemented. We report the optics design concept as well as operational experience with this configuration.

  19. Mixed-strain housing for female C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c mice: validating a split-plot design that promotes refinement and reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael; Fureix, Carole; Palme, Rupert; Newman, Jonathan A; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-27

    Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects) differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype) share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter) to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation). We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were screened for a range of 26 commonly-measured behavioural, physiological and haematological variables. Living in mixed-strain trios did not compromise mouse welfare (assessed via corticosterone metabolite output, stereotypic behaviour, signs of aggression, and other variables). It also did not alter the direction or magnitude of any strain- or enrichment-typical difference across the 26 measured variables, or increase variance in the data: indeed variance was significantly decreased by mixed- strain housing. Furthermore, using Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the statistical power benefits of this approach over a conventional design demonstrated that for our effect sizes, the split- plot design would require significantly fewer mice (under half in most cases) to achieve a power of 80%. Mixed-strain housing allows several strains to be tested at once, and potentially refines traditional marking practices for research mice. Furthermore, it dramatically illustrates the

  20. Mixed-strain housing for female C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c mice: validating a split-plot design that promotes refinement and reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Walker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inefficient experimental designs are common in animal-based biomedical research, wasting resources and potentially leading to unreplicable results. Here we illustrate the intrinsic statistical power of split-plot designs, wherein three or more sub-units (e.g. individual subjects differing in a variable of interest (e.g. genotype share an experimental unit (e.g. a cage or litter to which a treatment is applied (e.g. a drug, diet, or cage manipulation. We also empirically validate one example of such a design, mixing different mouse strains -- C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c -- within cages varying in degree of enrichment. As well as boosting statistical power, no other manipulations are needed for individual identification if co-housed strains are differentially pigmented, so also sparing mice from stressful marking procedures. Methods The validation involved housing 240 females from weaning to 5 months of age in single- or mixed- strain trios, in cages allocated to enriched or standard treatments. Mice were screened for a range of 26 commonly-measured behavioural, physiological and haematological variables. Results Living in mixed-strain trios did not compromise mouse welfare (assessed via corticosterone metabolite output, stereotypic behaviour, signs of aggression, and other variables. It also did not alter the direction or magnitude of any strain- or enrichment-typical difference across the 26 measured variables, or increase variance in the data: indeed variance was significantly decreased by mixed- strain housing. Furthermore, using Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the statistical power benefits of this approach over a conventional design demonstrated that for our effect sizes, the split- plot design would require significantly fewer mice (under half in most cases to achieve a power of 80 %. Conclusions Mixed-strain housing allows several strains to be tested at once, and potentially refines traditional marking practices

  1. Efficacy of Bordeaux mixture to control pecan scab in large-plot experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturia effusa causes scab, the most important disease on pecan in the southeastern USA. Organic fungicides have not been widely tested for efficacy against scab on susceptible cultivars. A large-plot experiment was used to test the efficacy of the traditionally-used fungicide against scab, Bordeau...

  2. PSEPLOT: a controller for plotting data from the Mark I Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Suppression Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    PSEPLOT is a computer routine that was developed for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Octopus computer system to generate several thousand plots of engineering data in a consistent format for referencing and comparison. The time-dependent engineering data were recorded during each of 25 tests of the Mark I Pressure Suppression Experiment (PSE). Although PSEPLOT is restricted to PSE, its concept is applicable to any similar data management task

  3. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  4. Experiments and simulation of split Hopkinson Bar tests on sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, P D; Gould, P J; Wood, A D; Tyas, A

    2014-01-01

    Static triaxial cell data and Split Hopkinson Bar data has been generated for well controlled dry and wet sand under confined and unconfined conditions. This has demonstrated that the dry sand is rate independent in its behaviour, whereas the wet sand exhibits a strain rate dependency in its behaviour. Simulations have been performed with the Lagrangian hydrocode DYNA using a Porter-Gould equation of state (EOS) and Johnson-Holmquist type constitutive model. Comparison with the raw strain gauge data is qualitatively reasonable, although some of the details of the trace are not reproduced. Sensitivity studies have also been performed, which has demonstrated some deficiencies in the constitutive model, relating to wave-speed and definition of moduli in a granular material. This has given some insights into how the constitutive model should be improved and which future experimental tests will be required.

  5. Experiences of radiostimulation in small-plot fields. Experiments in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannonhalmi, K.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978 radiostimulation experiments were conducted on a total of 18 ha, using 41 varieties of 13 plant species. This paper deals with some aspects of the work in relation to maize, carrots, paprika for spice and cucumbers. According to the observations the importance of gamma irradiating isotopes with different energy spectra exceeded that of dose intensity in the case of maize. In some hybrids yield response was obtained with 137 Cs gamma treatment, in others with 60 Co gamma treatment. Carrot yield exhibited an unambiguous and considerable increase by the influence of irradiation. The changes in the growing season and crop yield of paprika for spice were dependent on the variety. The two cucumber varieties studied responded differently to irradiation. Early and increased yield was obtained for the Buda gherkins. The Nimbus variety exhibited no stimulation effect. The addition of gibberellic acid resulted in larger yield for the Nimbus variety while no response was obtained with the Buda gherkin variety. (author)

  6. Position indicating split toroid for the RACE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, B.; Folkman, K.

    2007-01-01

    Aspects of the recent reactor accelerator coupled experiments (RACE) carried out at University of Texas Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory will be discussed. In particular, a compact instrument that allowed a continuous non-invasive means of determining the relative electron beam position was developed. The operation of the instrument is similar to an inductive current pick up toroid except that the core is sectioned radially, which allows spatial information to be derived from the induced voltages. Results of initial tests, both in beam and with a pulser, will be presented along with plans to optimize future designs

  7. Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis Jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengwei; Zhou, Qixing; Cai, Zhang; Zhang, Zhineng

    2009-09-15

    Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by organic chemicals is a challenging problem in environmental science and engineering. On the basis of identifying remediation plants from ornamentals, the remediation capability of Mirabilis Jalapa L. to treat petroleum contaminated soil from the Shengli Oil Field in Dongying City, Shandong Province, China was further investigated using a field plot experiment carried out in a greenhouse. The results showed that the average efficiency of removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by M. jalapa over the 127-day culture period was high, up to 41.61-63.20%, when the removal rate by natural attenuation was only 19.75-37.92%. The maximum reduction occurred in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction compared with other components of petroleum contaminants. According to the qualitative and quantitative parameters including plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, root weight and visual stress symptoms, it was indicated that M. jalapa had a peculiar tolerance to petroleum contamination and could effectively promote the degradation of TPHs when the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was equal to and lower than 10,000 mg/kg. The population of living microorganisms in the planted soil could be also adaptive to contaminated soil. On the whole, M. jalapa is a widely spread species that can be effectively applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  8. Tritium behavior on a cultivated plot in the 1994 chronic HT release experiment at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Kinouchi, N.; Murata, M.; Amano, H.; Atarashi, M.; Ichimasa, Y.; Ichimasa, M.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of HT and HTO in air and surface soil has been studied extensively in the chronic HT release experiment carried out at Chalk River during the summer of 1994. HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water collected in a cultivated plot showed similar time-variations, increasing rapidly during the first and second days and becoming gradual after the first 3-4 days. The air HTO concentration decreased during and following rainfall but recovered within a day. The rainfall reduced the HTO concentrations in ridge soil water but little in furrows. Time histories of HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water suggest that the system was near steady-state within a continuous HT release period of 12 days, in spite of the presence of rain during the period. The air HTO concentrations on clear days showed diurnal cycles that were higher during daytime than at night. The experimental field had a very complex soil regime with respect to HT deposits. The deposits to soil surface varied depending on soil conditions. 12 refs., 5 figs

  9. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjaer, Lene Jung; Hommen, Udo; Høye, Toke Thomas; Preuss, Thomas G; Sibly, Richard M; van Vliet, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Current European Union regulatory risk assessment allows application of pesticides provided that recovery of nontarget arthropods in-crop occurs within a year. Despite the long-established theory of source-sink dynamics, risk assessment ignores depletion of surrounding populations and typical field trials are restricted to plot-scale experiments. In the present study, the authors used agent-based modeling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how the area of pesticide application and environmental half-life affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale. Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and environmental half-lives. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 km × 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. The authors' results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection. Predictions from the model are supported by empirical evidence from a series of studies carried out in the decade starting in 1988. The issues raised then can now be addressed using simulation. Prediction of impacts at landscape scales should be more widely used in assessing the risks posed by environmental stressors. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. Geometric phase in a split-beam experiment measured with coupled neutron interference loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.; Ioffe, A.

    1996-01-01

    A geometric phase factor is derived for a split-beam experiment as an example of cyclic evolutions. The geometric phase is given by one half of the solid angle independent of the spin of the beam. We observe this geometric phase with a two-loop neutron interferometer, where a reference beam can be added to the beam from one interference loop. All the experimental results show complete agreement with our theoretical treatment. (author)

  11. Turbulent-flow split model and supporting experiments for wire-wrapped core assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.; Rohsenow, W.

    1978-04-01

    A flow split model for the turbulent flow in a wire-wrapped nuclear fuel rod assembly is developed taking the form drag and sweeping flow between subchannels into consideration. This model is applicable to the flow distribution between two types of subchannels, i.e., interior and edge subchannels. The constants in this model for each type of subchannel were determined using all experimental data in the literature and the results of two tests performed as part of this study to fill a gap in the available literature. These experiments to measure flow split were performed on two wire-wrapped 61 pin bundles of pin pitch to pin diameter ratio, P/D, equal to 1.063 and wire lead to pin diameter ratios, H/D, of 4 and 8. The predictions of this model match all experimental data in the literature within +- 5%

  12. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  13. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Large-scale hydrogen combustion experiments: Volume 2, Data plots: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.T.; Torok, R.C.; Randall, D.S.; Sullivan, J.S.; Thompson, L.B.; Haugh, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    Forty large-scale experiments to investigate the combustion behavior of hydrogen during postulated degraded core accidents were conducted in a 16 m (52 ft) diameter sphere. The performance of safety related equipment and cable also was examined. Combustion was initiated by thermal igniters in both premixed hydrogen air-steam atmospheres and during the continuous injection of hydrogen and steam. The effects of steam, igniter location, water sprays, fans and injection rates were studied. Measurements were made of gas concentrations, combustion pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Burn fractions and flame speeds also were determined. Near-infrared seeing cameras permitted direct observation of the hydrogen burns. Combustion pressures and temperatures in premixed atmospheres with hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol% (steam saturated) were less than the theoretical maximum values. Multiple deflagrations were not encountered during continuous hydrogen injection with pre-activated igniters. Moderate pressure rises resulted from diffusion flames. These flames generally were found above the source. Combustion results have been compared to smaller scale experiments. Several safety related equipment items exhibited degraded performance after a number of tests. Most cable samples passed their electrical checks at the end of the test series. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the deliberate ignition approach to controlling hydrogen. They also provide data for validating computer codes used to predict hydrogen combustion during degraded core accidents, and for assessing the performance of safety related equipment in such environments

  15. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  16. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 4, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  17. Runoff and soil erosion plot-scale studies under natural rainfall: A meta-analysis of the Brazilian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to measure soil erosion rates in the United States from natural rainfall runoff plots began in the early 1900’s. In Brazil, the first experimental study at the plot-scale was conducted in the 1940’s; however, the monitoring process and the creation of new experimental field plots have not c...

  18. Experiences and plot application of maintenance rule for nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Hee; Seo, Mi Ro; Kim, Myung Ki; Yoo, Sung Soo

    2007-01-01

    In order to enhance the effectiveness of maintenance, Korea lunched two pilot project to implement the Maintenance Rule(MR) program similar to that of USA. One for the pilot program is Ulchin units 3 and 4, Korean standardized nuclear power(KSNP) Plant, which was started in October 2003 and finished in September 2006. The other program is for Kori units 3 and 4, Westinghouse type plants, which was stared in April 2004 and completed in September 2006. MR processes consists of 'scope determination', 'safety significance determination', 'performance criteria development', 'performance monitoring' and 'disposition process between enforcement monitoring and routine monitoring'. At each process, we gave a expert panel to review output of each process and make a justification on the output. these expert panels meeting made much of technical discussions and decisions of major products on each process. In addition, Maintenance effectiveness and Target observation system(MENTOS) was developed to manage MR implementation, of which data is automatically imported from Enterprise Resource Program(ERP), and outputs are exported to ERP and the final results are shown in ERP screen. In this paper, major results and experiences gained from each application process at Ulchin 3,4 nuclear power plants were introduced

  19. Designing experiments for maximum information from cyclic oxidation tests and their statistical analysis using half Normal plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, S.Y.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic oxidation testing at elevated temperatures requires careful experimental design and the adoption of standard procedures to ensure reliable data. This is a major aim of the 'COTEST' research programme. Further, as such tests are both time consuming and costly, in terms of human effort, to take measurements over a large number of cycles, it is important to gain maximum information from a minimum number of tests (trials). This search for standardisation of cyclic oxidation conditions leads to a series of tests to determine the relative effects of cyclic parameters on the oxidation process. Following a review of the available literature, databases and the experience of partners to the COTEST project, the most influential parameters, upper dwell temperature (oxidation temperature) and time (hot time), lower dwell time (cold time) and environment, were investigated in partners' laboratories. It was decided to test upper dwell temperature at 3 levels, at and equidistant from a reference temperature; to test upper dwell time at a reference, a higher and a lower time; to test lower dwell time at a reference and a higher time and wet and dry environments. Thus an experiment, consisting of nine trials, was designed according to statistical criteria. The results of the trial were analysed statistically, to test the main linear and quadratic effects of upper dwell temperature and hot time and the main effects of lower dwell time (cold time) and environment. The nine trials are a quarter fraction of the 36 possible combinations of parameter levels that could have been studied. The results have been analysed by half Normal plots as there are only 2 degrees of freedom for the experimental error variance, which is rather low for a standard analysis of variance. Half Normal plots give a visual indication of which factors are statistically significant. In this experiment each trial has 3 replications, and the data are analysed in terms of mean mass change, oxidation kinetics

  20. Evidence of Wigner rotation phenomena in the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-07-01

    A result from particle tracking states that, after a microbunched electron beam is kicked, its trajectory changes while the orientation of the microbunching wavefront remains as before. Experiments at the LCLS showed that radiation in the kicked direction is produced practically without suppression. This could be explained if the orientation of the microbunching wavefront is readjusted along the kicked direction. In previous papers we showed that when the evolution of the electron beam modulation is treated according to relativistic kinematics, the orientation of the microbunching wavefront in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic is always perpendicular to the electron beam velocity. There we refrained from using advanced theoretical concepts to explain or analyze the wavefront rotation. For example, we only hinted to the relation of this phenomenon with the concept of Wigner rotation. This more abstract view of wavefront rotation underlines its elementary nature. The Wigner rotation is known as a fundamental effect in elementary particle physics. The composition of non collinear boosts does not result in a simple boost but, rather, in a Lorentz transformation involving a boost and a rotation, the Wigner rotation. Here we show that during the LCLS experiments, a Wigner rotation was actually directly recorded for the first time with a ultrarelativistic, macroscopic object: an ultrarelativistic electron bunch in an XFEL modulated at nm-scale of the size of about 10 microns. Here we point out the role of Wigner rotation in the analysis and interpretation of experiments with ultrarelativistic, microbunched electron beams in FELs. After the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS it became clear that, in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic, the projection of the microbunching wave vector onto the beam velocity is a Lorentz invariant, similar to the helicity in particle physics.

  1. Evidence of Wigner rotation phenomena in the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    A result from particle tracking states that, after a microbunched electron beam is kicked, its trajectory changes while the orientation of the microbunching wavefront remains as before. Experiments at the LCLS showed that radiation in the kicked direction is produced practically without suppression. This could be explained if the orientation of the microbunching wavefront is readjusted along the kicked direction. In previous papers we showed that when the evolution of the electron beam modulation is treated according to relativistic kinematics, the orientation of the microbunching wavefront in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic is always perpendicular to the electron beam velocity. There we refrained from using advanced theoretical concepts to explain or analyze the wavefront rotation. For example, we only hinted to the relation of this phenomenon with the concept of Wigner rotation. This more abstract view of wavefront rotation underlines its elementary nature. The Wigner rotation is known as a fundamental effect in elementary particle physics. The composition of non collinear boosts does not result in a simple boost but, rather, in a Lorentz transformation involving a boost and a rotation, the Wigner rotation. Here we show that during the LCLS experiments, a Wigner rotation was actually directly recorded for the first time with a ultrarelativistic, macroscopic object: an ultrarelativistic electron bunch in an XFEL modulated at nm-scale of the size of about 10 microns. Here we point out the role of Wigner rotation in the analysis and interpretation of experiments with ultrarelativistic, microbunched electron beams in FELs. After the beam splitting experiment at the LCLS it became clear that, in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic, the projection of the microbunching wave vector onto the beam velocity is a Lorentz invariant, similar to the helicity in particle physics.

  2. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Mechanistic formulation of a lineal-quadratic-linear (LQL) model: Split-dose experiments and exponentially decaying sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Mariana; Carlone, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years, several models were proposed that modify the standard linear-quadratic (LQ) model to make the predicted survival curve linear at high doses. Most of these models are purely phenomenological and can only be applied in the particular case of acute doses per fraction. The authors consider a mechanistic formulation of a linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model in the case of split-dose experiments and exponentially decaying sources. This model provides a comprehensive description of radiation response for arbitrary dose rate and fractionation with only one additional parameter. Methods: The authors use a compartmental formulation of the LQL model from the literature. They analytically solve the model's differential equations for the case of a split-dose experiment and for an exponentially decaying source. They compare the solutions of the survival fraction with the standard LQ equations and with the lethal-potentially lethal (LPL) model. Results: In the case of the split-dose experiment, the LQL model predicts a recovery ratio as a function of dose per fraction that deviates from the square law of the standard LQ. The survival fraction as a function of time between fractions follows a similar exponential law as the LQ but adds a multiplicative factor to the LQ parameter β. The LQL solution for the split-dose experiment is very close to the LPL prediction. For the decaying source, the differences between the LQL and the LQ solutions are negligible when the half-life of the source is much larger than the characteristic repair time, which is the clinically relevant case. Conclusions: The compartmental formulation of the LQL model can be used for arbitrary dose rates and provides a comprehensive description of dose response. When the survival fraction for acute doses is linear for high dose, a deviation of the square law formula of the recovery ratio for split doses is also predicted.

  4. Split core experiments; Part I. Axial neutron flux distribution measurements in the reactor core with a central horizontal reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strugar, P; Raisic, N; Obradovic, D; Jovanovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-05-01

    A series of critical experiments were performed on the RB reactor in order to determine the thermal neutron flux increase in the central horizontal reflector formed by a split reactor core. The objectives of these experiments were to study the possibilities of improving the thermal neutron flux characteristics of the neutron beam in the horizontal beam tube of the RA research reactor. The construction of RA reactor enables to split the core in two, to form a central horizontal reflector in front of the beam tube. This is achieved by replacing 2% enriched uranium slugs in the fuel channel by dummy aluminium slugs. The purpose of the first series of experiments was to study the gain in thermal neutron component inside the horizontal reflector and the loss of reactivity as a function of the lattice pitch and central reflector thickness.

  5. Understanding river dune splitting through flume experiments and analysis of a dune evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmink, Jord Jurriaan; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Lansink, Jord; Naqshband, Suleyman; van Duin, Olav; Paarlberg, Andries; Termes, A.P.P.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Forecasts of water level during river floods require accurate predictions of the evolution of river dune dimensions, because the hydraulic roughness of the main channel is largely determined by the bed morphology. River dune dimensions are controlled by processes like merging and splitting of dunes.

  6. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  7. Semiconductor-Electrocatalyst Interfaces: Theory, Experiment, and Applications in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellist, Michael R; Laskowski, Forrest A L; Lin, Fuding; Mills, Thomas J; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2016-04-19

    Light-absorbing semiconductor electrodes coated with electrocatalysts are key components of photoelectrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. Efforts to optimize these systems have been slowed by an inadequate understanding of the semiconductor-electrocatalyst (sem|cat) interface. The sem|cat interface is important because it separates and collects photoexcited charge carriers from the semiconductor. The photovoltage generated by the interface drives "uphill" photochemical reactions, such as water splitting to form hydrogen fuel. Here we describe efforts to understand the microscopic processes and materials parameters governing interfacial electron transfer between light-absorbing semiconductors, electrocatalysts, and solution. We highlight the properties of transition-metal oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts, such as Ni(Fe)OOH, because they are the fastest oxygen-evolution catalysts known in alkaline media and are (typically) permeable to electrolyte. We describe the physics that govern the charge-transfer kinetics for different interface types, and show how numerical simulations can explain the response of composite systems. Emphasis is placed on "limiting" behavior. Electrocatalysts that are permeable to electrolyte form "adaptive" junctions where the interface energetics change during operation as charge accumulates in the catalyst, but is screened locally by electrolyte ions. Electrocatalysts that are dense, and thus impermeable to electrolyte, form buried junctions where the interface physics are unchanged during operation. Experiments to directly measure the interface behavior and test the theory/simulations are challenging because conventional photoelectrochemical techniques do not measure the electrocatalyst potential during operation. We developed dual-working-electrode (DWE) photoelectrochemistry to address this limitation. A second electrode is attached to the catalyst layer to sense or control current/voltage independent from that of the

  8. Complex sleep apnea after full-night and split-night polysomnography: the Greek experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baou, Katerina; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Minaritzoglou, Aliki; Vagiakis, Emmanouil

    2017-12-08

    Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (TE-CSA) is defined as the emergence or persistence of central respiratory events during the initiation of positive airway pressure (PAP) without a back-up rate in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and after significant resolution of obstructive events. Previous studies have estimated a prevalence from 0.56 to 20.3%. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of TE-CSA in a Greek adult population. One thousand fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed OSA, who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center of Evangelismos Hospital of Athens over an 18-month period, were included in this study. A split-night polysomnography (PSG), or two formal overnight PSGs (diagnostic and continuous PAP (CPAP) titration study), were performed. Patients with OSA were divided in two groups; the first group included 277 patients, who underwent two separate studies (diagnostic and CPAP titration study), and the second group 782 patients, who underwent split-night studies. The prevalence of TE-CSA in the first group was 2.53% (7 patients), and in the second group was 5.63% (44 patients). The prevalence of TE-CSA in Greece was lower compared to most previous reported studies. The significant variation in the prevalence of TE-CSA between different centers throughout the world is mainly associated with the used diagnostic criteria as well as methodological and technical aspects.

  9. FIX-II/3025, BWR FIX-II Pump Trip Experiment 3025, Immediate Split Size Break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NILSSON, Lars; GUSTAFSSON, Per-Ake; GUSTAFSON, Lennart; JANCZAK, Rajmund; OESTERLUNDH, Ingrid

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The FIX-II facility is a volume scaled 1:777 representation of a Swedish BWR with external pumps. The pressure vessel contains a 36 rod full length bundle and a spray condenser at the top to allow steady state operation. The downcomer, bypass channels and guide tube volumes are represented by external piping. The intact loop represents three of the four external reactor loops. The broken loop is constructed such that both guillotine breaks and split breaks may be simulated. The facility is equipped with ADS-simulation, but no ECCS injection are included. The FIX-II loop is also suited to investigate response of pump trips and MSIV closures in internal pump reactors. 2 - Description of test: Test 3025 simulates an intermediate size split break in one of the four main recirculation lines. The break area was 31 per cent of the scaled down pipe area of the reactor. The initial power of the 36-rod bundle was 3.38 MW, corresponding to the hot channel power of the reactor

  10. Design and Experiment of a Differential-Based Power Split Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zeng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles have excellent energy efficiency and emission performance. Power split device (PSD is a key component that directly affects the control strategy of power systems, the economic consumption of fuel, and the dynamic performance of vehicles. A differential-based PSD was proposed in this paper. A traditional differential was taken as the prototype and a new design method is proposed to retrofit the differential into a PSD. First, a comprehensive approach that includes theoretical analysis and software simulation was used to analyze the possibility as well as the necessity of retrofitting the differential into PSD. Then the differential was retrofitted. Finally, finite element analysis and bench test were conducted. Results showed that applying the retrofitted differential as PSD is practicable.

  11. Flow split, pressure drop, and mixing experiments in a 61-pin shaved-wire blanket assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1981-10-01

    The experimental results of a series of hydraulic tests on a shaved-wire 61-pin blanket assembly are presented and compared to previously published MIT results for full-wire tests. The reduction of the wall subchannel flow area by incorporating the shaved-wire reduced the flow in edge and corner subchannels by 4.5 to 16.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The swirl velocity in the wall subchannels was reduced by 50%. The bundle average friction factor, the turbulent subchannel friction factors, and the mixing parameter and laminar/transition friction factors in the interior subchannels remained unchanged. However, the laminar/transition friction factors in the edge subchannels were significantly increased. These effects generally cannot be predicted by the current flow split, friction factor, and mixing parameter correlations

  12. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  13. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  14. Estimation of optimum plot sizes in field experiments with annatto Estimativa de tamanho ótimo de parcelas em experimentos com urucum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Eloy Silveira Viana

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum plots size for experiments with annatto. The uniformity assay consisted of 12 rows with 12 plants in each row. The variety Bico de Pato was used, planted in 5 x 4 m spacing and evaluated at 5 years of age. Three methods were used: maximum curvature, modified maximum curvature and the comparison of variances. The plot size estimate varied according to the methodology used and the characteristic analyzed. The adequate plot size was found to be 107.2 m² (5 plants using the modified maximum curvature method, which resulted in more precise estimates , taking into consideration that the ideal plot should facilitate the efficient evaluation of all characteristics analyzed in this experiment.Objetivou-se estimar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas para experimentos com urucum. O ensaio de uniformidade foi formado de 12 fileiras com 12 plantas em cada fileira. Utilizou-se a variedade Bico de Pato, em espaçamento 5 x 4 m, avaliada aos cinco anos. Empregaram-se os métodos da máxima curvatura, da máxima curvatura modificado e da comparação de variâncias. A estimativa do tamanho de parcela variou com o método utilizado e com a característica analisada. Pelo método da máxima curvatura modificado, que permitiu a obtenção de estimativas mais precisas, e considerando-se que a parcela ideal deve possibilitar a avaliação eficiente de todas as características analisadas neste experimento, encontrou-se o tamanho adequado de parcela, 107,2 m² (cinco plantas.

  15. To split or not to split: colostomy complications for anorectal malformations or hirschsprung disease: a single center experience and a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hondel, Desiree; Sloots, Cornelius; Meeussen, Conny; Wijnen, Rene

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the ideal type and location of colostomy in children with colorectal disease. A retrospective case study of children with an anorectal malformation who received a colostomy, born between January 1990 and July 2012. Furthermore, a systematic literature search on colostomies in neonates with an anorectal malformation or Hirschsprung disease. Colostomies were classified as loop or split colostomies in the transverse or sigmoid colon. Outcome measures were mortality and complications such as prolapse, technical difficulties with the reconstruction, urinary tract infections, and others. The mortality rate in the 180 children with anorectal malformation was 6%, and none of them were directly related to stoma formation or closure. The overall complication rate was 23% and the specific rates for the two types of procedures and the two locations of the colostomy did not differ (p = 0.389 and p = 0.667, respectively). All prolapses (n = 22) occurred in loop colostomies in the transverse colon. One colostomy required revision because of insufficient length for the reconstruction. Urinary tract infections were not documented. A total of eight studies were included in the systematic review (1982-2011; 2,954 patients). Mortality ranged between 0.1 and 11%. Loop colostomies had more complications than split colostomies (63 vs. 45%; p = 0.007), mainly prolapse (18 vs. 6%; p colostomies (62 vs. 51%, p = 0.006), and prolapse occurred more often in the transverse colon (23 vs. 7%; p colostomies, whereas the other showed frequent episodes of urinary tract infections in 64% of the loop colostomies. The complication to be avoided in transverse colostomies is prolapse and the surgical technique should be modified accordingly. The procedure of split sigmoid colostomy is meticulous, and the risk of insufficient length for the reconstruction remains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Teaching science throughout the six-year medical curriculum: Two-year experience from the University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this article is to present the introduction of a mandatory, vertically integrated course in research methodology into medical curriculum. At the School of Medicine in Split (Croatia we organized this course in 2010, with the total of 270 hours in the 6-year curriculum. In the first year (50 hours students learned basic principles of scientific method, structure of scientific article, basic statistical concepts, data analysis, interpretation and presentation. In the second year (25 hours students applied the knowledge from the first year in real examples of research data to answer a research hypothesis and present the results and conclusions. Students were guided through the process of making a hypothesis, analyzing data, interpreting them, constructing tables and figures, and writing a short research report. At the end of the course they formally presented the results to other students and course teachers, using PowerPoint slides. The third year (25 hours was devoted to mastering concepts and basic skills of evidencebased medicine (EBM. The course in the fourth year (25 hours was integrated with the clinical courses (internal medicine, neurology, and psychiatry and structured as a “journal club”. In the fifth year (25 hours, the teaching was devoted to developing a research plan for the graduation thesis that the students had to conduct during the sixth year. The sixth year (120 hours was devoted to the execution of research planned in the fifth year, including data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and thesis writing and defense. Conclusion. The new course succeeded in increasing students’ knowledge and skills for critical thinking and EBM, and prepared them for life-long learning in medicine.

