Rudin-Osher-Fatemi Total Variation Denoising using Split Bregman
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Pascal Getreuer
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Denoising is the problem of removing noise from an image. The most commonly studied case is with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, where the observed noisy image f is related to the underlying true image u by f=u+η and η is at each point in space independently and identically distributed as a zero-mean Gaussian random variable. Total variation (TV regularization is a technique that was originally developed for AWGN image denoising by Rudin, Osher, and Fatemi. The TV regularization technique has since been applied to a multitude of other imaging problems, see for example Chan and Shen's book. We focus here on the split Bregman algorithm of Goldstein and Osher for TV-regularized denoising.
Split-Bregman-based sparse-view CT reconstruction
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Vandeghinste, Bert; Vandenberghe, Stefaan [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP); Goossens, Bart; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Image Processing and Interpretation Research Group (IPI); Beenhouwer, Jan de [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP); Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). The Vision Lab; Staelens, Steven [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP); Antwerp Univ., Edegem (Belgium). Molecular Imaging Centre Antwerp
2011-07-01
Total variation minimization has been extensively researched for image denoising and sparse view reconstruction. These methods show superior denoising performance for simple images with little texture, but result in texture information loss when applied to more complex images. It could thus be beneficial to use other regularizers within medical imaging. We propose a general regularization method, based on a split-Bregman approach. We show results for this framework combined with a total variation denoising operator, in comparison to ASD-POCS. We show that sparse-view reconstruction and noise regularization is possible. This general method will allow us to investigate other regularizers in the context of regularized CT reconstruction, and decrease the acquisition times in {mu}CT. (orig.)
Total-variation based velocity inversion with Bregmanized operator splitting algorithm
Zand, Toktam; Gholami, Ali
2018-04-01
Many problems in applied geophysics can be formulated as a linear inverse problem. The associated problems, however, are large-scale and ill-conditioned. Therefore, regularization techniques are needed to be employed for solving them and generating a stable and acceptable solution. We consider numerical methods for solving such problems in this paper. In order to tackle the ill-conditioning of the problem we use blockiness as a prior information of the subsurface parameters and formulate the problem as a constrained total variation (TV) regularization. The Bregmanized operator splitting (BOS) algorithm as a combination of the Bregman iteration and the proximal forward backward operator splitting method is developed to solve the arranged problem. Two main advantages of this new algorithm are that no matrix inversion is required and that a discrepancy stopping criterion is used to stop the iterations, which allow efficient solution of large-scale problems. The high performance of the proposed TV regularization method is demonstrated using two different experiments: 1) velocity inversion from (synthetic) seismic data which is based on Born approximation, 2) computing interval velocities from RMS velocities via Dix formula. Numerical examples are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed method for high-resolution velocity inversion.
Combined First and Second Order Total Variation Inpainting using Split Bregman
Papafitsoros, Konstantinos
2013-07-12
In this article we discuss the implementation of the combined first and second order total variation inpainting that was introduced by Papafitsoros and Schdönlieb. We describe the algorithm we use (split Bregman) in detail, and we give some examples that indicate the difference between pure first and pure second order total variation inpainting.
Combined First and Second Order Total Variation Inpainting using Split Bregman
Papafitsoros, Konstantinos; Schoenlieb, Carola Bibiane; Sengul, Bati
2013-01-01
In this article we discuss the implementation of the combined first and second order total variation inpainting that was introduced by Papafitsoros and Schdönlieb. We describe the algorithm we use (split Bregman) in detail, and we give some examples that indicate the difference between pure first and pure second order total variation inpainting.
Bregmanized Domain Decomposition for Image Restoration
Langer, Andreas
2012-05-22
Computational problems of large-scale data are gaining attention recently due to better hardware and hence, higher dimensionality of images and data sets acquired in applications. In the last couple of years non-smooth minimization problems such as total variation minimization became increasingly important for the solution of these tasks. While being favorable due to the improved enhancement of images compared to smooth imaging approaches, non-smooth minimization problems typically scale badly with the dimension of the data. Hence, for large imaging problems solved by total variation minimization domain decomposition algorithms have been proposed, aiming to split one large problem into N > 1 smaller problems which can be solved on parallel CPUs. The N subproblems constitute constrained minimization problems, where the constraint enforces the support of the minimizer to be the respective subdomain. In this paper we discuss a fast computational algorithm to solve domain decomposition for total variation minimization. In particular, we accelerate the computation of the subproblems by nested Bregman iterations. We propose a Bregmanized Operator Splitting-Split Bregman (BOS-SB) algorithm, which enforces the restriction onto the respective subdomain by a Bregman iteration that is subsequently solved by a Split Bregman strategy. The computational performance of this new approach is discussed for its application to image inpainting and image deblurring. It turns out that the proposed new solution technique is up to three times faster than the iterative algorithm currently used in domain decomposition methods for total variation minimization. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.
"Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".
Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M
2014-12-01
For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong
2015-01-01
In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics
Universal portfolios generated by the Bregman divergence
Tan, Choon Peng; Kuang, Kee Seng
2017-04-01
The Bregman divergence of two probability vectors is a stronger form of the f-divergence introduced by Csiszar. Two versions of the Bregman universal portfolio are presented by exploiting the mean-value theorem. The explicit form of the Bregman universal portfolio generated by a function of a convex polynomial is derived and studied empirically. This portfolio can be regarded as another generalized of the well-known Helmbold portfolio. By running the portfolios on selected stock-price data sets from the local stock exchange, it is shown that it is possible to increase the wealth of the investor by using the portfolios in investment.
Bregman Cost for Non-Gaussian Noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burger, Martin; Dong, Yiqiu; Sciacchitano, Federica
estimator for the Bregman cost if the image is corrupted by Gaussian noise. In this work we extend this result to other noise models with log-concave likelihood density, by introducing two related Bregman cost functions for which the CM and the MAP estimates are proper Bayes estima-tors. Moreover, we also....... From a theoretical point of view it has been argued that the MAP estimate is only in an asymptotic sense a Bayes estimator for the uniform cost function, while the CM estimate is a Bayes estimator for the means squared cost function. Recently, it has been proven that the MAP estimate is a proper Bayes...
The Bregman Variational Dual-Tree Framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amizadeh, Saeed; Thiesson, Bo; Hauskrecht, Milos
2013-01-01
where the Euclidean distance quantifies the similarity. In this paper, we extend the VDT framework beyond the Euclidean distance to more general Bregman divergences that include the Euclidean distance as a special case. By exploiting the properties of the general Bregman divergence, we show how the new....... A significant effort to find more efficient solutions to the problem has been made in the literature. One of the state-of-the-art methods that has been recently introduced is the Variational Dual-Tree (VDT) framework. Despite some of its unique features, VDT is currently restricted only to Euclidean spaces...... framework can maintain all the pivotal features of the VDT framework and yet significantly improve its performance in non-Euclidean domains. We apply the proposed framework to different text categorization problems and demonstrate its benefits over the original VDT....
Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips
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Alessandro Moro
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.
Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips.
Moro, Alessandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Foresta, Enrico; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Falchi, Marco; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Paolo; Forcione, Mario; Garagiola, Umberto; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro
2017-01-01
The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.
MR fingerprinting using the quick echo splitting NMR imaging technique.
Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Jerecic, Renate; Duerk, Jeffrey; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A
2017-03-01
The purpose of the study is to develop a quantitative method for the relaxation properties with a reduced radio frequency (RF) power deposition by combining magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) technique with quick echo splitting NMR imaging technique (QUEST). A QUEST-based MRF sequence was implemented to acquire high-order echoes by increasing the gaps between RF pulses. Bloch simulations were used to calculate a dictionary containing the range of physically plausible signal evolutions using a range of T 1 and T 2 values based on the pulse sequence. MRF-QUEST was evaluated by comparing to the results of spin-echo methods. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of MRF-QUEST was compared with the clinically available methods. MRF-QUEST quantifies the relaxation properties with good accuracy at the estimated head SAR of 0.03 W/kg. T 1 and T 2 values estimated by MRF-QUEST are in good agreement with the traditional methods. The combination of the MRF and the QUEST provides an accurate quantification of T 1 and T 2 simultaneously with reduced RF power deposition. The resulting lower SAR may provide a new acquisition strategy for MRF when RF energy deposition is problematic. Magn Reson Med 77:979-988, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Total Bregman Divergence and its Applications to Shape Retrieval.
Liu, Meizhu; Vemuri, Baba C; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Nielsen, Frank
2010-01-01
Shape database search is ubiquitous in the world of biometric systems, CAD systems etc. Shape data in these domains is experiencing an explosive growth and usually requires search of whole shape databases to retrieve the best matches with accuracy and efficiency for a variety of tasks. In this paper, we present a novel divergence measure between any two given points in [Formula: see text] or two distribution functions. This divergence measures the orthogonal distance between the tangent to the convex function (used in the definition of the divergence) at one of its input arguments and its second argument. This is in contrast to the ordinate distance taken in the usual definition of the Bregman class of divergences [4]. We use this orthogonal distance to redefine the Bregman class of divergences and develop a new theory for estimating the center of a set of vectors as well as probability distribution functions. The new class of divergences are dubbed the total Bregman divergence (TBD). We present the l 1 -norm based TBD center that is dubbed the t-center which is then used as a cluster center of a class of shapes The t-center is weighted mean and this weight is small for noise and outliers. We present a shape retrieval scheme using TBD and the t-center for representing the classes of shapes from the MPEG-7 database and compare the results with other state-of-the-art methods in literature.
Generalized minimizers of convex integral functionals, Bregman distance, Pythagorean identities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Imre, C.; Matúš, František
2012-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 637-689 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0539; GA ČR GAP202/10/0618 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : maximum entropy * moment constraint * generalized primal/dual solutions * normal integrand * convex duality * Bregman projection * inference principles Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.619, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/matus-0381750.pdf
Tumescent Anethesia : A Useful Technique For Harvesting Split- Thickness Skin Graft
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Saraf Sanjay
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Tumescent anesthesia is a now an established technique for regional anesthesia of the skin and the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The unsurpassed simplicity and safely of this procedure have opened up the gates for newer indications. We have employed this technique for harvesting split-thickness grafts in various conditions. We have found that this technique is extremely simple in which large areas can be anesthetized for harvesting split-thickness skin grafts safely. The good passive resistance achieved facilitates easy harvesting of split-thickness grafts along with minimal bleeding and long lasting pain relief. We found this to be an inexpensive, safe and simple technique with elimination of risks and expenses of general anesthesia.
A Preconditioning Technique for First-Order Primal-Dual Splitting Method in Convex Optimization
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Meng Wen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a preconditioning technique for the first-order primal-dual splitting method. The primal-dual splitting method offers a very general framework for solving a large class of optimization problems arising in image processing. The key idea of the preconditioning technique is that the constant iterative parameters are updated self-adaptively in the iteration process. We also give a simple and easy way to choose the diagonal preconditioners while the convergence of the iterative algorithm is maintained. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated on an image denoising problem. Numerical results show that the preconditioned iterative algorithm performs better than the original one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alkhatib, Sari F.; Park, Chang Je; Jeong, Hae Yong; Lee, Yongdeok
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A simple formalism is suggested for the recursive approach and then it is used to produce buildup factors for certain multilayer shields. • The newly layer-splitting technique is implemented on the studied cases for testing the suggested formalism performance. • The buildup factors are generated using cubic polynomial fitting functions that are produced based on previous well-acknowledge data. - Abstract: This study illustrates the implementation of the newly suggested layer-splitting testing technique. This technique is introduced in order to be implemented in examining suggested formalisms for the recursive scheme (or iterative scheme). The recursive scheme is a concept used in treating and producing the gamma ray buildup factors in the case of multilayer shields. The layer-splitting technique simply enforces the scheme to treat a single layer of one material as two separated layers with similar characteristics. Thus it subjects the scheme to an abnormal definition of the multilayer shield that will test its performance in treating the successive layers. Thus, it will act as a method of verification for the approximations and assumptions taken in consideration. A simple formalism was suggested for the recursive scheme then the splitting technique was implemented on it. The results of implementing both the suggested formalism and the splitting technique are then illustrated and discussed. Throughout this study, cubic polynomial fitting functions were used to generate the data of buildup factors for the basic single-media that constitute the multilayer shields understudy. This study is limited to the cases of multiple shields consisting of repeated consecutive thin layers of lead–water and iron–water shields for 1 MeV gamma rays. The produced results of the buildup factor values through the implementation of the suggested formalism showed good consistency with the Monte Carlo simulation results of Lin and Jiang work. In the implementation of
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Jiajie Cen
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting is a promising technology for solar hydrogen production to build a sustainable, renewable and clean energy economy. Given the complexity of the PEC water splitting processes, it is important to note that developing in-situ techniques for studying PEC water splitting presents a formidable challenge. This review is aimed at highlighting advantages and disadvantages of each technique, while offering a pathway of potentially combining several techniques to address different aspects of interfacial processes in PEC water splitting. We reviewed recent progress in various techniques and approaches utilized to study PEC water splitting, focusing on spectroscopic and scanning-probe methods. Keywords: In-situ, Water splitting, IMPS, TAS, SPM
Nowak, Rafał; Trybek, Grzegorz
Choosing an appropriate fixation technique after maxillary or mandibular osteotomy is one of the key factors affecting the success of orthognathic surgery. In line with the development of new surgical methods and techniques, the surgeons’ approach to the fixation of bone fragments has evolved accordingly, varying from non-fusion to different osteosynthesis techniques. Advances in medical sciences and medical technologies, have changed our attitudes to bone fragment reduction in orthopaedics and traumatology, and also in maxillofacial surgery. The pivotal underlying principle which determines bone healing – that is proper positioning so as to ensure appropriate contact area and immobilisation so as to ensure osteosynthesis – has remained unchanged for centuries. However, over the years, patient comfort and the predictability of treatment outcomes have vastly improved. The paper provides an overview of the techniques and methods used for the fixation of osteotomized fragments after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy since its introduction by Hugo Obwegeser up to the present day.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huh, Hyung; Koo, Kil Mo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, G. J.
1995-01-01
Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters, and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several engineering materials. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the Sequency spectrum of the received signal by using Gaussian bandpass filters. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental-evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm. which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huh, H.; Koo, K. M.; Kim, G. J.
1996-01-01
Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several specimens. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed, and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the frequency spectrum of the received signal by using gaussian bandpass filter. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm, which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented
Deformed statistics Kullback–Leibler divergence minimization within a scaled Bregman framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkatesan, R.C.; Plastino, A.
2011-01-01
The generalized Kullback–Leibler divergence (K–Ld) in Tsallis statistics [constrained by the additive duality of generalized statistics (dual generalized K–Ld)] is here reconciled with the theory of Bregman divergences for expectations defined by normal averages, within a measure-theoretic framework. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the dual generalized K–Ld is a scaled Bregman divergence. The Pythagorean theorem is derived from the minimum discrimination information principle using the dual generalized K–Ld as the measure of uncertainty, with constraints defined by normal averages. The minimization of the dual generalized K–Ld, with normal averages constraints, is shown to exhibit distinctly unique features. -- Highlights: ► Dual generalized Kullback–Leibler divergence (K–Ld) proven to be scaled Bregman divergence in continuous measure-theoretic framework. ► Minimum dual generalized K–Ld condition established with normal averages constraints. ► Pythagorean theorem derived.
El-Amin, Mohamed F.; Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2017-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the problem of nonisothermal two-phase flow with nanoparticles transport in heterogenous porous media, numerically. For this purpose, we introduce a multiscale adapted time-splitting technique to simulate the problem
Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao
2016-01-01
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De la Incera, V.; Ferrer, E.; Shalad, A.Y.
1987-01-01
A homogeneous and isotropic plasma made up of electrons and positrons is examined. The coefficients of the covariant expansion of the three-photon vertex are calculated in the one-loop approximation of the Green's function technique, together with the probability amplitudes of various processes involving three photons that produce information on the probability of the polarization states of the incoming and outgoing photons in the splitting process. The calculation results are used to verify the consequences of all exact symmetries which must be done for the vertex tensor. The case of a charge-symmetric plasma is considered together with the special case of photon collinearity
The monocortical window (MCW): a modified split-crest technique adopting ligature osteosynthesis.
Contessi, Marcello
2013-01-01
Split-crest procedures performed with ultrasonic devices have proven to be a viable and effective surgical treatment when the alveolar ridge shows forms of resorption in thickness while its height remains virtually unchanged. However, in the case of stiff, type 1, corticalized mandibular bone, it may be very difficult or even impossible to have any elasticity and lateral augmentation in between the split bone walls. Furthermore, a complete detachment of the outer lamellae may also occur during expansion maneuvers or during implant insertion. This study describes the use of a steel-wire ligature osteosynthesis technique to give primary stability both to the expanded cortical window and to the implants themselves when they have none at all. This osteosynthesis is simple, quick, safe, and bone-saving in force delivery. It is also extremely cheap as well as being effective in obtaining ridge expansion, bone regeneration, and implant positioning in an all-in-one procedure. This article describes the foundations in the literature as well as new elements in the technique. Three short case studies are used by way of example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericsson, L.; Stepinski, T.