  17. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  18. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  19. SUPERIMPOSED MESH PLOTTING IN MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. HENDRICKS

    2001-02-01

    The capability to plot superimposed meshes has been added to MCNP{trademark}. MCNP4C featured a superimposed mesh weight window generator which enabled users to set up geometries without having to subdivide geometric cells for variance reduction. The variance reduction was performed with weight windows on a rectangular or cylindrical mesh superimposed over the physical geometry. Experience with the new capability was favorable but also indicated that a number of enhancements would be very beneficial, particularly a means of visualizing the mesh and its values. The mathematics for plotting the mesh and its values is described here along with a description of other upgrades.

  20. Nonlinear Dot Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nils; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Conventional dot plots use a constant dot size and are typically applied to show the frequency distribution of small data sets. Unfortunately, they are not designed for a high dynamic range of frequencies. We address this problem by introducing nonlinear dot plots. Adopting the idea of nonlinear scaling from logarithmic bar charts, our plots allow for dots of varying size so that columns with a large number of samples are reduced in height. For the construction of these diagrams, we introduce an efficient two-way sweep algorithm that leads to a dense and symmetrical layout. We compensate aliasing artifacts at high dot densities by a specifically designed low-pass filtering method. Examples of nonlinear dot plots are compared to conventional dot plots as well as linear and logarithmic histograms. Finally, we include feedback from an expert review.

  1. Relative Efficiency of Split-plot Design (SPD) to Randomized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Update formulas for split-plot and block designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Arnouts (Heidi); P.P. Goos (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFor the algorithmic construction of optimal experimental designs, it is important to be able to evaluate small modifications of given designs in terms of the optimality criteria at a low computational cost. This can be achieved by using powerful update formulas for the optimality

  3. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...

  4. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  5. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  6. BliP PLOT : PLOT DISTRIBUSI DATA BERDIMENSI - SATU

    OpenAIRE

    Anisa Anisa; Indwiati Indwiati

    2014-01-01

    Blip Plot, adalah salah satu plot yang sibuat untuk menampilkan data berdimensi-satu. Pada dasarnya plot ini terdiri dari kotak, garis, dan titik. Sebagaimana plot distribusi berdimensi-satu yang lain, BliP Plot menampilkan nilai-nilai data individu dalam titik-titik atau garis-garis, dan informasi berkelompok dalam garis atau kotak. Kelebihannya, Blip Plot menampilkan banyak keistimewaan baru seperti plot variable-widht dan beberapa pilihan pola titik. Keuntungan utama dari Blip ...

  7. The Splitting Loope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  8. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  9. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  10. NPLOT - NASTRAN PLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, K.

    1994-01-01

    NPLOT is an interactive computer graphics program for plotting undeformed and deformed NASTRAN finite element models (FEMs). Although there are many commercial codes already available for plotting FEMs, these have limited use due to their cost, speed, and lack of features to view BAR elements. NPLOT was specifically developed to overcome these limitations. On a vector type graphics device the two best ways to show depth are by hidden line plotting or haloed line plotting. A hidden line algorithm generates views of models with all hidden lines removed, and a haloed line algorithm displays views with aft lines broken in order to show depth while keeping the entire model visible. A haloed line algorithm is especially useful for plotting models composed of many line elements and few surface elements. The most important feature of NPLOT is its ability to create both hidden line and haloed line views accurately and much more quickly than with any other existing hidden or haloed line algorithms. NPLOT is also capable of plotting a normal wire frame view to display all lines of a model. NPLOT is able to aid in viewing all elements, but it has special features not generally available for plotting BAR elements. These features include plotting of TRUE LENGTH and NORMALIZED offset vectors and orientation vectors. Standard display operations such as rotation and perspective are possible, but different view planes such as X-Y, Y-Z, and X-Z may also be selected. Another display option is the Z-axis cut which allows a portion of the fore part of the model to be cut away to reveal details of the inside of the model. A zoom function is available to terminals with a locator (graphics cursor, joystick, etc.). The user interface of NPLOT is designed to make the program quick and easy to use. A combination of menus and commands with help menus for detailed information about each command allows experienced users greater speed and efficiency. Once a plot is on the screen the interface

  11. Thickening the Plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian

    1979-01-01

    Examines the content of daytime serial dramas to determine how the narrative structure promotes a sense of involvement in viewers. Competing plot lines, the lack of a concrete sense of resolution, the pattern of episodes, and the audience's awareness of information kept secret from characters all contribute to audience involvement. (JMF)

  12. Plot Description (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  13. The Shorth Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.; Sawitzki, G.

    2008-01-01

    The shorth plot is a tool to investigate probability mass concentration. It is a graphical representation of the length of the shorth, the shortest interval covering a certain fraction of the distribution, localized by forcing the intervals considered to contain a given point x. It is easy to

  14. Air Data - Tile Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool plots daily AQI values for a specific location and time period. Each square or “tile” represents one day of the year and is color-coded based on the AQI level for that day. The legend tallies the number of days in each AQI category.

  15. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...

  16. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  17. Plot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Den velfungerende krimi faciliterer denne dobbelte plotlæsning ved at muliggøre en særlig form for legende og udforskende interaktion mellem læser og plot: Ved at lægge spor ud og holde tolkningsmuligheder og løsningsmuligheder åbne får vi mulighed for at påtage os og udføre opklaringsarbejdet side......, der inviterer os med ind i selve handlingens rum og forløb og giver os forskellige handlingsmuligheder i forhold til disse. I bogen omtales denne særlige form for plot for forlystelsesplot med henvisning til forlystelsesparken og den særlige form for interaktiv fortælleform, som vi finder der: en...

  18. Studies for the electro-magnetic calorimeter {\\em SplitCal} for the SHiP experiment at CERN with shower direction reconstruction capability

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the basic ideas and the first simulation results of a new electro-magnetic calorimeter concept, named {\\it SplitCal}, aimed at optimising the measurement of photon direction in fixed-target experiment configuration, with high photon detection efficiency. This calorimeter was designed for the invariant mass reconstruction of axion-like particles decaying into two photons in the mass range 200~MeV to 1~GeV for the proposed proton beam dump experiment SHiP at CERN. Preliminary results indicate that angular resolutions better than obtained by past experiments can be achieved with this design. An implementation of this concept with real technologies is under study.

  19. Studies for the electro-magnetic calorimeter SplitCal for the SHiP experiment at CERN with shower direction reconstruction capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivento, Walter M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the basic ideas and the first simulation results of a new electro-magnetic calorimeter concept, named SplitCal, aimed at optimising the measurement of photon direction in fixed-target experiment configuration, with high photon detection efficiency. This calorimeter was designed for the invariant mass reconstruction of axion-like particles decaying into two photons in the mass range 200 MeV to 1 GeV for the proposed proton beam dump experiment SHiP at CERN. Preliminary results indicate that angular resolutions better than obtained by past experiments can be achieved with this design. An implementation of this concept with real technologies is under study.

  20. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  1. Plotting system for the MINCS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadashi

    1990-08-01

    The plotting system for the MINCS code is described. The transient two-phase flow analysis code MINCS has been developed to provide a computational tool for analysing various two-phase flow phenomena in one-dimensional ducts. Two plotting systems, namely the SPLPLOT system and the SDPLOT system, can be used as the plotting functions. The SPLPLOT system is used for plotting time transients of variables, while the SDPLOT system is for spatial distributions. The SPLPLOT system is based on the SPLPACK system, which is used as a general tool for plotting results of transient analysis codes or experiments. The SDPLOT is based on the GPLP program, which is also regarded as one of the general plotting programs. In the SPLPLOT and the SDPLOT systems, the standardized data format called the SPL format is used in reading data to be plotted. The output data format of MINCS is translated into the SPL format by using the conversion system called the MINTOSPL system. In this report, how to use the plotting functions is described. (author)

  2. Seafloor multibeam backscatter calibration experiment: comparing 45°-tilted 38-kHz split-beam echosounder and 30-kHz multibeam data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladroit, Yoann; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Pallentin, Arne

    2018-06-01

    Obtaining absolute seafloor backscatter measurements from hydrographic multibeam echosounders is yet to be achieved. We propose a low-cost experiment to calibrate the various acquisition modes of a 30-kHz Kongsberg EM 302 multibeam echosounder in a range of water depths. We use a 38-kHz Simrad EK60 calibrated fisheries split-beam echosounder mounted at 45° angle on the vessel's hull as a reference for the calibration. The processing to extract seafloor backscatter from the EK60 requires bottom detection, ray tracing and motion compensation to obtain acceptable geo-referenced backscatter measurements from this non-hydrographic system. Our experiment was run in Cook Strait, New Zealand, on well-known seafloor patches in shallow, mid, and deep-water depths. Despite acquisition issues due to weather, our results demonstrate the strong potential of such an approach to obtain system's absolute calibration which is required for quantitative use of backscatter strength data.

  3. Computer experiments on the imaging of the (111) split crowdion interstitial in tungsten by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakow, W [Xerox Corp., Rochester, N.Y. (USA)

    1978-06-01

    Computer simulated dark-field electron micrographs at atomic resolutions have been generated by calculating the diffuse elastic scattering distribution of short range order objects with the important point being that images are formed from regions of reciprocal space that do not contain Bragg reflections of the perfect crystal. Interpretation of these images in terms of atom positions and atom correlations becomes straightforward and it is a simple matter to distinguish between real structural information and image artifacts produced by the phase contrast mechanism in the electron optical imaging process. In this paper images were calculated under a variety of microscope conditions for a (111) split crowdion interstitial in tungsten which included up to 182 atoms of the surrounding strain field. The effect of specimen orientation, microscope objective lens defocus and the contribution of atoms lying in different shells around the defect have been considered. To aid in image interpretation accompanying diffraction patterns have been computed for different specimen orientations which show either the perfect crystal Bragg diffraction pattern or the diffuse scattering distribution produced by the crowdion defect.

  4. Using plot experiments to test the validity of mass balance models employed to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.

    2012-01-01

    Information on rates of soil loss from agricultural land is a key requirement for assessing both on-site soil degradation and potential off-site sediment problems. Many models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution as a function of the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management, but empirical data remain essential for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures. Direct measurements using erosion plots are, however, costly and the results obtained relate to a small enclosed area, which may not be representative of the wider landscape. In recent years, the use of fallout radionuclides and more particularly caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and excess lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ) has been shown to provide a very effective means of documenting rates of soil loss and soil and sediment redistribution in the landscape. Several of the assumptions associated with the theoretical conversion models used with such measurements remain essentially unvalidated. This contribution describes the results of a measurement programme involving five experimental plots located in southern Italy, aimed at validating several of the basic assumptions commonly associated with the use of mass balance models for estimating rates of soil redistribution on cultivated land from 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements. Overall, the results confirm the general validity of these assumptions and the importance of taking account of the fate of fresh fallout. However, further work is required to validate the conversion models employed in using fallout radionuclide measurements to document soil redistribution in the landscape and this could usefully direct attention to different environments and to the validation of the final estimates of soil redistribution rate as well as the assumptions of the models employed. - Highlights: ► Soil erosion is an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture.

  5. Using plot experiments to test the validity of mass balance models employed to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E

    2012-10-01

    Information on rates of soil loss from agricultural land is a key requirement for assessing both on-site soil degradation and potential off-site sediment problems. Many models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution as a function of the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management, but empirical data remain essential for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures. Direct measurements using erosion plots are, however, costly and the results obtained relate to a small enclosed area, which may not be representative of the wider landscape. In recent years, the use of fallout radionuclides and more particularly caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and excess lead-210 ((210)Pb(ex)) has been shown to provide a very effective means of documenting rates of soil loss and soil and sediment redistribution in the landscape. Several of the assumptions associated with the theoretical conversion models used with such measurements remain essentially unvalidated. This contribution describes the results of a measurement programme involving five experimental plots located in southern Italy, aimed at validating several of the basic assumptions commonly associated with the use of mass balance models for estimating rates of soil redistribution on cultivated land from (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements. Overall, the results confirm the general validity of these assumptions and the importance of taking account of the fate of fresh fallout. However, further work is required to validate the conversion models employed in using fallout radionuclide measurements to document soil redistribution in the landscape and this could usefully direct attention to different environments and to the validation of the final estimates of soil redistribution rate as well as the assumptions of the models employed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. (O)Mega split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benakli, Karim; Darmé, Luc; Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2015-11-16

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale M{sub S}, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on M{sub S}, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses aboveM{sub S} barely constrains the model — in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry — and hence we can have a “Mega Split” spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, Fake Split Extended Supersymmetry, which enjoys similar properties.

  7. Lamb shifts and fine-structure splittings for the muonic ions μ--Li, μ--Be, and μ--B: A proposed experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, G.W.F.; Byer, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed calculations are presented for the energy splittings of the states 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ and 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ for the muonic ions μ - -Li, μ - -Be, and μ - -B obtained by numerical integration of the Dirac equation. It is shown that there is severe cancellation between the vacuum polarization and finite nuclear size contributions to the energy differences, leading to transition frequencies which lie in the visible region of the spectrum. As a consequence of the cancellation, a measurement of the transition frequency would provide a sensitive probe of nuclear size and structure. The system μ - - 7 Li appears to offer particularly good possibilities for performing such an experiment

  8. The half-half plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatterplot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  9. Generalized plotting facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.D.; Gray, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    A command which causes the translation of any supported graphics file format to a format acceptable to any supported device was implemented on two linked DECsystem-10s. The processing of the command is divided into parsing and translating phases. In the parsing phase, information is extracted from the command and augmented by default data. The results of this phase are saved on disk, and the appropriate translating routine is invoked. Twenty-eight translating programs were implemented in this system. They support four different graphics file formats, including the DISSPLA and Calcomp formats, and seven different types of plotters, including Tektronix, Calcomp, and Versatec devices. Some of the plotters are devices linked to the DECsystem-10s, and some are driven by IBM System/360 computers linked via a communications network to the DECsystem-10s. The user of this facility can use any of the supported packages to create a file of graphics data, preview the file on an on-line scope, and, when satisfied, cause the same data to be plotted on a hard-copy device. All of the actions utilize a single simple command format. 2 figures.

  10. Plotting Confucian and Disability Rights Paradigms on the Advocacy-Activism Continuum: Experiences of Chinese Parents of Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2014-01-01

    This study represents an initial effort to understand the advocacy journey of Chinese parents of children with dyslexia in Hong Kong. Qualitative methods involving individual and group interviews were used to solicit detailed recount and perceptions of the experiences of 25 parents. Findings revealed a largely sequenced three-stage journey of…

  11. Generalized Probability-Probability Plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mushkudiani, N.A.; Einmahl, J.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce generalized Probability-Probability (P-P) plots in order to study the one-sample goodness-of-fit problem and the two-sample problem, for real valued data.These plots, that are constructed by indexing with the class of closed intervals, globally preserve the properties of classical P-P

  12. Isodose plotting for pen plotters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, I.I.

    1985-01-01

    A general algorithm for treatment plan isodose line plotting is described which is particularly useful for pen plotters. Unlike other methods of plotting isodose lines, this algorithm is designed specifically to reduce pen motion, thereby reducing plotting time and wear on the transport mechanism. Points with the desired dose value are extracted from the dose matrix and stored, sorted into continuous contours, and then plotted. This algorithm has been implemented on DEC PDP-11/60 and VAX-11/780 computers for use with two models of Houston Instrument pen plotters, two models of Tektronix vector graphics terminals, a DEC VT125 raster graphics terminal, and a DEC VS11 color raster graphics terminal. Its execution time is similar to simpler direct-plotting methods

  13. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  14. The decrease in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane after nitrogen fertilization is related to plant physiology in split root experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis E; Morales-García, Yolanda E; Molina-Romero, Dalia; Bustillos-Cristales, María R; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that a decrease in the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus associated with sugarcane occurs after nitrogen fertilization. This fact could be due to a direct influence of NH(4)NO(3) on bacterial cells or to changes in plant physiology after fertilizer addition, affecting bacterial establishment. In this work, we observed that survival of G. diazotrophicus was directly influenced when 44.8mM of NH(4)NO(3) (640mgN/plant) was used for in vitro experiments. Furthermore, micropropagated sugarcane plantlets were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and used for split root experiments, in which both ends of the system were fertilized with a basal level of NH(4)NO(3) (0.35mM; 10mgN/plant). Twenty days post inoculation (dpi) one half of the plants were fertilized with a high dose of NH(4)NO(3) (6.3mM; 180 mgN/plant) on one end of the system. This nitrogen level was lower than that directly affecting G. diazotrophicus cells; however, it caused a decrease in the bacterial population in comparison with control plants fertilized with basal nitrogen levels. The decrease in the population of G. diazotrophicus was higher in pots fertilized with a basal nitrogen level when compared with the corresponding end supplied with high levels of NH4NO3 (100dpi; 80 days post fertilization) of the same plant system. These observations suggest that the high nitrogen level added to the plants induce systemic physiological changes that affect the establishment of G. diazotrophicus. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  17. Selection of Plot Remeasurement in an Annual Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Hans T. Schreuder; Dave Heinzen

    2000-01-01

    A plot selection approach is proposed based on experience from the Annual Forest Inventory System (AFIS) in the Aspen-Birch Unit of northestern Minnesota. The emphasisis on a mixture of strategies. Although the Agricultural Act of 1998 requires that a fixed 20 percent of plots be measured each year in each state, sooner or later we will need to vary the scheme to...

  18. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  19. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  20. Market Structure and Stock Splits

    OpenAIRE

    David Michayluk; Paul Kofman

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced liquidity is one possible motivation for stock splits but empirical research frequently documents declines in liquidity following stock splits. Despite almost thirty years of inquiry, little is known about all the changes in a stock's trading activity following a stock split. We examine how liquidity measures change around more than 2,500 stock splits and find a pervasive decline in most measures. Large stock splits exhibit a more severe liquidity decline than small stock splits, esp...

  1. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  2. Split Malcev algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.

  3. Stochastic split determinant algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatha, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    I propose a large class of stochastic Markov processes associated with probability distributions analogous to that of lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions. The construction incorporates the idea of approximate spectral split of the determinant through local loop action, and the idea of treating the infrared part of the split through explicit diagonalizations. I suggest that exact algorithms of practical relevance might be based on Markov processes so constructed

  4. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...

  5. Reversible perspective and splitting in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Helen Schoenhals

    2012-01-01

    The element of time--the experience of it and the defensive use of it--is explored in conjunction with the use of reversible perspective as a psychotic defense. Clinical material from a long analysis illustrates how a psychotic patient used the reversible perspective, with its static splitting, to abolish the experience of time. When he improved and the reversible perspective became less effective for him, he replaced it with a more dynamic splitting mechanism using time gaps. With further improvement, the patient began to experience the passage of time, and along with it the excruciating pain of separation, envy, and loss.

  6. Nuclear Zpif-type plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129 Xe. Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, i.e. there exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  7. ABCASH plotting program users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Automated Bar Coding of Air Samples at Hanford (ABCASH) system provides an integrated data collection, sample tracking, and data reporting system for radioactive particulate air filter samples. The ABCASH plotting program provides a graphical trend report for ABCASH of the performance of air sample results. This document provides an operational guide for using the program. Based on sample location identifier and date range, a trend chart of the available data is generated. The trend chart shows radiological activity versus time. General indications of directional trend of the concentrations in air over time may be discerned. Comparison limit set point values are also shown as derived from the ABCASH data base

  8. Splitting Ward identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Splitting Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Sacrifice as a plot device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashikhmanova Natalya Alexandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the plot device “sacrifice” as a meaningful component of the narrative. It sets a minimum of substantive meaning of this formation (the idea of getting something over the loss of something. The main types of sacrifice: sacrifice and self-sacrifice. Sacrifice means bringing something to sacrifice for the sake of an idea or someone else and implies a greater degree of external attributes. Self-sacrifice brings a loss of the intrinsic value of the character. Sacrifice as the action takes place consciously and, as a rule, does not require compensation in return. Victims sacrifice not only material things but spiritual as well. Their actions are certainly driven by the idea, which is of value. In the case of self-sacrifice victim is itself a victim. Present for sacrifice plays a certain role in the development of some of the stories of fabulous narratives. Search of the present can be a starting point in the development of fantastic narrative plot. As a sacrifice the present can be considered in three forms: in the form of material expression, in the form of immaterial substance, as well as a way to transfer the character into magical power through knowledge empowerment of its formulaic spells.

  11. Designing simulation experiments with controllable and uncontrollable factors for applications in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Kulahci, Murat; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for designing computer experiments that was inspired by the split-plot designs that are often used in physical experimentation.The methodology has been developed for a simulation model of a surgical unit in a Danish hospital.We classify the factors as controllable and...

  12. Justification for the Carzo-Yanouzas Experiment on Flat and Tall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzo, Rocco, Jr.; Yanouzas, John N.

    1970-01-01

    Replies to Hummon's criticism (EA 500 730) of experiment, justifying use of split-plot repeated measures design, and tests for homogeneity support the use of this design. Variables considered to be not under control are explained as attributes of structure or as variables having inconsequential effects. (Author/KJ)

  13. The Splitting Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  14. Studies on split heat pipe type adsorption ice-making test unit for fishing boats: Choice of heat pipe medium and experiments under unsteady heating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Lu, Z.S.; Chen, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The split heat pipe type compound adsorption ice maker for fishing boats not only has the advantage of large volume cooling density but also has the advantage of less power consumption and high heat transfer performance. The available heat pipe media for the split heat pipe type compound adsorption ice maker, which are methanol, acetone and water are studied and compared in this paper, and the heat pipe medium of water shows the better performance for the reason of its stable heating and cooling process and high heat transfer performance. Considering the waste heat recovered from the diesel engine on fishing boats varies when the velocity of the fishing boat changes, the refrigeration performances at the condition of different values of heating power are studied while water is used as the heat pipe medium. Results show that the cooling power, as while as COP and SCP decrease when the heating power decreases. The highest COP and SCP are 0.41 and 731 W/kg, respectively, at the highest heating power of 4.2 kW, and the values decrease by 22% and 33%, respectively, when the heating power decreases by 15%. The values decrease by 32% and 51%, respectively, when the heating power decreases by 30%. The performance of the adsorption ice maker for the fishing boat with the 6160A type diesel engine is estimated, and the results show that the cooling power and ice productivity are as high as 5.44 kW and 1032 kg ice per day, respectively, even if the recovered waste heat decreases by 30% compared with the normal value. It can satisfy the ice requirements of such a fishing boat

  15. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the representation of simple, bodily action has the function of endowing the narrative sequence with a visualizing power. It makes the narrated scenes or situations ready for visualization by the reader or listener. By virtue of this visualizing power or disposition...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...... definition of action, is unable to conceive of this visualizing function. In the second part, I argue that discourse-narratology fares no better since the visualizing function is independent of voice and focalization. In the final part, I sketch a possible account of the visualizing function of simple...

  16. The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; de Haan, Edward H F; Lamme, Victor A F

    2017-11-01

    The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the 'conscious unity, split perception' model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating Plot Designs for the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen; Bruce Bayle

    1991-01-01

    Theory and procedures are reviewed for determining the best type of plot for a given forest inventory. A general methodology is given that clarifies the relationship between different plot designs and the associated methods to produce the inventory estimates.

  18. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  19. M-Split: A Graphical User Interface to Analyze Multilayered Anisotropy from Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgarmi, Bizhan; Ozacar, A. Arda

    2017-04-01

    Shear wave splitting analysis are commonly used to infer deep anisotropic structure. For simple cases, obtained delay times and fast-axis orientations are averaged from reliable results to define anisotropy beneath recording seismic stations. However, splitting parameters show systematic variations with back azimuth in the presence of complex anisotropy and cannot be represented by average time delay and fast axis orientation. Previous researchers had identified anisotropic complexities at different tectonic settings and applied various approaches to model them. Most commonly, such complexities are modeled by using multiple anisotropic layers with priori constraints from geologic data. In this study, a graphical user interface called M-Split is developed to easily process and model multilayered anisotropy with capabilities to properly address the inherited non-uniqueness. M-Split program runs user defined grid searches through the model parameter space for two-layer anisotropy using formulation of Silver and Savage (1994) and creates sensitivity contour plots to locate local maximas and analyze all possible models with parameter tradeoffs. In order to minimize model ambiguity and identify the robust model parameters, various misfit calculation procedures are also developed and embedded to M-Split which can be used depending on the quality of the observations and their back-azimuthal coverage. Case studies carried out to evaluate the reliability of the program using real noisy data and for this purpose stations from two different networks are utilized. First seismic network is the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake research institute (KOERI) which includes long term running permanent stations and second network comprises seismic stations deployed temporary as part of the "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" project funded by NSF. It is also worth to note that M-Split is designed as open source program which can be modified by users for

  20. Split warhead simultaneous impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh Dhari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.

  1. Isospin splittings of baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Kalman; Genovese, Marco; Richard, Jean-Marc; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the isospin-breaking mass differences among baryons, with particular attention in the charm sector to the Σ c + -Σ c 0 , Σ c ++ -Σ c 0 , and Ξ c + -Ξ c 0 splittings. Simple potential models cannot accommodate the trend of the available data on charm baryons. More precise measurements would offer the possibility of testing how well potential models describe the non-perturbative limit of QCD

  2. Chromatographic properties PLOT multicapillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O A; Patrushev, Y V; Sidelnikov, V N

    2017-03-10

    Multicapillary columns (MCCs) for gas chromatography make it possible to perform high-speed analysis of the mixtures of gaseous and volatile substances at a relatively large amount of the loaded sample. The study was performed using PLOT MCCs for gas-solid chromatography (GSC) with different stationary phases (SP) based on alumina, silica and poly-(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) polymer as well as porous polymers divinylbenzene-styrene (DVB-St), divinylbenzene-vinylimidazole (DVB-VIm) and divinylbenzene-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DVB-EGD). These MCCs have the efficiency of 4000-10000 theoretical plates per meter (TP/m) and at a column length of 25-30cm can separate within 10-20s multicomponent mixtures of substances belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. The sample amount not overloading the column is 0.03-1μg and depends on the features of a porous layer. Examples of separations on some of the studied columns are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New systems for photogrametric plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Munoz, J.J.; Sarti Balsalobre, F.

    1995-01-01

    Ground photogrammetry is a highly useful technique for up-dating as-built documentation of nuclear power plants as it has the following advantages: - It reduces radiation exposure - It provides information concerning all the structures, equipment, components, pipe lines, etc, in the zone - it avoids errors made in the interpretation of drawings In the past, the application of non-topographic photogrammetry was limited by the need to use costly restitution equipment, until computer technology made it possible to operate complete photogrametric systems using a PC, digitizer, the appropriate software and a simple 35 mm camera. It is not necessary to use a tripod, or known the location of the camera or that the photographs are stereoscopic pairs. The plotting process is basically reduced to placing the photographs on the digitizing board, making the necessary adjustments and obtaining the coordinates of each point indicated. This paper explains the new photogrametric tools currently on the market, the theory behind them, and their advantages and disadvantages. It also describes some of the applications of advanced photogrammetry applied to design modifications in the nuclear sector, performed using the Empresarios Agrupados Metadat System. (Author)

  4. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  5. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  6. IPLOT, interactive MELCOR data plotting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: IPLOT is an interactive MELCOR data plotting system. It provides several kinds of GUI interfaces for a flexible data plotting. IPLOT capabilities include creation, saving and loading of user specified MELCOR variables trend graphs. IPLOT can use one or several plot files for a graph generation while the graphs can be either in one window or in several windows. Besides IPLOT provides several graph convenient functions such as zooming, re-sizing, printing for a detail analysis of severe accidents. 2 - Methods: Trend values seeking in a plot file is performed by a binary search method for fast performance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MELCOR plot files are required for plotting

  7. Recurrence plots of exchange rates of currencies

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Used to investigate the presence of distinctive recurrent behaviours in natural processes, the recurrence plots can be applied to the analysis of economic data, and, in particular, to the characterization of exchange rates of currencies too. In this paper, we will show that these plots are able to characterize the periods of oscillation and random walk of currencies and enhance their reply to news and events, by means of texture transitions. The examples of recurrence plots given here are obt...

  8. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  9. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  10. A Conductive Gel for the Plotting of Equipotential Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Torres, J.; González-Cardel, M.; Vega-Murguía, E. J.; Castillo-González, I.; Rodríguez-Nava, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a conductive gel that can be used to measure the electrical potential differences on its surface, and has enough consistency to plot equipotential lines. It has a gelation time of less than 10 min, and is suitable for implementing learning experiences in a physics teaching laboratory in a 90 min session. To…

  11. Geometrical splitting in Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical model is presented by which a direct statistical approach yielded an analytic expression for the second moment, the variance ratio, and the benefit function in a model of an n surface-splitting Monte Carlo game. In addition to the insight into the dependence of the second moment on the splitting parameters the main importance of the expressions developed lies in their potential to become a basis for in-code optimization of splitting through a general algorithm. Refs

  12. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  13. Emotional characters for automatic plot creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Rensen, S.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Göbel, S.; Spierling, U.; Hoffmann, A.; Iurgel, I.; Schneider, O.; Dechau, J.; Feix, A.