1992-01-01
Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of materials is often limited by the presence of backscattered echoes from the material structure. A digital signal processing technique for removal of this material noise, referred to as split spectrum processing (SSP), has been developed and verified using simple laboratory experiments during the last decade. However, application of the split spectrum processing algorithm to industrial conditions has been rarely reported. In the paper the results of the practical evaluation of the SSP technique are presented. A number of different ultrasonic transducers were used for acquiring echoes from artificial flaws as well as natural cracks. The flaws were located in test blocks employed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Companies as reference during ultrasonic inspection of nuclear reactor vessels. The acquired ultrasonic A-scan signals were processed off-line using specially developed algorithms on a personal computer (PC). The experiments show evidence that properly tuned SSP algorithms result in a considerable improvement of the signal to material noise ratio. The enhancements were similar irrespective of the features of the transducer used or the nature of the inspected flaw. The problems related to the development of self-tuning SSP algorithms for on-line processing of B-scans are discussed. (author)
Application of split field technique with 42 MeV betatron bremsstrahlung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spurny, V; Caha, A; Krystof, V; Ott, O [Vyzkumny Ustav Klinicke a Experimentalni Onkologie, Brno (Czechoslovakia)
1977-03-01
The split field technique of external irradiation in oncology is described. A 120x28x79 mm lead shielding block was manufactured for a bremsstrahlung radiation with 42 MeV maximum energy. The block was secured to a holder whose design corresponded to tube holders. The block shielding capacity was tested by phantom measurements at a focal depth of 130 mm and at a distance of the block from the phantom surface of 990 mm. For the 42 MeV bremsstrahlung the reduction was found to be 15% of the focal dose in the 20x20 cm/sup 2/ field in the focal depth at a distance of 1200 mm from the bremsstrahlung focus. Dose distribution was established by using two opposite fields in combination as well as by the courses of the maximum and the relative doses in variation with the female patient's antero-posterior diameter. The results show that the split field technique permits a short adjustment time, is simple and reproducible. As against cobalt application, the beam characteristics permit reducing the integral dose.
Mandible vertical height correction using lingual bone-split pedicle onlay graft technique
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Coen Pramono D
2006-09-01
Full Text Available As edentulous mandible become atrophic, a denture bearing area will also be reduced. Difficulty in the removable prosthesis rehabilitation will be present as well. The purpose of this paper reports an innovative surgical technique to cope a problem of unstable complete lower denture due to bone atrophy and resulted of vertical height reduction of the anterior region of the mandible necessary for denture retention. Vertical advancement of the lower jaw using lingual bone split pedicle onlay graft technique in the anterior region of the mandible and followed by secondary epithelization vestibuloplasty in achieving the vertical height dimension. The surgery was achieved satisfactorily as the vertical dimension of the mandible anterior region had increased and the denture seated more stable comparing with the previous denture worn by the patient. It concluded that the surgery was achieved with a great result as the vertical height of the anterior region of the mandible had increased positively therefore lead the denture seated more stable.
Piezosurgery for the lingual split technique in mandibular third molar removal: a suggestion.
Pippi, Roberto; Alvaro, Roberto
2013-03-01
The lingual split technique is a surgical procedure for extraction of impacted mandibular third molar throughout a lingual approach. The main disadvantage of this technique is the high rate of temporary lingual nerve injury mainly because of the trauma induced by the lingual flap retraction. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the use of piezosurgery in performing the lingual cortical plate osteotomy of the third molar alveolar process. Surgical procedure was performed under general anesthesia, and it lasted approximately 60 minutes. After the buccal and lingual full-thickness flaps were incised and elevated, a piezosurgical device was used for osteotomy. A well-defined bony window was then removed, and it allowed the entire tooth was extracted in a lingual direction. The patient did not show any neurological postoperative complication. Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve functionality was normal before as well as after surgery. The use of piezoelectric surgery seems to be a good option in removing lower third molars when a lingual access is clearly indicated. The only disadvantage of this technique can be represented by an operating time lengthening possibly because of a lower power cut of the piezoelectric device, to the high mineralization of the mandibular cortical bone and to the use of inserts with a low degree of sharpening.
Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.
2011-01-01
The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shutang Zhu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The coupling of groundwater movement and reactive transport during groundwater recharge with wastewater leads to a complicated mathematical model, involving terms to describe convection-dispersion, adsorption/desorption and/or biodegradation, and so forth. It has been found very difficult to solve such a coupled model either analytically or numerically. The present study adopts operator-splitting techniques to decompose the coupled model into two submodels with different intrinsic characteristics. By applying an upwind finite difference scheme to the finite volume integral of the convection flux term, an implicit solution procedure is derived to solve the convection-dominant equation. The dispersion term is discretized in a standard central-difference scheme while the dispersion-dominant equation is solved using either the preconditioned Jacobi conjugate gradient (PJCG method or Thomas method based on local-one-dimensional scheme. The solution method proposed in this study is applied to the demonstration project of groundwater recharge with secondary effluent at Gaobeidian sewage treatment plant (STP successfully.
Use of 99mTc-bicisate in activation studies by split-dose technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, S; Madsen, P L; Sperling, B
1994-01-01
The properties of the brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer 99mTc-bicisate (ethyl cysteinate dimer) were examined in regard to its use in test-retest studies with short-interval, split-dose studies. The stimulus applied in these tests was a visual activation by a "flicke......The properties of the brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer 99mTc-bicisate (ethyl cysteinate dimer) were examined in regard to its use in test-retest studies with short-interval, split-dose studies. The stimulus applied in these tests was a visual activation...
Split bolus technique in polytrauma: a prospective study on scan protocols for trauma analysis
Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Sierink, Joanne C.; Kolkman, Saskia; Nio, C. Yung; Saltzherr, Teun Peter; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Goslings, J. Carel
2015-01-01
For the evaluation of severely injured trauma patients a variety of total body computed tomography (CT) scanning protocols exist. Frequently multiple pass protocols are used. A split bolus contrast protocol can reduce the number of passes through the body, and thereby radiation exposure, in this
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macdonald, J.L.
1975-08-01
Statistical and deterministic pattern recognition systems are designed to classify the state space of a Monte Carlo transport problem into importance regions. The surfaces separating the regions can be used for particle splitting and Russian roulette in state space in order to reduce the variance of the Monte Carlo tally. Computer experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of the technique using one and two dimensional Monte Carlo problems. Additional experiments are performed to determine the sensitivity of the technique to various pattern recognition and Monte Carlo problem dependent parameters. A system for applying the technique to a general purpose Monte Carlo code is described. An estimate of the computer time required by the technique is made in order to determine its effectiveness as a variance reduction device. It is recommended that the technique be further investigated in a general purpose Monte Carlo code. (auth)
Generalized Bregman distances and convergence rates for non-convex regularization methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grasmair, Markus
2010-01-01
We generalize the notion of Bregman distance using concepts from abstract convexity in order to derive convergence rates for Tikhonov regularization with non-convex regularization terms. In particular, we study the non-convex regularization of linear operator equations on Hilbert spaces, showing that the conditions required for the application of the convergence rates results are strongly related to the standard range conditions from the convex case. Moreover, we consider the setting of sparse regularization, where we show that a rate of order δ 1/p holds, if the regularization term has a slightly faster growth at zero than |t| p
El-Amin, Mohamed F.
2017-05-05
This paper is devoted to study the problem of nonisothermal two-phase flow with nanoparticles transport in heterogenous porous media, numerically. For this purpose, we introduce a multiscale adapted time-splitting technique to simulate the problem under consideration. The mathematical model consists of equations of pressure, saturation, heat, nanoparticles concentration in the water–phase, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore–walls, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in the pore–throats. We propose a multiscale time splitting IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation–IMplicit Temperature Concentration (IMPES-IMTC) scheme to solve the system of governing equations. The time step-size adaptation is achieved by satisfying the stability Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL<1) condition. Moreover, numerical test of a highly heterogeneous porous medium is provided and the water saturation, the temperature, the nanoparticles concentration, the deposited nanoparticles concentration, and the permeability are presented in graphs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skokos, Ch., E-mail: haris.skokos@uct.ac.za [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Gerlach, E. [Lohrmann Observatory, Technical University Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bodyfelt, J.D., E-mail: J.Bodyfelt@massey.ac.nz [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Albany, Private Bag 102904, North Shore City, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Papamikos, G. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Eggl, S. [IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France)
2014-05-01
While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skokos, Ch.; Gerlach, E.; Bodyfelt, J.D.; Papamikos, G.; Eggl, S.
2014-01-01
While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.
2011-01-01
Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ±1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.
A Weighted Two-Level Bregman Method with Dictionary Updating for Nonconvex MR Image Reconstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiegen Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonconvex optimization has shown that it needs substantially fewer measurements than l1 minimization for exact recovery under fixed transform/overcomplete dictionary. In this work, two efficient numerical algorithms which are unified by the method named weighted two-level Bregman method with dictionary updating (WTBMDU are proposed for solving lp optimization under the dictionary learning model and subjecting the fidelity to the partial measurements. By incorporating the iteratively reweighted norm into the two-level Bregman iteration method with dictionary updating scheme (TBMDU, the modified alternating direction method (ADM solves the model of pursuing the approximated lp-norm penalty efficiently. Specifically, the algorithms converge after a relatively small number of iterations, under the formulation of iteratively reweighted l1 and l2 minimization. Experimental results on MR image simulations and real MR data, under a variety of sampling trajectories and acceleration factors, consistently demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently reconstruct MR images from highly undersampled k-space data and presents advantages over the current state-of-the-art reconstruction approaches, in terms of higher PSNR and lower HFEN values.
A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander
2006-01-01
In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models for two-phase Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) floods (oil displacement by gases, polymers, carbonized water, hot water, etc.). The main result presented here is the splitting of the EOR mathematical model into thermodynamical and hydrodynamical parts...... formation water for chemical flooding can be calculated from the reduced auxiliary system. Reduction of the number of equations allows the generation of new analytical models for EOR. The analytical model for displacement of oil by a polymer slug with water drive is presented....
Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao
2016-03-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar.
Guermond, Jean-Luc; Minev, Peter D.
2010-01-01
A new direction-splitting-based fractional time stepping is introduced for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main originality of the method is that the pressure correction is computed by solving a sequence of one-dimensional elliptic problems in each spatial direction. The method is very simple to program in parallel, very fast, and has exactly the same stability and convergence properties as the Poisson-based pressure-correction technique, either in standard or rotational form. © 2010 Académie des sciences.
2012-01-01
the new: a novel approach to treating pain associated with rib fractures . World J Surg 2010;34:2359–62. 3. Wheatley GH III, Rosenbaum DH, Paul MC, et...has been described after laparotomy, tho- racotomy, inguinal hernia repair, and rib fractures .2–4 We describe our experience at the U.S. Army Insti...JAN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A novel technique for split-thickness skin donor site pain control
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2010-05-01
A new direction-splitting-based fractional time stepping is introduced for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main originality of the method is that the pressure correction is computed by solving a sequence of one-dimensional elliptic problems in each spatial direction. The method is very simple to program in parallel, very fast, and has exactly the same stability and convergence properties as the Poisson-based pressure-correction technique, either in standard or rotational form. © 2010 Académie des sciences.
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Robert Bertram Miller
Full Text Available Microbially induced corrosion (MIC is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly, ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms.
AlHassan, Sultan; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Khandekar, Rajiv; AlShaikh, Osama; Schellini, Silvana Artioli
2018-05-08
The aim of thhis study was to present the outcomes of postauricular split-medium thickness skin graft (SMTSG) to treat anophthalmic sockets with contracted fornices. This case series enrolled patients with grade 2 or 3 anophthalmic sockets between 2015 and 2016. Data were collected on patient demographics, objective and subjective parameters preoperatively and 180 days postoperatively. Success of the surgery was graded on the height of the graft, the depth of the superior and inferior fornices, and presence/abscence of lagophthalmos, entropion, and ability to retain an external prosthesis. Eighteen patients were enrolled with a mean age of 35.9 ± 18 years. The median height of the graft was 22 mm (25% quartile = 18.75) when removed and 20 mm (25% quartile = 16) postoperatively. The median depth of the superior fornix was 6.5 mm (25% quartile = 4.5 mm) preoperatively and 10 mm (25% quartile = 8 mm) postoperatively (P = 0.5). The median inferior fornix depth was 7 mm (25% quartile = 3.5 mm) preoperatively and 8 mm (25% quartile = 5 mm) (P = 0.27) postoperatively. Preoperatively, there were 13 (72.2%) patients with lagophthalmos, 10 (44.4%) with entropion, 3 (37.5%) with poor prosthesis retention, and 5 (62.5%) who were unable to retain the prosthesis. Postoperatively, 7 (38.9%) patients had lagophthamos, 1 (5.6%) had entropion, and all the patients could retain the prosthesis. None of the sockets had a foul odor postoperatively. Postauricular SMTSG achieves successful outcomes for the treatment of contracted anophthalmic sockets, reshaping the anterior socket surface and deepening the fornices.
Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar: an experimental technique for high strain rate tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, S.; Chavan, V.M.; Agrawal, R.G.; Patel, R.J.; Kapoor, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.
2011-06-01
Mechanical properties of materials are, in general, strain rate dependent, i.e. they respond differently at quasi-static and higher strain rate condition. The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also referred to as Kolsky bar is a commonly used setup for high strain rate testing. SHPB is suitable for high strain rate test in strain rate range of 10 2 to 10 4 s -1 . These high strain rate data are required for safety and structural integrity assessment of structures subjected to dynamic loading. As high strain rate data are not easily available in open literature need was felt for setting up such high strain rate testing machine. SHPB at BARC was designed and set-up inhouse jointly by Refuelling Technology Division and Mechanical Metallurgy Division, at Hall no. 3, BARC. A number of conceptual designs for SHPB were thought of and the optimized design was worked out. The challenges of precision tolerance, straightness in bars and design and proper functioning of pneumatic gun were met. This setup has been used extensively to study the high strain rate material behavior. This report introduces the SHPB in general and the setup at BARC in particular. The history of development of SHPB, the basic formulations of one dimensional wave propagation, the relations between the wave velocity, particle velocity and elastic strain in a one dimensional bar, and the equations used to obtain the final stress vs. strain curves are described. The calibration of the present setup, the pre-test calculations and the posttest analysis of data are described. Finally some of the experimental results on different materials such as Cu, SS305, SA516 and Zr, at room temperature and elevated temperatures are presented. (author)
Duan, Jizhong; Liu, Yu; Jing, Peiguang
2018-02-01
Self-consistent parallel imaging (SPIRiT) is an auto-calibrating model for the reconstruction of parallel magnetic resonance imaging, which can be formulated as a regularized SPIRiT problem. The Projection Over Convex Sets (POCS) method was used to solve the formulated regularized SPIRiT problem. However, the quality of the reconstructed image still needs to be improved. Though methods such as NonLinear Conjugate Gradients (NLCG) can achieve higher spatial resolution, these methods always demand very complex computation and converge slowly. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to solve the formulated Cartesian SPIRiT problem with the JTV and JL1 regularization terms. The proposed algorithm uses the operator splitting (OS) technique to decompose the problem into a gradient problem and a denoising problem with two regularization terms, which is solved by our proposed split Bregman based denoising algorithm, and adopts the Barzilai and Borwein method to update step size. Simulation experiments on two in vivo data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is 1.3 times faster than ADMM for datasets with 8 channels. Especially, our proposal is 2 times faster than ADMM for the dataset with 32 channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Management of First Branchial Cleft Anomalies via a Cartilage-Splitting Technique.
Schmidt, Richard; Conrad, David; Field, Erin; O'Reilly, Robert
2015-06-01
First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon lesions that often present as periauricular infections. They have high recurrence rates, due in part to scarring secondary to prior infections and their management. These lesions have a close relationship with the facial nerve, and most authors recommend its identification and dissection because of this relationship. Nonetheless, facial nerve palsy has been reported in up to 15% of cases. We describe a novel technique for the management of first branchial cleft anomalies. Such lesions that presented in an infra- or postauricular location were approached via an incision through the cartilage of the pinna, between the tragus and antitragus. This technique affords direct access to the lesion without the need for facial nerve dissection. Six patients were treated. Five had prior surgery, including 3 with previous attempts at excision. There were no complications. The median follow-up was 35 months. One patient developed a recurrence. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Illmensee
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Longoni
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Aim This article presents a retrospective study on the behavior of implants placed with split crest technique in lateroposterior maxillary class IV atrophy. Materials and Methods Subjects who underwent implant placement following split crest technique in the maxillary latero-posterior area were enrolled in the present retrospective study. After a mean period of 6.2 years of function implant survival and success rates were assessed. Moreover, radiographic examination was made on digital periapical radiographs and by means of a specific software. Bone level changes were measured as the difference between the peri-implants crestal bone level and the implants shoulder during the last patient’s visit recall examination. Results A total of 30 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in the study; the subjects were treated with 88 implants (64 transmucosal and 24 submerged. The observation period for all patients treated with split crest technique varied between 4 and 8 years (mean 6.2 years. The implants survival rate was 96.6% and the prostheses survival rate was 100%. Bone resorption ranged between 2.3 mm and 2.7 mm. Conclusion Implants inserted in conjunction with split crest technique seems to be a promising therapy with similar results as conventional implant surgery.
Joint reconstruction via coupled Bregman iterations with applications to PET-MR imaging
Rasch, Julian; Brinkmann, Eva-Maria; Burger, Martin
2018-01-01
Joint reconstruction has recently attracted a lot of attention, especially in the field of medical multi-modality imaging such as PET-MRI. Most of the developed methods rely on the comparison of image gradients, or more precisely their location, direction and magnitude, to make use of structural similarities between the images. A challenge and still an open issue for most of the methods is to handle images in entirely different scales, i.e. different magnitudes of gradients that cannot be dealt with by a global scaling of the data. We propose the use of generalized Bregman distances and infimal convolutions thereof with regard to the well-known total variation functional. The use of a total variation subgradient respectively the involved vector field rather than an image gradient naturally excludes the magnitudes of gradients, which in particular solves the scaling behavior. Additionally, the presented method features a weighting that allows to control the amount of interaction between channels. We give insights into the general behavior of the method, before we further tailor it to a particular application, namely PET-MRI joint reconstruction. To do so, we compute joint reconstruction results from blurry Poisson data for PET and undersampled Fourier data from MRI and show that we can gain a mutual benefit for both modalities. In particular, the results are superior to the respective separate reconstructions and other joint reconstruction methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catchpoole, D.W.; Blair, G.J.
1990-01-01
The glasshouse study reported, employed a split-root technique, whereby trees of leucaena and gliricidia were grown in boxes with 15 N fed to one half of the root system and the transfer of N to the other half of the box was measured by sampling tree and planted grass. Detection of 15 N in the grass tops and roots from the unlabelled half of the box was used to indicate N transfer from the tree roots to the grass. Transfer of labelled N to the grass amounted to 4.1% in the first 6 week period when 15 N was being injected in the tree root zone. A harvest of the tree and grass was made at 6 weeks and both allowed to regrow for a further 6 weeks with no further addition of 15 N. Over the entire 12 week experimental period 7.6% of the labelled N from the tree was transferred to the grass. The low proportion of N transferred from tree legume to the grass in this experiment, where herbage was cut and removed, is similar to the findings in the earlier field experiment and indicates that, in such a system, little direct beneficial effect of N fixation would be expected in an understorey grass or food crop. 24 refs., 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, J; Szczykutowicz, T; Bayouth, J; Miller, J
2016-01-01
Purpose: To compare the ability of two dual-energy CT techniques, a novel split-filter single-source technique of superior temporal resolution against an established sequential-scan technique, to remove iodine contrast from images with minimal impact on CT number accuracy. Methods: A phantom containing 8 tissue substitute materials and vials of varying iodine concentrations (1.7–20.1 mg I /mL) was imaged using a Siemens Edge CT scanner. Dual-energy virtual non-contrast (VNC) images were generated using the novel split-filter technique, in which a 120kVp spectrum is filtered by tin and gold to create high- and low-energy spectra with < 1 second temporal separation between the acquisition of low- and high-energy data. Additionally, VNC images were generated with the sequential-scan technique (80 and 140kVp) for comparison. CT number accuracy was evaluated for all materials at 15, 25, and 35mGy CTDIvol. Results: The spectral separation was greater for the sequential-scan technique than the split-filter technique with dual-energy ratios of 2.18 and 1.26, respectively. Both techniques successfully removed iodine contrast, resulting in mean CT numbers within 60HU of 0HU (split-filter) and 40HU of 0HU (sequential-scan) for all iodine concentrations. Additionally, for iodine vials of varying diameter (2–20 mm) with the same concentration (9.9 mg I /mL), the system accurately detected iodine for all sizes investigated. Both dual-energy techniques resulted in reduced CT numbers for bone materials (by >400HU for the densest bone). Increasing the imaging dose did not improve the CT number accuracy for bone in VNC images. Conclusion: VNC images from the split-filter technique successfully removed iodine contrast. These results demonstrate a potential for improving dose calculation accuracy and reducing patient imaging dose, while achieving superior temporal resolution in comparison sequential scans. For both techniques, inaccuracies in CT numbers for bone materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, J; Szczykutowicz, T; Bayouth, J; Miller, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To compare the ability of two dual-energy CT techniques, a novel split-filter single-source technique of superior temporal resolution against an established sequential-scan technique, to remove iodine contrast from images with minimal impact on CT number accuracy. Methods: A phantom containing 8 tissue substitute materials and vials of varying iodine concentrations (1.7–20.1 mg I /mL) was imaged using a Siemens Edge CT scanner. Dual-energy virtual non-contrast (VNC) images were generated using the novel split-filter technique, in which a 120kVp spectrum is filtered by tin and gold to create high- and low-energy spectra with < 1 second temporal separation between the acquisition of low- and high-energy data. Additionally, VNC images were generated with the sequential-scan technique (80 and 140kVp) for comparison. CT number accuracy was evaluated for all materials at 15, 25, and 35mGy CTDIvol. Results: The spectral separation was greater for the sequential-scan technique than the split-filter technique with dual-energy ratios of 2.18 and 1.26, respectively. Both techniques successfully removed iodine contrast, resulting in mean CT numbers within 60HU of 0HU (split-filter) and 40HU of 0HU (sequential-scan) for all iodine concentrations. Additionally, for iodine vials of varying diameter (2–20 mm) with the same concentration (9.9 mg I /mL), the system accurately detected iodine for all sizes investigated. Both dual-energy techniques resulted in reduced CT numbers for bone materials (by >400HU for the densest bone). Increasing the imaging dose did not improve the CT number accuracy for bone in VNC images. Conclusion: VNC images from the split-filter technique successfully removed iodine contrast. These results demonstrate a potential for improving dose calculation accuracy and reducing patient imaging dose, while achieving superior temporal resolution in comparison sequential scans. For both techniques, inaccuracies in CT numbers for bone materials
Amato, Francesco; Mirabella, A Davide; Borlizzi, Diego
2012-08-01
This article presents a clinical case of bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible with severe horizontal and moderate vertical bone atrophy. A new technique using rapid orthodontics after ridge splitting is presented. The split-crest technique was carried out using piezosurgical instruments in the first molar and second premolar areas to widen the bone crest and open a channel for tooth movement. Immediately after, orthodontic appliances were used to move the first premolars distally and the second molars mesially into the surgical site. The rationale was to facilitate and accelerate orthodontic movement of the teeth, which is otherwise difficult in a cortical knife-edged ridge. The bone defect was filled with the alveolar bone of the adjacent teeth that were moved into the surgically opened path. Adequate bone volume for implant placement was generated in the first premolar area. Implants were then inserted, and the patient was rehabilitated.
Pachhai, S.; Masters, G.; Laske, G.
2017-12-01
Earth's normal-mode spectra are crucial to studying the long wavelength structure of the Earth. Such observations have been used extensively to estimate "splitting coefficients" which, in turn, can be used to determine the three-dimensional velocity and density structure. Most past studies apply a non-linear iterative inversion to estimate the splitting coefficients which requires that the earthquake source is known. However, it is challenging to know the source details, particularly for big events as used in normal-mode analyses. Additionally, the final solution of the non-linear inversion can depend on the choice of damping parameter and starting model. To circumvent the need to know the source, a two-step linear inversion has been developed and successfully applied to many mantle and core sensitive modes. The first step takes combinations of the data from a single event to produce spectra known as "receiver strips". The autoregressive nature of the receiver strips can then be used to estimate the structure coefficients without the need to know the source. Based on this approach, we recently employed a neighborhood algorithm to measure the splitting coefficients for an isolated inner-core sensitive mode (13S2). This approach explores the parameter space efficiently without any need of regularization and finds the structure coefficients which best fit the observed strips. Here, we implement a Bayesian approach to data collected for earthquakes from early 2000 and more recent. This approach combines the data (through likelihood) and prior information to provide rigorous parameter values and their uncertainties for both isolated and coupled modes. The likelihood function is derived from the inferred errors of the receiver strips which allows us to retrieve proper uncertainties. Finally, we apply model selection criteria that balance the trade-offs between fit (likelihood) and model complexity to investigate the degree and type of structure (elastic and anelastic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panowicz Robert
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A method of tensile testing of materials in dynamic conditions based on a slightly modified compressive split Hopkinson bar system using a shoulder is described in this paper. The main goal was to solve, with the use of numerical modelling, the problem of wave disturbance resulting from application of a shoulder, as well as the problem of selecting a specimen geometry that enables to study the phenomenon of high strain-rate failure in tension. It is shown that, in order to prevent any interference of disturbance with the required strain signals at a given recording moment, the positions of the strain gages on the bars have to be correctly chosen for a given experimental setup. Besides, it is demonstrated that - on the basis of simplified numerical analysis - an appropriate gage length and diameter of a material specimen for failure testing in tension can be estimated.
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Leonardi Alessandro
2010-01-01
Full Text Available One of the challenging topics and design constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is the reduction of energy consumption because, in most application scenarios, replacement of power resources in sensor devices might be unfeasible. In order to minimize the power consumption, some nodes can be put to sleep during idle times and wake up only when needed. Although it seems the best way to limit the consumption of energy, other performance parameters such as network reliability have to be considered. In a recent paper, we introduced a new forwarding algorithm for WSNs based on a simple splitting procedure able to increase the network lifetime. The forwarding technique is based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem and exhibits very good results in terms of energy efficiency and complexity. In this paper, we intend to investigate a trade-off between energy efficiency and reliability of the proposed forwarding scheme when duty-cycling techniques are considered too.
Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per
2016-01-01
To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1-7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8-11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. There was a significant difference (Pdesigns, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS(®) (1,806±165 N) and e.max(®) ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM(®) 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass-ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use both anteriorly and posteriorly. Analysis of the fracture pattern shows
Wu, Cheng-Chun; Chew, Khong-Yik; Chen, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Yur-Ren
2015-01-01
Immobilization and adequate surface contact to wounds are critical for skin graft take. Techniques such as the tie-over dressing, cotton bolster, and vacuum-assisted closure are used to address this, but each has its limitations. This study is designed to assess the effect of antimicrobial-impregnated dressing (AMD) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on skin graft survival. Retrospective case-control study : Patients with chronic or contaminated wounds treated with split-thickness skin graft. A broad spectrum of wounds was included, from causes such as trauma, burns, chronic diabetic ulcers, and infection. Antimicrobial-impregnated dressing, which contains 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide, with NPWT MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:: Success of skin graft : In the AMD group, all skin grafts achieved 100% take without secondary intervention. No infection or graft failure was observed in any patients, and no complications, such as hematoma or seroma formation, were noted, although in the control group partial loss of skin grafts was noted in 3 patients. Infection and inadequate immobilization were thought to be the main reasons. There were no hematoma or seroma formations in the control group. Use of an AMD dressing with NPWT after split-thickness skin grafting can be an effective method to ensure good graft to wound contact and enhances skin graft take in chronic and contaminated wounds.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schilhab, Theresa
2007-01-01
Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sriram Prasath, S.; Prabagaran, C.; Sanyal, B.; Sarkar, B.
2008-01-01
The importance of treatment planning of head and neck malignancies arises from the necessity to achieve homogenous doses to localized target volume surrounded by normal structures, which can produce acute and long-term morbidity. In many radiotherapy departments, a commonly employed strategy is a 3-field technique. Bilateral parallel-opposed fields are matched to anterior lower neck field. When the target extends to the lower neck regions, abutment of upper and lower neck fields is required. Field matching represents a technical challenge for the Medical Physicist and Radiation Oncologist to treat multiple fields while avoiding their overlap on the spinal cord. The aim of this work is to review merits, limitations and recent approaches to optimize matchline dose in Monoisocentric technique in conventional treatment for head and neck cancers. Although the technique has many advantages, it is subjected to some systematic and random errors due to equipment and patient setup accuracies. To decrease the magnitude of matchline inhomogeneities, multi leaf collimator have been used. This method is viable and represents alternative approaches to the problem of field matching using the asymmetric jaws
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmood DJH
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Deyar Jallal Hadi Mahmood, Ewa H Linderoth, Ann Wennerberg, Per Vult Von Steyern Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden Aim: To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP fixed dental prostheses (FDPs with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. Materials and methods: A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.05 between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. Conclusion: The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed
Chai, Xintao; Tang, Genyang; Peng, Ronghua; Liu, Shaoyong
2018-03-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) reconstructs the subsurface properties from acquired seismic data via minimization of the misfit between observed and simulated data. However, FWI suffers from considerable computational costs resulting from the numerical solution of the wave equation for each source at each iteration. To reduce the computational burden, constructing supershots by combining several sources (aka source encoding) allows mitigation of the number of simulations at each iteration, but it gives rise to crosstalk artifacts because of interference between the individual sources of the supershot. A modified Gauss-Newton FWI (MGNFWI) approach showed that as long as the difference between the initial and true models permits a sparse representation, the ℓ _1-norm constrained model updates suppress subsampling-related artifacts. However, the spectral-projected gradient ℓ _1 (SPGℓ _1) algorithm employed by MGNFWI is rather complicated that makes its implementation difficult. To facilitate realistic applications, we adapt a linearized Bregman (LB) method to sparsity-promoting FWI (SPFWI) because of the efficiency and simplicity of LB in the framework of ℓ _1-norm constrained optimization problem and compressive sensing. Numerical experiments performed with the BP Salt model, the Marmousi model and the BG Compass model verify the following points. The FWI result with LB solving ℓ _1-norm sparsity-promoting problem for the model update outperforms that generated by solving ℓ _2-norm problem in terms of crosstalk elimination and high-fidelity results. The simpler LB method performs comparably and even superiorly to the complicated SPGℓ _1 method in terms of computational efficiency and model quality, making the LB method a viable alternative for realistic implementations of SPFWI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wiyada Kumam
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new multi-step iteration for approximating a common fixed point of a finite class of multi-valued Bregman relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of reflexive Banach spaces. We prove a strong convergence theorem for the proposed iterative algorithm under certain hypotheses. Additionally, we also use our results for the solution of variational inequality problems and to find the zero points of maximal monotone operators. The theorems furnished in this work are new and well-established and generalize many well-known recent research works in this field.
Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Kochhar, Atul M; Mahajan, Khushbu Goel; Garg, Vijay K
2015-01-01
Tattoo removal has evolved over the years and though Q-switched laser is the 'workhorse' laser, it invariably requires multiple sittings, which are dependent on numerous factors, including the skin colour, location of the tattoo, age of the tattoo, colour of pigment used, associated fibrosis and the kind of tattoo treated. Though ablative lasers, both pulsed CO2 and Er:YAG, have been used for recalcitrant tattoos, very few studies have been done comparing them with pigment-specific lasers. Our study was based on the premise that ablating the epidermis overlying the tattoo pigment with Er:YAG could help in gaining better access to the pigment which would enable the Q-switched laser to work effectively with less beam scattering. A study of rapid tattoo removal (RTR) technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol. This prospective study was undertaken during 2010-13 at a laser Clinic in the Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. A total of 10 patients were recruited, 5 of amateur tattoo and 5 of professional tattoo. After informed consent each tattoo was arbitrarily 'split' into two parts. One part was treated with QS Nd:YAG laser(1064 nm) and the other part with Er:YAG laser immediately followed by the QS Nd:YAG. The laser treatments were repeated at 6-week intervals until the tattoo pigment had cleared. On the combination side in subsequent sittings only the QS Nd:YAG was used, to minimize repetitive ablation. To ensure consistency in the intervention methods a trained dermatologist who was independent of the treatment delivery randomly rated 10% of the procedures. The mean improvement achieved by the Q-switched laser (2.93) was less than the combination laser (3.85) side (p = 0.001) and needed more sessions (3.8 vs. 1.6; p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the improvement on the combination side till the second session. On the combination side patients required a maximum of 2 sessions
A split-target technique in determining the dE/dX of 1.0-5.0 MeV tritium in A1, Ni and Au
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labor, M.I.W.
1986-06-01
The energy loss of 1.0 to 5.0 MeV tritium in aluminium, nickel and gold have been measured by a split-target technique. The data have been analysed by integrating an analytical expression for the variation of dE/dX with energy. The results are compared with semi-empirical calculations and with previously determined values. (author)
Coded Splitting Tree Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar
2013-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...
Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)
2014-09-26
Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.
Mantovani, Edoardo; Arduino, Paolo Giacomo; Schierano, Gianmario; Ferrero, Luca; Gallesio, Giorgia; Mozzati, Marco; Russo, Andrea; Scully, Crispian; Carossa, Stefano
2014-10-01
The surgical removal of mandibular third molars is frequently accompanied by significant postsurgical sequelae, and different protocols have been described to decrease such adverse events. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of piezosurgery compared with traditional rotating instruments during mandibular third molar removal. A single-center, randomized, split-mouth study was performed using a consecutive series of unrelated healthy patients attending the Oral Surgery Unit of the University of Turin for surgical removal of bilateral mandibular third molar teeth. Each patient was treated, at the same appointment, using bur removal on 1 side of the mandible and a piezoelectric device on the contralateral side. The primary outcomes reported were postoperative pain, objective orofacial swelling, and surgical duration; secondary outcomes were gender, age, and possible adverse events. Analysis of variance or paired t test was used as appropriate to test any significant differences at baseline according to each treatment subgroup, and categorical variables were analyzed by χ(2) test. The study sample consisted of 100 otherwise healthy patients. The mean pain evaluation reported by patients who underwent surgery with piezosurgery was significantly lower than that reported after bur (conventional) removal, reaching statistical difference after 4 days (P = .043). The clinical value of orofacial swelling at day 7, normalized to baseline, was lower in the piezosurgery group (P piezosurgery group (P piezosurgery for lower third molar tooth removal. This study also compared surgeons with different degrees of experience. It is evident that using a piezoelectric device can enhance the patient experience and decrease postoperative pain and swelling. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Market Structure and Stock Splits
David Michayluk; Paul Kofman
2001-01-01
Enhanced liquidity is one possible motivation for stock splits but empirical research frequently documents declines in liquidity following stock splits. Despite almost thirty years of inquiry, little is known about all the changes in a stock's trading activity following a stock split. We examine how liquidity measures change around more than 2,500 stock splits and find a pervasive decline in most measures. Large stock splits exhibit a more severe liquidity decline than small stock splits, esp...
Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2007-60333. References. [1] Calderón A J, On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 118(2008) 351–356. [2] Calderón A J, On split Lie triple systems, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci (Math. Sci.) 119(2009). 165–177.
Stochastic split determinant algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvatha, Ivan
2000-01-01
I propose a large class of stochastic Markov processes associated with probability distributions analogous to that of lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions. The construction incorporates the idea of approximate spectral split of the determinant through local loop action, and the idea of treating the infrared part of the split through explicit diagonalizations. I suggest that exact algorithms of practical relevance might be based on Markov processes so constructed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabaja, Bouthaina; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Rosen, Isaac; Tung, Sam; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S.
2005-01-01
Background: Oropharynx cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT) are often treated with a monoisocentric or half-beam technique (HB). IMRT is delivered to the primary tumor and upper neck alone, while the lower neck is treated with a matching anterior beam. Because IMRT can treat the entire volume or whole field (WF), the primary aim of the study was to test the ability to plan cases using WF-IMRT while obtaining an optimal plan and acceptable dose distribution and also respecting normal critical structures. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage oropharynx cancers had treatment plans created with HB-IMRT and WF-IMRT techniques. Plans were deemed acceptable if they met the planning guidelines (as defined or with minor violations) of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol H0022. Comparisons included coverage to the planning target volume (PTV) of the primary (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54). We also compared the ability of both techniques to respect the tolerance of critical structures. Results: The volume of PTV66 treated to >110% was less in 9 of the 13 patients in the WF-IMRT plan as compared to the HB-IMRT plan. The calculated mean volume receiving >110% for all patients planned with WF-IMRT was 9.3% (0.8%-25%) compared to 13.7% (2.7%-23.7%) with HB-IMRT (p = 0.09). The PTV54 volume receiving >110% of dose was less in 10 of the 13 patients planned with WF-IMRT compared to HB-IMRT. The mean doses to all critical structures except the larynx were comparable with each plan. The mean dose to the larynx was significantly less (p = 0.001), 18.7 Gy, with HB-IMRT compared to 47 Gy with WF-IMRT. Conclusions: Regarding target volumes, acceptable plans can be generated with either WF-IMRT or HB-IMRT. WF-IMRT has an advantage if uncertainty at the match line is a concern, whereas HB-IMRT, particularly in cases not involving the base of tongue, can achieve much lower doses to the larynx
Wang, Tongyue; Han, Jeong Joon; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kook, Min-Suk
2016-07-01
This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with bad splits during sagittal split ramus osteotomy by using three-dimensional computed tomography. This study included 8 bad splits and 47 normal patients without bad splits. Mandibular anatomic parameters related to osteotomy line were measured. These included anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, distance between external oblique ridge and lingula, distance between sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible, mandibular angle, distance between inferior outer surface of mandibular canal and inferior border of mandible under distal root of second molar (MCEM), buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, and buccolingual thickness of the area just distal to first molar (BTM1) and second molar (BTM2). The incidence of bad splits in 625 sagittal split osteotomies was 1.28%. Compared with normal group, bad split group exhibited significantly thinner BTM2 and shorter sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible (P bad splits. These anatomic data may help surgeons to choose the safest surgical techniques and best osteotomy sites.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-04-15
Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safari, Mahmoud
2016-01-01
Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)
Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson
2011-01-01
Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…
Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.
2012-01-01
Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…
Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers
Mclyman, C. W. T.
1982-01-01
Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.
Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.
Steenen, S A; Becking, A G
2016-07-01
An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation
Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert
2008-01-01
Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.
Split warhead simultaneous impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahul Singh Dhari
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A projectile system is proposed to improve efficiency and effectiveness of damage done by anti-tank weapon system on its target by designing a ballistic projectile that can split into multiple warheads and engage a target at the same time. This idea has been developed in interest of saving time consumed from the process of reloading and additional number of rounds wasted on target during an attack. The proposed system is achieved in three steps: Firstly, a mathematical model is prepared using the basic equations of motion. Second, An Ejection Mechanism of proposed warhead is explained with the help of schematics. Third, a part of numerical simulation which is done using the MATLAB software. The final result shows various ranges and times when split can be effectively achieved. With the new system, impact points are increased and hence it has a better probability of hitting a target.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varga, Kalman; Genovese, Marco; Richard, Jean-Marc; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard
1998-01-01
We discuss the isospin-breaking mass differences among baryons, with particular attention in the charm sector to the Σ c + -Σ c 0 , Σ c ++ -Σ c 0 , and Ξ c + -Ξ c 0 splittings. Simple potential models cannot accommodate the trend of the available data on charm baryons. More precise measurements would offer the possibility of testing how well potential models describe the non-perturbative limit of QCD
Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.
Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou
2013-05-01
A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benakli, Karim; Darmé, Luc; Goodsell, Mark D. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)
2015-11-16
We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale M{sub S}, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on M{sub S}, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses aboveM{sub S} barely constrains the model — in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry — and hence we can have a “Mega Split” spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, Fake Split Extended Supersymmetry, which enjoys similar properties.
High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.
1985-01-01
Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction
Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G
2016-08-01
An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; Pbad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P
2013-09-01
An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geometrical splitting in Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.; Dudziak, D.J.
1982-01-01
A statistical model is presented by which a direct statistical approach yielded an analytic expression for the second moment, the variance ratio, and the benefit function in a model of an n surface-splitting Monte Carlo game. In addition to the insight into the dependence of the second moment on the splitting parameters the main importance of the expressions developed lies in their potential to become a basis for in-code optimization of splitting through a general algorithm. Refs
Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.
Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Renal Transplantation Department, Paris (France); Pavlov, Patrik [Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Eladari, Dominique [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 970, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Urology Department, Paris (France); Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 1151, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Houillier, Pascal [Paris Descartes University, INSERM, Unit umrs1138, and CNRS Unit erl8228, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France)
2017-02-15
Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)
Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe; Pavlov, Patrik; Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre; Eladari, Dominique; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud; Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie; Houillier, Pascal
2017-01-01
Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m"2/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m"2/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m"2/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)
Split-illumination electron holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Inada, Yoshikatsu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Taniyama, Akira [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tonomura, Akira [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)
2012-07-23
We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.
Split-illumination electron holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira
2012-01-01
We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.
2004-01-01
Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.
2004-01-01
Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes
Woeginger, G.J.
1998-01-01
In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).
CERN PhotoLab
1975-01-01
The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.
van Rossum, Anne C.; Lin, Hai Xiang; Dubbeldam, Johan; van der Herik, H. Jaap
2018-04-01
In machine vision typical heuristic methods to extract parameterized objects out of raw data points are the Hough transform and RANSAC. Bayesian models carry the promise to optimally extract such parameterized objects given a correct definition of the model and the type of noise at hand. A category of solvers for Bayesian models are Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Naive implementations of MCMC methods suffer from slow convergence in machine vision due to the complexity of the parameter space. Towards this blocked Gibbs and split-merge samplers have been developed that assign multiple data points to clusters at once. In this paper we introduce a new split-merge sampler, the triadic split-merge sampler, that perform steps between two and three randomly chosen clusters. This has two advantages. First, it reduces the asymmetry between the split and merge steps. Second, it is able to propose a new cluster that is composed out of data points from two different clusters. Both advantages speed up convergence which we demonstrate on a line extraction problem. We show that the triadic split-merge sampler outperforms the conventional split-merge sampler. Although this new MCMC sampler is demonstrated in this machine vision context, its application extend to the very general domain of statistical inference.
A second order splitting algorithm for thermally-driven flow problems
Minev, P.D.; Vosse, van de F.N.; Timmermans, L.J.P.; Steenhoven, van A.A.
1995-01-01
A splitting technique for solutions of the Navier—Stokes and the energy equations, in Boussinesq approximately, is presented. The equations are first integrated in time using a splitting procedure and then discretized spatially by means of a high-order spectral element method. The whole technique is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung
2014-01-01
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles
Point-splitting regularization of composite operators and anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novotny, J.; Schnabl, M.
2000-01-01
The point-splitting regularization technique for composite operators is discussed in connection with anomaly calculation. We present a pedagogical and self-contained review of the topic with an emphasis on the technical details. We also develop simple algebraic tools to handle the path ordered exponential insertions used within the covariant and non-covariant version of the point-splitting method. The method is then applied to the calculation of the chiral, vector, trace, translation and Lorentz anomalies within diverse versions of the point-splitting regularization and a connection between the results is described. As an alternative to the standard approach we use the idea of deformed point-split transformation and corresponding Ward-Takahashi identities rather than an application of the equation of motion, which seems to reduce the complexity of the calculations. (orig.)
Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines.
Hellstrand, P H
1989-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.
Splitting: The Development of a Measure.
Gerson, Mary-Joan
1984-01-01
Described the development of a scale that measures splitting as a psychological structure. The construct validity of the splitting scale is suggested by the positive relationship between splitting scores and a diagnostic measure of the narcissistic personality disorder, as well as a negative relationship between splitting scores and levels of…
Gill, S S; Pease, R A; Ashwin, C J; Gill, S S; Tait, N P
2012-09-01
Respiratory foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common global health problem requiring prompt recognition and early treatment to prevent potentially fatal complications. The majority of FBAs are due to organic objects and treatment is usually via either endoscopic or surgical extraction. FBA of a straight hairpin has been described as a unique entity in the literature, occurring most commonly in females, particularly during adolescence. In the process of inserting hairpins, the pins will typically be between the teeth with the head tilted backwards, while tying their hair with both hands. This position increases the risk of aspiration, particularly if there is any sudden coughing or laughing. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a 35-mm straight metallic hairpin foreign body that has been successfully retrieved by a radiological snare system under fluoroscopic guidance. This was achieved with the use of a split endotracheal tube, and therefore avoided the need for a thoracotomy in an adolescent female patient.
Somogyi, O; Meskó, A; Csorba, L; Szabó, P; Zelkó, R
2017-08-30
The division of tablets and adequate methods of splitting them are a complex problem in all sectors of health care. Although tablet-splitting is often required, this procedure can be difficult for patients. Four tablets were investigated with different external features (shape, score-line, film-coat and size). The influencing effect of these features and the splitting methods was investigated according to the precision and "weight loss" of splitting techniques. All four types of tablets were halved by four methods: by hand, with a kitchen knife, with an original manufactured splitting device and with a modified tablet splitter based on a self-developed mechanical model. The mechanical parameters (harness and friability) of the products were measured during the study. The "weight loss" and precision of splitting methods were determined and compared by statistical analysis. On the basis of the results, the external features (geometry), the mechanical parameters of tablets and the mechanical structure of splitting devices can influence the "weight loss" and precision of tablet-splitting. Accordingly, a new decision-making scheme was developed for the selection of splitting methods. In addition, the skills of patients and the specialties of therapy should be considered so that pharmaceutical counselling can be more effective regarding tablet-splitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demidov, S.V.; Gorbunov, D.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutsky per. 9, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Kirpichnikov, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)
2016-11-24
In light of the Higgs boson discovery and other results of the LHC we reconsider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector (non-minimal split SUSY). We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within a phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for the electric dipole moments of electron and neutron and collider signatures of light charginos and neutralinos.
Split ring containment attachment device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sammel, A.G.
1996-01-01
A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs
Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vicedo, Benoit
2011-05-15
We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)
Mass splitting induced by gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maia, M.D.
1982-08-01
The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)
Split supersymmetry in brane models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split ... quantum picture of the Universe. It was then ... where the integers m, n correspond to the respective magnetic and electric charges; m is the ...
VBSCan Split 2017 Workshop Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anders, Christoph Falk; et al.
2018-01-12
This document summarises the talks and discussions happened during the VBSCan Split17 workshop, the first general meeting of the VBSCan COST Action network. This collaboration is aiming at a consistent and coordinated study of vector-boson scattering from the phenomenological and experimental point of view, for the best exploitation of the data that will be delivered by existing and future particle colliders.
Stability of split Stirling refrigerators
Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.
2009-01-01
In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the
Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Bansal, Shivani; Goel, Khushbu
2013-12-01
Laser tattoo removal conventionally uses Q-switched (QS) lasers, but they require multiple sittings, and the end results depend largely on the type of tattoo treated. In pigmented skin, due to the competing epidermal pigment results, laser results in tattoo are slow and inadequate. To evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of ultrapulse CO2 and QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser in the treatment of tattoos in Indian skin. A split-lesion trial was carried out in five patients, with the left side of tattoos receiving the QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and the right side, a sequential combination of Up CO2 and QS Nd: YAG at 6 weeks interval with a maximum of six sittings. Outcome assessment was carried out by a blinded assessor using standardized photography. An assessment of physician improvement score, side-effects score, and patient satisfaction score was taken during and at the end of the study. There was a statistically significant improvement on the combination side(physician improvement score -3.7 vs. 1.87: P = 0.0019) which occurred earlier with fewer sittings (1.7 vs. 6). There was no statistically significant difference in the side effects. A combination of an Up CO2 laser with QS Nd: YAG laser is a promising tool for rapid and effective removal of blue-black/blue amateur tattoo in pigmented skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zafer Özdemir
2000-06-01
Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.
On Optimal Data Split for Generalization Estimation and Model Selection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jan; Goutte, Cyril
1999-01-01
The paper is concerned with studying the very different behavior of the two data splits using hold-out cross-validation, K-fold cross-validation and randomized permutation cross-validation. First we describe the theoretical basics of various cross-validation techniques with the purpose of reliably...
Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merab Gogberashvili
2015-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.
2-Photon tandem device for water splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard
2014-01-01
Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....
A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization
Yuan, Ganzhao
2016-12-07
Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.
A Matrix Splitting Method for Composite Function Minimization
Yuan, Ganzhao; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Ghanem, Bernard
2016-01-01
Composite function minimization captures a wide spectrum of applications in both computer vision and machine learning. It includes bound constrained optimization and cardinality regularized optimization as special cases. This paper proposes and analyzes a new Matrix Splitting Method (MSM) for minimizing composite functions. It can be viewed as a generalization of the classical Gauss-Seidel method and the Successive Over-Relaxation method for solving linear systems in the literature. Incorporating a new Gaussian elimination procedure, the matrix splitting method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For convex problems, we establish the global convergence, convergence rate, and iteration complexity of MSM, while for non-convex problems, we prove its global convergence. Finally, we validate the performance of our matrix splitting method on two particular applications: nonnegative matrix factorization and cardinality regularized sparse coding. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms existing composite function minimization techniques in term of both efficiency and efficacy.