    The Virtual Storyteller is a multi-agent framework for automatic story generation. In this paper we describe how plots emerge from the actions of semi-autonomous character agents, focusing on the influence of the characters’ emotions on plot development.

  14. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  15. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Inman-Narahari; Christian Giardina; Rebecca Ostertag; Susan Cordell; Lawren Sack

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Computers are widely used in all aspects of research but their application to in-field data collection for forest plots has rarely been evaluated. 2. We developed digital data collection methods using ESRI mapping software and ruggedized field computers to map and measure ~30 000 trees in two 4-ha forest dynamics plots in wet and dry...

  16. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fisher.py: Fisher Matrix Manipulation and Confidence Contour Plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Fisher.py allows you to combine constraints from multiple experiments (e.g., weak lensing + supernovae) and add priors (e.g., a flat universe) simply and easily. Calculate parameter uncertainties and plot confidence ellipses. Fisher matrix expectations for several experiments are included as calculated by myself (time delays) and the Dark Energy Task Force (WL/SN/BAO/CL/CMB), or provide your own.

  18. A first look at measurement error on FIA plots using blind plots in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanna Melson; David Azuma; Jeremy S. Fried

    2002-01-01

    Measurement error in the Forest Inventory and Analysis work of the Pacific Northwest Station was estimated with a recently implemented blind plot measurement protocol. A small subset of plots was revisited by a crew having limited knowledge of the first crew's measurements. This preliminary analysis of the first 18 months' blind plot data indicates that...

  19. Exposing the QCD Splitting Function with CMS Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew; Marzani, Simone; Thaler, Jesse; Tripathee, Aashish; Xue, Wei

    2017-09-29

    The splitting function is a universal property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which describes how energy is shared between partons. Despite its ubiquitous appearance in many QCD calculations, the splitting function cannot be measured directly, since it always appears multiplied by a collinear singularity factor. Recently, however, a new jet substructure observable was introduced which asymptotes to the splitting function for sufficiently high jet energies. This provides a way to expose the splitting function through jet substructure measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. In this Letter, we use public data released by the CMS experiment to study the two-prong substructure of jets and test the 1→2 splitting function of QCD. To our knowledge, this is the first ever physics analysis based on the CMS Open Data.

  20. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  1. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  2. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  3. Split-illumination electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Inada, Yoshikatsu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Taniyama, Akira [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tonomura, Akira [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  4. Split-illumination electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  5. Two-Loop Splitting Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  6. Two-loop splitting amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  7. Amplitude analysis of the D+ -> K-S(0)pi + (0)(pi) Dalitz plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.

    2014-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the D+ -> K-S(0)pi + (0)(pi) Dalitz plot using a data set of 2.92 fb(-1) of e(+) e(-) collisions at the (3770) mass accumulated by the BESIII experiment, in which 166694 candidate events are selected with a background of 15.1%. The Dalitz plot is found to be well

  8. Using contour plots in elecgroproduction to examine regions in {epsilon}, Q{sup 2}, W space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    In determining incident CEBAF beam energies for CLAS electroproduction experiments that separate the longitudinal and transverse cross section components, contour plots of {epsilon} defined over a 2 dimensional Q{sup 2}, W space can be useful. This note describes an approximate method of constructing such plots.

  9. Modelos de regressão com platô na estimativa do tamanho de parcelas em experimento de conservação in vitro de maracujazeiro Using of regression plateau models in estimation of plot sizes for experiments with passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Bastos Peixoto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A determinação do tamanho de parcela é uma prática pertinente ao planejamento experimental e sua caracterização otimizada, em conjunto com o controle do material experimental, permite a obtenção de resultados com maior precisão e qualidade. Neste trabalho, determinou-se o tamanho de parcelas para experimentos de conservação in vitro de maracujazeiro, em dez ensaios de uniformidade com a espécie Passiflora Giberti N. E. Brown, utilizando-se o modelo de regressão linear segmentado com platô e o modelo de regressão quadrática segmentado com platô, que utilizam a técnica de resposta com platô a modelos que possuam mínimo. Os ensaios de uniformidade foram oriundos de experimento conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 20 unidades básicas (ub, e os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três concentrações de sacarose, três concentrações de sorbitol e uma testemunha. A coleta dos dados foi realizada aos 60 dias após a incubação, medindo-se o comprimento das brotações. Os tamanhos de parcelas variaram com o método utilizado, encontrando-se parcelas formadas por seis explantes pelo modelo da regressão linear segmentado com platô e de dez explantes pelo modelo de regressão quadrática segmentado com platô.The determination of the plot size is a practical question to the experimental design, and its characterization in an optimized way allows obtaining larger precision and quality results. This research aimed to determine the plot size in experiments in vitro that seek the passion fruit plant conservation in ten uniformity assays with the species Passiflora Giberti N. E. Brown. The tests of uniformity came from an experiment conducted in a completely randomized design with treatments in a factorial design with three concentrations of sucrose, three concentrations of sorbitol and a control. Each treatment was considered as a uniformity assay, with 20 basic units. The evaluations of the experiments

  10. The toughness of split graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).

  11. SEGY to ASCII: Conversion and Plotting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark R.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a computer program to convert standard 4 byte, IBM floating point SEGY files to ASCII xyz format. The program then optionally plots the seismic data using the GMT plotting package. The material for this publication is contained in a standard tar file (of99-126.tar) that is uncompressed and 726 K in size. It can be downloaded by any Unix machine. Move the tar file to the directory you wish to use it in, then type 'tar xvf of99-126.tar' The archive files (and diskette) contain a NOTE file, a README file, a version-history file, source code, a makefile for easy compilation, and an ASCII version of the documentation. The archive files (and diskette) also contain example test files, including a typical SEGY file along with the resulting ASCII xyz and postscript files. Requirements for compiling the source code into an executable are a C++ compiler. The program has been successfully compiled using Gnu's g++ version 2.8.1, and use of other compilers may require modifications to the existing source code. The g++ compiler is a free, high quality C++ compiler and may be downloaded from the ftp site: ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu Requirements for plotting the seismic data is the existence of the GMT plotting package. The GMT plotting package may be downloaded from the web site: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/gmt/

  12. Triadic split-merge sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Anne C.; Lin, Hai Xiang; Dubbeldam, Johan; van der Herik, H. Jaap

    2018-04-01

    In machine vision typical heuristic methods to extract parameterized objects out of raw data points are the Hough transform and RANSAC. Bayesian models carry the promise to optimally extract such parameterized objects given a correct definition of the model and the type of noise at hand. A category of solvers for Bayesian models are Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Naive implementations of MCMC methods suffer from slow convergence in machine vision due to the complexity of the parameter space. Towards this blocked Gibbs and split-merge samplers have been developed that assign multiple data points to clusters at once. In this paper we introduce a new split-merge sampler, the triadic split-merge sampler, that perform steps between two and three randomly chosen clusters. This has two advantages. First, it reduces the asymmetry between the split and merge steps. Second, it is able to propose a new cluster that is composed out of data points from two different clusters. Both advantages speed up convergence which we demonstrate on a line extraction problem. We show that the triadic split-merge sampler outperforms the conventional split-merge sampler. Although this new MCMC sampler is demonstrated in this machine vision context, its application extend to the very general domain of statistical inference.

  13. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  14. [Comparative quality measurements part 3: funnel plots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Lahmann, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Comparative quality measurements between organisations or institutions are common. Quality measures need to be standardised and risk adjusted. Random error must also be taken adequately into account. Rankings without consideration of the precision lead to flawed interpretations and enhances "gaming". Application of confidence intervals is one possibility to take chance variation into account. Funnel plots are modified control charts based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. The quality measures are plotted against their sample size. Warning and control limits that are 2 or 3 standard deviations from the center line are added. With increasing group size the precision increases and so the control limits are forming a funnel. Data points within the control limits are considered to show common cause variation; data points outside special cause variation without the focus of spurious rankings. Funnel plots offer data based information about how to evaluate institutional performance within quality management contexts.

  15. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  16. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  17. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  18. Generalised recurrence plot analysis for spatial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more recurrent during the bone loss in osteoporosis

  19. Experimental strategies in carrying out VCU for tobacco crop I: plot design and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F H R B; Ramalho, M A P; Pulcinelli, C E; Bruzi, A T

    2013-09-19

    We aimed to establish standards for tobacco Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU) in Brazil. We obtained information regarding the size and design of plots of two varietal groups of tobacco (Virginia and Burley). Ten inbred lines of each varietal group were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot contained 42 plants with six rows of seven columns each. For each experiment plant, considering the position of the respective plant in the plot (row and column) as a reference, cured leaf weight (g/plant), total sugar content (%), and total alkaloid content (%) were determined. The maximum curvature of the variations in coefficients was estimated. Trials with the number of plants per plot ranging from 2 to 41 were simulated. The use of a border was not justified because the interactions between inbred lines x position in the plots were never significant, showing that the behavior of the inbred lines coincided with the different positions. The plant performance varied according to the column position in the plot. To lessen the effect of this factor, the use of plots with more than one row is recommended. Experimental precision, evaluated by the CV%, increased with an increase in plot size; nevertheless, the maximum curvature of the variation coefficient method showed no expressive increase in precision if the number of plants was greater than seven. The result in identification of the best inbred line, in terms of the size of each plot, coincided with the maximum curvature method.

  20. A Proposal on the Geometry Splitting Strategy to Enhance the Calculation Efficiency in Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles.

  1. A Proposal on the Geometry Splitting Strategy to Enhance the Calculation Efficiency in Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles

  2. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1991-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1990 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, establish if buries radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continues to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs

  3. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  4. Activities: Plotting and Predicting from Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulte, Albert P.; Swift, Jim

    1984-01-01

    This teacher's guide provides objectives, procedures, and list of materials needed for activities which center around the use of a scatter plot to examine relationships shown by bivariate data. The activities are suitable for grades 7 to 12. Four student worksheets are included. (JN)

  5. Recurrence plot analysis of DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zuobing [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: wuzb@lnm.imech.ac.cn

    2004-11-15

    Recurrence plot technique of DNA sequences is established on metric representation and employed to analyze correlation structure of nucleotide strings. It is found that, in the transference of nucleotide strings, a human DNA fragment has a major correlation distance, but a yeast chromosome's correlation distance has a constant increasing.

  6. Splitting: The Development of a Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    1984-01-01

    Described the development of a scale that measures splitting as a psychological structure. The construct validity of the splitting scale is suggested by the positive relationship between splitting scores and a diagnostic measure of the narcissistic personality disorder, as well as a negative relationship between splitting scores and levels of…

  7. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1993-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1992 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. For many years it was the only radionuclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity

  8. A Quantitative Analysis of Children's Splitting Operations and Fraction Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching experiments with pairs of children have generated several hypotheses about students' construction of fractions. For example, Steffe (2004) hypothesized that robust conceptions of improper fractions depends on the development of a splitting operation. Results from teaching experiments that rely on scheme theory and Steffe's hierarchy of…

  9. FLOWCHART; a computer program for plotting flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice

    1982-01-01

    The computer program FLOWCHART can be used to very quickly and easily produce flowcharts of high quality for publication. FLOWCHART centers each element or block of text that it processes on one of a set of (imaginary) vertical lines. It can enclose a text block in a rectangle, circle or other selected figure. It can draw a 'line connecting the midpoint of any side of any figure with the midpoint of any side of any other figure and insert an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. It can write 'yes' or 'no' next to the line joining two figures. FLOWCHART creates flowcharts using some basic plotting subroutine* which permit plots to be generated interactively and inspected on a Tektronix compatible graphics screen or plotted in a deferred mode on a Houston Instruments 42' pen plotter. The size of the plot, character set and character height in inches are inputs to the program. Plots generated using the pen plotter can be up to 42' high--the larger size plots being directly usable as visual aids in a talk. FLOWCHART centers each block of text on an imaginary column line. (The number of columns and column width are specified as input.) The midpoint of the longest line of text within the block is defined to be the center of the block and is placed on the column line. The spacing of individual words within the block is not altered when the block is positioned. The program writes the first block of text in a designated column and continues placing each subsequent block below the previous block in the same column. A block of text may be placed in a different column by specifying the number of the column and an earlier block of text with which the new block is to be aligned. If block zero is given as the earlier block, the new text is placed in the new column continuing down the page below the previous block. Optionally a column and number of inches from the top of the page may be given for positioning the next block of text. The program will normally draw one of five

  10. Electric Dipole Moments in Split Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2006-01-01

    We perform a quantitative study of the neutron and electron electric dipole moments (EDM) in Supersymmetry, in the limit of heavy scalars. The leading contributions arise at two loops. We give the complete analytic result, including a new contribution associated with Z-Higgs exchange, which plays an important and often leading role in the neutron EDM. The predictions for the EDM are typically within the sensitivities of the next generation experiments. We also analyse the correlation between the electron and neutron EDM, which provides a robust test of Split Supersymmetry.

  11. Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, S.V.; Gorbunov, D.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky per. 9, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Kirpichnikov, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-24

    In light of the Higgs boson discovery and other results of the LHC we reconsider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector (non-minimal split SUSY). We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within a phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for the electric dipole moments of electron and neutron and collider signatures of light charginos and neutralinos.

  12. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  13. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-15

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)

  14. Mass splitting induced by gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    1982-08-01

    The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)

  15. Split, but still attached

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Recent years have witnessed the beginning of the second quantum revolution, in which an impressive degree of control over quantum systems has led to several applications in quantum communication, computation, and sensing, along with new host materials reaching commercial success. A key driver behind many of these applications is entanglement, a form of correlation that can develop between quantum systems that is stronger than any type of correlation that can exist between the macroscopic systems we deal with in our everyday life. The creation, manipulation, storage, and detection of entanglement have posed some of the biggest challenges to quantum physicists. On pages 409, 413, and 416 of this issue, Fadel et al. (1), Kunkel et al. (2), and Lange et al. (3), respectively, describe three independent experiments in which entanglement is observed in a system composed of thousands of ultracold atoms. More importantly, the entanglement is observed between atoms occupying different spatial regions, which paves the way to new applications of these systems.

  16. Surface stabilization and revegetation test plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.; Kemp, C.J.; Hayward, W.M.

    1993-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Decommissioning and Decontamination Engineering Group and Environmental Technology and Assessment Groups are developing new technologies to improve revegetation techniques for interim stabilization control over underground waste sites within the Radiation Area Remedial Action Program. Successful revegetation is an integral aspect of waste isolation strategy. Unfortunately, revegetation can be very difficult to achieve on the Hanford Site due to several factors: low annual precipitation, unpredictable timing of precipitation, low fertility of available soils, and coarse physical texture of soils covering waste sites. The tests in this report were performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and include the use of two soil sealants in combination with bare soil and a soil/compost mixture and a comparison of a wheatgrass mixture and a native seed mixture. Hydroprobe access ports were placed in one-half of the test plots and moisture data was collected. Soil fertility and plant community characteristics were monitored during the two years of the test. During the first year all sites with compost provided additional fertility and retained greater amounts of soil moisture than noncomposted sites. The use of Enduraseal soil fixative provided greater soil moisture than the use of Aerospray-77 soil fixative. During the second year the use of compost and soil fixative's had a lesser effect on soil moisture. During late summer periods all treatments had very similar soil moisture profiles. The use of compost greatly increased vegetative cover and soil fertility in comparison to sites that had no compost added. Testing of the seed mixtures found that Siberian wheatgrass and Sandberg's bluegrass were the most dominant of the seeded species observed. All plots exhibited a dominant plant cover of volunteer cheatgrass. Biomass production was significantly greater on plots with compost than on the noncomposted plots

  17. Splatterplots: overcoming overdraw in scatter plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Adrian; Gleicher, Michael

    2013-09-01

    We introduce Splatterplots, a novel presentation of scattered data that enables visualizations that scale beyond standard scatter plots. Traditional scatter plots suffer from overdraw (overlapping glyphs) as the number of points per unit area increases. Overdraw obscures outliers, hides data distributions, and makes the relationship among subgroups of the data difficult to discern. To address these issues, Splatterplots abstract away information such that the density of data shown in any unit of screen space is bounded, while allowing continuous zoom to reveal abstracted details. Abstraction automatically groups dense data points into contours and samples remaining points. We combine techniques for abstraction with perceptually based color blending to reveal the relationship between data subgroups. The resulting visualizations represent the dense regions of each subgroup of the data set as smooth closed shapes and show representative outliers explicitly. We present techniques that leverage the GPU for Splatterplot computation and rendering, enabling interaction with massive data sets. We show how Splatterplots can be an effective alternative to traditional methods of displaying scatter data communicating data trends, outliers, and data set relationships much like traditional scatter plots, but scaling to data sets of higher density and up to millions of points on the screen.

  18. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split ... quantum picture of the Universe. It was then ... where the integers m, n correspond to the respective magnetic and electric charges; m is the ...

  19. VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.

    2018-01-12

    This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.

  20. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the

  1. 9 CFR 108.3 - Preparation of plot plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of plot plans. 108.3... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.3 Preparation of plot plans. Plot plans shall show all of the buildings on a... on the plot plan the use of immediate adjacent properties such as, residential area, pasture, box...

  2. Manual transportation within the plot and physical damages to bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Mário Jorge Maia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The manual transportation of banana bunches within plots provokes physical damages to fruits compromising their quality. To assess the influence of the distance banana bunches travel on the shoulders of harvesters within the plot, on the incidence of physical damages present on the peel of fruits of the Nanicão cultivar, two experiments were carried out in the Vale do Ribeira region (SP, in sites with slope < 1%. Each experiment divided the plot in different distance bands, two of which were included in this study: one located far away from the collection roads (30-50 m and 80-100 m distance bands and another in an intermediate position (70-80 m and 130-150 m distance bands. For each distance band, six banana bunches of 36 mm gauged fruits were randomly sampled. Four banana hands were cut from the middle region of each bunch and ten fruits were assessed per hand, totaling 240 fruits per treatment. Bunches were harvested at the same maturity degree and those served as control were not transported. A total of 1440 fruits was assessed in the two experiments. The physical damages on the fruit surface were graded on a scale with 6 divisions: 0-0.25 cm²; 0.25-0.5 cm²; 0.5-1.0 cm²; 1.0-1.5 cm²; 1.5-2.0 cm²; 2.0-2.5 cm². The bunches transported on the shoulders of harvesters on distances over 70 m suffered increased (P < 0.01 damaged area. Most damages presented areas up to 0.5 cm².

  3. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  5. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  6. Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, Marten

    2016-04-01

    The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R h =(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  7. Automatic Classification of Station Quality by Image Based Pattern Recognition of Ppsd Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B.; Herrnkind, S.

    2017-12-01

    The number of seismic stations is growing and it became common practice to share station waveform data in real-time with the main data centers as IRIS, GEOFON, ORFEUS and RESIF. This made analyzing station performance of increasing importance for automatic real-time processing and station selection. The value of a station depends on different factors as quality and quantity of the data, location of the site and general station density in the surrounding area and finally the type of application it can be used for. The approach described by McNamara and Boaz (2006) became standard in the last decade. It incorporates a probability density function (PDF) to display the distribution of seismic power spectral density (PSD). The low noise model (LNM) and high noise model (HNM) introduced by Peterson (1993) are also displayed in the PPSD plots introduced by McNamara and Boaz allowing an estimation of the station quality. Here we describe how we established an automatic station quality classification module using image based pattern recognition on PPSD plots. The plots were split into 4 bands: short-period characteristics (0.1-0.8 s), body wave characteristics (0.8-5 s), microseismic characteristics (5-12 s) and long-period characteristics (12-100 s). The module sqeval connects to a SeedLink server, checks available stations, requests PPSD plots through the Mustang service from IRIS or PQLX/SQLX or from GIS (gempa Image Server), a module to generate different kind of images as trace plots, map plots, helicorder plots or PPSD plots. It compares the image based quality patterns for the different period bands with the retrieved PPSD plot. The quality of a station is divided into 5 classes for each of the 4 bands. Classes A, B, C, D define regular quality between LNM and HNM while the fifth class represents out of order stations with gain problems, missing data etc. Over all period bands about 100 different patterns are required to classify most of the stations available on the

  8. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  9. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  10. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  11. Contour plotting programs for printer and Calcomp plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, P.

    1980-07-01

    Contour plotting programs for plotting contour diagrams on printers or Calcomp plotters are described. The subroutines also exist in versions that are useful for the special application of finding minima and saddlepoints of nuclear potential energy surfaces generated by the subroutine PETR3 of another program package. For the general user, however, the most interesting aspect of the plotting package is probably the possibility of generating printer contour plots. The plotting of printer contour plots is a very fast and convenient way of displaying two-dimensional functions. 3 figures

  12. Science Fair Report: Flight of the Split-Fingered Fastball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on the results of an eighth grade student's experiments, conducted with a moving car, concerning the aerodynamics of a baseball in flight. Describes the peculiar diving ability of the split-fingered fastball, as well as the dancing and weaving effect of the knuckleball. (JJK)

  13. Gravitational waves from phase transition in split NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, S. V.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Kirpichnikov, D. V.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss gravitational wave signal from the strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the split NMSSM. We find that for sets of parameters predicting successful electroweak baryogenesis the gravitational wave signal can be within the reach of future experiments LISA, BBO and Ultimate DECIGO.

  14. Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Scheck, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Lagoyannis, A.; Kruecken, R.; Ring, P.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Sonnabend, K.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Stoica, V. I.; Woertche, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years investigations have been made to study the electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) systematically, mainly in semi-magic nuclei. For this purpose the well understood high resolution (γ,γ') photon scattering method is used. In complementary (α,α'γ) coincidence experiments at E α = 136 MeV a similar γ-energy resolution and a high selectivity to E1 transitions can be obtained at the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at KVI, Groningen. In comparison to the (γ,γ') method a structural splitting of the PDR is observed in the N = 82 nuclei 138 Ba and 140 Ce and in the Z = 50 nucleus 124 Sn. The low energy part is excited in (γ,γ') as well as in (α,α'γ) while the high energy part is observed in (γ,γ') only. The experimental results together with theoretical QPM and RQTBA calculations on 124 Sn which are able to reproduce the splitting of the PDR qualitatively are presented. The low-lying group of J π = 1 - states seem to represent the more isoscalar neutron-skin oscillation of the PDR while the energetically higher-lying states seemingly belong to the transitional region between the PDR and the isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR).

  15. Zeeman splitting of surface-scattered neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.; Adenwalla, S.; De Haan, V.O.; Van Well, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    If a beam of slow neutrons impinges on a solid at grazing incidence, the neutrons reflected can be used to probe the composition and magnetization of the solid near its surface. In this process, the incident and reflected neutrons generally have identical kinetic energies. Here we report the results of an experiment in which subtle inelastic scattering processes are revealed as relatively large deviations in scattering angle. The neutrons are scattered from a ferromagnetic surface in the presence of a strong ambient magnetic field, and exhibit a small but significant variation in kinetic energy as a function of the reflection angle. This effect is attributable to the Zeeman splitting of the energies of the neutron spin states due to the ambient magnetic field: some neutrons flip their spins upon reflection from the magnetized surface, thereby exchanging kinetic energy for magnetic potential energy. The subtle effects of Zeeman splitting are amplified by the extreme sensitivity of grazing-angle neutron scattering, and might also provide a useful spectroscopic tool if significant practical obstacles (such as low interaction cross-sections) can be overcome. (author)

  16. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289

  17. Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at -20 cm H2O for 30 min. When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications.

  18. Acoustic beam splitting in a sonic crystal around a directional band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek Ahmet; Kaya Olgun Adem; Ulug Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Beam splitting upon refraction in a triangular sonic crystal composed of aluminum cylinders in air is experimentally and numerically demonstrated to occur due to finite source size, which facilitates circumvention of a directional band gap. Experiments reveal that two distinct beams emerge at crystal output, in agreement with the numerical results obtained through the finite-element method. Beam splitting occurs at sufficiently-small source sizes comparable to lattice periodicity determined by the spatial gap width in reciprocal space. Split beams propagate in equal amplitude, whereas beam splitting is destructed for oblique incidence above a critical incidence angle

  19. Yield and nutritional efficiency of corn in response to rates and splits of nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its relevance, nitrogen is poorly utilized by the plants when improperly applied. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE in corn in response to doses and split application of nitrogen fertilization. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with three replications. Doses of nitrogen of 0, 30, 60 and 180 kg ha-1 were applied at sowing in order to create different nutritional status of corn plants and to obtain different values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI measured with “Greenseeker®” optical sensor. The subplots with nitrogen doses in topdressing of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 at V8 and a dose of 60 kg ha-1 at V12 were placed in experimental plots with doses of 0, 30, 60 and 180 kg ha-1 of nitrogen at sowing. Moreover, NUE was calculated in the experiment using agronomic indexes determined by applications of nitrogen in late topdressing (V8 and V12 and contrasted to the possible combinations at doses of 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of total N applied. The results showed the occurrence of a linear relationship between nitrogen fertilizer dose and NDVI at V8 as well as at V12 stages. Late topdressing fertilizations (V12 did not cause a decrease in grain yield when combined with nitrogen fertilization at sowing, moreover resulted in higher NUE. Split the nitrogen dose showed better NUE than the combinations where nitrogen was not applied at sowing or in topdressing. The delay of nitrogen topdressing can be an alternative for the planning of the moment of the N fertilization according to the climate forecast in each region.

  20. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers frequently include multiple cultivars and fertility levels in field experiments. Therefore, the experiments sowing operation must represent a considerable saving in time and labor, compared to hand sowing. Greater flexibility in experimental design and setup could be achieved by equipment that enables quick changes in the cultivar and fertilizer rates from one plot to the next. A satisfactory seed drill must distribute a given quantity of seed evenly over a predetermined length of coulter row, the coulters must be spaced at exact intervals and depth of sowing must be uniform. In a self-propelled type of plot seeder, no coulter should run in a wheel track as the compaction of the soil can cause observable differences in vigor between plants in such a row and those in un-compacted rows. The machine should sow in succession from a try in which a series of seed pocket separated clearly and must be put into distributer funnel by an assistant operator. The length of gap being varied according to the nature and purpose of the plot. The objectives of this experiment were 1- to design and construct a local self-propelled plot seeder and 2- To compare it with the imported (Wintersteiger plot seeder in cereal breeding programs. Materials and Methods A small-plot seeder was designed and constructed to meet this objective. The unit consists of the following basic components: a toolbar for pulling a set of six blade coulter, an air compressor for lifting and putting down the openers and metering transmission drive wheel, an operators chair and work rack, one belt seed distribution. A cone-celled and rotor seed distributor is used for seed distribution to the openers. The cone system is connected to the gearbox and allows for great flexibility in changing cultivars, crop species, and plot length. This is driven by the separate drive wheel. The cone-celled distributor sows all the seed of the sample in making one complete turn. The

  1. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  2. Crown condition assessment at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo NIBBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed crown condition assessment is currently being carried out at the CONECOFOR (CONtrollo ECOsistemi FORestali, Control of Forest Ecosystems plots. The assessment began in 1996, and during the first two years (1996 and 1997 an assessment form based on previous regional experience was used; in 1998 the new official EU form was adopted. The resulting loss of comparability means that only a few indices can be used in the temporal series 1996-1999. Much effort was devoted to Quality Assurance (QA procedures. The QA program is structured as follows: (i specific field manuals have been adopted and are continuously updated; (ii a national training and intercalibration course (NT&IC is undertaken yearly before beginning the assessment campaign;( iii field checks are carried out yearly on a large number of plots. The results of the QA program have shown that for several indices the quality objectives were not reached, but the quality of the data is improving with time. To express the change in crown conditions in each area, a complex index (CCI = Crown Condition Index was adopted. This index is the result of the sum of the relativized values of all the common indices used during the four years. The following parameters were used: transparency, ramification type, leaf colour alteration extension, leaf damage extension, alteration of leaf distension extension. The range within which the CCI fluctuates was evaluated taking into account all the observations carried out at a given plot throughout the years. The number of cases over a given threshold (outliers was calculated for each year. The threshold for outliers was calculated as the median value plus 2 times the range of the interquartile value. All individual cases exceeding this value are considered outliers. The results are presented for all the areas in which the data set is complete for the four years. The yearly fluctuations are discussed and related to possible causes.

  3. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  4. Tracker Alignment Performance Plots after Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the LHC shutdown in Winter 2016/17, the CMS pixel detector, the inner component of the CMS Tracker, was replaced by the Phase-1 upgrade detector. Among others improvements, the new pixel detector consists of four instead of three layers in the central barrel region (BPIX) and three instead of two disks in the endcap regions (FPIX). In this report, performance plots of pixel detector alignment results are presented, which were obtained with both cosmic-ray and pp collision data acquired at the beginning of the 2017 LHC operation. Alignment constants have been derived for each data-taking period to the level of single module positions in both the pixel and the strip detectors. The complete understanding of the alignment and biases was derived by using two algorithms, Millepede-II and HipPy. The results confirm each other.

  5. Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.