Optimal field splitting for large intensity-modulated fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Ranka, Sanjay; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder
2004-01-01
The multileaf travel range limitations on some linear accelerators require the splitting of a large intensity-modulated field into two or more adjacent abutting intensity-modulated subfields. The abutting subfields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. This workaround not only increases the treatment delivery time but it also increases the total monitor units (MU) delivered to the patient for a given prescribed dose. It is imperative that the cumulative intensity map of the subfields is exactly the same as the intensity map of the large field generated by the dose optimization algorithm, while satisfying hardware constraints of the delivery system. In this work, we describe field splitting algorithms that split a large intensity-modulated field into two or more intensity-modulated subfields with and without feathering, with optimal MU efficiency while satisfying the hardware constraints. Compared to a field splitting technique (without feathering) used in a commercial planning system, our field splitting algorithm (without feathering) shows a decrease in total MU of up to 26% on clinical cases and up to 63% on synthetic cases
Noncommutative instantons via dressing and splitting approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, Zalan; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Wolf, Martin
2002-01-01
Almost all known instanton solutions in noncommutative Yang-Mills theory have been obtained in the modified ADHM scheme. In this paper we employ two alternative methods for the construction of the self-dual U(2) BPST instanton on a noncommutative euclidean four-dimensional space with self-dual noncommutativity tensor. Firstly, we use the method of dressing transformations, an iterative procedure for generating solutions from a given seed solution, and thereby generalize Belavin's and Zakharov's work to the noncommutative setup. Secondly, we relate the dressing approach with Ward's splitting method based on the twistor construction and rederive the solution in this context. It seems feasible to produce nonsingular noncommutative multi-instantons with these techniques. (author)
Innovative wedge axe in making split firewood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutikainen, A.
1998-01-01
Interteam Oy, a company located in Espoo, has developed a new method for making split firewood. The tools on which the patented System Logmatic are based are wedge axe and cylindrical splitting-carrying frame. The equipment costs about 495 FIM. The block of wood to be split is placed inside the upright carrying frame and split in a series of splitting actions using the innovative wedge axe. The finished split firewood remains in the carrying frame, which (as its name indicates) also serves as the means for carrying the firewood. This innovative wedge-axe method was compared with the conventional splitting of wood using an axe (Fiskars -handy 1400 splitting axe costing about 200 FIM) in a study conducted at TTS-Institute. There were eight test subjects involved in the study. In the case of the wedge-axe method, handling of the blocks to be split and of the finished firewood was a little quicker, but in actual splitting it was a little slower than the conventional axe method. The average productivity of splitting the wood and of the work stages related to it was about 0.4 m 3 per effective hour in both methods. The methods were also equivalent of one another in terms of the load imposed by the work when measured in terms of the heart rate. As regards work safety, the wedge-axe method was superior to the conventional method, but the continuous striking action and jolting transmitted to the arms were unpleasant (orig.)
A typology of split conjunction
Palancar , Enrique L.
2012-01-01
International audience; In this paper, I study instances of noun phrase conjunction where the conjoined noun phrase is subject and the referents of the conjuncts are human, of the type ‘John and Mary are having lunch’. More specifically, I study different, possible splits that occur in such structures, which involve the disruption of the phrasal continuity of the conjuncts, resulting in structures roughly equivalent to ‘they are having lunch with Mary’ and ‘John are having lunch with Mary’. I...
Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes
Vabishchevich, Petr N
2013-01-01
Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy
Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations
Geiser, Juergen
2011-01-01
Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential
Photoelectrochemical water splitting standards, experimental methods, and protocols
Chen, Zhebo; Miller, Eric
2014-01-01
This book outlines many of the techniques involved in materials development and characterization for photoelectrochemical (PEC) - for example, proper metrics for describing material performance, how to assemble testing cells and prepare materials for assessment of their properties, and how to perform the experimental measurements needed to achieve reliable results towards better scientific understanding. For each technique, proper procedure, benefits, limitations, and data interpretation are discussed. Consolidating this information in a short, accessible, and easy to read reference guide will allow researchers to more rapidly immerse themselves into PEC research and also better compare their results against those of other researchers to better advance materials development. This book serves as a "how-to" guide for researchers engaged in or interested in engaging in the field of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. PEC water splitting is a rapidly growing field of research in which the goal is to deve...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2010-01-01
The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.
Photon-splitting cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.
1980-01-01
The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-03-15
We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ−b{sub μ} problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.
Salt splitting with ceramic membranes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurath, D.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures
Splitting tests on rock specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, J D; Stagg, K G
1970-01-01
Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.
Split supersymmetry in unified models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro
2005-01-01
In the context of split supersymmetry, the gaugino mass spectrum seems to be very important to satisfy the dark matter content of the universe and the gauge coupling unification. In this Letter, we have considered various sources of gaugino masses in the context of unified models. We show that the gaugino mass spectrum varies in different unification pictures. In the context of SU(5), we have found that the bino/wino mass ratio can be close to one at the weak scale which is helpful to satisfy the WMAP data. The gluino/wino mass ratio is also different from the usual scenario of unified gaugino masses. The gaugino masses can be around one TeV and m SUSY is chosen so that the gluino mass does not create any cosmological problem. In the context of the Pati-Salam model, we show that the gluino mass can be made very heavy even after maintaining the unification of the gauge couplings
Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Yafei
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Salt splitting using ceramic membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1997-10-01
Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.
Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation
Qamar, Adnan; Warnez, Matthew; Valassis, Doug T.; Guetzko, Megan E.; Bull, Joseph L.
2017-01-01
Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.
Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation
Qamar, Adnan
2017-06-28
Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.
Small-bubble transport and splitting dynamics in a symmetric bifurcation.
Qamar, Adnan; Warnez, Matthew; Valassis, Doug T; Guetzko, Megan E; Bull, Joseph L
2017-08-01
Simulations of small bubbles traveling through symmetric bifurcations are conducted to garner information pertinent to gas embolotherapy, a potential cancer treatment. Gas embolotherapy procedures use intra-arterial bubbles to occlude tumor blood supply. As bubbles pass through bifurcations in the blood stream nonhomogeneous splitting and undesirable bioeffects may occur. To aid development of gas embolotherapy techniques, a volume of fluid method is used to model the splitting process of gas bubbles passing through artery and arteriole bifurcations. The model reproduces the variety of splitting behaviors observed experimentally, including the bubble reversal phenomenon. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Small bubbles, having initial length less than twice the vessel diameter, were found unlikely to split in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease exponentially with increasing Reynolds number. Vortex-induced shearing near the bifurcation is identified as a possible mechanism for endothelial cell damage.
SplitDist—Calculating Split-Distances for Sets of Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, T
2004-01-01
We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other.......We present a tool for comparing a set of input trees, calculating for each pair of trees the split-distances, i.e., the number of splits in one tree not present in the other....
Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gogberashvili M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.
Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split
Wiltermuth, Scott S.
2011-01-01
Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…
Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times
Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.
2015-01-01
We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or
Split scheduling with uniform setup times.
F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen
2015-01-01
htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a
Bregmanized Domain Decomposition for Image Restoration
Langer, Andreas; Osher, Stanley; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane
2012-01-01
Computational problems of large-scale data are gaining attention recently due to better hardware and hence, higher dimensionality of images and data sets acquired in applications. In the last couple of years non-smooth minimization problems
Bregman storage functions for microgrid control
De Persis, Claudio; Monshizadeh, Nima
In this paper, we contribute a theoretical framework that sheds a new light on the problem of microgrid analysis and control. The starting point is an energy function comprising the “kinetic” energy associated with the elements that emulate the rotating machinery and terms taking into account the
Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting
Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari
2017-10-01
The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.
A split operator method for transient problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belytschko, T.B.
1983-01-01
Numerous techniques have been developed for improving the computational efficiency of transient analysis: mesh partitioning, subcycling procedures and operator splitting methods. In mesh partitioning methods, the model is divided into subdomains which are integrated by different time integrators, typically implicit and explicit. Any stiff portions of the model are integrated by the implicit operator so that the size of the time step can be increased. In subcycling procedures, the stiff portions are integrated by smaller time steps, yielding similar benefits. However, in models for which the governing partial differential equations are basically of a parabolic character, explicit methods can become quite expensive for refined models because the size of the stable time step decreases with the square of the minimum element dimension. Thus explicit methods, whether employed alone or with partitioning or subcycling, have inherent limitations in these problems. A new procedure is here described for the element-by-element semi-implicit method of Hughes and coworkers which requires the solution of only small systems of equations. This procedure is described for a family of uniform gradient or strain elements which are widely used in nonlinear transient analysis. The diffusion equation and the equations of motion for both shells and continua have been treated, but only the former is considered herein. Results are presented for several examples which show the potential of this method for improving the efficiency of a large-scale linear and nonlinear computations. (orig./RW)
Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins
Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Cabantous, Stephanie [Los Alamos, NM
2009-09-08
The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vecsey, G.
1992-08-01
The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs
Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule
Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N.
2016-09-01
Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2.
Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2016-09-07
Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν{sub 2} bending mode starting with 4ν{sub 2}.
Tensor products of higher almost split sequences
Pasquali, Andrea
2015-01-01
We investigate how the higher almost split sequences over a tensor product of algebras are related to those over each factor. Herschend and Iyama gave a precise criterion for when the tensor product of an $n$-representation finite algebra and an $m$-representation finite algebra is $(n+m)$-representation finite. In this case we give a complete description of the higher almost split sequences over the tensor product by expressing every higher almost split sequence as the mapping cone of a suit...
Semi-strong split domination in graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwar Alwardi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.
Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum
Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department
2017-01-01
Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.
Splitting Strip Detector Clusters in Dense Environments
Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Tracking in high density environments, particularly in high energy jets, plays an important role in many physics analyses at the LHC. In such environments, there is significant degradation of track reconstruction performance. Between runs 1 and 2, ATLAS implemented an algorithm that splits pixel clusters originating from multiple charged particles, using charge information, resulting in the recovery of much of the lost efficiency. However, no attempt was made in prior work to split merged clusters in the Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), which does not measure charge information. In spite of the lack of charge information in SCT, a cluster-splitting algorithm has been developed in this work. It is based primarily on the difference between the observed cluster width and the expected cluster width, which is derived from track incidence angle. The performance of this algorithm is found to be competitive with the existing pixel cluster splitting based on track information.
Baryons electromagnetic mass splittings in potential models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genovese, M.; Richard, J.-M.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.
1998-01-01
We study electromagnetic mass splittings of charmed baryons. We point out discrepancies among theoretical predictions in non-relativistic potential models; none of these predictions seems supported by experimental data. A new calculation is presented
Split School of High Energy Physics 2015
2015-01-01
Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John
2016-01-01
at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....
Splitting automorphisms of free Burnside groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atabekyan, Varuzhan S
2013-01-01
It is proved that, if the order of a splitting automorphism of odd period n≥1003 of a free Burnside group B(m,n) is a prime, then the automorphism is inner. This implies, for every prime n≥1009, an affirmative answer to the question on the coincidence of the splitting automorphisms of period n of the group B(m,n) with the inner automorphisms (this question was posed in the 'Kourovka Notebook' in 1990). Bibliography: 17 titles.
Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
2018-02-01
Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).
Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window
Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya
2013-01-01
Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...
Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang
2015-01-01
A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)
An algorithm for the split-feasibility problems with application to the split-equality problem.
Chuang, Chih-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ming
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study the split-feasibility problem in Hilbert spaces by using the projected reflected gradient algorithm. As applications, we study the convex linear inverse problem and the split-equality problem in Hilbert spaces, and we give new algorithms for these problems. Finally, numerical results are given for our main results.
Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting
Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jun; Vouga, Etienne; Wonka, Peter
2013-01-01
We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.
Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting
Yang, Yongliang
2013-11-06
We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.
Symmetric splitting of very light systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.
1985-01-01
Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV
Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering
Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock
2017-11-01
We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.
Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiong You
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.
On geometrical splitting in nonanalog Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lux, I.
1985-01-01
A very general geometrical procedure is considered, and it is shown how the free flights, the statistical weights and the contribution of particles participating in splitting are to be chosen in order to reach unbiased estimates in games where the transition kernels are nonanalog. Equations governing the second moment of the score and the number of flights to be stimulated are derived. It is shown that the post-splitting weights of the fragments are to be chosen equal to reach maximum gain in variance. Conditions are derived under which the expected number of flights remains finite. Simplified example illustrate the optimization of the procedure (author)
Reversible perspective and splitting in time.
Hart, Helen Schoenhals
2012-01-01
The element of time--the experience of it and the defensive use of it--is explored in conjunction with the use of reversible perspective as a psychotic defense. Clinical material from a long analysis illustrates how a psychotic patient used the reversible perspective, with its static splitting, to abolish the experience of time. When he improved and the reversible perspective became less effective for him, he replaced it with a more dynamic splitting mechanism using time gaps. With further improvement, the patient began to experience the passage of time, and along with it the excruciating pain of separation, envy, and loss.
The new management policy: Indonesian PSC-Gross split applied on CO2 flooding project
Irham, S.; Sibuea, S. N.; Danu, A.
2018-01-01
“SIAD” oil field will be developed by CO2 flooding. CO2, a famous pollutant gas, is injected into the oil reservoir to optimize the oil recovery. This technique should be conducted economically according to the energy management policy in Indonesia. In general, Indonesia has two policy contracts on oil and gas: the old one is PSC-Cost-Recovery, and the new one is PSC-Gross-Split (introduced in 2017 as the new energy management plan). The contractor must choose between PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split which makes more profit. The aim of this paper is to show the best oil and gas contract policy for the contractor. The methods are calculating and comparing the economic indicators. The result of this study are (1) NPV for the PSC-Cost-Recovery is -46 MUS, while for the PSC-Gross-Split is 73 MUS, and (2) IRR for the PSC-Cost-Recovery is 9%, whereas for the PSC-Gross-Split is 11%. The conclusion is that the NPV and IRR for PSC-Gross-Split are greater than the NPV and IRR of PSC-Cost-Recovery, but POT in PSC-Gross-split is longer than POT in PSC-Cost-Recovery. Thus, in this case, the new energy policy contract can be applied for CO2 flooding technology since it yields higher economic indicators than its antecendent.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick
2014-01-01
We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting...... in conjunction with specialisation for propagating constraints it can frequently solve challenging verification problems. This is a contribution in itself, but refinement is needed when it fails, and the question of how to refine convex polyhedral analyses has not been studied much. We present a refinement...... technique based on interpolants derived from a counterexample trace; these are used to drive a property-based specialisation that splits predicates, leading in turn to more precise convex polyhedral analyses. The process of specialisation, analysis and splitting can be repeated, in a manner similar...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hagenaar, H. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)
2012-06-20
Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.
The split delivery capacitated team orienteering problem
Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.; Hertz, A.
2014-01-01
In this article, we study the capacitated team orienteering problem where split deliveries are allowed. A set of potential customers is given, each associated with a demand and a profit. The set of customers to be served by a fleet of capacitated vehicles has to be identified in such a way that the
Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators
Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.
2008-01-01
The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temp. at the cold end is an input
Suarez, Ronny
2014-01-01
In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.
Czech, Slovak science ten years after split
2003-01-01
Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).
Forced splitting of fractions in CE
Zalewski, D.R.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.
2008-01-01
In order to increase the electrophoretic separation between fractions of analytes on a microfluidic chip, without the need for a longer separation channel, we propose and demonstrate a preparative electrokinetic procedure by which overlapping or closely spaced fractions are automatically split. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petar Šimunović
1991-12-01
Full Text Available The name of the Split feast Sudamja!Sudajma ("festa sancti Domnii" has not yet been adequately explained. The author believes that the name originated from the Old Dalmatian adjective san(ctu + Domnĭu. In the adjective santu the cluster /an/ in front of·a consonant gave in Croatian the back nasal /q/ pronounced until the end of the 10th century and giving /u/ after that. In this way the forms *Sudumja and similar originated. The short stressed /u/ in the closed syllable was percieved by the Croatian folk as their semivowel which later gave /a/ = Sudamja. The author connects this feature with that in the toponimes Makar ( /jm/ is well known in Croatian dialectology (sumja > sujma, and it resembles the metatheses which occurs in the Split toponimes: Sukošjân > Sukojšãn ( < *santu Cassianu, Pojišân/Pojšiin (< *pasianu < Pansianu. The author finds the same feature in the toponime Dumjača (: *Dumi- + -ača. He considers these features as Croatian popular adaptations which have not occured in the personal name Dujam, the toponime Dujmovača "terrae s. Domnii" and in the adjective sandujamski, because of the link with the saint's name Domnio!Duymo etc., which has been well liked and is frequent as name of Split Romas as well as Croats from the foundation of Split, has never been broken.
Hyperfine splitting in ordinary and muonic hydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)
2018-01-15
We provide an accurate evaluation of the two-photon exchange correction to the hyperfine splitting of S energy levels in muonic hydrogen exploiting the corresponding measurements in electronic hydrogen. The proton structure uncertainty in the calculation of α{sup 5} contribution is sizably reduced. (orig.)
Source splitting via the point source method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potthast, Roland; Fazi, Filippo M; Nelson, Philip A
2010-01-01
We introduce a new algorithm for source identification and field splitting based on the point source method (Potthast 1998 A point-source method for inverse acoustic and electromagnetic obstacle scattering problems IMA J. Appl. Math. 61 119–40, Potthast R 1996 A fast new method to solve inverse scattering problems Inverse Problems 12 731–42). The task is to separate the sound fields u j , j = 1, ..., n of n element of N sound sources supported in different bounded domains G 1 , ..., G n in R 3 from measurements of the field on some microphone array—mathematically speaking from the knowledge of the sum of the fields u = u 1 + ... + u n on some open subset Λ of a plane. The main idea of the scheme is to calculate filter functions g 1 ,…, g n , n element of N, to construct u l for l = 1, ..., n from u| Λ in the form u l (x) = ∫ Λ g l,x (y)u(y)ds(y), l=1,... n. (1) We will provide the complete mathematical theory for the field splitting via the point source method. In particular, we describe uniqueness, solvability of the problem and convergence and stability of the algorithm. In the second part we describe the practical realization of the splitting for real data measurements carried out at the Institute for Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton, UK. A practical demonstration of the original recording and the splitting results for real data is available online
Split heat pipe heat recovery system
E. Azad
2008-01-01
This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.
Split brain : Divided perception but undivided consciousness
Pinto, Y.; Neville, D.A.; Otten, M.; Corballis, P.M.; Lamme, V.A.F.; de Haan, E.H.F.; Foschi, N.; Fabri, M.
In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a
Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.
Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara
2017-05-01
In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...
Adaptive multilevel splitting for Monte Carlo particle transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louvin Henri
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport, and especially for shielding applications, variance reduction techniques are widely used to help simulate realisations of rare events and reduce the relative errors on the estimated scores for a given computation time. Adaptive Multilevel Splitting (AMS is one of these variance reduction techniques that has recently appeared in the literature. In the present paper, we propose an alternative version of the AMS algorithm, adapted for the first time to the field of particle transport. Within this context, it can be used to build an unbiased estimator of any quantity associated with particle tracks, such as flux, reaction rates or even non-Boltzmann tallies like pulse-height tallies and other spectra. Furthermore, the efficiency of the AMS algorithm is shown not to be very sensitive to variations of its input parameters, which makes it capable of significant variance reduction without requiring extended user effort.
Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.
Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko
2017-03-01
Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahgal, Arjun; Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun
2008-01-01
Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required
The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split Perception.
Pinto, Yair; de Haan, Edward H F; Lamme, Victor A F
2017-11-01
The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the 'conscious unity, split perception' model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits
Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.
2010-01-01
The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…
van Strijen, P. J.; Breuning, K. H.; Becking, A. G.; Perdijk, F. B. T.; Tuinzing, D. B.
2003-01-01
Distraction osteogenesis in 'common' surgical orthodontics is mentioned as an alternative for conventional sagittal split osteotomy. After a 'learning curve' in the surgical skills of distraction, the two techniques can be compared concerning time and cost aspects. Forty-seven patients (male n=28,
Image splitting and remapping method for radiological image compression
Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Shen, Ellen L.; Mun, Seong K.
1990-07-01
A new decomposition method using image splitting and gray-level remapping has been proposed for image compression, particularly for images with high contrast resolution. The effects of this method are especially evident in our radiological image compression study. In our experiments, we tested the impact of this decomposition method on image compression by employing it with two coding techniques on a set of clinically used CT images and several laser film digitized chest radiographs. One of the compression techniques used was full-frame bit-allocation in the discrete cosine transform domain, which has been proven to be an effective technique for radiological image compression. The other compression technique used was vector quantization with pruned tree-structured encoding, which through recent research has also been found to produce a low mean-square-error and a high compression ratio. The parameters we used in this study were mean-square-error and the bit rate required for the compressed file. In addition to these parameters, the difference between the original and reconstructed images will be presented so that the specific artifacts generated by both techniques can be discerned by visual perception.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Gilardoni
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Recently, a novel technique to perform multiturn extraction from a circular particle accelerator was proposed. It is based on beam splitting and trapping, induced by a slow crossing of a nonlinear resonance, inside stable islands of transverse phase space. Experiments at the CERN Proton Synchrotron started in 2002 and evidence of beam splitting was obtained by summer 2004. In this paper, the measurement results achieved with both a low- and a high-intensity, single-bunch proton beam are presented.
Implementing quantum information splitting using a five-partite cluster state in cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Liu; Song Qingmin; Li Aixia
2010-01-01
We propose an explicit scheme for splitting up quantum information into parts using five-atom cluster states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is found that the quantum information splitting of an arbitrary two-atomic state can be realized by using the five-atom cluster state. During the process, the cavity fields are excited only virtually. The scheme is insensitive to cavity decay. Therefore, the scheme can be experimentally realized using a range of current cavity QED techniques. The schemes considered here are also secure against certain eavesdropping attacks.
Visible-light driven nitrogen-doped petal-morphological ceria nanosheets for water splitting
Qian, Junchao; Zhang, Wenya; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Zhigang; Chen, Feng; Liu, Chengbao; Lu, Xiaowang; Li, Ping; Wang, Kaiyuan; Chen, Ailian
2018-06-01
Water splitting is a promising sustainable technology for solar-to-chemical energy conversion. Herein, we successfully fabricated nitrogen-doped ultrathin CeO2 nanosheets by using field poppy petals as templates, which exhibit an efficiently catalytic activity for water splitting. Abundant oxygen vacancies and substitutional N atoms were experimentally observed in the film due to its unique biomorphic texture. In view of high efficiency and long durability of the as-prepared photocatalyst, this biotemplate method may provide an alternative technique for using biomolecules to assemble 2D nanomaterials.
A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhangsong Yao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.
Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption
Park, Sun-Young
2015-01-01
In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.
Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems
Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold
Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting
Garcia Esparza, Angel T.
2016-01-01
Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor
CONTROVERSIES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE VAT SPLIT PAYMENT MECHANISM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PALIU – POPA LUCIA
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Taking into account the urgent need to attract additional amounts to the state budget to cover the increased budget expenditures involved in the implementation of the government program, by the end of August 2017, the Government of Romania adopted an ordinance obliging the entities to apply, starting on January 1st 2018, the VAT split payment mechanism, system which no longer allows them to use the value added tax cashed affently to the delivery of goods and provision of services, which is why these amounts are to be cashed in separate accounts opened by entities in the state treasury or credit institutions. Only that, later, through the draft of Law on the approval of that ordinance, the Senate made changes to the legislative act, so that the VAT split payment would only apply to companies in insolvency or that register delays in payment of the tax. Although this measure aims at combating the tax evasion and fraud by increasing the voluntary compliance and tax collection degree, the measure can prove to be unfounded, which violates the legislative technique and, in particular, the Community provisions by being inappropriate. In this context, the main objective of this scientific approach is to identify the special situations that arise at the level of entities as a result of the application of the breakdown mechanism of value added tax and to determine the possible advantages and disadvantages.
Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting
Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David
2017-06-01
Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.
Modelling shear wave splitting observations from Wellington, New Zealand
Marson-Pidgeon, Katrina; Savage, Martha K.
2004-05-01
Frequency-dependent anisotropy was previously observed at the permanent broad-band station SNZO, South Karori, Wellington, New Zealand. This has important implications for the interpretation of measurements in other subduction zones and hence for our understanding of mantle flow. This motivated us to make further splitting measurements using events recorded since the previous study and to develop a new modelling technique. Thus, in this study we have made 67 high-quality shear wave splitting measurements using events recorded at the SNZO station spanning a 10-yr period. This station is the only one operating in New Zealand for longer than 2 yr. Using a combination of teleseismic SKS and S phases and regional ScS phases provides good azimuthal coverage, allowing us to undertake detailed modelling. The splitting measurements indicate that in addition to the frequency dependence observed previously at this station, there are also variations with propagation and initial polarization directions. The fast polarization directions range between 2° and 103°, and the delay times range between 0.75 s and 3.05 s. These ranges are much larger than observed previously at SNZO or elsewhere in New Zealand. Because of the observed frequency dependence we measure the dominant frequency of the phase used to make the splitting measurement, and take this into account in the modelling. We fit the fast polarization directions fairly well with a two-layer anisotropic model with horizontal axes of symmetry. However, such a model does not fit the delay times or explain the frequency dependence. We have developed a new inversion method which allows for an inclined axis of symmetry in each of the two layers. However, applying this method to SNZO does not significantly improve the fit over a two-layer model with horizontal symmetry axes. We are therefore unable to explain the frequency dependence or large variation in delay time values with multiple horizontal layers of anisotropy, even
Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.
2007-01-01
On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system and on the......On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...... and on the inorganic catalyst surface of an acidic electrolysis cell, the thermochemical features of the catalysts can be directly compared. We suggest a simple test for a thermochemically optimal catalyst. We show that, although both the RuO2 surface and the Mn cluster in photo system II are quite close to optimal...
Splitting of high power, cw proton beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Facco
2007-09-01
Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.
Temporal self-splitting of optical pulses
Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan
2018-05-01
We present mathematical models for temporally and spectrally partially coherent pulse trains with Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian Schell-model statistics as extensions of the standard Gaussian Schell model for pulse trains. We derive propagation formulas of both classes of pulsed fields in linearly dispersive media and in temporal optical systems. It is found that, in general, both types of fields exhibit time-domain self-splitting upon propagation. The Laguerre-Gaussian model leads to multiply peaked pulses, while the Hermite-Gaussian model leads to doubly peaked pulses, in the temporal far field (in dispersive media) or at the Fourier plane of a temporal system. In both model fields the character of the self-splitting phenomenon depends both on the degree of temporal and spectral coherence and on the power spectrum of the field.
Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders
Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2015-07-01
Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.
Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srinivas C
2004-05-01
Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.
Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics
2011-08-15
We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)
Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malizia, Mauro
Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... on fossil fuels as primary feedstock for hydrogen production and diminish the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, weakening the global warming phenomenon.The dissertation reports the development of GaP (gallium phosphide) photocathodes as a large bandgap semiconductor for photoelectrochemical...... water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor...
Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics
2012-06-15
Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.
Automatic feathering of split fields for step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B; Sethi, Anil; Emami, Bahman
2003-01-01
Due to leaf travel range limitations of the Varian Dynamic Multileaf Collimator (DMLC) system, an IMRT field width exceeding 14.5 cm is split into two or more adjacent abutting sub-fields. The abutting sub-fields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. The accuracy of the delivery is very sensitive to multileaf positioning accuracy. The uncertainties in leaf and carriage positions cause errors in the delivered dose (e.g., hot or cold spots) along the match line of abutting sub-fields. The dose errors are proportional to the penumbra slope at the edge of each sub-field. To alleviate this problem, we developed techniques that feather the split line of IMRT fields. Feathering of the split line was achieved by dividing IMRT fields into several sub-groups with different split line positions. A Varian 21EX accelerator with an 80-leaf DLMC was used for IMRT delivery. Cylindrical targets with varying widths (>14.5 cm) were created to study the split line positions. Seven coplanar 6 MV fields were selected for planning using the NOMOS-CORVUS TM system. The isocentre of the fields was positioned at the centre of the target volume. Verification was done in a 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 polystyrene phantom using film dosimetry. We investigated two techniques to move the split line from its original position or cause feathering of them: (1) varying the isocentre position along the target width and (2) introduction of a 'pseudo target' outside of the patient (phantom). The position of the 'pseudo target' was determined by analysing the divergence of IMRT fields. For target widths of 14-28 cm, IMRT fields were automatically split into two sub-fields, and the split line was positioned along the centre of the target by CORVUS. Measured dose distributions demonstrated that the dose to the critical structure was 10% higher than planned when the split line crossed through the centre of the target. Both methods of modifying the split line positions resulted in maximum shifts of ∼1 cm
Atom beams split by gentle persuasion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pool, R.
1994-01-01
Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state
Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases
Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun
1990-01-01
Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.
BILATERAL SAGITAL SPLIT OSTEOTOMY PADA MANDIBULA PROGNATI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pradono Pradono
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A young girl 20 years old with mandibular prognathism, has been treated with orthodontics and surgical treatment in between. Mandibular set back was done intra orally 5 mm length and bilateral sagital split ramus osteotomy method. And rigid fixation was done by inserting three 2 mm bicortical screws for stabilizing the fragment. This method allowed the bony segments to heal properly and allowed the patients to function sooner.
GD 358 - the demise of rotational splitting?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.A.
1987-01-01
Observations of GD 358 were obtained at the McDonald Observatory in 1982 and 1985 in order to determine its periods, stability, and rates of period change. The period structure could not be resolved, and the results indicate that GD 358 does not fit the rotational splitting model. It is suggested that if the changes in the amplitude spectra of GD 358 are due to beating of stable modes, then the number of modes must be large. 7 references
Multiplet mass splitting in a gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maia, M.D.
An expression for the mass splitting of particles belonging to the same spin multiplet defined in a space-time of general relativity is derived. The geometrical symmetry is a subgroup of SO(r,s), 9 >=r > 3, 5 >=s >=1, the mass operator being proportional to the second order Casimir operator of that subgroup. A brief analysis of the calculated values as compared to the experimental data is included. (Author) [pt
Cost of splitting in Monte Carlo transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Everett, C.J.; Cashwell, E.D.
1978-03-01
In a simple transport problem designed to estimate transmission through a plane slab of x free paths by Monte Carlo methods, it is shown that m-splitting (m > or = 2) does not pay unless exp(x) > m(m + 3)/(m - 1). In such a case, the minimum total cost in terms of machine time is obtained as a function of m, and the optimal value of m is determined
Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarina Lozić Knezović
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.
On the additive splitting procedures and their computer realization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Farago, I.; Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Z.
2008-01-01
Two additive splitting procedures are defined and studied in this paper. It is shown that these splitting procedures have good stability properties. Some other splitting procedures, which are traditionally used in mathematical models used in many scientific and engineering fields, are sketched. All...
7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...
26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.
2010-04-01
...'s death benefit proceeds, the policy's cash surrender value, or both. (ii) Payments that are only... regarding certain split-dollar term loans payable on the death of an individual, certain split-dollar term... insurance arrangement make a representation—(i) Requirement. An otherwise noncontingent payment on a split...
Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering
Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.
1991-01-01
Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.
Facile Preparation of Porous WO3 Film for Photoelectrochemical Splitting of Natural Seawater
Shi, Yonghong; Li, Yuangang; Wei, Xiaoliang; Feng, Juan; Li, Huajing; Zhou, Wanyi
2017-12-01
Sunlight-driven natural seawater splitting provides a promising way for large-scale conversion and storage of solar energy. Here, we develop a facile and low-cost method via a deposition-annealing technique to fabricate porous WO3 film and demonstrate its application as a photoanode for natural seawater splitting. The WO3 film yields a photocurrent density of 1.95 mA cm-2 and possesses excellent stability at 1.23 V (versus RHE), under the illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5G). The photoelectrochemical performance is ascribed to the large surface area and good permeation of the electrolyte into the porous film. Furthermore, the photocurrent density remains almost the same during 3 h continuous light irradiation. The evolution of chlorine gas from seawater splitting was determined with qualitative and quantitative analyses, with a Faradic efficiency of about 56%.
Analysis and experimental results of frequency splitting of underwater wireless power transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wangqiang Niu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Underwater wireless power transfer (UWPT is an important technique to power underwater devices while its frequency splitting phenomena are not fully elucidated. In this study, frequency splitting phenomena of a symmetrical planar two-coil wireless power transfer (WPT system resonated at 90 kHz are investigated in seawater and freshwater. A concise frequency splitting analysis of this WPT system in air based on circuit model is given first and then experimental data are reported to show there is little difference between power transfer in air, freshwater and seawater in the range of 40–140 kHz of this WPT system. Consequently, the frequency splitting analysis and observations in air are also applicable in freshwater and seawater. It is found a V-type frequency splitting pattern exists in this WPT system under seawater and freshwater. Frequency shift is observed in this UWPT system in overcoupled region, and no frequency shift is observed in undercoupled region. In undercoupled region, in the low frequency zone of 40–90 kHz the load voltage characteristics in three media are identical; in the high-frequency zone of 90–140 kHz, the load voltage in air is slightly larger than those in freshwater and seawater.
Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Javor, D.; Wressnegger, A.; Unterhumer, S.; Kollndorfer, K.; Nolz, R.; Beitzke, D.; Loewe, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)
2017-04-15
To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. (orig.)
Accuracy of tablet splitting and liquid measurements: an examination of who, what and how.