    1998-01-01

    Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)

  6. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2016-12-07

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  7. A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.

  8. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  9. PLOT-3D, Graphics Subroutines for 3-D Surface Plots with Arbitrary Rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basinger, D.; Gvildys, J.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PLOT-3D is a package of sub- programs designed to draw three-dimensional surfaces from arrays of points (x,y,z). The surfaces can be drawn after arbitrary rotations about the three coordinate axes. 2 - Method of solution: PLOT-3D is a computer program to plot any surface for which each coordinate pair (x,y) is associated with a unique z in the set of points (x,y,z). It uses matrix transformation of the points to generate different views of the surface after arbitrary rotations about the three coordinate axes. Four versions of PLOT-3D are available. Output of version 1 and 3 is by film recorder. Output of version 2 and 4 is by CalComp plotter. Versions 3 and 4 do not draw lines which would be invisible to a viewer looking at an opaque surface, whereas versions 1 and 2 draw every line on the surface. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Versions 3 and 4 limit number of rows in arrays (x,y,z) to 100 and also number of columns in arrays (x,y,z) to 100

  10. Variability of Measured Runoff and Soil Loss from Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Field plots are widely used in studies related to the measurements of soil loss and modeling of erosion processes. Research efforts are needed to investigate factors affecting the data quality of plots. Spatial scale or size of plots is one of these factors which directly affects measuring runoff and soil loss by means of field plots. The effect of plot size on measured runoff or soil loss from natural plots is known as plot scale effect. On the other hand, variability of runoff and sediment yield from replicated filed plots is a main source of uncertainty in measurement of erosion from plots which should be considered in plot data interpretation processes. Therefore, there is a demand for knowledge of soil erosion processes occurring in plots of different sizes and of factors that determine natural variability, as a basis for obtaining soil loss data of good quality. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effects of these two factors by measurement of runoff and soil loss from replicated plots with different sizes. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the variability of runoff and soil loss data seven plots, differing in width and length, were constructed in a uniform slope of 9% at three replicates at Koohin Research Station in Qazvin province. The plots were ploughed up to down slope in September 2011. Each plot was isolated using soil beds with a height of 30 cm, to direct generated surface runoff to the lower part of the plots. Runoff collecting systems composed of gutters, pipes and tankswere installed at the end of each plot. During the two-year study period of 2011-2012, plots were maintained in bare conditions and runoff and soil loss were measured for each single event. Precipitation amounts and characteristics were directly measured by an automatic recording tipping-bucket rain gauge located about 200 m from the experimental plots. The entire runoff volume including eroded sediment was measured on

  11. Longleaf pine regeneration following Hurricane Ivan utilizing the RLGS plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; John S. Kush

    2013-01-01

    On September 16, 2004, Hurricane Ivan hit the Alabama coast and severely impacted numerous plots in the U.S. Forest Service’s Regional Longleaf Growth Study (RLGS). The Escambia Experimental Forest (EEF) has 201 of the 325 RLGS plots. Nearly one-third of the EEF was impacted. Nine plots with pole-sized trees were entirely lost. Another 54 plots had some type of damage...

  12. A typology of split conjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Palancar , Enrique L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, I study instances of noun phrase conjunction where the conjoined noun phrase is subject and the referents of the conjuncts are human, of the type ‘John and Mary are having lunch’. More specifically, I study different, possible splits that occur in such structures, which involve the disruption of the phrasal continuity of the conjuncts, resulting in structures roughly equivalent to ‘they are having lunch with Mary’ and ‘John are having lunch with Mary’. I...

  13. shinyCircos: an R/Shiny application for interactive creation of Circos plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiming; Ouyang, Yidan; Yao, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Creation of Circos plot is one of the most efficient approaches to visualize genomic data. However, the installation and use of existing tools to make Circos plot are challenging for users lacking of coding experiences. To address this issue, we developed an R/Shiny application shinyCircos, a graphical user interface for interactive creation of Circos plot. shinyCircos can be easily installed either on computers for personal use or on local or public servers to provide online use to the community. Furthermore, various types of Circos plots could be easily generated and decorated with simple mouse-click. shinyCircos and its manual are freely available at https://github.com/venyao/shinyCircos. shinyCircos is deployed at https://yimingyu.shinyapps.io/shinycircos/ and http://shinycircos.ncpgr.cn/ for online use. diana1983941@mail.hzau.edu.cn or yaowen@henau.edu.cn.

  14. Optimal plot size in the evaluation of papaya scions: proposal and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Felipe Celanti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Evaluating the quality of scions is extremely important and it can be done by characteristics of shoots and roots. This experiment evaluated height of the aerial part, stem diameter, number of leaves, petiole length and length of roots of papaya seedlings. Analyses were performed from a blank trial with 240 seedlings of "Golden Pecíolo Curto". The determination of the optimum plot size was done by applying the methods of maximum curvature, maximum curvature of coefficient of variation and a new proposed method, which incorporates the bootstrap resampling simulation to the maximum curvature method. According to the results obtained, five is the optimal number of seedlings of papaya "Golden Pecíolo Curto" per plot. The proposed method of bootstrap simulation with replacement provides optimal plot sizes equal or higher than the maximum curvature method and provides same plot size than maximum curvature method of the coefficient of variation.

  15. Presenting simulation results in a nested loop plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido

    2014-12-12

    Statisticians investigate new methods in simulations to evaluate their properties for future real data applications. Results are often presented in a number of figures, e.g., Trellis plots. We had conducted a simulation study on six statistical methods for estimating the treatment effect in binary outcome meta-analyses, where selection bias (e.g., publication bias) was suspected because of apparent funnel plot asymmetry. We varied five simulation parameters: true treatment effect, extent of selection, event proportion in control group, heterogeneity parameter, and number of studies in meta-analysis. In combination, this yielded a total number of 768 scenarios. To present all results using Trellis plots, 12 figures were needed. Choosing bias as criterion of interest, we present a 'nested loop plot', a diagram type that aims to have all simulation results in one plot. The idea was to bring all scenarios into a lexicographical order and arrange them consecutively on the horizontal axis of a plot, whereas the treatment effect estimate is presented on the vertical axis. The plot illustrates how parameters simultaneously influenced the estimate. It can be combined with a Trellis plot in a so-called hybrid plot. Nested loop plots may also be applied to other criteria such as the variance of estimation. The nested loop plot, similar to a time series graph, summarizes all information about the results of a simulation study with respect to a chosen criterion in one picture and provides a suitable alternative or an addition to Trellis plots.

  16. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  17. Correlation plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.

    1991-05-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. A generalized interface allows the user to perform a wide variety of machine physics experiments without the need for specialized software. It has been used extensively during SLC commissioning and operation. The user may step one or two independent parameters such as magnet or feedback setpoints while measuring or calculating up to 160 others. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system as well as a variety of derived parameters such as beam size or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided for data analysis. A software-callable interface is also provided. Applications based on this facility are used to phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size at the interaction point and maintain beam collisions. 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. Correlation Plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Clark, S.

    1991-11-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. This generalized interface allows the user to perform a range of operations or machine physics experiments without the need for any specialized analysis software. The user may step one or more independent parameters, such as magnet or feedback setpoints, while measuring or calculating up to 160 other parameters. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system, as well as calculated parameters such as beam size, luminosity, or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided. A software-callable interface has been provided so that a host of applications can call this package for analysis and display. Such applications regularly phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size, and maintain beam collisions at the interaction point. 4 refs., 5 figs

  19. Correlation Plot facility in the SLC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Phinney, N.; Sachez-Chopitea, L.; Clark, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Correlation Plot facility is a powerful interactive tool for data acquisition and analysis throughout the SLC. This generalized interface allows the user to perform a range of operations or machine physics experiments without the need for any specialized analysis software. The user may step one or more independent parameters, such as magnet or feedback set points, while measuring or calculating up to 160 other parameters. Measured variables include all analog signals available to the control system, as well as calculated parameters such as beam size, luminosity, or emittance. Various fitting algorithms and display options are provided. A software-callable interface has been provided so that a host of applications can call this package for analysis and display. Such applications regularly phase klystrons, measure emittance and dispersion, minimize beam size, and maintain beam collisions at the interaction point. (author)

  20. A Decade of Shear-Wave Splitting Observations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Abers, G. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Pavlis, G. L.; Song, X.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decade four PASSCAL experiments have been conducted in different regions of Alaska. ARCTIC, BEAAR and MOOS form a north-south transect across the state, from the Arctic Ocean to Price Williams Sound, while the STEEP experiment is currently deployed to the east of that line in the St Elias Mountains of Southeastern Alaska. Shear-wave splitting observations from these networks in addition to several permanent stations of the Alaska Earthquake Information Center were determined in an attempt to understand mantle flow under Alaska in a variety of different geologic settings. Results show two dominant splitting patterns in Alaska, separated by the subducted Pacific Plate. North of the subducted Pacific Plate fast directions are parallel to the trench (along strike of the subducted Pacific Plate) indicating large scale mantle flow in the northeast-southwest direction with higher anisotropy (splitting times) within the mantle wedge. Within or below the Pacific Plate fast directions are normal to the trench in the direction of Pacific Plate convergence. In addition to these two prominent splitting patterns there are several regions that do not match either of these trends. These more complex regions which include the results from STEEP could be due to several factors including effects from the edge of the Pacific Plate. The increase of station coverage that Earthscope will bring to Alaska will aid in developing a more complete model for anisotropy and mantle flow in Alaska.

  1. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics

  2. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    experimental potato technology was developed and tested by stakeholders on 130 plots of Stolyn and Slavgorod districts during 2001-2003. The results have shown that potato yield in experiment was increased up to 35 t ha{sup -1} or in 1.6 times to the control with usual technology. The 1 euro invested to the potato experiment provided 1.5-2.0 euros of net return on the average. The careful testing of technology by some participants allowed to reduce the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr accumulation in potatoes up to 50-70% and the nitrate concentration in 1.5-2.6 times to the control. Presumably the {sup 90}Sr concentration on plots contaminated by radionuclide and nitrate concentration in tuber should be permanently controlled. (author)

  3. Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.

    2004-01-01

    technology was developed and tested by stakeholders on 130 plots of Stolyn and Slavgorod districts during 2001-2003. The results have shown that potato yield in experiment was increased up to 35 t ha -1 or in 1.6 times to the control with usual technology. The 1 euro invested to the potato experiment provided 1.5-2.0 euros of net return on the average. The careful testing of technology by some participants allowed to reduce the 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation in potatoes up to 50-70% and the nitrate concentration in 1.5-2.6 times to the control. Presumably the 90 Sr concentration on plots contaminated by radionuclide and nitrate concentration in tuber should be permanently controlled. (author)

  4. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  5. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  6. Plano amostral em parcelas de milho para avaliação de atributos de espigas Sampling plan in corn plots to evaluate ear characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Newton Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimentos agrícolas, a amostragem é importante para reduzir os custos e a mão-de-obra, embora devam possuir características que confiram precisão experimental adequada. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar uma metodologia para se amostrar parcelas e sub-parcelas experimentais de milho, quando o objetivo é avaliar atributos morfológicos e de rendimento avaliados nas espigas. O experimento foi realizado, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, com quatro bases genéticas de milho (híbrido simples - DAS 9560; híbrido duplo - AG 303; híbrido triplo - AG 6018; variedade cultivada - BR 202. O delineamento usado foi blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. A parcela foi constituída de 96 sub-parcelas de um metro. Em cada parcela, amostraram-se as espigas de cinco sub-parcelas. Foram avaliados o comprimento, o diâmetro, o rendimento de grãos e a massa de cem grãos de cada espiga. Concluiu-se que o tamanho da amostra nas parcelas de milho está relacionado ao atributo a ser avaliado nas espigas. Existem interferências genéticas e ambientais sobre a magnitude da estimativa do tamanho da amostra de espigas de milho. Pode-se amostrar 24 espigas por parcela, em seis repetições por genótipo, para avaliar os atributos comprimento e largura de espigas, rendimento de grãos e massa de cem grãos, para obter uma semi-amplitude do intervalo de confiança abaixo de 10% da média.In agricultural experiments good sampling techniques are important to reduce costs and labor, and guarantee adequate experimental precision. The objective of this research was to study a sampling methodology of experimental plots to evaluate morphologic characteristic and corn yield in maize spikes. Single (DAS 9560, double (AG 6018 and triple (AG 303 crosses corn hybrids and an open pollinated variety (BR 202 were ev aluated. The experiment design was a randomized complete block with four replications and was conducted

  7. Exploration of the forbidden regions of the Ramachandran plot (ϕ-ψ) with QTAIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Roya; Azizi, Alireza; Wang, Lingling; Ping, Yang; Xu, Tianlv; Kirk, Steven R; Li, Wenxuan; Manzhos, Sergei; Jenkins, Samantha

    2017-10-04

    A new QTAIM interpretation of the Ramachandran plot is formulated from the most and least facile eigenvectors of the second-derivative matrix of the electron density with a set of 29 magainin-2 peptide conformers. The presence of QTAIM eigenvectors associated with the most and least preferred directions of electronic charge density explained the role of hydrogen bonding, HH contacts and the glycine amino acid monomer in peptide folding. The highest degree of occupation of the QTAIM interpreted Ramachandran plot was found for the glycine amino acid monomer compared with the remaining backbone peptide bonds. The mobility of the QTAIM eigenvectors of the glycine amino acid monomer was higher than for the other amino acids and was comparable to that of the hydrogen bonding, explaining the flexibility of the magainin-2 backbone. We experimented with a variety of hybrid QTAIM-Ramachandran plots to highlight and explain why the glycine amino acid monomer largely occupies the 'forbidden' region on the Ramachandran plot. In addition, the new hybrid QTAIM-Ramachandran plots contained recognizable regions that can be associated with concepts familiar from the conventional Ramachandran plot whilst retaining the character of the QTAIM most and least preferred regions.

  8. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  9. Photon-splitting cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy

  10. Gauge mediated mini-split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  11. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  12. Splitting tests on rock specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J D; Stagg, K G

    1970-01-01

    Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.

  13. Split supersymmetry in unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    In the context of split supersymmetry, the gaugino mass spectrum seems to be very important to satisfy the dark matter content of the universe and the gauge coupling unification. In this Letter, we have considered various sources of gaugino masses in the context of unified models. We show that the gaugino mass spectrum varies in different unification pictures. In the context of SU(5), we have found that the bino/wino mass ratio can be close to one at the weak scale which is helpful to satisfy the WMAP data. The gluino/wino mass ratio is also different from the usual scenario of unified gaugino masses. The gaugino masses can be around one TeV and m SUSY is chosen so that the gluino mass does not create any cosmological problem. In the context of the Pati-Salam model, we show that the gluino mass can be made very heavy even after maintaining the unification of the gauge couplings

  14. Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yafei

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  16. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-08-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literature: the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot recently proposed by Critchley et al. The polar plot is thought to be the more advanced statistical tool, but care should be taken when it comes to its interpretation. The polar plot excludes possibly important measurements from the data. The polar plot transforms the data nonlinearily, which may prevent it from being seen clearly. In this article, we compare the 4-quadrant and the polar plot in detail and thoroughly describe advantages and limitations of each. We also discuss pitfalls concerning the methods to prepare the researcher for the sound use of both methods. Finally, we briefly revisit the Bland-Altman plot for the use in this context.

  17. Storytelling in Earth sciences: The eight basic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    Reporting results and promoting ideas in science in general, and Earth science in particular, is treated here as storytelling. Just as in literature and drama, storytelling in Earth science is characterized by a small number of basic plots. Though the list is not exhaustive, and acknowledging that multiple or hybrid plots and subplots are possible in a single piece, eight standard plots are identified, and examples provided: cause-and-effect, genesis, emergence, destruction, metamorphosis, convergence, divergence, and oscillation. The plots of Earth science stories are not those of literary traditions, nor those of persuasion or moral philosophy, and deserve separate consideration. Earth science plots do not conform those of storytelling more generally, implying that Earth scientists may have fundamentally different motivations than other storytellers, and that the basic plots of Earth Science derive from the characteristics and behaviors of Earth systems. In some cases preference or affinity to different plots results in fundamentally different interpretations and conclusions of the same evidence. In other situations exploration of additional plots could help resolve scientific controversies. Thus explicit acknowledgement of plots can yield direct scientific benefits. Consideration of plots and storytelling devices may also assist in the interpretation of published work, and can help scientists improve their own storytelling.

  18. The rainfall plot: its motivation, characteristics and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanska, Diana; Vodák, Daniel; Lund-Andersen, Christin; Salvatore, Stefania; Hovig, Eivind; Sandve, Geir Kjetil

    2017-05-18

    A visualization referred to as rainfall plot has recently gained popularity in genome data analysis. The plot is mostly used for illustrating the distribution of somatic cancer mutations along a reference genome, typically aiming to identify mutation hotspots. In general terms, the rainfall plot can be seen as a scatter plot showing the location of events on the x-axis versus the distance between consecutive events on the y-axis. Despite its frequent use, the motivation for applying this particular visualization and the appropriateness of its usage have never been critically addressed in detail. We show that the rainfall plot allows visual detection even for events occurring at high frequency over very short distances. In addition, event clustering at multiple scales may be detected as distinct horizontal bands in rainfall plots. At the same time, due to the limited size of standard figures, rainfall plots might suffer from inability to distinguish overlapping events, especially when multiple datasets are plotted in the same figure. We demonstrate the consequences of plot congestion, which results in obscured visual data interpretations. This work provides the first comprehensive survey of the characteristics and proper usage of rainfall plots. We find that the rainfall plot is able to convey a large amount of information without any need for parameterization or tuning. However, we also demonstrate how plot congestion and the use of a logarithmic y-axis may result in obscured visual data interpretations. To aid the productive utilization of rainfall plots, we demonstrate their characteristics and potential pitfalls using both simulated and real data, and provide a set of practical guidelines for their proper interpretation and usage.

  19. SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2004-01-01

    We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....

  20. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  1. SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a semi-automatic, MATLAB-based GUI to combine standard seismological tasks such as the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting. Shear-wave splitting analysis is widely used to infer seismic anisotropy, which can be interpreted in terms of lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, shape-preferred orientation caused by fluid-filled cracks or alternating layers. Seismic anisotropy provides a unique link between directly observable surface structures and the more elusive dynamic processes in the mantle below. Thus, resolving the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere is of particular importance for geodynamic modeling and interpretations. The increasing number of seismic stations from temporary experiments and permanent installations creates a new basis for comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. However, the increasingly large data sets pose new challenges for the rapid and reliably analysis of teleseismic waveforms and for the interpretation of the measurements. Well-established routines and programs are available but are often impractical for analyzing large data sets from hundreds of stations. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same well-defined quality criteria which may complicate comparison with results from different studies. SplitRacer has been designed to overcome these challenges by incorporation of the following processing steps: i) downloading of waveform data from multiple stations in mseed-format using FDSNWS tools; ii) automated initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold; iii) particle-motion analysis of selected phases at longer periods to detect and correct for sensor misalignment; iv) splitting analysis of selected phases based on transverse-energy minimization for multiple, randomly-selected, relevant time windows; v) one and two-layer joint-splitting analysis for all phases at one station by

  2. Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.

    2014-10-07

    Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.

  3. Higgs, Binos and Gluinos: Split Susy within Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2012-09-14

    Recent results from the LHC for the Higgs boson with mass between 142 GeV {approx}< m{sub h{sup 0}} {approx}< 147 GeV points to PeV-scale Split Supersymmetry. This article explores the consequences of a Higgs mass in this range and possible discovery modes for Split Susy. Moderate lifetime gluinos, with decay lengths in the 25 {micro}m to 10 yr range, are its imminent smoking gun signature. The 7TeV LHC will be sensitive to the moderately lived gluinos and trilepton signatures from direct electroweakino production. Moreover, the dark matter abundance may be obtained from annihilation through an s-channel Higgs resonance, with the LSP almost purely bino and mass m{sub {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 70 GeV. The Higgs resonance region of Split Susy has visible signatures in dark matter direct and indirect detection and electric dipole moment experiments. If the anomalies go away, the majority of Split Susy parameter space will be excluded.

  4. Chain Plot: A Tool for Exploiting Bivariate Temporal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, CC; Zempeni, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a graphical tool useful for visualizing the cyclic behaviour of bivariate time series. We investigate its properties and link it to the asymmetry of the two variables concerned. We also suggest adding approximate confidence bounds to the points on the plot and investigate the effect of lagging to the chain plot. We conclude our paper by some standard Fourier analysis, relating and comparing this to the chain plot.

  5. Privatization of Land Plot Under Integral Real Estate Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchek A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the questions concerning the privatization of a land plot under integral real estate complex. The authors come to conclusion that a number of legislation norms relating to privatization of a land plot do not take into account the construction of an integral real estate complex that could cause some problems in the realization of the right to privatization of the land plot

  6. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjalil Akrami; Mohammad Pashaei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot...

  7. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  8. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  9. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  10. Vegetation resurvey is robust to plot location uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Martin; Macek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aim Resurveys of historical vegetation plots are increasingly used for the assessment of decadal changes in plant species diversity and composition. However, historical plots are usually relocated only approximately. This potentially inflates temporal changes and undermines results. Location Temperate deciduous forests in Central Europe. Methods To explore if robust conclusions can be drawn from resurvey studies despite location uncertainty, we compared temporal changes in species richness, frequency, composition and compositional heterogeneity between exactly and approximately relocated plots. We hypothesized that compositional changes should be lower and changes in species richness should be less variable on exactly relocated plots, because pseudo-turnover inflates temporal changes on approximately relocated plots. Results Temporal changes in species richness were not more variable and temporal changes in species composition and compositional heterogeneity were not higher on approximately relocated plots. Moreover, the frequency of individual species changed similarly on both plot types. Main conclusions The resurvey of historical vegetation plots is robust to uncertainty in original plot location and, when done properly, provides reliable evidence of decadal changes in plant communities. This provides important background for other resurvey studies and opens up the possibility for large-scale assessments of plant community change. PMID:28503083

  11. 137Cs profiles in erosion plots with different soil cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, A.C.; Appoloni, C.R.; Cassol, E.A.; Melquiades, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Cesium-137 methodology has been successfully used to assess soil erosion. Seven erosion plots were sampled to determine the 137 Cs profile and to assess the erosion rates. Cesium-137 profile for native pasture plot showed an exponential decline below 5 cm depth, with little 137 Cs activity in the superficial layer (0-5 cm). Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation plot in conventional tillage showed a uniform distribution with depth. For this plot, the soil loss occurs more in middle than upper and lower level. Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation and wheat-maize rotation plots in no-tillage showed a similar result to the native pasture, with a minimum soil loss in the superficial layer. Cesium-137 profile for bare soil and cultivated pasture plots are similar, with a soil erosion rate of 229 t ha -1 year -1 . In the plots with a conventional tillage a greater soil loss occur in middle than upper and lower level. In no-tillage cultivation plots occurs soil loss in lower level, but no sign of soil loss neither gain in the upper level is observed. Cesium-137 methodology is a good tool to assess soil erosion and the 137 Cs profile gives a possibility to understand the soil erosion behavior in erosion plots. (author)

  12. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  13. Predicting guar seed splitting by compression between two plates using Hertz theory of contact stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, R K; Shivhare, U S; Nanda, S K

    2012-09-01

    Hertz's theory of contact stresses was applied to predict the splitting of guar seeds during uni-axial compressive loading between 2 rigid parallel plates. The apparent modulus of elasticity of guar seeds varied between 296.18 and 116.19 MPa when force was applied normal to hilum joint (horizontal position), whereas it varied between 171.86 and 54.18 MPa when force was applied in the direction of hilum joint (vertical position) with in moisture content range of 5.16% to 15.28% (d.b.). At higher moisture contents, the seeds yielded after considerable deformation, thus showing ductile nature. Distribution of stresses below the point of contact were plotted to predict the location of critical point, which was found at 0.44 to 0.64 mm and 0.37 to 0.53 mm below the contact point in vertical and horizontal loading, respectively, depending upon moisture content. The separation of cotyledons from each other initiated before yielding of cotyledons and thus splitting of seed took place. The relationships between apparent modulus of elasticity, principal stresses with moisture content were described using second-order polynomial equations and validated experimentally. Manufacture of guar gum powder requires dehulling and splitting of guar seeds. This article describes splitting behavior of guar seeds under compressive loading. Results of this study may be used for design of dehulling and splitting systems of guar seeds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Interpretation and inverse analysis of the wedge splitting test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    to the wedge splitting test and that it is well suited for the interpretation of test results in terms of s(w). A fine agreement between the hinge and FEM-models has been found. It has also been found that the test and the hinge model form a solid basis for inverse analysis. The paper also discusses possible...... three dimensional problems in the experiment as well as the influence of specimen size....

  15. Plotting an Emerging Relationship Schema of Effective Leadership Attributes for Inclusive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; Deng, Meng

    2017-01-01

    The significance of principal leadership to build inclusive schools has long been recognised. Studies to plot their leadership attributes that mobilise, facilitate, and sustain inclusive education specific to Hong Kong are however scarce. This qualitative study investigated teacher leaders' experiences of what their principals did to cultivate…

  16. Improved Fast Centralized Retransmission Scheme for High-Layer Functional Split in 5G Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Hou, Meng; Fu, Yu; Bian, Honglian; Gao, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to satisfy the varied 5G critical requirements and the virtualization of the RAN hardware, a two-level architecture for 5G RAN has been studied in 3GPP 5G SI stage. The performance of the PDCP-RLC split option and intra-RLC split option, two mainly concerned options for high layer functional split, exist an ongoing debate. This paper firstly gives an overview of CU-DU split study work in 3GPP. By the comparison of implementation complexity, the standardization impact and system performance, our evaluation result shows the PDCP-RLC split Option outperforms the intra-RLC split option. Aiming to how to reduce the retransmission delay during the intra-CU inter-DU handover, the mainly drawback of PDCP-RLC split option, this paper proposes an improved fast centralized retransmission solution with a low implementation complexity. Finally, system level simulations show that the PDCP-RLC split option with the proposed scheme can significantly improve the UE’s experience.

  17. The imprint of exile through the plot of the narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dutrénit Bielous

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exile is a circumstance different from other migrations, although it resembles them in the possible insertion or alienation from the receiving society. It is with no a doubt a forced migration process which is always accompanied by an idea and an imaginary: the disappearrance of the conditions that forced to exile and thus, the return.Although it is not possible to generalize, because there is no one single experience of exile and the subjectivities that compose it are diverse, it undoubtedly produces a sensation of alienation, which can lead to the rejection of the cultural norms of society; it is part of a process of “being in one place, but thinking about another.” However, as exile is prolonged, the experience of adaptation for the different generations involved becomes diversified, communication vessels develop, feelings of inclusion, of adaptation, of attachment with the social and cultural environment that the place of refuge offered.The present text builds on testimonies of Uruguayans exiled in Mexico who have returned to their country. In their narrative, the meanings that relate to the subjective perspective that provoked the “return” to their country of origin as being viable and a palpable event are perceived. In summary, an incursion through the testimonial plot explains to what extent the return is a recovery of the space of identity longed for and the subsequent abandonment of the foreign space, in other words, it adds to the perspective of identity as a dynamic and relational construction.

  18. The 2002 RPA Plot Summary database users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage; W. Brad Smith

    2004-01-01

    Describes the structure of the RPA 2002 Plot Summary database and provides information on generating estimates of forest statistics from these data. The RPA 2002 Plot Summary database provides a consistent framework for storing forest inventory data across all ownerships across the entire United States. The data represents the best available data as of October 2001....

  19. Effects of plot size on forest-type algorithm accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program utilizes an algorithm to consistently determine the forest type for forested conditions on sample plots. Forest type is determined from tree size and species information. Thus, the accuracy of results is often dependent on the number of trees present, which is highly correlated with plot area. This research examines the...

  20. Myth Structure and Media Fiction Plot: An Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, James D.

    Based on the general research of Joseph Campbell in adventure plots from mythology, the author explores the simplified monomyth plots currently in frequent use in mass media programing. The close relationship of media fiction to mythic stories is established through the analysis of more than 25 stories resulting from media broadcasting. The media…

  1. Slope Stability of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Test Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen full-scale field test plots containing five types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) were constructed on 2H:IV and 3H:IV slopes for the purpose of assessing slope stability. The test plots were designed to simulate typical final cover systems for landfill. Slides occurr...

  2. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  3. Plotting of bathythermograph transect data on a printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James B.; McLain, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A program for plotting bathythermograph transect data on a computer (IBM 1130) printer is available from the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Temperature values are printed in positions proportional to their depths and distances from shore. Contour lines are drawn manually through the plotted points.

  4. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  5. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.

    1992-08-01

    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  6. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  7. Effectiveness of commercial microbial products in enhancing oil degradation in Prince William Sound field plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Allen, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the spring of 1990, previously reported laboratory experiments were conducted on 10 commercial microbial products to test for enhanced biodegradation of weathered crude oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The laboratory tests measured the rate and extent of oil degradation in closed flasks. Weathered oil from the beaches in Alaska and seawater from Prince William Sound were used in the tests. Two of the 10 products were found to provide significantly greater alkane degradation than flasks supplemented with mineral nutrients alone. These two products were selected for further testing on a beach in Prince William Sound. A randomized complete block experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of these two products in enhancing oil degradation compared to simple fertilizer alone. Four small plots consisting of a no nutrient control, a mineral nutrient plot, and two plots receiving mineral nutrients plus the two products, were laid out on a contaminated beach. These four plots comprised a 'block' of treatments, and this block was replicated four times on the same beach. Triplicate samples of beach sediment were collected at four equally spaced time intervals and analyzed for oil residue weight and alkane hydrocarbon profile changes with time. The objective was to determine if either of the two commercial microbiological products was able to enhance bioremediation of an oil-contaminated beach in Prince William Sound to an extent greater than that achievable by simple fertilizer application. Results indicated no significant differences among the four treatments in the 27-day period of the experiment

  8. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2.

  9. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.

  10. Tensor products of higher almost split sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquali, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the higher almost split sequences over a tensor product of algebras are related to those over each factor. Herschend and Iyama gave a precise criterion for when the tensor product of an $n$-representation finite algebra and an $m$-representation finite algebra is $(n+m)$-representation finite. In this case we give a complete description of the higher almost split sequences over the tensor product by expressing every higher almost split sequence as the mapping cone of a suit...

  11. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  12. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  13. Plot of charged nuclear particles in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo H, J.I.L.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were made in order to obtain particle tracks and fission fragments in polymers. To increase the damage the polymer is attacked chemically with a solution of KOH, NaOH or other chemical agent, whose concentration depends of the polymer to be treated, maintaining a constant temperature during the process. To count the tracks which perforate the film, a spark counter with controlled nitrogen atmosphere was constructed. In the experiments which were made in order to detect particles, films of cellulose nitrate known as xylonite, daicel and red paper were used. For the detection of fission products, cellulose triacetate and cellulose polycarbonate films, known as kodacel and kimfol were used. The particle tracks on the treated films were optically counted with a microscope. They had a diameter between 12 and 30 microns, and when the thickness of the film permitted it the tracks consisted in perforations from one to another side of the film. The obtained results have permitted to have the necessary reproducibility for the realization of quantitative analysis of irradiations which can be applied to neutron dosimetry. (author)

  14. Identification of a novel SPLIT-HULL (SPH) gene associated with hull splitting in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gileung; Lee, Kang-Ie; Lee, Yunjoo; Kim, Backki; Lee, Dongryung; Seo, Jeonghwan; Jang, Su; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2018-07-01

    The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage. Morphological and chemical analysis revealed that reduction in the width of the lemma and lignin content of the hull in the sph mutant might be the cause of hull splitting. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene, sph (Os04g0447100), which encodes a type-2 13-lipoxygenase. SPH knockout and knockdown transgenic plants displayed the same split-hull phenotype as in the mutant. The sph mutant showed significantly higher linoleic and linolenic acid (substrates of lipoxygenase) contents in spikelets compared to the wild type. It is probably due to the genetic defect of SPH and subsequent decrease in lipoxygenase activity. In dehulling experiment, the sph mutant showed high dehulling efficiency even by a weak tearing force in a dehulling machine. Collectively, the results provide a basis for understanding of the functional role of lipoxygenase in structure and maintenance of hulls, and would facilitate breeding of easy-dehulling rice.

  15. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2015-06-02

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  16. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  17. Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle

    KAUST Repository

    Alderman, N. P.

    2016-10-31

    The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.

  18. Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle

    KAUST Repository

    Alderman, N. P.; Sommers, J. M.; Viasus, C. J.; Wang, C. H T; Peneau, V.; Gambarotta, S.; Vidjayacoumar, B.; Al-Bahily, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.

  19. Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.

  20. Baryons electromagnetic mass splittings in potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, M.; Richard, J.-M.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1998-01-01

    We study electromagnetic mass splittings of charmed baryons. We point out discrepancies among theoretical predictions in non-relativistic potential models; none of these predictions seems supported by experimental data. A new calculation is presented

  1. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Splitting automorphisms of free Burnside groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabekyan, Varuzhan S

    2013-01-01

    It is proved that, if the order of a splitting automorphism of odd period n≥1003 of a free Burnside group B(m,n) is a prime, then the automorphism is inner. This implies, for every prime n≥1009, an affirmative answer to the question on the coincidence of the splitting automorphisms of period n of the group B(m,n) with the inner automorphisms (this question was posed in the 'Kourovka Notebook' in 1990). Bibliography: 17 titles.

  3. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  4. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  5. Surface thickness effects and splitting of multipole excitations in deformed nuclei. [Sum rule, hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christillin, P [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Lipparini, E; Stringari, S [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Trento, Italy

    1978-09-25

    A sum-rule approach is used to study the influence of surface thickness upon the splitting of dipole and isoscalar quadrupole energies in deformed nuclei. It is shown that hydrodynamic model results are recovered in the case of a deformed skin thickness. A constant skin thickness leads in the dipole case to slightly different predictions which seem in better agreement with experiments. The splitting of the isoscalar quadrupole mode is not sensitive to the surface thickness shape.

  6. Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)

  7. PLOTTAB, Curve and Point Plotting with Error Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTTAB is designed to plot any combination of continuous curves and/or discrete points (with associated error bars) using user supplied titles and X and Y axis labels and units. If curves are plotted, the first curve may be used as a standard; the data and the ratio of the data to the standard will be plotted. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTTAB: The program has no idea of what data is being plotted and yet by supplying titles, X and Y axis labels and units the user can produce any number of plots with each plot containing almost any combination of curves and points with each plot properly identified. In order to define a continuous curve between tabulated points, this program must know how to interpolate between points. By input the user may specify either the default option of linear x versus linear y interpolation or alternatively log x and/or log Y interpolation. In all cases, regardless of the interpolation specified, the program will always interpolate the data to the plane of the plot (linear or log x and y plane) in order to present the true variation of the data between tabulated points, based on the user specified interpolation law. Tabulated points should be tabulated at a sufficient number of x values to insure that the difference between the specified interpolation and the 'true' variation of a curve between tabulated values is relatively small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A combination of up to 30 curves and sets of discrete points may appear on each plot. If the user wishes to use this program to compare different sets of data, all of the data must be in the same units

  8. Nanosized TiO[subscript 2] for Photocatalytic Water Splitting Studied by Oxygen Sensor and Data Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruinan; Liu, Song; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting by semiconductor photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. In this experiment, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO[subscript 2]) particles are used to photocatalytically split water, which is then monitored by an oxygen sensor. Sacrificial reagents such as organics (EDTA) and metal…

  9. Robust reconstruction of a signal from its unthresholded recurrence plot subject to disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipers, Aloys, E-mail: aloys.sipers@zuyd.nl [Department of Bèta Sciences and Technology, Zuyd University (Netherlands); Borm, Paul, E-mail: paul.borm@zuyd.nl [Department of Bèta Sciences and Technology, Zuyd University (Netherlands); Peeters, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.peeters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Data Science and Knowledge Engineering, Maastricht University (Netherlands)

    2017-02-12

    To make valid inferences from recurrence plots for time-delay embedded signals, two underlying key questions are: (1) to what extent does an unthresholded recurrence (URP) plot carry the same information as the signal that generated it, and (2) how does the information change when the URP gets distorted. We studied the first question in our earlier work , where it was shown that the URP admits the reconstruction of the underlying signal (up to its mean and a choice of sign) if and only if an associated graph is connected. Here we refine this result and we give an explicit condition in terms of the embedding parameters and the discrete Fourier spectrum of the URP. We also develop a method for the reconstruction of the underlying signal which overcomes several drawbacks that earlier approaches had. To address the second question we investigate robustness of the proposed reconstruction method under disturbances. We carry out two simulation experiments which are characterized by a broad band and a narrow band spectrum respectively. For each experiment we choose a noise level and two different pairs of embedding parameters. The conventional binary recurrence plot (RP) is obtained from the URP by thresholding and zero-one conversion, which can be viewed as severe distortion acting on the URP. Typically the reconstruction of the underlying signal from an RP is expected to be rather inaccurate. However, by introducing the concept of a multi-level recurrence plot (MRP) we propose to bridge the information gap between the URP and the RP, while still achieving a high data compression rate. We demonstrate the working of the proposed reconstruction procedure on MRPs, indicating that MRPs with just a few discretization levels can usually capture signal properties and morphologies more accurately than conventional RPs. - Highlights: • A recurrence plot is maximally informative if and only if the corresponding graph is connected. • The diameter of the connected graph is always

  10. TAURUS, Post-processor of 3-D Finite Elements Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.E.; Hallquist, J.O.; Kennedy, T.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (NESC 9725), DYNA3D (NESC 9909), TACO3D (NESC 9838), TOPAZ3D (NESC9599) and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing

  11. How much information is contained in a recurrence plot?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Marco; Romano, M. Carmen; Kurths, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    Recurrence plots have recently been recognized as a powerful tool for the analysis of data. Not only the visualization of structures of the time series but also the possibility to estimate invariants from them and the possibility to analyze non-stationary data sets are remarkable. However, the question of how much information is encoded in such a two-dimensional and binary representation has not been discussed so far. In this Letter we show that - under some conditions - it is possible to reconstruct an attractor from the recurrence plot, at least topologically. This means that all relevant dynamical information is contained in the plot

  12. True versus perturbed forest inventory plot locations for modeling: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters; Ronald E. McRoberts; William D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plot information is widely used for timber inventories, forest health assessments, and environmental risk analyses. With few exceptions, true plot locations are not revealed; the plot coordinates are manipulated to obscure the location of field plots and thereby preserve plot integrity. The influence of perturbed plot...

  13. Brains striving for coherence: Long-term cumulative plot formation in the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, K; Christensen, P; Roepstorff, A; Lund, T; Østergaard, S; Donald, M

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities, such as engaging in conversation or listening to a story, require us to sustain attention over a prolonged period of time while integrating and synthesizing complex episodic content into a coherent mental model. Humans are remarkably capable of navigating and keeping track of all the parallel social activities of everyday life even when confronted with interruptions or changes in the environment. However, the underlying cognitive and neurocognitive mechanisms of such long-term integration and profiling of information remain a challenge to neuroscience. While brain activity is generally traceable within the short time frame of working memory (milliseconds to seconds), these integrative processes last for minutes, hours or even days. Here we report two experiments on story comprehension. Experiment I establishes a cognitive dissociation between our comprehension of plot and incidental facts in narratives: when episodic material allows for long-term integration in a coherent plot, we recall fewer factual details. However, when plot formation is challenged, we pay more attention to incidental facts. Experiment II investigates the neural underpinnings of plot formation. Results suggest a central role for the brain's default mode network related to comprehension of coherent narratives while incoherent episodes rather activate the frontoparietal control network. Moreover, an analysis of cortical activity as a function of the cumulative integration of narrative material into a coherent story reveals to linear modulations of right hemisphere posterior temporal and parietal regions. Together these findings point to key neural mechanisms involved in the fundamental human capacity for cumulative plot formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of flow behaviors of droplet merging and splitting in microchannels using Micro-PIV measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Zhaomiao

    2017-01-01

    Droplet merging and splitting are important droplet manipulations in droplet-based microfluidics. However, the fundamental flow behaviors of droplets were not systematically studied. Hence, we designed two different microstructures to achieve droplet merging and splitting respectively, and quantitatively compared different flow dynamics in different microstructures for droplet merging and splitting via micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) experiments. Some flow phenomena of droplets different from previous studies were observed during merging and splitting using a high-speed microscope. It was also found the obtained instantaneous velocity vector fields of droplets have significant influence on the droplets merging and splitting. For droplet merging, the probability of droplets coalescence (η) in a microgroove is higher (50% T-junction microchannel (15% < η < 50%), and the highest coalescence efficiency (η = 92%) comes at the two-phase flow ratio e of 0.42 in the microgroove. Moreover, compared with a cylinder obstacle, Y-junction bifurcation can split droplets more effectively and the droplet flow during splitting is steadier. The results can provide better understanding of droplet behaviors and are useful for the design and applications of droplet-based microfluidics. PMID:28890680

  15. Study of flow behaviors of droplet merging and splitting in microchannels using Micro-PIV measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhaomiao; Li, XiuJun

    2017-04-01

    Droplet merging and splitting are important droplet manipulations in droplet-based microfluidics. However, the fundamental flow behaviors of droplets were not systematically studied. Hence, we designed two different microstructures to achieve droplet merging and splitting respectively, and quantitatively compared different flow dynamics in different microstructures for droplet merging and splitting via micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) experiments. Some flow phenomena of droplets different from previous studies were observed during merging and splitting using a high-speed microscope. It was also found the obtained instantaneous velocity vector fields of droplets have significant influence on the droplets merging and splitting. For droplet merging, the probability of droplets coalescence ( η ) in a microgroove is higher (50% < η < 92%) than that in a T-junction microchannel (15% < η < 50%), and the highest coalescence efficiency ( η = 92%) comes at the two-phase flow ratio e of 0.42 in the microgroove. Moreover, compared with a cylinder obstacle, Y-junction bifurcation can split droplets more effectively and the droplet flow during splitting is steadier. The results can provide better understanding of droplet behaviors and are useful for the design and applications of droplet-based microfluidics.

  16. SCALPLO, Plotting of Flux Output from SCALE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, A.; De Leege, P.F.A.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SCALPLO is a plot program, designed to plot flux, power and spectrum information. Data exchange between SCALE modules and SCALPLO is via CCCC-interface files. As not all modules can produce these files, there are special routines supplied with SCALPLO that can produce CCCC-like files. These routines can be included in the code and for XSDRPM, CITATION, ANISN and DOT, the place to include these routines is supplied. 2 - Method of solution: SCALPLO consists of two sections. Firstly the pre-processor, which selects and reads the required data. Secondly the plot section which produces the plot on the selected output device. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SCALPLO requires DISSPLA version 11.0 or higher. The choice of output device depends on the devices installed

  17. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  18. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik (Germany); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Foerster, Saskia [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.4 Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-05-08

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analysing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world. - Highlights: • We use recurrence plots for analysing partially extended dynamics. • We investigate the high-dimensional chaos of the Lorenz96 model. • The approach distinguishes different spatio-temporal dynamics. • We use the method for studying vegetation cover time series.

  19. arXiv Laura++ : a Dalitz plot fitter

    CERN Document Server

    Back, John; Harrison, Paul; Latham, Thomas; O'Hanlon, Daniel; Qian, Wenbin; del Amo Sanchez, Pablo; Craik, Daniel; Ilic, Jelena; Otalora Goicochea, Juan; Puccio, Eugenia; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Whitehead, Mark

    The Dalitz plot analysis technique has become an increasingly important method in heavy flavour physics. The Laura++ fitter has been developed as a flexible tool that can be used for Dalitz plot analyses in different experimental environments. Explicitly designed for three-body decays of heavy-flavoured mesons to spinless final state particles, it is optimised in order to describe all possible resonant or nonresonant contributions, and to accommodate possible CP violation effects.

  20. The Effect of Plot Size on Some Pratylenchus Penetrans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pratylenchus penetrans counts obtained from a rose field, sampled sequentially by decreasing the plot sizes were computed to obtain the respective sample means, variance and k-value of the negative binomial distribution. Plots 21 m x 80 m, 3.6 m x 3.6 m and 0.6 m x 0.6 m were sampled for the nematode. It is reported ...

  1. Sample preparation and electrochemical data of Co3O4 working electrode for seawater splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkeshkumar Patel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we presented the electrochemical data of the working electrode made of Co3O4 semi-transparent film. Electrochemically stable, porous nature of Kirkendall-diffusion grown Co3O4 films were applied to generate hydrogen from the seawater splitting (Patel et al., 2017 [1]. The data presented in this article includes the photograph of prepared samples, polarization curves for water oxidation and Tafel plot, linear sweep voltammetry measurements under the pulsed light condition in 0.1 M Na2S2O3 electrolyte, and transient photoresponses with natural sea water. Moreover, seawater splitting using the Co3O4 working electrode is demonstrated.

  2. Iron status determination in pregnancy using the Thomas plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, R; Coetzee, M J; Nel, M

    2016-04-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy affect routine tests for iron deficiency. The reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) and serum-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) assay are newer diagnostic parameters for the detection of iron deficiency, combined in the Thomas diagnostic plot. We used this plot to determine the iron status of pregnant women presenting for their first visit to an antenatal clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Routine laboratory tests (serum ferritin, full blood count and C-reactive protein) and RET-He and sTfR were performed. The iron status was determined using the Thomas plot. For this study, 103 pregnant women were recruited. According to the Thomas plot, 72.8% of the participants had normal iron stores and erythropoiesis. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis was detected in 12.6%. A third of participants were anaemic. Serum ferritin showed excellent sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting depleted iron stores. HIV status had no influence on the iron status of the participants. Our findings reiterate that causes other than iron deficiency should be considered in anaemic individuals. When compared with the Thomas plot, a low serum ferritin is a sensitive but nonspecific indicator of iron deficiency. The Thomas plot may provide useful information to identify pregnant individuals in whom haematologic parameters indicate limited iron availability for erythropoiesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genome U-Plot: a whole genome visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitatzes, Athanasios; Johnson, Sarah H; Smadbeck, James B; Vasmatzis, George

    2018-05-15

    The ability to produce and analyze whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from samples with structural variations (SV) generated the need to visualize such abnormalities in simplified plots. Conventional two-dimensional representations of WGS data frequently use either circular or linear layouts. There are several diverse advantages regarding both these representations, but their major disadvantage is that they do not use the two-dimensional space very efficiently. We propose a layout, termed the Genome U-Plot, which spreads the chromosomes on a two-dimensional surface and essentially quadruples the spatial resolution. We present the Genome U-Plot for producing clear and intuitive graphs that allows researchers to generate novel insights and hypotheses by visualizing SVs such as deletions, amplifications, and chromoanagenesis events. The main features of the Genome U-Plot are its layered layout, its high spatial resolution and its improved aesthetic qualities. We compare conventional visualization schemas with the Genome U-Plot using visualization metrics such as number of line crossings and crossing angle resolution measures. Based on our metrics, we improve the readability of the resulting graph by at least 2-fold, making apparent important features and making it easy to identify important genomic changes. A whole genome visualization tool with high spatial resolution and improved aesthetic qualities. An implementation and documentation of the Genome U-Plot is publicly available at https://github.com/gaitat/GenomeUPlot. vasmatzis.george@mayo.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip in single molecular magnet junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Pengbin, E-mail: 120233951@qq.com [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Nie, Yi-Hang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies & Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the MoE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Many factors containing bias, spin–orbit coupling, magnetic fields applied, and so on can strongly influence the Kondo effect, and one of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting (KPS). It is natural that KPS should also appear when another spin degree of freedom is involved. In this work we study the KPS effects of single molecular magnets (SMM) coupled with two metallic leads in low-temperature regime. It is found that the Kondo transport properties are strongly influenced by the exchange coupling and anisotropy of the magnetic core. By employing Green's function method in Hubbard operator representation, we give an analytical expression for local retarded Green's function of SMM and discussed its low-temperature transport properties. We find that the anisotropy term behaves as a magnetic field and the splitting behavior of exchange coupling is quite similar to the spin–orbit coupling. These splitting behaviors are explained by introducing inter-level or intra-level transitions, which account for the seven-peak splitting structure. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at Fermi level under proper parameters. These Kondo peak splitting behaviors in SMM deepen our understanding to Kondo physics and should be observed in the future experiments. - Highlights: • We study Kondo peak splitting in single molecular magnets. • We study Kondo effect by Hubbard operator Green's function method. • We find Kondo peak splitting structures and a Kondo dip at Fermi level. • The exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy induce fine splitting structure. • The splitting structures are explained by inter-level or intra-level transitions.

  5. Evaluation of Mandibular Anatomy Associated With Bad Splits in Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongyue; Han, Jeong Joon; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with bad splits during sagittal split ramus osteotomy by using three-dimensional computed tomography. This study included 8 bad splits and 47 normal patients without bad splits. Mandibular anatomic parameters related to osteotomy line were measured. These included anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, distance between external oblique ridge and lingula, distance between sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible, mandibular angle, distance between inferior outer surface of mandibular canal and inferior border of mandible under distal root of second molar (MCEM), buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, and buccolingual thickness of the area just distal to first molar (BTM1) and second molar (BTM2). The incidence of bad splits in 625 sagittal split osteotomies was 1.28%. Compared with normal group, bad split group exhibited significantly thinner BTM2 and shorter sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible (P bad splits. These anatomic data may help surgeons to choose the safest surgical techniques and best osteotomy sites.

  6. An algorithm for the split-feasibility problems with application to the split-equality problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the split-feasibility problem in Hilbert spaces by using the projected reflected gradient algorithm. As applications, we study the convex linear inverse problem and the split-equality problem in Hilbert spaces, and we give new algorithms for these problems. Finally, numerical results are given for our main results.

  7. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jun; Vouga, Etienne; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  8. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-06

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  9. SpectraPLOT, Visualization Package with a User-Friendly Graphical Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, James; Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkin, Igor

    2017-10-01

    SPECT3D is a collisional-radiative spectral analysis package designed to compute detailed emission, absorption, or x-ray scattering spectra, filtered images, XRD signals, and other synthetic diagnostics. The spectra and images are computed for virtual detectors by post-processing the results of hydrodynamics simulations in 1D, 2D, and 3D geometries. SPECT3D can account for a variety of instrumental response effects so that direct comparisons between simulations and experimental measurements can be made. SpectraPLOT is a user-friendly graphical interface for viewing a wide variety of results from SPECT3D simulations, and applying various instrumental effects to the simulated images and spectra. We will present SpectraPLOT's ability to display a variety of data, including spectra, images, light curves, streaked spectra, space-resolved spectra, and drilldown plasma property plots, for an argon-doped capsule implosion experiment example. Future SpectraPLOT features and enhancements will also be discussed.

  10. Symmetric splitting of very light systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.

    1985-01-01

    Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV

  11. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  12. E691 Dalitz plot analysis of Λc+ → pK-π+ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremaldi, L.

    1992-01-01

    The resonant decays of the Λ c + can give insight into the weak decay mechanism of this charmed baryon. We have performed a Dalitz plot analysis of the final state for a clean sample Λ c + → pK - π + decays observed in photoproduction experiment E691 at Fermilab. We measure Γ(pK*(892)degrees)/Γ (pK - π + ) = .35 ± .09 ± .07. We also observe an unexpected enhancement at low pK- invariant mass

  13. Finding Your Way out of the Forest without a Trail of Bread Crumbs: Development and Evaluation of Two Novel Displays of Forest Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Anne H. E.; Voracek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that forest plots are a gold standard in the visualization of meta-analytic results. However, research on the general interpretation of forest plots and the role of researchers' meta-analysis experience and field of study is still unavailable. Additionally, the traditional display of effect sizes, confidence intervals, and…

  14. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  15. Concept of expert system for modal split in transportation planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Maja M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a concept of expert system based on the survey of experts' opinions and their experience concerning relations in modal split, on the basis of parameters of transport system demand and transport supply, defined through PT travel time and city size, i.e. mean trip length. This expert system could be of use both to experts and less experienced planners who could apply the knowledge contained in this expert system for further improvement, on operational as well as on strategic level.

  16. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  17. On geometrical splitting in nonanalog Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, I.

    1985-01-01

    A very general geometrical procedure is considered, and it is shown how the free flights, the statistical weights and the contribution of particles participating in splitting are to be chosen in order to reach unbiased estimates in games where the transition kernels are nonanalog. Equations governing the second moment of the score and the number of flights to be stimulated are derived. It is shown that the post-splitting weights of the fragments are to be chosen equal to reach maximum gain in variance. Conditions are derived under which the expected number of flights remains finite. Simplified example illustrate the optimization of the procedure (author)

  18. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Sangwook; Jeon, Moongu

    2009-12-11

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter-beat intervals by way of Poincare plot. We tried to design an

  19. The self-splitting atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenn, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The book describes the collaboration between Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy at McGill University on the study of radioactivity. Their hypothesis of spontaneous atomic disintegration, which represented the first case of an atomic process completely specified in its time relationships by a probability constant, was extremely fruitful. This concept became the paradigm of a host of other quantized processes in high-energy or elementary particle physics involving a single system in isolation. This achievement did not emerge in a single moment of inspiration but passed dialectically through several, not always coherent, stages of experiment and theory. Hitherto unpublished material has been incorporated in the account, including evidence from the original laboratory notebooks. (U.K.)

  20. Online plot services for paleomagnetism and rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    In paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, a lot of types of original plots are used for obtained data from measurements. Many researchers in paleomagnetism often use not only general-purpose plotting programs such as Microsoft Excel but also single-purpose tools. A large benefit of using the latter tools is that we can make a beautiful figure for our own data. However, those programs require specific environment for their operation such as type of hardware and platform, type of operation system and its version, libraries for execution and so on. Therefore, it is difficult to share the result and graphics among the collaborators who use different environments on their PCs. Thus, one of the best solution is likely a program operated on popular environment. The most popular is web environment as we all know. Almost all current operating systems have web browsers as standard and all people use them regularly. Now we provide a web-based service plotting paleomagnetic results easily.We develop original programs with a command-line user interface (non-GUI), and we prepared web pages for input of the simple measured data and options and a wrapper script which transfers the entered values to the program. The results, analyzed values and plotted graphs from the program are shown in the HTML page and downloadable. Our plot services are provided in http://mage-p.org/mageplot/. In this talk, we introduce our program and service and discuss the philosophy and efficiency of these services.

  1. Design of a factorial experiment with randomization restrictions to assess medical device performance on vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Wiebke S; Krane, Carissa M; Pinnell, Margaret F

    2011-05-20

    Energy-based surgical scalpels are designed to efficiently transect and seal blood vessels using thermal energy to promote protein denaturation and coagulation. Assessment and design improvement of ultrasonic scalpel performance relies on both in vivo and ex vivo testing. The objective of this work was to design and implement a robust, experimental test matrix with randomization restrictions and predictive statistical power, which allowed for identification of those experimental variables that may affect the quality of the seal obtained ex vivo. The design of the experiment included three factors: temperature (two levels); the type of solution used to perfuse the artery during transection (three types); and artery type (two types) resulting in a total of twelve possible treatment combinations. Burst pressures of porcine carotid and renal arteries sealed ex vivo were assigned as the response variable. The experimental test matrix was designed and carried out as a split-plot experiment in order to assess the contributions of several variables and their interactions while accounting for randomization restrictions present in the experimental setup. The statistical software package SAS was utilized and PROC MIXED was used to account for the randomization restrictions in the split-plot design. The combination of temperature, solution, and vessel type had a statistically significant impact on seal quality. The design and implementation of a split-plot experimental test-matrix provided a mechanism for addressing the existing technical randomization restrictions of ex vivo ultrasonic scalpel performance testing, while preserving the ability to examine the potential effects of independent factors or variables. This method for generating the experimental design and the statistical analyses of the resulting data are adaptable to a wide variety of experimental problems involving large-scale tissue-based studies of medical or experimental device efficacy and performance.

  2. Modeling Short-Range Soil Variability and its Potential Use in Variable-Rate Treatment of Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moameni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Iran, the experimental plots under fertilizer trials are managed in such a way that the whole plot area uniformly receives agricultural inputs. This could lead to biased research results and hence to suppressing of the efforts made by the researchers. This research was conducted in a selected site belonging to the Gonbad Agricultural Research Station, located in the semiarid region, northeastern Iran. The aim was to characterize the short-range spatial variability of the inherent and management-depended soil properties and to determine if this variation is large and can be managed at practical scales. The soils were sampled using a grid 55 m apart. In total, 100 composite soil samples were collected from topsoil (0-30 cm and were analyzed for calcium carbonate equivalent, organic carbon, clay, available phosphorus, available potassium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese. Descriptive statistics were applied to check data trends. Geostatistical analysis was applied to variography, model fitting and contour mapping. Sampling at 55 m made it possible to split the area of the selected experimental plot into relatively uniform areas that allow application of agricultural inputs with variable rates. Keywords: Short-range soil variability, Within-field soil variability, Interpolation, Precision agriculture, Geostatistics

  3. Wash-off of Sr-90 and Cs-137 from two experimental plots. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A.; Bulgakov, A.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    Surface water runoff from contaminated land is one of the major processes responsible for the contamination of water bodies. For example, the large area of land contaminated after the Chernobyl accident has become a continuing source of radionuclide contamination for natural waters and the aquatic ecosystem. Based on data from the Chernobyl accident, the 'Wash-off' scenario was developed to provide an opportunity to test models concerned with the movement of trace contaminants from terrestrial sources to water bodies. In particular, this scenario provides an opportunity for (1) evaluation of the movement of contaminants from soil to water, (2) calculation of the alteration and migration of contaminants in soil over different time scales, (3) increased understanding of contaminant transport at the process level, and (4) development and use of methods for estimation of key parameters. Modelers were provided with descriptions of two experimental plots near the Chernobyl NPP, one using simulated heavy rain (plot HR) and one using snow melt (plot SM). Initial information for plot HR included soil properties; hydrographs of rainfall and runoff dynamics; the time of application of rainfall; rainfall amounts, duration, and intensities; soil moisture content before the application of rainfall; regional data on average monthly precipitation and temperature; recorded information on naturally occurring precipitation between May and October 1986; and chemical forms of radionuclides in the soil of the plots prior to the experiments. Information for plot SM included the soil description and properties, snow storage in the snow melt period of 1988, chemical composition of the snow water, a hydrograph of the runoff dynamics, chemical radionuclide forms in the soil at the end of the experiment, and air and soil temperatures for the plot during the snow melt period. For each experimental plot, modelers were requested to estimate the vertical distribution of radionuclides (137 Cs and

  4. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  6. D.3.3 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2012-01-01

    In this third and final deliverable of WP3: Persuasive Learning Designs, the theoretical cross field between persuasion and learning and the practical analysis of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool......, are linked together as persuasive learning designs are defined and exemplified through the four e-PLOT cases. Based on the literary study of D.3.1 as well as the subsequent discussions and reflections regarding the theoretical foundation and practical application of persuasive learning technologies......-PLOT work cases. In conclusion, the report presents a number of suggestions regarding the improvement of the two learning tools, which from a theoretical perspective will enhance the persuasive potential, and which can be taken into consideration in WP4 and 5....