Abu-Geras, Dana; Hadziomerovic, Dunja; Leau, Andrew; Khan, Ramzan Nazim; Gudka, Sajni; Locher, Cornelia; Razaghikashani, Maryam; Lim, Lee Yong
2017-05-01
To examine factors that might affect the ability of patients to accurately halve tablets or measure a 5-ml liquid dose. Eighty-eight participants split four different placebo tablets by hand and using a tablet splitter, while 85 participants measured 5 ml of water, 0.5% methylcellulose (MC) and 1% MC using a syringe and dosing cup. Accuracy of manipulation was determined by mass measurements. The general population was less able than pharmacy students to break tablets into equal parts, although age, gender and prior experience were insignificant factors. Greater accuracy of tablet halving was observed with tablet splitter, with scored tablets split more equally than unscored tablets. Tablet size did not affect the accuracy of splitting. However, >25% of small scored tablets failed to be split by hand, and 41% of large unscored tablets were split into >2 portions in the tablet splitter. In liquid measurement, the syringe provided more accurate volume measurements than the dosing cup, with higher accuracy observed for the more viscous MC solutions than water. Formulation characteristics and manipulation technique have greater influences on the accuracy of medication modification and should be considered in off-label drug use in vulnerable populations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health
Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N
2014-01-01
Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766
Splitting methods for split feasibility problems with application to Dantzig selectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun
2017-01-01
The split feasibility problem (SFP), which refers to the task of finding a point that belongs to a given nonempty, closed and convex set, and whose image under a bounded linear operator belongs to another given nonempty, closed and convex set, has promising applicability in modeling a wide range of inverse problems. Motivated by the increasingly data-driven regularization in the areas of signal/image processing and statistical learning, in this paper, we study the regularized split feasibility problem (RSFP), which provides a unified model for treating many real-world problems. By exploiting the split nature of the RSFP, we shall gainfully employ several efficient splitting methods to solve the model under consideration. A remarkable advantage of our methods lies in their easier subproblems in the sense that the resulting subproblems have closed-form representations or can be efficiently solved up to a high precision. As an interesting application, we apply the proposed algorithms for finding Dantzig selectors, in addition to demonstrating the effectiveness of the splitting methods through some computational results on synthetic and real medical data sets. (paper)
Nanostructured hematite thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting
Maabong, Kelebogile; Machatine, Augusto G. J.; Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Braun, Artur; Bora, Debajeet K.; Toth, Rita; Diale, Mmantsae
2018-04-01
Nanostructured hematite thin films prepared by dip coating technique were investigated for their photoelectrochemical activity for generation of hydrogen from water splitting. Structural, morphological and optical analyses of the doped/undoped films were performed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution field emission-scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements of the films showed enhanced photoresponse and cathodic shift of the onset potential upon Ti doping indicating improved transfer of photoholes at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Films doped with 1 at% Ti produced 0.72 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs RHE which is 2 times higher than current density for the pure film (0.30 mA/cm2, at 1.23 V vs RHE). Gas chromatography analysis of the films also showed enhanced hydrogen evolution at 1 at% Ti with respect to pure film.
Dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson (Kolsky bar system – A review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaiwen Xia
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Dynamic properties of rocks are important in a variety of rock mechanics and rock engineering problems. Due to the transient nature of the loading, dynamic tests of rock materials are very different from and much more challenging than their static counterparts. Dynamic tests are usually conducted using the split Hopkinson bar or Kolsky bar systems, which include both split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB and split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB systems. Significant progress has been made on the quantification of various rock dynamic properties, owing to the advances in the experimental techniques of SHPB system. This review aims to fully describe and critically assess the detailed procedures and principles of techniques for dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson bars. The history and principles of SHPB are outlined, followed by the key loading techniques that are useful for dynamic rock tests with SHPB (i.e. pulse shaping, momentum-trap and multi-axial loading techniques. Various measurement techniques for rock tests in SHPB (i.e. X-ray micro computed tomography (CT, laser gap gauge (LGG, digital image correlation (DIC, Moiré method, caustics method, photoelastic coating method, dynamic infrared thermography are then discussed. As the main objective of the review, various dynamic measurement techniques for rocks using SHPB are described, including dynamic rock strength measurements (i.e. dynamic compression, tension, bending and shear tests, dynamic fracture measurements (i.e. dynamic imitation and propagation fracture toughness, dynamic fracture energy and fracture velocity, and dynamic techniques for studying the influences of temperature and pore water.
Guermond, Jean-Luc; Minev, Peter D.; Salgado, Abner J.
2012-01-01
We provide a convergence analysis for a new fractional timestepping technique for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on direction splitting. This new technique is of linear complexity, unconditionally stable and convergent, and suitable for massive parallelization. © 2012 American Mathematical Society.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mun, Jun Ki; Son, Sang Jun; Kim, Dae Ho; Seo, Seok Jin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-15
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of Split VMAT planning(Contouring rectum divided into an upper and a lower for reduce rectum dose) compare to Conventional VMAT planning(Contouring whole rectum) for prostate cancer radiotherapy involving pelvic lymph nodes. A total of 9 cases were enrolled. Each case received radiotherapy with Split VMAT planning to the prostate involving pelvic lymph nodes. Treatment was delivered using TrueBeam STX(Varian Medical Systems, USA) and planned on Eclipse(Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3(Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28), AAA(Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28). Lower rectum contour was defined as starting 1 cm superior and ending 1 cm inferior to the prostate PTV, upper rectum is a part, except lower rectum from the whole rectum. Split VMAT plan parameters consisted of 10 MV coplanar 360° arcs. Each arc had 30° and 30° collimator angle, respectively. An SIB(Simultaneous Integrated Boost) treatment prescription was employed delivering 50.4 Gy to pelvic lymph nodes and 63- 70 Gy to the prostate in 28 fractions. D{sub mean} of whole rectum on Split VMAT plan was applied for DVC(Dose Volume Constraint) of the whole rectum for Conventional VMAT plan. In addition, all parameters were set to be the same of existing treatment plans. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, all plans were optimized and calculated twice respectively using a 0.2 cm grid. All plans were normalized to the prostate PTV{sub 100%} = 90% or 95%. A comparison of D{sub mean} of whole rectum, upperr ectum, lower rectum, and bladder, V{sub 50%} of upper rectum, total MU and H.I.(Homogeneity Index) and C.I.(Conformity Index) of the PTV was used for technique evaluation. All Split VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with portal dosimetry using EPID. Using DVH analysis, a difference between the Conventional and the Split VMAT plans was demonstrated. The Split VMAT plan demonstrated better in the D
M-Split: A Graphical User Interface to Analyze Multilayered Anisotropy from Shear Wave Splitting
Abgarmi, Bizhan; Ozacar, A. Arda
2017-04-01
Shear wave splitting analysis are commonly used to infer deep anisotropic structure. For simple cases, obtained delay times and fast-axis orientations are averaged from reliable results to define anisotropy beneath recording seismic stations. However, splitting parameters show systematic variations with back azimuth in the presence of complex anisotropy and cannot be represented by average time delay and fast axis orientation. Previous researchers had identified anisotropic complexities at different tectonic settings and applied various approaches to model them. Most commonly, such complexities are modeled by using multiple anisotropic layers with priori constraints from geologic data. In this study, a graphical user interface called M-Split is developed to easily process and model multilayered anisotropy with capabilities to properly address the inherited non-uniqueness. M-Split program runs user defined grid searches through the model parameter space for two-layer anisotropy using formulation of Silver and Savage (1994) and creates sensitivity contour plots to locate local maximas and analyze all possible models with parameter tradeoffs. In order to minimize model ambiguity and identify the robust model parameters, various misfit calculation procedures are also developed and embedded to M-Split which can be used depending on the quality of the observations and their back-azimuthal coverage. Case studies carried out to evaluate the reliability of the program using real noisy data and for this purpose stations from two different networks are utilized. First seismic network is the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake research institute (KOERI) which includes long term running permanent stations and second network comprises seismic stations deployed temporary as part of the "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" project funded by NSF. It is also worth to note that M-Split is designed as open source program which can be modified by users for
Aarabi, Mohammadali; Tabrizi, Reza; Hekmat, Mina; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Puzesh, Ayatollah
2014-12-01
A bad split is a troublesome complication of the sagittal split osteotomy (SSO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the occurrence of a bad split and mandibular anatomy in SSO using cone-beam computed tomography. The authors designed a cohort retrospective study. Forty-eight patients (96 SSO sites) were studied. The buccolingual thickness of the retromandibular area (BLR), the buccolingual thickness of the ramus at the level of the lingula (BLTR), the height of the mandible from the alveolar crest to the inferior border of the mandible, (ACIB), the distance between the sigmoid notch and the inferior border of the mandible (SIBM), and the anteroposterior width of the ramus (APWR) were measured. The independent t test was applied to compare anatomic measurements between the group with and the group without bad splits. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test was used to find a cutoff point in anatomic size for various parts of the mandible related to the occurrence of bad splits. The mean SIBM was 47.05±6.33 mm in group 1 (with bad splits) versus 40.66±2.44 mm in group 2 (without bad splits; P=.01). The mean BLTR was 5.74±1.11 mm in group 1 versus 3.19±0.55 mm in group 2 (P=.04). The mean BLR was 14.98±2.78 mm in group 1 versus 11.21±1.29 mm in group 2 (P=.001). No statistically significant difference was found for APWR and ACIB between the 2 groups. The ROC test showed cutoff points of 10.17 mm for BLR, 36.69 mm for SIBM, and 4.06 mm for BLTR. This study showed that certain mandibular anatomic differences can increase the risk of a bad split during SSO surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement
Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong
2018-01-01
In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.
Heat transfer with a split water channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krinsky, S.
1978-01-01
The heat transfer problem associated with the incidence of synchrotron radiation upon a vacuum chamber wall cooled by a single water channel was previously studied, and a numerical solution to the potential problem was found using the two-dimensional magnet program POISSON. Calculations were extended to consider the case of a split water channel using POISSON to solve the potential problem for a given choice of parameters. By optimizing the dimensions, boiling of the water can be avoided. A copper chamber is a viable solution to the heat transfer problem at a beam port
Joining-Splitting Interaction of Noncritical String
Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew
The joining-splitting interaction of noncritical bosonic string is analyzed in the light-cone formulation. The Mandelstam method of constructing tree string amplitudes is extended to the bosonic massive string models of the discrete series. The general properties of the Liouville longitudinal excitations which are necessary and sufficient for the Lorentz covariance of the light-cone amplitudes are derived. The results suggest that the covariant and the light-cone approach are equivalent also in the noncritical dimensions. Some aspects of unitarity of interacting noncritical massive string theory are discussed.
Permutation 2-groups I: structure and splitness
Elgueta, Josep
2013-01-01
By a 2-group we mean a groupoid equipped with a weakened group structure. It is called split when it is equivalent to the semidirect product of a discrete 2-group and a one-object 2-group. By a permutation 2-group we mean the 2-group $\\mathbb{S}ym(\\mathcal{G})$ of self-equivalences of a groupoid $\\mathcal{G}$ and natural isomorphisms between them, with the product given by composition of self-equivalences. These generalize the symmetric groups $\\mathsf{S}_n$, $n\\geq 1$, obtained when $\\mathca...
Random tree growth by vertex splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, F; Dukes, W M B; Jonsson, T; Stefánsson, S Ö
2009-01-01
We study a model of growing planar tree graphs where in each time step we separate the tree into two components by splitting a vertex and then connect the two pieces by inserting a new link between the daughter vertices. This model generalizes the preferential attachment model and Ford's α-model for phylogenetic trees. We develop a mean field theory for the vertex degree distribution, prove that the mean field theory is exact in some special cases and check that it agrees with numerical simulations in general. We calculate various correlation functions and show that the intrinsic Hausdorff dimension can vary from 1 to ∞, depending on the parameters of the model
Split coaxial RFQ structure with modulated vanes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arai, S.
1983-10-01
A new split coaxial RFO structure with modulated vanes is proposed. The structure is designed to accelerate 238 U 4+ from 1.68 keV/u to 45.1 keV/u at frequency of 12.5 MHz. The cavity is 1.6 m in diameter and 8 m in length. The cavity consists of four cavity modules divided by three stems which support horizontal and vertical vanes periodically and alternatively. At the same time, problems on the beam dynamics and design procedures are described and discussed. (orig.)
Sunspot splitting triggering an eruptive flare
Louis, Rohan E.; Puschmann, Klaus G.; Kliem, Bernhard; Balthasar, Horst; Denker, Carsten
2014-02-01
Aims: We investigate how the splitting of the leading sunspot and associated flux emergence and cancellation in active region NOAA 11515 caused an eruptive M5.6 flare on 2012 July 2. Methods: Continuum intensity, line-of-sight magnetogram, and dopplergram data of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were employed to analyse the photospheric evolution. Filtergrams in Hα and He I 10830 Å of the Chromospheric Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, track the evolution of the flare. The corresponding coronal conditions were derived from 171 Å and 304 Å images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Local correlation tracking was utilized to determine shear flows. Results: Emerging flux formed a neutral line ahead of the leading sunspot and new satellite spots. The sunspot splitting caused a long-lasting flow towards this neutral line, where a filament formed. Further flux emergence, partly of mixed polarity, as well as episodes of flux cancellation occurred repeatedly at the neutral line. Following a nearby C-class precursor flare with signs of interaction with the filament, the filament erupted nearly simultaneously with the onset of the M5.6 flare and evolved into a coronal mass ejection. The sunspot stretched without forming a light bridge, splitting unusually fast (within about a day, complete ≈6 h after the eruption) in two nearly equal parts. The front part separated strongly from the active region to approach the neighbouring active region where all its coronal magnetic connections were rooted. It also rotated rapidly (by 4.9° h-1) and caused significant shear flows at its edge. Conclusions: The eruption resulted from a complex sequence of processes in the (sub-)photosphere and corona. The persistent flows towards the neutral line likely caused the formation of a flux rope that held the filament. These flows, their associated flux cancellation, the emerging flux, and the precursor flare all contributed to the destabilization of the flux rope. We
Electric Dipole Moments in Split Supersymmetry
Giudice, Gian Francesco
2006-01-01
We perform a quantitative study of the neutron and electron electric dipole moments (EDM) in Supersymmetry, in the limit of heavy scalars. The leading contributions arise at two loops. We give the complete analytic result, including a new contribution associated with Z-Higgs exchange, which plays an important and often leading role in the neutron EDM. The predictions for the EDM are typically within the sensitivities of the next generation experiments. We also analyse the correlation between the electron and neutron EDM, which provides a robust test of Split Supersymmetry.
Multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xinwen; Zhang Dengyu; Tang Shiqing; Xie Lijun
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for multiparty hierarchical quantum-information splitting (QIS) with a multipartite entangled state, where a boss distributes a secret quantum state to two grades of agents asymmetrically. The agents who belong to different grades have different authorities for recovering the boss's secret. Except for the boss's Bell-state measurement, no nonlocal operation is involved. The presented scheme is also shown to be secure against eavesdropping. Such a hierarchical QIS is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.
Anisotropic in-plane spin splitting in an asymmetric (001 GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Xiuwen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The in-plane spin splitting of conduction-band electron has been investigated in an asymmetric (001 GaAs/Al x Ga1-x As quantum well by time-resolved Kerr rotation technique under a transverse magnetic field. The distinctive anisotropy of the spin splitting was observed while the temperature is below approximately 200 K. This anisotropy emerges from the combined effect of Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling plus asymmetric potential gradients. We also exploit the temperature dependence of spin-splitting energy. Both the anisotropy of spin splitting and the in-plane effective g-factor decrease with increasing temperature. PACS: 78.47.jm, 71.70.Ej, 75.75.+a, 72.25.Fe,
Splitting of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Scheck, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Lagoyannis, A.; Kruecken, R.; Ring, P.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Sonnabend, K.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Stoica, V. I.; Woertche, H. J.
2011-01-01
In recent years investigations have been made to study the electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) systematically, mainly in semi-magic nuclei. For this purpose the well understood high resolution (γ,γ') photon scattering method is used. In complementary (α,α'γ) coincidence experiments at E α = 136 MeV a similar γ-energy resolution and a high selectivity to E1 transitions can be obtained at the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at KVI, Groningen. In comparison to the (γ,γ') method a structural splitting of the PDR is observed in the N = 82 nuclei 138 Ba and 140 Ce and in the Z = 50 nucleus 124 Sn. The low energy part is excited in (γ,γ') as well as in (α,α'γ) while the high energy part is observed in (γ,γ') only. The experimental results together with theoretical QPM and RQTBA calculations on 124 Sn which are able to reproduce the splitting of the PDR qualitatively are presented. The low-lying group of J π = 1 - states seem to represent the more isoscalar neutron-skin oscillation of the PDR while the energetically higher-lying states seemingly belong to the transitional region between the PDR and the isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR).
Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum
Nielsen, H. B.; Brene, N.
1991-08-01
The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important rôle either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms.
Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark))
1991-08-05
The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity {chi} which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity {chi} has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity {chi} tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.).
Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission
Krantz, Timothy L.
1994-06-01
Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.
Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri
2005-01-01
We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)
Zeeman splitting of surface-scattered neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felcher, G.P.; Adenwalla, S.; De Haan, V.O.; Van Well, A.A.