  7. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hagenaar, H. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  8. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  9. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Pashaei; Mirjalil Akrami; Mirjalil Akrami

    2013-01-01

     Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of âTehran-e- Makhufâ and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from pl...

  10. The split delivery capacitated team orienteering problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.; Hertz, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the capacitated team orienteering problem where split deliveries are allowed. A set of potential customers is given, each associated with a demand and a profit. The set of customers to be served by a fleet of capacitated vehicles has to be identified in such a way that the

  11. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2008-01-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temp. at the cold end is an input

  12. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  13. Splitting up Beta’s change

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  14. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  15. Forced splitting of fractions in CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewski, D.R.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the electrophoretic separation between fractions of analytes on a microfluidic chip, without the need for a longer separation channel, we propose and demonstrate a preparative electrokinetic procedure by which overlapping or closely spaced fractions are automatically split. The

  16. The Split sudâmja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Šimunović

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The name of the Split feast Sudamja!Sudajma ("festa sancti Domnii" has not yet been adequately explained. The author believes that the name originated from the Old Dalmatian adjective san(ctu + Domnĭu. In the adjective santu the cluster /an/ in front of·a consonant gave in Croatian the back nasal /q/ pronounced until the end of the 10th century and giving /u/ after that. In this way the forms *Sudumja and similar originated. The short stressed /u/ in the closed syllable was percieved by the Croatian folk as their semivowel which later gave /a/ = Sudamja. The author connects this feature with that in the toponimes Makar ( /jm/ is well known in Croatian dialectology (sumja > sujma, and it resembles the metatheses which occurs in the Split toponimes: Sukošjân > Sukojšãn ( < *santu Cassianu, Pojišân/Pojšiin (< *pasianu < Pansianu. The author finds the same feature in the toponime Dumjača (: *Dumi- + -ača. He considers these features as Croatian popular adaptations which have not occured in the personal name Dujam, the toponime Dujmovača "terrae s. Domnii" and in the adjective sandujamski, because of the link with the saint's name Domnio!Duymo etc., which has been well liked and is frequent as name of Split Romas as well as Croats from the foundation of Split, has never been broken.

  17. Hyperfine splitting in ordinary and muonic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We provide an accurate evaluation of the two-photon exchange correction to the hyperfine splitting of S energy levels in muonic hydrogen exploiting the corresponding measurements in electronic hydrogen. The proton structure uncertainty in the calculation of α{sup 5} contribution is sizably reduced. (orig.)

  18. Source splitting via the point source method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, Roland; Fazi, Filippo M; Nelson, Philip A

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for source identification and field splitting based on the point source method (Potthast 1998 A point-source method for inverse acoustic and electromagnetic obstacle scattering problems IMA J. Appl. Math. 61 119–40, Potthast R 1996 A fast new method to solve inverse scattering problems Inverse Problems 12 731–42). The task is to separate the sound fields u j , j = 1, ..., n of n element of N sound sources supported in different bounded domains G 1 , ..., G n in R 3 from measurements of the field on some microphone array—mathematically speaking from the knowledge of the sum of the fields u = u 1 + ... + u n on some open subset Λ of a plane. The main idea of the scheme is to calculate filter functions g 1 ,…, g n , n element of N, to construct u l for l = 1, ..., n from u| Λ in the form u l (x) = ∫ Λ g l,x (y)u(y)ds(y), l=1,... n. (1) We will provide the complete mathematical theory for the field splitting via the point source method. In particular, we describe uniqueness, solvability of the problem and convergence and stability of the algorithm. In the second part we describe the practical realization of the splitting for real data measurements carried out at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton, UK. A practical demonstration of the original recording and the splitting results for real data is available online

  19. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  20. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  1. Split brain : Divided perception but undivided consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Neville, D.A.; Otten, M.; Corballis, P.M.; Lamme, V.A.F.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Foschi, N.; Fabri, M.

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a

  2. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-05-01

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  4. Experimental Study of Soil Organic Matter Loss From Cultivated Field Plots In The Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, B.; Huon, S.; Velasquez, F.; Vallès, V.; Girardin A, C.; Mariotti, A. B.

    The question of discriminating sources of organic matter in suspended particles of stream flows can be addressed by using total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and stable isotope (13C, 15N) measurements when constant fluxes of organic matter supply can be assumed. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic matter release during soil erosion and on the temporal stability of its isotopic signature. In this study, we have monitored soil organic carbon loss and water runoff using natural rainfall events on three experimental field plots with different vegetation cover (bare soil, maize and coffee fields), set up on natural slopes of a tropical mountainous watershed in NW Venezuela (09°13'32'' ­ 09°10'00''N, 70°13'49'' ­ 70°18'34''W). Runoff and soil loss are markedly superior for the bare field plot than for the coffee field plot: by a factor 15 ­ 36, respectively, for the five-month experiment, and by a factor 30 ­ 120, respectively, during a single rainfall event experiment. Since runoff and soil organic matter loss are closely linked during most of the flow (at the time scales of this study), TOC concentration in suspended matter is constant. Furthermore, stable isotope compositions reflect those of top-soil organic matter from which they originate.

  5. Hydrogen production by thermal water splitting using a thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudesocque, N.; Lafon, C.; Girold, C.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    CEA has been working for more than 10 years in plasma technologies devoted to waste treatment: incineration, vitrification, gases and liquid treatment. Based on this experience, CEA experiments since several years an innovative route for hydrogen production by thermal water splitting, using a plasma as heat source. This new approach could be considered as an alternative to electrolysis for massive hydrogen production from water and electricity. This paper presents a brief state of the art of water thermal plasmas, showing the temperatures and quench velocity ranges technologically achievable today. Thermodynamic properties of a water plasma are presented and discussed. A kinetic computational model is presented, describing the behavior of splitted products during the quench in a plasma plume for various parameters, such as the quench rate. The model results are compared to gas analysis in the plasma plume obtained with in-situ sampling probe. The plasma composition measurements are issued from an Optical Emission Spectroscopic method (OES). The prediction of 30 % H 2 recovery with a 108 K.s -1 quench rate has been verified. A second experimentation has been performed: mass gas analysis, flowrate measurement and OES to study the 'behavior' and species in underwater electrical arc stricken between graphite electrodes. With this quench, a synthesis gas was produced with a content 55 % of hydrogen. (authors)

  6. Managing data from remeasured plots: An evaluation of existing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Byrne; Michael D. Sweet

    1992-01-01

    Proper management of the valuable data from remeasured (or permanent) forest growth plots with data base management systems (DBMS) can greatly add to their utility. Twelve desired features for such a system (activities that facilitate the storage, accuracy, and use of the data for analysis) are described and used to evaluate the 36 systems found by a survey conducted...

  7. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2010-04-21

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2009 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  8. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)

    2011-05-31

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  9. Omitted Variable Sensitivity Analysis with the Annotated Love Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ben B.; Fredrickson, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to make sensitivity analysis accessible not only to empirical researchers but also to the various stakeholders for whom educational evaluations are conducted. To do this it derives anchors for the omitted variable (OV)-program participation association intrinsically, using the Love plot to present a wide range of…

  10. Polar plot representation of time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, John Paul; Wen Teng, Kai; Clegg, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring changes in a molecule's fluorescence emission is a common technique to study complex biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although the steady-state fluorescence intensity is frequently used, measuring the average amount of time that a molecule spends in the excited state (the fluorescence lifetime) reveals more detailed information about its local environment. The lifetime is measured in the time domain by detecting directly the decay of fluorescence following excitation by short pulse of light. The lifetime can also be measured in the frequency domain by recording the phase and amplitude of oscillation in the emitted fluorescence of the sample in response to repetitively modulated excitation light. In either the time or frequency domain, the analysis of data to extract lifetimes can be computationally intensive. For example, a variety of iterative fitting algorithms already exist to determine lifetimes from samples that contain multiple fluorescing species. However, recently a method of analysis referred to as the polar plot (or phasor plot) is a graphical tool that projects the time-dependent features of the sample's fluorescence in either the time or frequency domain into the Cartesian plane to characterize the sample's lifetime. The coordinate transformations of the polar plot require only the raw data, and hence, there are no uncertainties from extensive corrections or time-consuming fitting in this analysis. In this chapter, the history and mathematical background of the polar plot will be presented along with examples that highlight how it can be used in both cuvette-based and imaging applications.

  11. Process Waste Assessment for the Plotting and Digitizing Support Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-04-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Plotting and Digitizing Support Laboratory, located in Building 913, Room 157. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility

  12. Origin of nonlinearities in the Bagley plots of thermotropic copolyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldenaers, P.; Vermant, J.; Mewis, J.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the nonlinearity observed in Bagley plots of thermotropic copolyesters has been investigated experimentally. With the aid of a two-piston slit rheometer the dependence of the viscosity on the hydrostatic pressure has been determined directly. This dependence only accounts for part of

  13. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian distri...

  14. Geopolitical location and plot in The Night Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2017-01-01

    The Night Manager. Three perspectives are tested in combining the analysis of location with the development of the plot: the general concepts of universal and real geography; the idea of being located inside or outside a given context; and the associated notion of centre-periphery opposition. A geopolitical...

  15. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  16. Soil Characteristics, Microbial Compostion of Plot, Leaf Count and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil Characteristics, Microbial Compostion of Plot, Leaf Count and Sprout Studies of Cocoyam ( Colocasia [Schott] and Xanthosoma [Schott], Araceae) Collected in Edo State, ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Government Areas (LGA) in Edo state and describe them based on leaf count and sprout

  17. SEGY to ASCII Conversion and Plotting Program 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION SEGY has long been a standard format for storing seismic data and header information. Almost every seismic processing package can read and write seismic data in SEGY format. In the data processing world, however, ASCII format is the 'universal' standard format. Very few general-purpose plotting or computation programs will accept data in SEGY format. The software presented in this report, referred to as SEGY to ASCII (SAC), converts seismic data written in SEGY format (Barry et al., 1975) to an ASCII data file, and then creates a postscript file of the seismic data using a general plotting package (GMT, Wessel and Smith, 1995). The resulting postscript file may be plotted by any standard postscript plotting program. There are two versions of SAC: one version for plotting a SEGY file that contains a single gather, such as a stacked CDP or migrated section, and a second version for plotting multiple gathers from a SEGY file containing more than one gather, such as a collection of shot gathers. Note that if a SEGY file has multiple gathers, then each gather must have the same number of traces per gather, and each trace must have the same sample interval and number of samples per trace. SAC will read several common standards of SEGY data, including SEGY files with sample values written in either IBM or IEEE floating-point format. In addition, utility programs are present to convert non-standard Seismic Unix (.sux) SEGY files and PASSCAL (.rsy) SEGY files to standard SEGY files. SAC allows complete user control over all plotting parameters including label size and font, tick mark intervals, trace scaling, and the inclusion of a title and descriptive text. SAC shell scripts create a postscript image of the seismic data in vector rather than bitmap format, using GMT's pswiggle command. Although this can produce a very large postscript file, the image quality is generally superior to that of a bitmap image, and commercial programs such as Adobe Illustrator

  18. Aquifer test interpretation using derivative analysis and diagnostic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Real-Rangel, Roberto; Cortés-Salazar, Iván; Castro-Herrera, Israel; Luna-Izazaga, Gabriela; Sánchez-León, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Pumping tests remain a method of choice to deduce fundamental aquifer properties and to assess well condition. In the oil and gas (O&G) industry, well testing has been the core technique in examining reservoir behavior over the last 50 years. The pressure derivative by Bourdet, it is perhaps, the most significant single development in the history of well test analysis. Recently, the so-called diagnostics plots (e.g. drawdown and drawdown derivative in a log-log plot) have been successfully tested in aquifers. However, this procedure is still underutilized by groundwater professionals. This research illustrates the applicability range, advantages and drawbacks (e.g. smoothing procedures) of diagnostic plots using field examples from a wide spectrum of tests (short/long tests, constant/variable flow rates, drawdown/buildup stages, pumping well/observation well) in dissimilar geological conditions. We analyze new and pre-existent aquifer tests in Mexico, USA, Canada, Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. In constant flow rate tests, our results show that derivative analysis is an easy, robust and powerful tool to assess near-borehole damage effects, formation heterogeneity, boundaries, flow regimes, infinite-acting radial stages, i.e., valid Theisian framework, and fracture-driven flow. In step tests, the effectiveness relies on high-frequency drawdown measurements. Moreover, we adapt O&G analytical solutions to cater for the conditions in groundwater systems. In this context, further parameters can be computed analytically from the plots, such as skin factor, head losses, wellbore storage, distance to the boundary, channel-aquifer and/or fracture zone width, among others. Therefore, diagnostic plots should be considered a mandatory tool for pumping tests analysis among hydrogeologists. This project has been supported by DGAPA (UNAM) under the research project PAPIIT IN-112815.

  19. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1991 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and surface stream. For many years it was the only radionclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of borehole next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity

  20. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M. Report for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1997-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for 1996 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. For many years it was the only radionuclide found to have migrated in measurable quantities. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The available data does not allow a firm conclusion as to whether the presence of this nuclide represents recent migration or movement that may have occurred before Plot M was capped. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity

  1. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  2. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  3. Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold

  4. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor

  5. A tool to determine crown and plot canopy transparency for forest inventory and analysis phase 3 plots using digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects crown foliage transparency estimates for individual trees on Phase 3 (P3) inventory plots. The FIA crown foliage estimate is obtained from a pair of perpendicular side views of the tree. Researchers with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station have developed a computer program that...

  6. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system and on the......On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...... and on the inorganic catalyst surface of an acidic electrolysis cell, the thermochemical features of the catalysts can be directly compared. We suggest a simple test for a thermochemically optimal catalyst. We show that, although both the RuO2 surface and the Mn cluster in photo system II are quite close to optimal...

  7. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  8. Temporal self-splitting of optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-05-01

    We present mathematical models for temporally and spectrally partially coherent pulse trains with Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian Schell-model statistics as extensions of the standard Gaussian Schell model for pulse trains. We derive propagation formulas of both classes of pulsed fields in linearly dispersive media and in temporal optical systems. It is found that, in general, both types of fields exhibit time-domain self-splitting upon propagation. The Laguerre-Gaussian model leads to multiply peaked pulses, while the Hermite-Gaussian model leads to doubly peaked pulses, in the temporal far field (in dispersive media) or at the Fourier plane of a temporal system. In both model fields the character of the self-splitting phenomenon depends both on the degree of temporal and spectral coherence and on the power spectrum of the field.

  9. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  10. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  11. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-08-15

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  12. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... on fossil fuels as primary feedstock for hydrogen production and diminish the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, weakening the global warming phenomenon.The dissertation reports the development of GaP (gallium phosphide) photocathodes as a large bandgap semiconductor for photoelectrochemical...... water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor...

  13. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  14. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.

    1994-01-01

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  15. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1990-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  16. BILATERAL SAGITAL SPLIT OSTEOTOMY PADA MANDIBULA PROGNATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradono Pradono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl 20 years old with mandibular prognathism, has been treated with orthodontics and surgical treatment in between. Mandibular set back was done intra orally 5 mm length and bilateral sagital split ramus osteotomy method. And rigid fixation was done by inserting three 2 mm bicortical screws for stabilizing the fragment. This method allowed the bony segments to heal properly and allowed the patients to function sooner.

  17. GD 358 - the demise of rotational splitting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of GD 358 were obtained at the McDonald Observatory in 1982 and 1985 in order to determine its periods, stability, and rates of period change. The period structure could not be resolved, and the results indicate that GD 358 does not fit the rotational splitting model. It is suggested that if the changes in the amplitude spectra of GD 358 are due to beating of stable modes, then the number of modes must be large. 7 references

  18. Multiplet mass splitting in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    An expression for the mass splitting of particles belonging to the same spin multiplet defined in a space-time of general relativity is derived. The geometrical symmetry is a subgroup of SO(r,s), 9 >=r > 3, 5 >=s >=1, the mass operator being proportional to the second order Casimir operator of that subgroup. A brief analysis of the calculated values as compared to the experimental data is included. (Author) [pt

  19. Cost of splitting in Monte Carlo transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, C.J.; Cashwell, E.D.

    1978-03-01

    In a simple transport problem designed to estimate transmission through a plane slab of x free paths by Monte Carlo methods, it is shown that m-splitting (m > or = 2) does not pay unless exp(x) > m(m + 3)/(m - 1). In such a case, the minimum total cost in terms of machine time is obtained as a function of m, and the optimal value of m is determined

  20. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  1. On the additive splitting procedures and their computer realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farago, I.; Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Two additive splitting procedures are defined and studied in this paper. It is shown that these splitting procedures have good stability properties. Some other splitting procedures, which are traditionally used in mathematical models used in many scientific and engineering fields, are sketched. All...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  3. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...'s death benefit proceeds, the policy's cash surrender value, or both. (ii) Payments that are only... regarding certain split-dollar term loans payable on the death of an individual, certain split-dollar term... insurance arrangement make a representation—(i) Requirement. An otherwise noncontingent payment on a split...

  4. The Wally plot approach to assess the calibration of clinical prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Paul; Gerds, Thomas A; Ekstrøm, Claus T

    2017-12-06

    A prediction model is calibrated if, roughly, for any percentage x we can expect that x subjects out of 100 experience the event among all subjects that have a predicted risk of x%. Typically, the calibration assumption is assessed graphically but in practice it is often challenging to judge whether a "disappointing" calibration plot is the consequence of a departure from the calibration assumption, or alternatively just "bad luck" due to sampling variability. We propose a graphical approach which enables the visualization of how much a calibration plot agrees with the calibration assumption to address this issue. The approach is mainly based on the idea of generating new plots which mimic the available data under the calibration assumption. The method handles the common non-trivial situations in which the data contain censored observations and occurrences of competing events. This is done by building on ideas from constrained non-parametric maximum likelihood estimation methods. Two examples from large cohort data illustrate our proposal. The 'wally' R package is provided to make the methodology easily usable.

  5. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  6. Automatic recognition of cardiac arrhythmias based on the geometric patterns of Poincaré plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Tianci; Xi, Bin; Fan, Yang; Wang, Kun; Bi, Jiacheng; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The Poincaré plot emerges as an effective tool for assessing cardiovascular autonomic regulation. It displays nonlinear characteristics of heart rate variability (HRV) from electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings and gives a global view of the long range of ECG signals. In the telemedicine or computer-aided diagnosis system, it would offer significant auxiliary information for diagnosis if the patterns of the Poincaré plots can be automatically classified. Therefore, we developed an automatic classification system to distinguish five geometric patterns of the Poincaré plots from four types of cardiac arrhythmias. The statistics features are designed on measurements and an ensemble classifier of three types of neural networks is proposed. Aiming at the difficulty to set a proper threshold for classifying the multiple categories, the threshold selection strategy is analyzed. 24 h ECG monitoring recordings from 674 patients, which have four types of cardiac arrhythmias, are adopted for recognition. For comparison, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers with linear and Gaussian kernels are also applied. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the extracted features and the better performance of the designed classifier. Our study can be applied to diagnose the corresponding sinus rhythm and arrhythmia substrates disease automatically in the telemedicine and computer-aided diagnosis system. (paper)

  7. Convergence and Stability of the Split-Step θ-Milstein Method for Stochastic Delay Hopfield Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new splitting method designed for the numerical solutions of stochastic delay Hopfield neural networks is introduced and analysed. Under Lipschitz and linear growth conditions, this split-step θ-Milstein method is proved to have a strong convergence of order 1 in mean-square sense, which is higher than that of existing split-step θ-method. Further, mean-square stability of the proposed method is investigated. Numerical experiments and comparisons with existing methods illustrate the computational efficiency of our method.

  8. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non

  9. D.3.2 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool, and a selection of GLOs and learning exercises. The primary focus of the analysis is to explore how the theoretical perspectives presented in D.3.1 are represented in these tools...... as an: ‚Internal report for project use containing an empirically-based assessment of existing systems and their potential in terms of learning and persuasion. This will be used as a discussion document by the consortium.‛ To meet the requirements of this deliverable, this documents presents analysis......, in particular the notions of persuasive design and constructive alignment. Whilst the report provides a persuasive design perspective on the technologies related to Euro PLOT, it must be stressed that if the document is to function as a basis for further discussion within the consortium, the partners...

  10. The Chymistry of "The Learned Dr Plot" (1640-96).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, there were developing norms of openness in the presentation of scientific knowledge that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among chymists, particularly practitioners of chrysopoeia, or the transmutation of metals. This chapter analyzes how Dr. Robert Plot, the first professor of chymistry at Oxford, negotiated these boundaries within an institutional context. I first delineate his chymical and experimental practice, which incorporated procedures from medieval alchemical sources, particularly the Lullian corpus, as well as more novel practices from seventeenth-century chymistry. Then, I analyze how personal and institutional ambitions and economic considerations shaped to what extent Plot negotiated the boundaries between secrecy and the public dissemination of chymical knowledge.

  11. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.

  12. CADASTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE LAND PLOTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRICHEK Yu. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Work concerns development of national system of classification of the land plots. The developed classification will allow to solve correctly a number of the corresponding cadastral, land management, estimated and other tasks. The analysis of classifications of lands, improvements and real estate in general is made. The created offers concerning creation of a new classification of the land plots in Ukraine. Today the Ukrainian real estate market has no single system that separates the system property groups, classes and types. This significantly complicates the work and can not fully be aware of the specific situation of real estate market. This task is designed to solve classification properties, it is used to transition from a diversity of individual properties to a limited number of classes of evaluation objects. The classification is different functional purpose (use facilities assessment, which determines the difference in value.

  13. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  14. A user's guide of a plotting program PLTJOINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Sato, Wakaei; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Mori, Takamasa

    1988-02-01

    A plotting program PLTJOINT is able to plot various types of input and output data from neutronics calculations with two dimensional coordinates. These data include cross sections, neutron flux or spectrum, reaction rate distribution and auxiliary data. These are read from the input and output files of the JOINT system and the transport code system using double differential form cross section, and from arbitrary BCD input file. General purpose option is also available. Much care is taken in lettering such as types of characters (italic, Greek letters and characters), super and subscript of alphabet and numeral. Users can design their own characters by using a program IGDRASIL. Most of input data can be read in free format. The code has been programed so flexibly that new functions can be easily added to. (author)

  15. [Murderers in white coats--the physicians' plot against Stalin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B

    1997-12-10

    During the Moscow trials in 1936-38 several doctors were sentenced for participating in the murders of party leaders. As others who were accused, the doctors willingly confessed to crimes they could not possibly have committed. A second doctors' plot took place in the autumn of 1952. This time nine doctors, six of them Jews, were arrested for the attempted murder of political leaders. Only the unexpected death of Josef Stalin prevented a new wave of terror. With the single exception of Genrikh Grigorjevitsj Jagoda (1891-1938), head of the NKVD (KGB's predecessor), all those sentenced under the Moscow process are now rehabilitated. The participants of the second doctors' plot were rehabilitated immediately after Stalin's death.

  16. Scalable multi-segment phase mask for spatial power splitting and mode division demultiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-segment Phase Mask (MSPM) designs for spatial power splitting and mode division demultiplexing are verified through simulation and experiments. Coupler insertion loss and mode dependent loss are calculated. A spatial light modulator is used to emulate the proposed MSPMs.

  17. The PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) Project in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Andreev, A.; Baumer, M.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Fedorov, G.; Frolova, L.; Krastel, S.; Lebas, E.; Ludikova, A.; Melles, M.; Meyer, H.; Nazarova, L.; Pestryakova, L.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Subetto, D.; Wagner, B.; Wennrich, V.

    2017-12-01

    The joint Russian- German project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transec' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a >6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to investigate the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The climate history of the Arctic is of particular interest since it is the region, which is experiencing major impact of the current climate change. The project is funded for three years (2015-2018) by the Russian and German Ministries of Research. Since 2013 extensive fieldwork, including seismic surveys, coring, and hydrological investigations, was carried out at lakes Ladoga (NW Russia, pilot study), Bolshoye Shuchye (Polar Urals), Emanda (Verkhoyansk Range, field campaign planned for August 2017), Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr (Taymyr Peninsula). Fieldwork at lakes Bolshoye Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr was conducted in collaboration with the Russian-Norwegian CHASE (Climate History along the Arctic Seaboard of Eurasia) project. A major objective of the PLOT project was to recover preglacial sediments. A multiproxy approach was applied to the analytical work of all cores, including (bio-)geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and biological analyses. First data implies the presence of preglacial sediments in the cores from all lakes so far visited. Age-depth models, based on radiocarbon dating, OSL dating, paleomagnetic measurements, identification of cryptotephra, and varve counting (where applicable), are in progress. Climate variability in the records shall be compared to that recorded at Lake Eĺgygytgyn (NE Russia), which represents the master record for the Siberian Arctic. The outcome of the PLOT project will be a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability and development of the Arctic climate. Here, we present the major results and first key interpretations of the PLOT project, along with an outlook on the future strategy and foci. First results from lakes Ladoga

  18. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2009-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2008 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  19. Surveillance of site A and plot M, report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2008-03-25

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2007 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to: (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  20. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2007-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2006 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (PlotM) to the hand pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red GateWoods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  1. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2006-04-10

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2005 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby handpumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the handpumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  2. Zipper plot: visualizing transcriptional activity of genomic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Cobos, Francisco; Anckaert, Jasper; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Everaert, Celine; Rombaut, Dries; Vandesompele, Jo; De Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter

    2017-05-02

    Reconstructing transcript models from RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data and establishing these as independent transcriptional units can be a challenging task. Current state-of-the-art tools for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) annotation are mainly based on evolutionary constraints, which may result in false negatives due to the overall limited conservation of lncRNAs. To tackle this problem we have developed the Zipper plot, a novel visualization and analysis method that enables users to simultaneously interrogate thousands of human putative transcription start sites (TSSs) in relation to various features that are indicative for transcriptional activity. These include publicly available CAGE-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing and DNase-sequencing datasets. Our method only requires three tab-separated fields (chromosome, genomic coordinate of the TSS and strand) as input and generates a report that includes a detailed summary table, a Zipper plot and several statistics derived from this plot. Using the Zipper plot, we found evidence of transcription for a set of well-characterized lncRNAs and observed that fewer mono-exonic lncRNAs have CAGE peaks overlapping with their TSSs compared to multi-exonic lncRNAs. Using publicly available RNA-seq data, we found more than one hundred cases where junction reads connected protein-coding gene exons with a downstream mono-exonic lncRNA, revealing the need for a careful evaluation of lncRNA 5'-boundaries. Our method is implemented using the statistical programming language R and is freely available as a webtool.

  3. A Bayesian CUSUM plot: Diagnosing quality of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosthøj, Steen; Jacobsen, Rikke-Line

    2017-12-01

    To present a CUSUM plot based on Bayesian diagnostic reasoning displaying evidence in favour of "healthy" rather than "sick" quality of treatment (QOT), and to demonstrate a technique using Kaplan-Meier survival curves permitting application to case series with ongoing follow-up. For a case series with known final outcomes: Consider each case a diagnostic test of good versus poor QOT (expected vs. increased failure rates), determine the likelihood ratio (LR) of the observed outcome, convert LR to weight taking log to base 2, and add up weights sequentially in a plot showing how many times odds in favour of good QOT have been doubled. For a series with observed survival times and an expected survival curve: Divide the curve into time intervals, determine "healthy" and specify "sick" risks of failure in each interval, construct a "sick" survival curve, determine the LR of survival or failure at the given observation times, convert to weights, and add up. The Bayesian plot was applied retrospectively to 39 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with completed follow-up, using Nordic collaborative results as reference, showing equal odds between good and poor QOT. In the ongoing treatment trial, with 22 of 37 children still at risk for event, QOT has been monitored with average survival curves as reference, odds so far favoring good QOT 2:1. QOT in small patient series can be assessed with a Bayesian CUSUM plot, retrospectively when all treatment outcomes are known, but also in ongoing series with unfinished follow-up. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    OpenAIRE

    S. L. Weyers; K. A. Spokas

    2014-01-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with ...

  5. Environmental stability study of holographic solar spectrum splitting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Benjamin D.; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study the impact of outdoor temperature variations and solar illumination exposure on spectral filter material and holographic optical elements is examined. Although holographic components have been shown to be useful for solar spectrum splitting designs, relatively little quantitative data exist to demonstrate the extent to which these materials can withstand outdoor conditions. As researchers seek to investigate practical spectrum splitting designs, the environmental stability of holographic materials should be considered as an important factor. In the experiment presented, two holographic materials, Covestro Bayfol HX photopolymer and dichromated gelatin, and 3M reflective polymer filter materials are exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of several months. The environmental effect on absorption, spectral and angular bandwidth, peak efficiency, and Bragg matching conditions for the holograms are examined. Spectral bandwidth and transmittance of the 3M reflective filter material are also monitored. Holographic gratings are recorded, measured, and mounted on glass substrates and then sealed with a glass cover plate. The test samples are then mounted on a photovoltaic panel to simulate realistic temperature conditions and placed at an outdoor test facility in Tucson, Arizona. A duplicate set of holograms and 3M filter material is stored as a control group and periodically compared over the test period.

  6. Preferential transport of isoproturon at a plot scale and a field scale tile-drained site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Flühler, Hannes

    2001-06-01

    Irrigation experiments using the tracers Brilliant Blue (BB) and Bromide (Br) were conducted on three plots of 1.4×1.4 m 2 (plot scale) and a field scale subsurface drained test site (900 m 2) to clarify mechanisms causing rapid transport of surface applied Isoproturon (IPU) during preferential flow events. One of the small plots (site 10) and the field scale test site are located on the same field. One day after irrigation of the plot scale sites the Br and IPU concentration in two vertical soil profiles as well as the macroporousity on separate profiles and hydraulic properties of single macropores were determined. During irrigation of the field scale test site discharge, soil moisture as well as the concentration of IPU and Br in the drainage outlet were measured. Preferential flow in deep penetrating earthworm burrows caused a fast breakthrough of IPU and Br into the tile drain (1.2 m depth) at the field scale site as well as leaching of IPU into the subsoil (>0.8 m) at site 10. The results suggest a hierarchy of preconditions for the occurrence of preferential flow events of which a sufficient number of deep penetrating macropores interconnected to the soil surface seems to be the most important one. Moreover there is evidence that facilitated transport of IPU attached to mobile soil particles occurred during the preferential flow events at the field scale site and site 10. The susceptibility for preferential flow as well as the susceptibility for facilitated transport appear to be intrinsic properties of the investigated soil.

  7. The value of building plots in Italy - pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some analysis on dynamics of building plots value in Italy. This is an important subject, since the study of changes in plots value in space and time enables the evaluation of urban rent, which is essential for a fair and effective planning. The analysis confirm past hypothesis which are well known to real estate market operators. The first resulting fact is that the changes in building plots value are concurrent to those in real estate value and the increase occurring in the last years is in relative terms higher than the past one. This seems to confirm that, during real estate market expansion, most of the increase of buildings’ value is attributable to the land rent. The second observation is about value dynamics over time: it has been observed that, during an expansion in demand, the value significantly increases in central areas, much more than in peripheral ones; this means that absolute rent arising from shortage in urban areas is higher than the differential rent created through urban expansion in peripheral areas. Finally, it was highlighted that the factors affecting the value in building areas play different roles, depending on their location relative to the urban centre, identifying differently structured market segments.

  8. Diffusional falsification of kinetic constants on Lineweaver-Burk plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Y S; Chang, H N

    1983-11-07

    The effect of mass transfer resistances on the Lineweaver-Burk plots in immobilized enzyme systems has been investigated numerically and with analytical approximate solutions. While Hamilton, Gardner & Colton (1974) studied the effect of internal diffusion resistances in planar geometry, our study was extended to the combined effect of internal and external diffusion in cylindrical and spherical geometries as well. The variation of Lineweaver-Burk plots with respect to the geometries was minimized by modifying the Thiele modulus and the Biot number with the shape factor. Especially for a small Biot number all the three Lineweaver-Burk plots fell on a single line. As was discussed by Hamilton et al. (1974), the curvature of the line for large external diffusion resistances was small enough to be assumed linear, which was confirmed from the two approximate solutions for large and small substrate concentrations. Two methods for obtaining intrinsic kinetic constants were proposed: First, we obtained both maximum reaction rate and Michaelis constant by fitting experimental data to a straight line where external diffusion resistance was relatively large, and second, we obtained Michaelis constant from apparent Michaelis constant from the figure in case we knew maximum reaction rate a priori.

  9. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  10. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  11. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-01-01

    The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets. (paper)

  13. Sensitivity of temporal heart rate variability in Poincaré plot to changes in parasympathetic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Chandan K; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Voss, Andreas; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2011-03-03

    A novel descriptor (Complex Correlation Measure (CCM)) for measuring the variability in the temporal structure of Poincaré plot has been developed to characterize or distinguish between Poincaré plots with similar shapes. This study was designed to assess the changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot using CCM during atropine infusion, 70° head-up tilt and scopolamine administration in healthy human subjects. CCM quantifies the point-to-point variation of the signal rather than gross description of the Poincaré plot. The physiological relevance of CCM was demonstrated by comparing the changes in CCM values with autonomic perturbation during all phases of the experiment. The sensitivities of short term variability (SD1), long term variability (SD2) and variability in temporal structure (CCM) were analyzed by changing the temporal structure by shuffling the sequences of points of the Poincaré plot. Surrogate analysis was used to show CCM as a measure of changes in temporal structure rather than random noise and sensitivity of CCM with changes in parasympathetic activity. CCM was found to be most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared to SD1 and SD2. The values of all descriptors decreased with decrease in parasympathetic activity during atropine infusion and 70° head-up tilt phase. In contrast, values of all descriptors increased with increase in parasympathetic activity during scopolamine administration. The concordant reduction and enhancement in CCM values with parasympathetic activity indicates that the temporal variability of Poincaré plot is modulated by the parasympathetic activity which correlates with changes in CCM values. CCM is more sensitive than SD1 and SD2 to changes of parasympathetic activity.

  14. Experimental evidence of adiabatic splitting of charged particle beams using stable islands of transverse phase space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gilardoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel technique to perform multiturn extraction from a circular particle accelerator was proposed. It is based on beam splitting and trapping, induced by a slow crossing of a nonlinear resonance, inside stable islands of transverse phase space. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron started in 2002 and evidence of beam splitting was obtained by summer 2004. In this paper, the measurement results achieved with both a low- and a high-intensity, single-bunch proton beam are presented.

  15. Tunnel splitting for a high-spin molecule in an in-plane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Lin

    2000-08-01

    Direction and strength effects of a magnetic field on the ground-state tunnel splitting for a biaxial spin molecule with the model Hamiltonian H = k1Sz2 + k2Sy2- gµBHzSz- gµBHySy have been investigated within a continuous-spin approach including the Wess-Zumino-Berry term. The topological oscillation and the non-Kramers freezing indicated in the approach are in agreement with those observed in a recent experiment on Fe8 molecular nanomagnets. The behaviour of tunnel splitting with multiple orbits induced by strong fields has been revealed clearly.

  16. A narratological analysis of Mark 12:1-12: The plot of the Gospel of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is an attempt to read Mark 12: 1-12 in terms of the plot of the Gospel. Firstly a brief survey is given of the development of the term plot from Aristotle to the present, thereafter an own methodological point of departure concerning plot is formulated in order to study the plot of Mark. The conclusions ...

  17. Considerations in Forest Growth Estimation Between Two Measurements of Mapped Forest Inventory Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Several aspects of the enhanced Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program?s national plot design complicate change estimation. The design incorporates up to three separate plot sizes (microplot, subplot, and macroplot) to sample trees of different sizes. Because multiple plot sizes are involved, change estimators designed for polyareal plot sampling, such as those...

  18. Plot and Personification in “Tehran-e- Makhuf“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pashaei

    Full Text Available Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European account. In some cases, he approaches to story

  19. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjalil Akrami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.  The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.  Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European account. In some cases, he

  20. Contemplation on Plot and Personification in Tehran Makhuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pashaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.  The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.  Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European

  1. PET kinetic analysis --pitfalls and a solution for the Logan plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika; Shidahara, Miho; Ikoma, Yoko; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The Logan plot is a widely used algorithm for the quantitative analysis of neuroreceptors using PET because it is easy to use and simple to implement. The Logan plot is also suitable for receptor imaging because its algorithm is fast. However, use of the Logan plot, and interpretation of the formed receptor images should be regarded with caution, because noise in PET data causes bias in the Logan plot estimates. In this paper, we describe the basic concept of the Logan plot in detail and introduce three algorithms for the Logan plot. By comparing these algorithms, we demonstrate the pitfalls of the Logan plot and discuss the solution.

  2. Maximal information analysis: I - various Wayne State plots and the most common likelihood principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, G.

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis using all moments of the likelihood L(y vertical bar α) (y being the data and α being the fit parameters) is presented. The relevant plots for various data fitting situations are presented. The goodness of fit (GOF) parameter (currently the χ 2 ) is redefined as the isoprobability level in a multidimensional space. Many useful properties of statistical analysis are summarized in a new statistical principle which states that the most common likelihood, and not the tallest, is the best possible likelihood, when comparing experiments or hypotheses

  3. Effect of vegetal cover on runoff and soil erosion under light intensity events. Rainfall simulation over USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, María José; Bienes, Ramón; Jiménez, Luis; Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2007-05-25

    The erosive power of frequent light rainfalls is studied in this paper. Field experiments of simulated rainfall (Intensity, 21 mm h(-1) and kinetic energy, 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1)) were conducted over 8 bounded USLE plots (80 m(2) each) with a slope of 10%. In 4 plots the soil was almost bare (<4% vegetation cover); the other 4 plots had almost full cover with natural vegetation in one year. Runoff and sediment yield was recorded. The results revealed the efficiency of vegetation cover reducing runoff and sediments. Runoff and sediments were negligible in covered plots. Therefore, in bare plots, although sediment yield was generally low, averaging 74+/-43 kg ha(-1), the mean of runoff achieved a coefficient of 35%, this magnitude has to be taken into consideration in this region verging on aridity. Rains around 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1) of kinetic energy are quite frequent in the study area (34% of recorded rains en 12 years). If we would consider the usual lower limits from the literature, we would be ignoring an important percent of natural rainfall episodes.

  4. Chemical splitting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to enhance electrochemical capacitance for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlu; Li, Tongtao; Zhang, Xinlin; Zhong, Qineng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Jiamu

    2014-06-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were chemically split and self-assembled to a flexible porous paper made of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs). The morphology and microstructure of the pristine MWCNTs and GONRs were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. And the specific surface area and porosity structure were measured by N2 adsorption-desorption. The longitudinally split MWCNTs show an enhancement in specific capacitance from 21 F g-1 to 156 F g-1 compared with the pristine counterpart at 0.1 A g-1 in a 6 M KOH aqueous electrolytes. The electrochemical experiments prove that the chemical splitting of MWCNTs will make inner carbon layers opened and exposed to electrochemical double layers, which can effectively improve the electrochemical capacitance for supercapacitors.

  5. The behaviour of the local error in splitting methods applied to stiff problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Roman; Kvaernoe, Anne; Owren, Brynjulf

    2004-01-01

    Splitting methods are frequently used in solving stiff differential equations and it is common to split the system of equations into a stiff and a nonstiff part. The classical theory for the local order of consistency is valid only for stepsizes which are smaller than what one would typically prefer to use in the integration. Error control and stepsize selection devices based on classical local order theory may lead to unstable error behaviour and inefficient stepsize sequences. Here, the behaviour of the local error in the Strang and Godunov splitting methods is explained by using two different tools, Lie series and singular perturbation theory. The two approaches provide an understanding of the phenomena from different points of view, but both are consistent with what is observed in numerical experiments

  6. Hybrid Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for Lot Splitting with Capacity Constraints in Flexible Job Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-level batch chromosome coding scheme is proposed to solve the lot splitting problem with equipment capacity constraints in flexible job shop scheduling, which includes a lot splitting chromosome and a lot scheduling chromosome. To balance global search and local exploration of the differential evolution algorithm, a hybrid discrete differential evolution algorithm (HDDE is presented, in which the local strategy with dynamic random searching based on the critical path and a random mutation operator is developed. The performance of HDDE was experimented with 14 benchmark problems and the practical dye vat scheduling problem. The simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm has the strong global search capability and can effectively solve the practical lot splitting problems with equipment capacity constraints.

  7. Accuracy of tablet splitting and liquid measurements: an examination of who, what and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Geras, Dana; Hadziomerovic, Dunja; Leau, Andrew; Khan, Ramzan Nazim; Gudka, Sajni; Locher, Cornelia; Razaghikashani, Maryam; Lim, Lee Yong

    2017-05-01

    To examine factors that might affect the ability of patients to accurately halve tablets or measure a 5-ml liquid dose. Eighty-eight participants split four different placebo tablets by hand and using a tablet splitter, while 85 participants measured 5 ml of water, 0.5% methylcellulose (MC) and 1% MC using a syringe and dosing cup. Accuracy of manipulation was determined by mass measurements. The general population was less able than pharmacy students to break tablets into equal parts, although age, gender and prior experience were insignificant factors. Greater accuracy of tablet halving was observed with tablet splitter, with scored tablets split more equally than unscored tablets. Tablet size did not affect the accuracy of splitting. However, >25% of small scored tablets failed to be split by hand, and 41% of large unscored tablets were split into >2 portions in the tablet splitter. In liquid measurement, the syringe provided more accurate volume measurements than the dosing cup, with higher accuracy observed for the more viscous MC solutions than water. Formulation characteristics and manipulation technique have greater influences on the accuracy of medication modification and should be considered in off-label drug use in vulnerable populations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Dissociations of spatial congruence effects across response measures: an examination of delta plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Roüast, Nora M

    2016-09-01

    Spatial congruence ("Simon") effects on reaction time (RT) and response force (RF) were studied in two experiments requiring speeded choice responses to the color of a stimulus located irrelevantly to the left or right of fixation. In Experiment 1 with unimanual responses, both RT and incorrect-hand RF were sensitive to spatial congruence, and both showed larger Simon effects following a congruent trial than following an incongruent one. RT and incorrect-hand RF were dissociated in distributional (i.e., delta plot) analyses, however. As in previous studies, the Simon effect on RT was largest for the fastest responses and diminished as RT increased (i.e., decreasing delta plot). In contrast, Simon effects on RF did not decrease for slower responses; if anything, they increased slightly. In Experiment 2 participants made bimanual responses, allowing measurement of the spatial congruence effect for each trial. Responses were both faster and more forceful with the spatially congruent hand than with the spatially incongruent one, but neither of these effects decreased for slower responses. Overall, the results demonstrate that at least some motor-level effects of irrelevant spatial location persist for slower responses.

  9. Relationship between mandibular anatomy and the occurrence of a bad split upon sagittal split osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Mohammadali; Tabrizi, Reza; Hekmat, Mina; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Puzesh, Ayatollah

    2014-12-01

    A bad split is a troublesome complication of the sagittal split osteotomy (SSO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the occurrence of a bad split and mandibular anatomy in SSO using cone-beam computed tomography. The authors designed a cohort retrospective study. Forty-eight patients (96 SSO sites) were studied. The buccolingual thickness of the retromandibular area (BLR), the buccolingual thickness of the ramus at the level of the lingula (BLTR), the height of the mandible from the alveolar crest to the inferior border of the mandible, (ACIB), the distance between the sigmoid notch and the inferior border of the mandible (SIBM), and the anteroposterior width of the ramus (APWR) were measured. The independent t test was applied to compare anatomic measurements between the group with and the group without bad splits. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test was used to find a cutoff point in anatomic size for various parts of the mandible related to the occurrence of bad splits. The mean SIBM was 47.05±6.33 mm in group 1 (with bad splits) versus 40.66±2.44 mm in group 2 (without bad splits; P=.01). The mean BLTR was 5.74±1.11 mm in group 1 versus 3.19±0.55 mm in group 2 (P=.04). The mean BLR was 14.98±2.78 mm in group 1 versus 11.21±1.29 mm in group 2 (P=.001). No statistically significant difference was found for APWR and ACIB between the 2 groups. The ROC test showed cutoff points of 10.17 mm for BLR, 36.69 mm for SIBM, and 4.06 mm for BLTR. This study showed that certain mandibular anatomic differences can increase the risk of a bad split during SSO surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  11. Using a Split-belt Treadmill to Evaluate Generalization of Human Locomotor Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Erin V L; Hamzey, Rami J; Kirk, Eileen M

    2017-08-23

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying locomotor learning helps researchers and clinicians optimize gait retraining as part of motor rehabilitation. However, studying human locomotor learning can be challenging. During infancy and childhood, the neuromuscular system is quite immature, and it is unlikely that locomotor learning during early stages of development is governed by the same mechanisms as in adulthood. By the time humans reach maturity, they are so proficient at walking that it is difficult to come up with a sufficiently novel task to study de novo locomotor learning. The split-belt treadmill, which has two belts that can drive each leg at a different speed, enables the study of both short- (i.e., immediate) and long-term (i.e., over minutes-days; a form of motor learning) gait modifications in response to a novel change in the walking environment. Individuals can easily be screened for previous exposure to the split-belt treadmill, thus ensuring that all experimental participants have no (or equivalent) prior experience. This paper describes a typical split-belt treadmill adaptation protocol that incorporates testing methods to quantify locomotor learning and generalization of this learning to other walking contexts. A discussion of important considerations for designing split-belt treadmill experiments follows, including factors like treadmill belt speeds, rest breaks, and distractors. Additionally, potential but understudied confounding variables (e.g., arm movements, prior experience) are considered in the discussion.

  12. Heat transfer with a split water channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1978-01-01

    The heat transfer problem associated with the incidence of synchrotron radiation upon a vacuum chamber wall cooled by a single water channel was previously studied, and a numerical solution to the potential problem was found using the two-dimensional magnet program POISSON. Calculations were extended to consider the case of a split water channel using POISSON to solve the potential problem for a given choice of parameters. By optimizing the dimensions, boiling of the water can be avoided. A copper chamber is a viable solution to the heat transfer problem at a beam port

  13. Joining-Splitting Interaction of Noncritical String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    The joining-splitting interaction of noncritical bosonic string is analyzed in the light-cone formulation. The Mandelstam method of constructing tree string amplitudes is extended to the bosonic massive string models of the discrete series. The general properties of the Liouville longitudinal excitations which are necessary and sufficient for the Lorentz covariance of the light-cone amplitudes are derived. The results suggest that the covariant and the light-cone approach are equivalent also in the noncritical dimensions. Some aspects of unitarity of interacting noncritical massive string theory are discussed.

  14. Permutation 2-groups I: structure and splitness

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2013-01-01

    By a 2-group we mean a groupoid equipped with a weakened group structure. It is called split when it is equivalent to the semidirect product of a discrete 2-group and a one-object 2-group. By a permutation 2-group we mean the 2-group $\\mathbb{S}ym(\\mathcal{G})$ of self-equivalences of a groupoid $\\mathcal{G}$ and natural isomorphisms between them, with the product given by composition of self-equivalences. These generalize the symmetric groups $\\mathsf{S}_n$, $n\\geq 1$, obtained when $\\mathca...

  15. Random tree growth by vertex splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F; Dukes, W M B; Jonsson, T; Stefánsson, S Ö

    2009-01-01

    We study a model of growing planar tree graphs where in each time step we separate the tree into two components by splitting a vertex and then connect the two pieces by inserting a new link between the daughter vertices. This model generalizes the preferential attachment model and Ford's α-model for phylogenetic trees. We develop a mean field theory for the vertex degree distribution, prove that the mean field theory is exact in some special cases and check that it agrees with numerical simulations in general. We calculate various correlation functions and show that the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension can vary from 1 to ∞, depending on the parameters of the model

  16. Split coaxial RFQ structure with modulated vanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, S.

    1983-10-01

    A new split coaxial RFO structure with modulated vanes is proposed. The structure is designed to accelerate 238 U 4+ from 1.68 keV/u to 45.1 keV/u at frequency of 12.5 MHz. The cavity is 1.6 m in diameter and 8 m in length. The cavity consists of four cavity modules divided by three stems which support horizontal and vertical vanes periodically and alternatively. At the same time, problems on the beam dynamics and design procedures are described and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Sunspot splitting triggering an eruptive flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Puschmann, Klaus G.; Kliem, Bernhard; Balthasar, Horst; Denker, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We investigate how the splitting of the leading sunspot and associated flux emergence and cancellation in active region NOAA 11515 caused an eruptive M5.6 flare on 2012 July 2. Methods: Continuum intensity, line-of-sight magnetogram, and dopplergram data of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were employed to analyse the photospheric evolution. Filtergrams in Hα and He I 10830 Å of the Chromospheric Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, track the evolution of the flare. The corresponding coronal conditions were derived from 171 Å and 304 Å images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Local correlation tracking was utilized to determine shear flows. Results: Emerging flux formed a neutral line ahead of the leading sunspot and new satellite spots. The sunspot splitting caused a long-lasting flow towards this neutral line, where a filament formed. Further flux emergence, partly of mixed polarity, as well as episodes of flux cancellation occurred repeatedly at the neutral line. Following a nearby C-class precursor flare with signs of interaction with the filament, the filament erupted nearly simultaneously with the onset of the M5.6 flare and evolved into a coronal mass ejection. The sunspot stretched without forming a light bridge, splitting unusually fast (within about a day, complete ≈6 h after the eruption) in two nearly equal parts. The front part separated strongly from the active region to approach the neighbouring active region where all its coronal magnetic connections were rooted. It also rotated rapidly (by 4.9° h-1) and caused significant shear flows at its edge. Conclusions: The eruption resulted from a complex sequence of processes in the (sub-)photosphere and corona. The persistent flows towards the neutral line likely caused the formation of a flux rope that held the filament. These flows, their associated flux cancellation, the emerging flux, and the precursor flare all contributed to the destabilization of the flux rope. We

  18. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  19. Multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwen; Zhang Dengyu; Tang Shiqing; Xie Lijun

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting (QIS) with a multipartite entangled state, where a boss distributes a secret quantum state to two grades of agents asymmetrically. The agents who belong to different grades have different authorities for recovering the boss's secret. Except for the boss's Bell-state measurement, no nonlocal operation is involved. The presented scheme is also shown to be secure against eavesdropping. Such a hierarchical QIS is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.

  20. Majorana splitting from critical currents in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayao, Jorge; San-Jose, Pablo; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.; Aguado, Ramón; Prada, Elsa

    2017-11-01

    A semiconducting nanowire with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling and coupled to a superconductor can be tuned by an external Zeeman field into a topological phase with Majorana zero modes. Here we theoretically investigate how this exotic topological superconductor phase manifests in Josephson junctions based on such proximitized nanowires. In particular, we focus on critical currents in the short junction limit (LN≪ξ , where LN is the junction length and ξ is the superconducting coherence length) and show that they contain important information about nontrivial topology and Majoranas. This includes signatures of the gap inversion at the topological transition and a unique oscillatory pattern that originates from Majorana interference. Interestingly, this pattern can be modified by tuning the transmission across the junction, thus providing complementary evidence of Majoranas and their energy splittings beyond standard tunnel spectroscopy experiments, while offering further tunability by virtue of the Josephson effect.

  1. Auricular Split-Thickness Skin Graft for Ear Canal Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Yarah M; Walia, Sartaaj; Sahyouni, Ronald; Ghavami, Yaser; Lin, Harrison W; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2016-12-01

    Split-thickness skin graft (STSG) continues to be the preferred means of external auditory canal (EAC) reconstruction. We thus sought to describe our experience using skin from the posterior aspect of the auricle (SPAA) as a donor site in EAC reconstruction. Grafts were, on average, 5 × 10 mm in size and obtained with a No. 10 blade after tumescence injection. The cases of 39 patients who underwent 41 procedures were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 38 patients with both 3- and 6-month follow-ups, no postoperative stenosis or bony exposure occurred. STSG from the SPAA can be a good option in EAC reconstruction. Total EAC/tympanic membrane coverage can be obtained with STSG from the SPAA. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. Hyperfine splitting of low-lying heavy baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, M.; Qamar, A.; Schechter, J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sannino, F. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Mostra D`Oltremare Pad. 19, 80125, Napoli (Italy); Weigel, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen University, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076, Tuebingen (Germany)

    1997-11-10

    We calculate the next-to-leading order contribution to the masses of the heavy baryons in the bound-state approach for baryons containing a heavy quark. These 1/N{sub C} corrections arise when states of good spin and isospin are generated from the background soliton of the light meson fields. Our study is motivated by the previously established result that light vector meson fields are required for this soliton in order to reasonably describe the spectrum of both the light and the heavy baryons. We note that the inclusion of light vector mesons significantly improves the agreement of the predicted hyperfine splitting with experiment. A number of aspects of this somewhat complicated calculation are discussed in detail. (orig.). 33 refs.

  3. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar for toughness tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, N.; Grunenwald, T.

    2006-08-01

    In order to characterize material toughness or to study crack arrest under dynamic loading conditions, a new testing device has been developed at CEA/Valduc. A new Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) has been modified: it is now composed of a single incident bar and a double transmitter bar. With this facility, a notched specimen can be loaded under three points bending conditions. Qualification tests with titanium and steel notched samples are presented. Data treatment software has been adapted to estimate the sample deflection as a function of time and treat the energy balance. These results are compared with classical Charpy experiments. Effect of various contact areas between specimen and bars are studied to point out their influence on obtained measurements. The advantage of a “knife” contact compared to a plane one is then clearly demonstrated. All results obtained with this new testing device are in good agreement and show a reduced scattering.

  4. Correlation analysis of respiratory signals by using parallel coordinate plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the bonds and the relationships between the respiratory signals, i.e. the airflow, the mouth pressure, the relative temperature and the relative humidity during breathing may provide the improvement on the measurement methods of respiratory mechanics and sensor designs or the exploration of the several possible applications in the analysis of respiratory disorders. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to propose a new combination of methods in order to determine the relationship between respiratory signals as a multidimensional data. In order to reveal the coupling between the processes two very different methods were used: the well-known statistical correlation analysis (i.e. Pearson's correlation and cross-correlation coefficient) and parallel coordinate plots (PCPs). Curve bundling with the number intersections for the correlation analysis, Least Mean Square Time Delay Estimator (LMS-TDE) for the point delay detection and visual metrics for the recognition of the visual structures were proposed and utilized in PCP. The number of intersections was increased when the correlation coefficient changed from high positive to high negative correlation between the respiratory signals, especially if whole breath was processed. LMS-TDE coefficients plotted in PCP indicated well-matched point delay results to the findings in the correlation analysis. Visual inspection of PCB by visual metrics showed range, dispersions, entropy comparisons and linear and sinusoidal-like relationships between the respiratory signals. It is demonstrated that the basic correlation analysis together with the parallel coordinate plots perceptually motivates the visual metrics in the display and thus can be considered as an aid to the user analysis by providing meaningful views of the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil aggregate stability and rainfall-induced sediment transport on field plots as affected by amendment with organic matter inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Arter, Christian; Liu, Xingyu; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Aggregate stability is an important factor in soil resistance against erosion, and, by influencing the extent of sediment transport associated with surface runoff, it is thus also one of the key factors which determine on- and off-site effects of water erosion. As it strongly depends on soil organic matter, many studies have explored how aggregate stability can be improved by organic matter inputs into the soil. However, the focus of these studies has been on the relationship between aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics. How the effects of organic matter inputs on aggregate stability translate into soil erodibility under rainfall impacts has received much less attention. In this study, we performed field plot experiments to examine how organic matter inputs affect aggregate breakdown and surface sediment transport under field conditions in artificial rainfall events. Three pairs of plots were prepared by adding a mixture of grass and wheat straw to one of plots in each pair but not to the other, while all plots were treated in the same way otherwise. The rainfall events were applied some weeks later so that the applied organic residues had sufficient time for decomposition and incorporation into the soil. Surface runoff rate and sediment concentration showed substantial differences between the treatments with and without organic matter inputs. The plots with organic inputs had coarser and more stable aggregates and a rougher surface than the control plots without organic inputs, resulting in a higher infiltration rate and lower transport capacity of the surface runoff. Consequently, sediments exported from the amended plots were less concentrated but more enriched in suspended particles (selective sediment transport. In contrast to the amended plots, there was an increase in the coarse particle fraction (> 250 µm) in the runoff from the plots with no organic matter inputs towards the end of the rainfall events due to emerging bed-load transport

  6. Chemical composition of precipitation in adjacent forest and open plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madgwick, H A.I.; Ovington, J D

    1959-01-01

    The chemical composition of the precipitation in three open plots and under thirteen different forest canopies is compared for a 2-year period at an experimental forest in south-east England. The average contents of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the precipitation in the open are 19, 3, 11, and less than 4 kg./ha./annum respectively, compared with 33, 24, 24, and 10 under the forest canopies. Only very small quantities of phosphorus were present in the precipitation. The data are discussed with particular reference to the nutrient cycles of forest stands, the removal of nutrients by logging, and the maintenance of soil fertility.

  7. FLP: a field line plotting code for bundle divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, C.

    1981-01-01

    A computer code was developed to aid in the design of bundle divertors. The code can handle discrete toroidal field coils and various divertor coil configurations. All coils must be composed of straight line segments. The code runs on the PDP-10 and displays plots of the configuration, field lines, and field ripple. It automatically chooses the coil currents to connect the separatrix produced by the divertor to the outer edge of the plasma and calculates the required coil cross sections. Several divertor designs are illustrated to show how the code works

  8. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-11-01

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  10. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H. B.; Brene, N.

    1991-08-01

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important rôle either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms.

  11. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1991-08-05

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity {chi} which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity {chi} has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity {chi} tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.).

  12. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1994-06-01

    Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.

  13. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  14. Alteration of split renal function during Captopril treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Yasuhara, Shuichirou; Miyamori, Isamu; Takeda, Ryoyu

    1987-01-01

    Two different methods to evaluate the alteration of split renal function following continued Captopril treatment were studied in a total of 21 patients with hypertension. Eight patients with renovascular hypertension (five with unilateral renal artery stenosis and three with bilateral renal artery stenoses), three patients with diabetic nephropathy, one patient with primary aldosteronism, and nine patients with essential hypertension were included. The studies were performed the day prior to receiving Captopril (baseline), and 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment (37.5 mg or 75 mg/day). Split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after injections of I-131 hippuran and Tc-99m DTPA were measured using kidney counting corrected for depth and dose, described by Schlegel and Gates. In the patients with renovascular hypertension, split GFR in the stenotic kidney was significantly decreased 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment compared to a baseline value. And split ERPF in the stenotic kidney was slightly increased although significant increase of split ERPF was not shown. In the patients with diabetic nephropathy, primary aldosteronism or essential hypertension, on the other hand, split GFR was not changed and split ERPF was slightly increased. These findings suggest that the Captopril induced alterations of split renal function may be of importance for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. For this purpose, split GFR determination is more useful than split ERPF determination. (author)

  15. ClonoCalc and ClonoPlot: immune repertoire analysis from raw files to publication figures with graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, Anke; Krebbel, Moritz; Decker, Normann; Leucker, Martin; Lange, Felix D; Kalies, Kathrin; Möller, Steffen

    2017-03-11

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies enable studies and analyses of the diversity of both T and B cell receptors (TCR and BCR) in human and animal systems to elucidate immune functions in health and disease. Over the last few years, several algorithms and tools have been developed to support respective analyses of raw sequencing data of the immune repertoire. These tools focus on distinct aspects of the data processing and require a strong bioinformatics background. To facilitate the analysis of T and B cell repertoires by less experienced users, software is needed that combines the most common tools for repertoire analysis. We introduce a graphical user interface (GUI) providing a complete analysis pipeline for processing raw NGS data for human and animal TCR and BCR clonotype determination and advanced differential repertoire studies. It provides two applications. ClonoCalc prepares the raw data for downstream analyses. It combines a demultiplexer for barcode splitting and employs MiXCR for paired-end read merging and the extraction of human and animal TCR/BCR sequences. ClonoPlot wraps the R package tcR and further contributes self-developed plots for the descriptive comparative investigation of immune repertoires. This workflow reduces the amount of programming required to perform the respective analyses and supports both communication and training between scientists and technicians, and across scientific disciplines. The Open Source development in Java and R is modular and invites advanced users to extend its functionality. Software and documentation are freely available at https://bitbucket.org/ClonoSuite/clonocalc-plot .

  16. [Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

    2014-08-01

    On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method.

  17. Plot-size for 15N-fertilizer recovery studies by tanzania-grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martha Junior, Geraldo Bueno; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Corsi, Moacyr

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the N dynamics in pasture ecosystems can be improved by studies using the 15 N tracer technique. However, in these experiments it must be ensured that the lateral movement of the labeled fertilizer does not interfere with the results. In this study the plot-size requirements for 15 N-fertilizer recovery experiments with irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania was determined. Three grazing intensities (light, moderate and intensive grazing) in the winter, spring and summer seasons were considered. A 1 m 2 plot-size, with a grass tussock in the center, was adequate, irrespective of the grazing intensity or season of the year. Increasing the distance from the area fertilized with 15 N negatively affected the N derived from fertilizer (Npfm) recovered in herbage.The lowest decline in Npfm values were observed for moderate and light grazing intensities. This fact might be explained by the vigorous growth characteristics of these plants. Increasing the grazing intensity decreased the tussock mass and, the smaller the tussock mass, the greater was the dependence on fertilizer nitrogen. (author)

  18. Computational Drafting of Plot Structures for Russian Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervás, Pablo

    The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp. A set of simple evaluation metrics for the resulting outputs is defined inspired on Propp's formalism. The potential of the resulting system for providing a creative story generation system is discussed, and possible lines of future work are discussed.

  19. PLOTNFIT.4TH, Data Plotting and Curve Fitting by Polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PLOTnFIT is used for plotting and analyzing data by fitting nth degree polynomials of basis functions to the data interactively and printing graphs of the data and the polynomial functions. It can be used to generate linear, semi-log, and log-log graphs and can automatically scale the coordinate axes to suit the data. Multiple data sets may be plotted on a single graph. An auxiliary program, READ1ST, is included which produces an on-line summary of the information contained in the PLOTnFIT reference report. 2 - Method of solution: PLOTnFIT uses the least squares method to calculate the coefficients of nth-degree (up to 10. degree) polynomials of 11 selected basis functions such that each polynomial fits the data in a least squares sense. The procedure incorporated in the code uses a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials to avoid 'i11-conditioning' and to perform the curve fitting task with single-precision arithmetic. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 225 data points per job (or graph) including all data sets 8 data sets (or tasks) per job (or graph)

  20. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  1. TREDRA, Minimal Cut Sets Fault Tree Plot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TREDRA is a computer program for drafting report-quality fault trees. The input to TREDRA is similar to input for standard computer programs that find minimal cut sets from fault trees. Output includes fault tree plots containing all standard fault tree logic and event symbols, gate and event labels, and an output description for each event in the fault tree. TREDRA contains the following features: a variety of program options that allow flexibility in the program output; capability for automatic pagination of the output fault tree, when necessary; input groups which allow labeling of gates, events, and their output descriptions; a symbol library which includes standard fault tree symbols plus several less frequently used symbols; user control of character size and overall plot size; and extensive input error checking and diagnostic oriented output. 2 - Method of solution: Fault trees are generated by user-supplied control parameters and a coded description of the fault tree structure consisting of the name of each gate, the gate type, the number of inputs to the gate, and the names of these inputs. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: TREDRA can produce fault trees with a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 56 levels. The width of each level may range from 3 to 37. A total of 50 transfers is allowed during pagination

  2. Splitting method for the combined formulation of fluid-particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyung Gwon; Yoo, Jung Yul; Joseph, D. D.

    2000-01-01

    A splitting method for the direct numerical simulation of solid-liquid mixtures is presented, where a symmetric pressure equation is newly proposed. Through numerical experiment, it is found that the newly proposed splitting method works well with a matrix-free formulation for some bench mark problems avoiding an erroneous pressure field which appears when using the conventional pressure equation of a splitting method. When deriving a typical pressure equation of a splitting method, the motion of a solid particle has to be approximated by the 'intermediate velocity' instead of treating it as unknowns since it is necessary as a boundary condition. Therefore, the motion of a solid particle is treated in such an explicit way that a particle moves by the known form drag(pressure drag) that is calculated from the pressure equation in the previous step. From the numerical experiment, it was shown that this method gives an erroneous pressure field even for the very small time step size as a particle velocity increases. In this paper, coupling the unknowns of particle velocities in the pressure equation is proposed, where the resulting matrix is reduced to the symmetric one by applying the projector of the combined formulation. It has been tested over some bench mark problems and gives reasonable pressure fields

  3. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-09-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.

  4. Flow splitting in numerical simulations of oceanic dense-water outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gustavo M.; Wells, Mathew G.; Padman, Laurie; Özgökmen, Tamay M.

    2017-05-01

    Flow splitting occurs when part of a gravity current becomes neutrally buoyant and separates from the bottom-trapped plume as an interflow. This phenomenon has been previously observed in laboratory experiments, small-scale water bodies (e.g., lakes) and numerical studies of small-scale systems. Here, the potential for flow splitting in oceanic gravity currents is investigated using high-resolution (Δx = Δz = 5 m) two-dimensional numerical simulations of gravity flows into linearly stratified environments. The model is configured to solve the non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equations without rotation. A set of experiments is conducted by varying the initial buoyancy number B0 =Q0N3 /g‧2 (where Q0 is the volume flux of the dense water flow per unit width, N is the ambient stratification and g‧ is the reduced gravity), the bottom slope (α) and the turbulent Prandtl number (Pr). Regardless of α or Pr, when B0 ≤ 0.002 the outflow always reaches the deep ocean forming an underflow. Similarly, when B0 ≥ 0.13 the outflow always equilibrates at intermediate depths, forming an interflow. However, when B0 ∼ 0.016, flow splitting always occurs when Pr ≥ 10, while interflows always occur for Pr = 1. An important characteristic of simulations that result in flow splitting is the development of Holmboe-like interfacial instabilities and flow transition from a supercritical condition, where the Froude number (Fr) is greater than one, to a slower and more uniform subcritical condition (Fr internal hydraulic jump and consequent mixing enhancement. Although our experiments do not take into account three-dimensionality and rotation, which are likely to influence mixing and the transition between flow regimes, a comparison between our results and oceanic observations suggests that flow splitting may occur in dense-water outflows with weak ambient stratification, such as Antarctic outflows.

  5. Induced Rashba splitting of electronic states in monolayers of Au, Cu on a W(110) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikin, A M; Rybkina, A A; Rybkin, A G; Marchenko, D; Korshunov, A S; Kudasov, Yu B; Frolova, N V; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Varykhalov, A; Rader, O

    2013-01-01

    The paper sums up a theoretical and experimental investigation of the influence of the spin–orbit coupling in W(110) on the spin structure of electronic states in deposited Au and Cu monolayers. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals that in the case of monolayers of Au and Cu spin–orbit split bands are formed in a surface-projected gap of W(110). Spin resolution shows that these states are spin polarized and that, therefore, the spin–orbit splitting is of Rashba type. The states evolve from hybridization of W 5d, 6p-derived states with the s, p states of the deposited metal. Interaction with Au and Cu shifts the original W 5d-derived states from the edges toward the center of the surface-projected gap. The size of the spin–orbit splitting of the formed states does not correlate with the atomic number of the deposited metal and is even higher for Cu than for Au. These states can be described as W-derived surface resonances modified by hybridization with the p, d states of the adsorbed metal. Our electronic structure calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory correlate well with the experiment and demonstrate the crucial role of the W top layer for the spin–orbit splitting. It is shown that the contributions of the spin–orbit interaction from W and Au act in opposite directions which leads to a decrease of the resulting spin–orbit splitting in the Au monolayer on W(110). For the Cu monolayer with lower spin–orbit interaction the resulting spin splitting is higher and mainly determined by the W. (paper)

  6. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  7. Generalized field-splitting algorithms for optimal IMRT delivery efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2007-09-21

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses radiation beams of varying intensities to deliver varying doses of radiation to different areas of the tissue. The use of IMRT has allowed the delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor and lower doses to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is not uncommon for head and neck tumors, for example, to have large treatment widths that are not deliverable using a single field. In such cases, the intensity matrix generated by the optimizer needs to be split into two or three matrices, each of which may be delivered using a single field. Existing field-splitting algorithms used the pre-specified arbitrary split line or region where the intensity matrix is split along a column, i.e., all rows of the matrix are split along the same column (with or without the overlapping of split fields, i.e., feathering). If three fields result, then the two splits are along the same two columns for all rows. In this paper we study the problem of splitting a large field into two or three subfields with the field width as the only constraint, allowing for an arbitrary overlap of the split fields, so that the total MU efficiency of delivering the split fields is maximized. Proof of optimality is provided for the proposed algorithm. An average decrease of 18.8% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by a commercial treatment planning system and that of 10% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by our previously published algorithm. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org.

  8. One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon; Buciuni, Francesco; Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.

  9. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussa, Khalil O. [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Mousa, Marwan S., E-mail: mmousa@mutah.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Fischer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.fischer@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10{sup −8}mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  10. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussa, Khalil O.; Mousa, Marwan S.; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10 −8 mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  11. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Khalil O; Mousa, Marwan S; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials-such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)-screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10(-8) mbar when baked at up to ∼180 °C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in particular

  12. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator......, a 5 MHz linear array transducer was used to scan a vessel situated at 30 mm depth with a maximum flow velocity of 0.1 m/s. The pulse repetition frequency was 1.8 kHz and the angle between the flow and the beam was 60 deg. A 15 mus chirp was used as excitation pulse and 40 independent velocity...

  13. Gray divorce: Explaining midlife marital splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Jocelyn Elise

    2017-12-06

    Recent research suggests that one out of every four divorces in the United States is now "gray," meaning that at least one half of the couple has reached the age of 50 when the marriage breaks down. To understand why this age group-the Baby Boomer generation-is splitting up, this study conducted 40 in-depth, semistructured interviews with men and 40 with women who have experienced a gray divorce in their lifetimes. Respondents' beliefs in an expressive individualistic model of marriage, where partnerships are only valuable if they help individuals achieve personal growth, were compared against their potential adherence to what I call a commitment-based model of marriage, where binding, romantic love holds couples together unless there is severe relationship strain. The results demonstrated that the commitment-based model most strongly governs marriage and the decision to divorce among Baby Boomers for both sexes, although some specific reasons for divorce differ for men and women.

  14. Noncommutative instantons via dressing and splitting approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Zalan; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Wolf, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Almost all known instanton solutions in noncommutative Yang-Mills theory have been obtained in the modified ADHM scheme. In this paper we employ two alternative methods for the construction of the self-dual U(2) BPST instanton on a noncommutative euclidean four-dimensional space with self-dual noncommutativity tensor. Firstly, we use the method of dressing transformations, an iterative procedure for generating solutions from a given seed solution, and thereby generalize Belavin's and Zakharov's work to the noncommutative setup. Secondly, we relate the dressing approach with Ward's splitting method based on the twistor construction and rederive the solution in this context. It seems feasible to produce nonsingular noncommutative multi-instantons with these techniques. (author)

  15. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  16. Rice planted along with accumulators in arsenic amended plots reduced arsenic uptake in grains and shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ashish; Mehrotra, Sonali; Singh, Nandita

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was designed using phytoremadiation technology to obtain grains of rice safe for consumption. Sixteen plots of size 2 × 2 m were prepared (8 plots were treated with 50 mg kg -1 of sodium arsenate and rest 8 without any treatment). The study was done for two plantations (1st and 2nd plantation). Rice was planted with three accumulators (Phragmites australis, Vetiveria zizanioides and Pteris vitatta) in treated and untreated plot. Arsenic in grains of Actr (R + Pt, R + Ph and R + Vt) for 1st plantation was 0.4, 0.2 and 0.2 mg kg -1 where as in the case of wActr (Ras) it was 3 mg kg -1 . In 2nd plantation the concentration of arsenic in grain of Actr (R + Pt, R + Ph and R + Vt) was 0.1, 0.1 and 0.1 mg kg -1 where as in the case of wActr (Ras) it was 2 mg kg -1 . Significant differences in growth and yield parameters of rice between Actr and wActr in 1st plantation, while for 2nd plantation the activity was reduced in combinations except R + Pt and no significant difference was observed between Actr, Acntr and wActr. The study concluded that combinations of accumulators with crops could be useful for the survival and safe grains in As-contaminated soils but with some amendments in long-term remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rain concentration and sheltering effect of solar panels on cultivated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamri, Yassin; Cheviron, Bruno; Mange, Annabelle; Dejean, Cyril; Liron, François; Belaud, Gilles

    2018-02-01

    Agrivoltaism is the association of agricultural and photovoltaic energy production on the same land area, coping with the increasing pressure on land use and water resources while delivering clean and renewable energy. However, the solar panels located above the cultivated plots also have a seemingly yes unexplored effect on rain redistribution, sheltering large parts of the plot but redirecting concentrated fluxes on a few locations. The spatial heterogeneity in water amounts observed on the ground is high in the general case; its dynamical patterns are directly attributable to the mobile panels through their geometrical characteristics (dimensions, height, coverage percentage) and the strategies selected to rotate them around their support tube. A coefficient of variation is used to measure this spatial heterogeneity and to compare it with the coefficient of uniformity that classically describes the efficiency of irrigation systems. A rain redistribution model (AVrain) was derived from literature elements and theoretical grounds and then validated from experiments in both field and controlled conditions. AVrain simulates the effective rain amounts on the plot from a few forcing data (rainfall, wind velocity and direction) and thus allows real-time strategies that consist in operating the panels so as to limit the rain interception mainly responsible for the spatial heterogeneities. Such avoidance strategies resulted in a sharp decrease in the coefficient of variation, e.g. 0.22 vs. 2.13 for panels held flat during one of the monitored rain events, which is a fairly good uniformity score for irrigation specialists. Finally, the water amounts predicted by AVrain were used as inputs to Hydrus-2D for a brief exploratory study on the impact of the presence of solar panels on rain redistribution at shallow depths within soils: similar, more diffuse patterns were simulated and were coherent with field measurements.

  18. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  19. MAPLE-II. A program for plotting fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.; Van Den Muyzenberg, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The MAPLE II code is an improved version of the MAPLE program for plotting fault trees. MAPLE II has added features which make it a versatile tool for drawing large and complex logic trees. The code is developed as part of a package for computer aided fault tree construction and analysis in which it is integrated and used as a documentation tool. However the MAPLE II code can be used as a separate program which uses as input a structure function of a tree and a description of the events and gates which make up the tree. This report includes a short description of the code and of its features. Moreover it contains the how-to-use and some indications for implementing the code and for adapting it to different graphics systems

  20. Histogram plots and cutoff energies for nuclear discrete levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgya, T.; Molnar, G.; Fazekas, B.; Oestoer, J.

    1997-05-01

    Discrete level schemes for 1277 nuclei, from 6 Li through 251 Es, extracted from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File were analyzed. Cutoff energies (U max ), indicating the upper limit of level scheme completeness, were deduced from the inspection of histograms of the cumulative number of levels. Parameters of the constant-temperature level density formula (nuclear temperature T and energy shift U 0 ) were obtained by means of the least square fit of the formula to the known levels below cutoff energy. The results are tabulated for all 1277 nuclei allowing for an easy and reliable application of the constant-temperature level density approach. A complete set of cumulative plots of discrete levels is also provided. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  1. READING COLONIZATION IN CONRAD'S TRANS-RACIAL LOVE PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lilyana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is about a close look at Conrad's trans-racial romance related to the Victorian period. Trans-racial love between white men and non-white women becomes a popular theme in the early works of Josep Conrad, a famous writer of the late Victorian period. Using a closely technical reading in the three of Conrad's works Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly, and An Outcast of the Island, we can show that such a trans-racial romance is not merely meant for appreciating equivalence. In turn, the trans-racial romance of Conrad's can be understood as the reflection of the Western colonization on the East where the white men take a role as subjects who had dominately explored while the non-white women as objects who are passively being explored. Key words: colonization, race, romance plot, subject, object, and dominance

  2. Studies on halogen quenching through the Stern-Volmer plot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiue, Makoto; Ishikawa, Hiroaki.

    1978-01-01

    The quenching effect for halogenated benzenes, methanes and ethanes have been investigated. The halogen quenching was accurately measured using the internal conversion electrons emitted from 113 Sn-sup(113m)In. From the quenching constants determined by the Stern-Volmer plots with respect to various halogen quenchers, the following results have been obtained. (1) The quenching constants increase with the number of halogen substituents, so as linearly in halogenated benzenes and exponentially in halogenated methanes and ethanes. Even the isomers of halogenides have different quenching constants. (2) There is a linearity between logarithm of the quenching constant and a polarographic half-wave reduction potential. (3) Electron excitation provides larger quenching constants than UV excitation for halogenated methanes. Based on these results, the mechanism of halogen quenching have been discussed in connection with the exciplex formation. (auth.)

  3. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1990-04-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Park Forest Preserve area for CY 1989 are presented. The monitoring program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976--1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study had determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 migrated from the burial ground and was present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground to the hand-pumped picnic wells, establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. 16 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  4. Finding the plot in South African reading education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that we have lost the plot in South African reading education. To find it, we need to move beyond the predominant mode of reading as oral performance, where the emphasis is on accuracy and pronunciation, to reading as comprehension of meaning in text. While reading research in South Africa has been conducted mainly in school contexts, this case study is of a school and Adult Basic Education and Training Centre in a rural KwaZulu-Natal community near Pietermaritzburg. It found that an oratorical approach to reading dominated in both settings. It suggests that developing the way in which teachers understand the teaching of reading and transforming the teaching practices of those who teach as they were taught in the education system of the apartheid era are key to improving the teaching of reading.

  5. Fitting diameter distribution models to data from forest inventories with concentric plot design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Nanos

    2017-10-01

    Research highlights:We designed a new method to fit the Weibull distribution to forest inventory data from concentric plots that achieves high accuracy and precision in parameter estimates regardless of the within-plot spatial tree pattern.

  6. Can the ''doublet-triplet splitting'' problem be solved without doublet-triplet splitting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.

    1992-03-01

    We consider a new possible mechanism for the natural solution of the doublet-triplet splitting problem in SUSY GUTs. In contrast to the usually discussed scenarios, in our case the GUT symmetry breaking does not provide any splitting between the Higgs doublet and the triplet masses. The weak doublet and its colour triplet partner both remain light, but the triplet automatically occurs decoupled from the quark and lepton superfields and cannot induce proton decay. The advantage of the above scenarios is the absence at the GUT scale of the baryon number violating the tree level d = 5 and d = 6 operators via the colour-triple exchange. It is shown that in flipped SU(5) GUT they do not appear at any scale. In the SO(10) model, such operators can be induced after SUSY breaking but are strongly suppressed. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  7. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; Pbad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Method for Solving the Voltage and Torque Equations of the Split-Phase Induction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Olarinoye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Single phase induction machines have been the subject of many researches in recent times. The voltage and torque equations which describe the dynamic characteristics of these machines have been quoted in many papers, including the papers that present the simulation results of these model equations. The way and manner in which these equations are solved is not common in literature. This paper presents a detailed procedure of how these equations are to be solved with respect to the splitphase induction machine which is one of the different types of the single phase induction machines available in the market. In addition, these equations have been used to simulate the start-up response of the split phase induction motor on no-load. The free acceleration characteristics of the motor voltages, currents and electromagnetic torque have been plotted and discussed. The simulation results presented include the instantaneous torque-speed characteristics of the Split phase Induction machine. A block diagram of the method for the solution of the machine equations has also been presented.

  9. arXiv Investigating the "kink" plot as a signal of the onset of deconfinement

    CERN Document Server

    Naskręt, Michał

    One of the physics goals of the NA61/SHINE collaboration at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron is to study the phase diagram of hadronic matter. To this end, a series of heavy ion collision measurements are performed. It is believed that above a certain collision energy and system size a phase transition between hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma occurs. A number of observables has been developed to determine which of the phases was created at the early stage of the collision. This report discusses the dependence of the ratio of the mean number of produced pions to the mean number of wounded nucleons on the Fermi energy measure. For comparison with other measurements this is often presented in the form of the the "kink" plot. This plot is presented enriched with preliminary results for Ar+Sc central collisions at 13A, 19A, 30A, 40A, 75A and 150A GeV/c beam momentum. The results are finally compared to data from other experiments.

  10. Variable Selection Strategies for Small-area Estimation Using FIA Plots and Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Rachel Riemann; James Westfall; Mike Hoppus

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit maintains a network of tens of thousands of georeferenced forest inventory plots distributed across the United States. Data collected on these plots include direct measurements of tree diameter and height and other variables. We present a technique by which FIA plot data and coregistered...

  11. Multilocational evaluation of white yam genotypes using GGE bi-plot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five new white yam genotypes were evaluated in different locations of major yam producing areas; Umudike, Nsukka, Ubiaja, Abuja and Katsina-Ala, to test the performance and stability of these genotypes across the environments using GGE bi-plot software. The GGE bi-plot generated several graphic bi-plots which ...

  12. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  13. 9 CFR 108.7 - Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and... REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.7 Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and legends. Three copies of all plot plans, blueprints, and legends, including revisions, shall be submitted to Animal and Plant...

  14. 9 CFR 108.6 - Revision of plot plans, blueprints, and legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of plot plans, blueprints... FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.6 Revision of plot plans, blueprints, and legends... changes affecting the workflow are to be made. The licensee shall: (a) Prepare revised plot plans...

  15. 9 CFR 108.2 - Plot plans, blueprints, and legends required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plot plans, blueprints, and legends... REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.2 Plot plans, blueprints, and legends required. Each applicant for an establishment license shall prepare a plot plan showing all buildings for each particular land...

  16. An ecoinformatics application for forest dynamics plot data management and sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau-Chin Lin; Abd Rahman Kassim; Kristin Vanderbilt; Donald Henshaw; Eda C. Melendez-Colom; John H. Porter; Kaoru Niiyama; Tsutomu Yagihashi; Sek Aun Tan; Sheng-Shan Lu; Chi-Wen Hsiao; Li-Wan Chang; Meei-Ru. Jeng

    2011-01-01

    Several forest dynamics plot research projects in the East-Asia Pacific region of the International Long-Term Ecological Research network actively collect long-term data, and some of these large plots are members of the Center for Tropical Forest Science network. The wealth of forest plot data presents challenges in information management to researchers. In order to...

  17. In vivo and in vitro protein ligation by naturally occurring and engineered split DnaE inteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sesilja Aranko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein trans-splicing by naturally occurring split DnaE inteins is used for protein ligation of foreign peptide fragments. In order to widen biotechnological applications of protein trans-splicing, it is highly desirable to have split inteins with shorter C-terminal fragments, which can be chemically synthesized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the identification of new functional split sites in DnaE inteins from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and from Nostoc punctiforme. One of the newly engineered split intein bearing C-terminal 15 residues showed more robust protein trans-splicing activity than naturally occurring split DnaE inteins in a foreign context. During the course of our experiments, we found that protein ligation by protein trans-splicing depended not only on the splicing junction sequences, but also on the foreign extein sequences. Furthermore, we could classify the protein trans-splicing reactions in foreign contexts with a simple kinetic model into three groups according to their kinetic parameters in the presence of various reducing agents. CONCLUSION: The shorter C-intein of the newly engineered split intein could be a useful tool for biotechnological applications including protein modification, incorporation of chemical probes, and segmental isotopic labelling. Based on kinetic analysis of the protein splicing reactions, we propose a general strategy to improve ligation yields by protein trans-splicing, which could significantly enhance the applications of protein ligation by protein trans-splicing.

  18. Construction of Δm2--sin2 2θ plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the two-flavor approximation, the probability for a neutrino to oscillate from one flavor to the other is given by Ρ νa → νb = sin 2 2θ sin 2 (1.27 Δm 2 L/E ν ) where θ is the mixing angle, Δm 2 = |m νa 2 - m νb 2 | is measured in (eV/c 2 ) 2 , L, the distance from the source, is measured in km, and E, the beam energy, is measured in GeV. If either Δm 2 or sin 2 2Θ is zero, there is no oscillation. They might also have small, non-zero values, causing the oscillations to be so small as to be unobservable in a particular experiment. They may also have values which allow us to determine the probability of oscillation, but so far no compelling evidence for oscillation exists. The universal method of portraying what region of parameter space is explored by a neutrino oscillation experiment is to mark off an area on a Δm 2 vs. sin 2 2θ plot. Typically, a line is graphed, with the claim that if the experiment finds not evidence of oscillation, one can, for example, be 90% certain that Δm 2 and sin 2 2θ lie within the region below and to the left of the line. Since these plots are so widely used, it is useful to understand the process by which they are created

  19. Increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency of rice through multiple-split fertilizer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallos, R.V.; Rivera, F.G.; Samar, E.D.; Rojales, J.S.; Anida, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The low availability of nitrogen (N) is one of the most important limiting factors impeding the increase in rice yield among the various factors. Split N fertilizer applications can play an important role in nutrient management strategy that is productive, profitable and environmentally responsible. In this study, the recoveries and efficiencies of a multiple-split N fertilizer application of were determined using 15N labeled fertilizer, in order to provide science-based foundation for the nitrogen management in sustainable rice production. A lysimeter experiment with five treatments in four replications was set-up T0 (control). T1 (45 kg N ha“- “1), T2 (90 kg N ha“- “1), T3 (135 kg N ha“- “1) and T4 (180 kg N ha“- “1). 15N tracer analysis showed that, on average, only 30% of applied N is recovered by the crop following one time basal application. In contrast, higher fertilizer nitrogen use efficiencies (FNUE) (>50%) were observed following multiple-split N application. The result of FNUE also corroborates with the significant increase in rice grain yield. Many crops, however, have different nutrient requirements, therefore as in all fertilization strategies, it is highly recommended that source, rate, time and place of application should be considered in making split fertilization decisions. (author)

  20. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; Auf'm Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.