1995-01-01
If a beam of slow neutrons impinges on a solid at grazing incidence, the neutrons reflected can be used to probe the composition and magnetization of the solid near its surface. In this process, the incident and reflected neutrons generally have identical kinetic energies. Here we report the results of an experiment in which subtle inelastic scattering processes are revealed as relatively large deviations in scattering angle. The neutrons are scattered from a ferromagnetic surface in the presence of a strong ambient magnetic field, and exhibit a small but significant variation in kinetic energy as a function of the reflection angle. This effect is attributable to the Zeeman splitting of the energies of the neutron spin states due to the ambient magnetic field: some neutrons flip their spins upon reflection from the magnetized surface, thereby exchanging kinetic energy for magnetic potential energy. The subtle effects of Zeeman splitting are amplified by the extreme sensitivity of grazing-angle neutron scattering, and might also provide a useful spectroscopic tool if significant practical obstacles (such as low interaction cross-sections) can be overcome. (author)
Alteration of split renal function during Captopril treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Yasuhara, Shuichirou; Miyamori, Isamu; Takeda, Ryoyu
1987-01-01
Two different methods to evaluate the alteration of split renal function following continued Captopril treatment were studied in a total of 21 patients with hypertension. Eight patients with renovascular hypertension (five with unilateral renal artery stenosis and three with bilateral renal artery stenoses), three patients with diabetic nephropathy, one patient with primary aldosteronism, and nine patients with essential hypertension were included. The studies were performed the day prior to receiving Captopril (baseline), and 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment (37.5 mg or 75 mg/day). Split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after injections of I-131 hippuran and Tc-99m DTPA were measured using kidney counting corrected for depth and dose, described by Schlegel and Gates. In the patients with renovascular hypertension, split GFR in the stenotic kidney was significantly decreased 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment compared to a baseline value. And split ERPF in the stenotic kidney was slightly increased although significant increase of split ERPF was not shown. In the patients with diabetic nephropathy, primary aldosteronism or essential hypertension, on the other hand, split GFR was not changed and split ERPF was slightly increased. These findings suggest that the Captopril induced alterations of split renal function may be of importance for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. For this purpose, split GFR determination is more useful than split ERPF determination. (author)
Split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction in congenital atresia of cervix.
Zhang, Xuyin; Han, Tiantian; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Keqin
2015-10-01
To introduce a new technique that combines laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of the cervix. Video article introducing a new surgical technique. University hospital. A 16-year-old patient with congenital cervical atresia, vaginal dysgenesis, and ovarian endometrial cyst. An original technique of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction. A midline incision at the vaginal introitus was made, and a 9-cm canal was made between the bladder and the rectum using sharp and blunt dissection along the anatomic vaginal route, with the aid of laparoscopy to ensure correct orientation. A 14 × 12 cm split thickness skin graft was harvested from the right lateral thigh. By laparoscopy, the level of the lowest pole of the uterine cavity was exposed and the cervix was incised by shape dissection. The proximal segment of the harvested skin to the lower uterine segment was secured, and the distal segment was sutured with the upper margin of vulva vaginally. Surgical technique reports in anonymous patients are exempted from ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board. The patient gave consent to use the video in the article. The procedure was successfully completed. Since February 2013, our experiences of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in 10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix were positive, with successful results and without complications or cervical, or vaginal stenosis. Our technique is feasible and safe for congenital atresia of cervix, with successful results and without complications or cervical or vaginal stenosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glansectomy and Split-thickness Skin Graft for Penile Cancer.
Parnham, Arie S; Albersen, Maarten; Sahdev, Varun; Christodoulidou, Michelle; Nigam, Raj; Malone, Peter; Freeman, Alex; Muneer, Asif
2018-02-01
Penile cancer is a rare malignancy that is confined to the glans in up to four out of five cases. Although descriptions of glansectomy exist, there are no contemporary video explanations or large published single centre series. To show the efficacy and safety of glansectomy and split-thickness skin graft (STSG) reconstruction. Data were collected retrospectively for patients identified from surgical theatre diaries between February 2005 and January 2016. 177 patients with histologically proven squamous-cell carcinoma on the glans underwent glansectomy and STSG at a tertiary referral centre in the UK. The median follow-up was 41.4 mo. The skin is incised at the subcoronal level and deepened onto Buck's fascia. Dissection is performed over or under Buck's fascia, depending on suspicion of invasion or risk of disease. The glans is excised and a neoglans is created using a STSG. Local recurrence, cancer-specific survival, overall survival, and complications. Sixteen out of 172 patients (9.3%) experienced local recurrence during the follow-up period. Eighteen out of 174 (10.7%) patients died of penile cancer, while 29 patients in total died during the follow-up period. Of 145 patients, 9% required operative intervention for complications, including graft loss and meatal stenosis. Limitations include the retrospective data collection and the lack of functional and sexual outcomes. Glansectomy and STSG comprise a safe procedure in terms of oncologic control and complications for patients with penile cancer confined to the glans penis. Further studies are required to assess functional and sexual outcomes in these patients. We report on the management of penile cancers confined to the head of the penis using glansectomy and a split-thickness skin graft to recreate the appearance of a glans. This technique is safe and effective, with limited complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.
Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji
2015-09-01
We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.
Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering
Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao
2016-01-01
This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .
Generalized field-splitting algorithms for optimal IMRT delivery efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamath, Srijit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2007-09-21
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) uses radiation beams of varying intensities to deliver varying doses of radiation to different areas of the tissue. The use of IMRT has allowed the delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor and lower doses to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is not uncommon for head and neck tumors, for example, to have large treatment widths that are not deliverable using a single field. In such cases, the intensity matrix generated by the optimizer needs to be split into two or three matrices, each of which may be delivered using a single field. Existing field-splitting algorithms used the pre-specified arbitrary split line or region where the intensity matrix is split along a column, i.e., all rows of the matrix are split along the same column (with or without the overlapping of split fields, i.e., feathering). If three fields result, then the two splits are along the same two columns for all rows. In this paper we study the problem of splitting a large field into two or three subfields with the field width as the only constraint, allowing for an arbitrary overlap of the split fields, so that the total MU efficiency of delivering the split fields is maximized. Proof of optimality is provided for the proposed algorithm. An average decrease of 18.8% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by a commercial treatment planning system and that of 10% is found in the total MUs when compared to the split generated by our previously published algorithm. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org.
One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badger, Simon; Buciuni, Francesco; Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2015-09-28
We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.
Finite frequency shear wave splitting tomography: a model space search approach
Mondal, P.; Long, M. D.
2017-12-01
Observations of seismic anisotropy provide key constraints on past and present mantle deformation. A common method for upper mantle anisotropy is to measure shear wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast direction). However, the interpretation is not straightforward, because splitting measurements represent an integration of structure along the ray path. A tomographic approach that allows for localization of anisotropy is desirable; however, tomographic inversion for anisotropic structure is a daunting task, since 21 parameters are needed to describe general anisotropy. Such a large parameter space does not allow a straightforward application of tomographic inversion. Building on previous work on finite frequency shear wave splitting tomography, this study aims to develop a framework for SKS splitting tomography with a new parameterization of anisotropy and a model space search approach. We reparameterize the full elastic tensor, reducing the number of parameters to three (a measure of strength based on symmetry considerations for olivine, plus the dip and azimuth of the fast symmetry axis). We compute Born-approximation finite frequency sensitivity kernels relating model perturbations to splitting intensity observations. The strong dependence of the sensitivity kernels on the starting anisotropic model, and thus the strong non-linearity of the inverse problem, makes a linearized inversion infeasible. Therefore, we implement a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in the inversion procedure. We have performed tests with synthetic data sets to evaluate computational costs and infer the resolving power of our algorithm for synthetic models with multiple anisotropic layers. Our technique can resolve anisotropic parameters on length scales of ˜50 km for realistic station and event configurations for dense broadband experiments. We are proceeding towards applications to real data sets, with an initial focus on the High Lava Plains of Oregon.
An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Iqbal
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.
Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov; Holloway, Christopher L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-07-14
In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.
A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator......, a 5 MHz linear array transducer was used to scan a vessel situated at 30 mm depth with a maximum flow velocity of 0.1 m/s. The pulse repetition frequency was 1.8 kHz and the angle between the flow and the beam was 60 deg. A 15 mus chirp was used as excitation pulse and 40 independent velocity...
Gray divorce: Explaining midlife marital splits.
Crowley, Jocelyn Elise
2017-12-06
Recent research suggests that one out of every four divorces in the United States is now "gray," meaning that at least one half of the couple has reached the age of 50 when the marriage breaks down. To understand why this age group-the Baby Boomer generation-is splitting up, this study conducted 40 in-depth, semistructured interviews with men and 40 with women who have experienced a gray divorce in their lifetimes. Respondents' beliefs in an expressive individualistic model of marriage, where partnerships are only valuable if they help individuals achieve personal growth, were compared against their potential adherence to what I call a commitment-based model of marriage, where binding, romantic love holds couples together unless there is severe relationship strain. The results demonstrated that the commitment-based model most strongly governs marriage and the decision to divorce among Baby Boomers for both sexes, although some specific reasons for divorce differ for men and women.
Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riisgaard, Benjamin; Ngo, Tuan; Mendis, Priyan
2007-01-01
This paper provides dynamic increase factors (DIF) in compression for two different High Performance Concretes (HPC), 100 MPa and 160 MPa, respectively. In the experimental investigation 2 different Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars are used in order to test over a wide range of strain rates, 100 sec1...... to 700 sec-1. The results are compared with the CEB Model Code and the Spilt Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique is briefly de-scribed....
Hydrogen production via thermochemical water-splitting by lithium redox reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Naoya; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu
2013-01-01
Highlights: •Hydrogen production via water-splitting by lithium redox reactions possibly proceeds below 800 °C. •Entropy control by using nonequilibrium technique successfully reduces the reaction temperature. •The operating temperature should be further reduced by optimizing the nonequilibrium condition to control the cycle. -- Abstracts: Hydrogen production via thermochemical water-splitting by lithium redox reactions was investigated as energy conversion technique. The reaction system consists of three reactions, which are hydrogen generation by the reaction of lithium and lithium hydroxide, metal separation by thermolysis of lithium oxide, and oxygen generation by hydrolysis of lithium peroxide. The hydrogen generation reaction completed at 500 °C. The metal separation reaction is thermodynamically difficult because it requires about 3400 °C in equilibrium condition. However, it was indicated from experimental results that the reaction temperature was drastically reduced to 800 °C by using nonequilibrium technique. The hydrolysis reaction was exothermic reaction, and completed by heating up to 300 °C. Therefore, it was expected that the water-splitting by lithium redox reactions was possibly operated below 800 °C under nonequilibrium condition
Can the ''doublet-triplet splitting'' problem be solved without doublet-triplet splitting?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.R.
1992-03-01
We consider a new possible mechanism for the natural solution of the doublet-triplet splitting problem in SUSY GUTs. In contrast to the usually discussed scenarios, in our case the GUT symmetry breaking does not provide any splitting between the Higgs doublet and the triplet masses. The weak doublet and its colour triplet partner both remain light, but the triplet automatically occurs decoupled from the quark and lepton superfields and cannot induce proton decay. The advantage of the above scenarios is the absence at the GUT scale of the baryon number violating the tree level d = 5 and d = 6 operators via the colour-triple exchange. It is shown that in flipped SU(5) GUT they do not appear at any scale. In the SO(10) model, such operators can be induced after SUSY breaking but are strongly suppressed. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs
Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives
Hisatomi, Takashi
2014-10-16
Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Dye-sensitized photocatalyst for effective water splitting catalyst
Watanabe, Motonori
2017-12-01
Renewable hydrogen production is a sustainable method for the development of next-generation energy technologies. Utilising solar energy and photocatalysts to split water is an ideal method to produce hydrogen. In this review, the fundamental principles and recent progress of hydrogen production by artificial photosynthesis are reviewed, focusing on hydrogen production from photocatalytic water splitting using organic-inorganic composite-based photocatalysts.
Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl
Singh, Nirpendra; Saeed, Yasir; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2014-01-01
First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under
Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting
Abdi, F.F.
2013-01-01
Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as
The Effectiveness of Managing Split Attention among Autistic Children
Aliee, Zeinab Shams; Jomhari, Nazean; Rezaei, Reza; Alias, Norlidah
2013-01-01
One of the most common problems in autistic children is split attention. Split attention prevents autism children from being able to focus attention on their learning, and tasks. As a result, it is important to identify how to make autistic individuals focus attention on learning. Considering autistic individuals have higher visual abilities in…
Irradiation-induced amorphization in split-dislocation cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovid'ko, I.A.; Rejzis, A.B.
1999-01-01
The model describing special splitting of lattice and grain-boundary dislocations as one of the micromechanisms of solid-phase amorphization in irradiated crystals is proposed. Calculation of energy characteristics of the process of dislocations special splitting is carried out [ru
April / May 2006. 108 Harvesting split thickness skin in
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Background: In the third world countries like Ethiopia the majority of Hospitals have difficulties in harvesting split thickness skin ... The grafts were well taken by the recipient areas and technically there was no danger of deep bite. Conclusion: Split ... to meet the hospital needs. Thus we need to improvise and use appropriate.
Splitting in Dual-Phase 590 high strength steel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Min; Chao, Yuh J.; Li Xiaodong; Tan Jinzhu
2008-01-01
Charpy V-notch impact tests on 5.5 mm thick, hot-rolled Dual-Phase 590 (DP590) steel plate were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 90 deg. C to -120 deg. C. Similar tests on 2.0 mm thick DP590 HDGI steel plate were also conducted at room temperature. Splitting or secondary cracks was observed on the fractured surfaces. The mechanisms of the splitting were then investigated. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of the steel plates was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro Vickers hardness of the steel plates was also surveyed. Results show that splitting occurred on the main fractured surfaces of hot-rolled steel specimens at various testing temperatures. At temperatures above the ductile-brittle-transition-temperature (DBTT), -95 deg. C, where the fracture is predominantly ductile, the length and amount of splitting decreased with increasing temperature. At temperatures lower than the DBTT, where the fracture is predominantly brittle, both the length and width of the splitting are insignificant. Splitting in HDGI steel plates only appeared in specimens of T-L direction. The analysis revealed that splitting in hot-rolled plate is caused by silicate and carbide inclusions while splitting in HDGI plate results from strip microstructure due to its high content of manganese and low content of silicon. The micro Vickers hardness of either the inclusions or the strip microstructures is higher than that of the respective base steel
Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...
Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.
1994-01-01
Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs
77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events
2012-02-14
... Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the... that if there is a foreign tax credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or...
77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events
2012-02-14
... Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... these proposed regulations. The regulations affect taxpayers claiming foreign tax credits. Special... of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting events. [The text of...
Nonlocal Cooper pair splitting in a pSn-junction
Veldhorst, M.; Brinkman, Alexander
2010-01-01
Perfect Cooper pair splitting is proposed, based on crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) in a p-type semiconductor-superconductor-n-type semiconductor (pSn) junction. The ideal splitting is caused by the energy filtering that is enforced by the band structure of the electrodes. The pSn junction is
Optimal space-energy splitting in MCNP with the DSA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubi, A.; Gurvitz, N.
1990-01-01
The Direct Statistical Approach (DSA) particle transport theory is based on the possibility of obtaining exact explicit expressions for the dependence of the second moment and calculation time on the splitting parameters. This allows the automatic optimization of the splitting parameters by ''learning'' the bulk parameters from which the problem dependent coefficients of the quality function (second moment time) are constructed. The above procedure was exploited to implement an automatic optimization of the splitting parameters in the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) code. This was done in a number of steps. In the first instance, only spatial surface splitting was considered. In this step, the major obstacle has been the truncation of an infinite series of ''products'' of ''surface path's'' leading from the source to the detector. Encouraging results from the first phase led to the inclusion of full space/energy phase space splitting. (author)
Conditional Toxin Splicing Using a Split Intein System.
Alford, Spencer C; O'Sullivan, Connor; Howard, Perry L
2017-01-01
Protein toxin splicing mediated by split inteins can be used as a strategy for conditional cell ablation. The approach requires artificial fragmentation of a potent protein toxin and tethering each toxin fragment to a split intein fragment. The toxin-intein fragments are, in turn, fused to dimerization domains, such that addition of a dimerizing agent reconstitutes the split intein. These chimeric toxin-intein fusions remain nontoxic until the dimerizer is added, resulting in activation of intein splicing and ligation of toxin fragments to form an active toxin. Considerations for the engineering and implementation of conditional toxin splicing (CTS) systems include: choice of toxin split site, split site (extein) chemistry, and temperature sensitivity. The following method outlines design criteria and implementation notes for CTS using a previously engineered system for splicing a toxin called sarcin, as well as for developing alternative CTS systems.
Exposing the QCD Splitting Function with CMS Open Data.
Larkoski, Andrew; Marzani, Simone; Thaler, Jesse; Tripathee, Aashish; Xue, Wei
2017-09-29
The splitting function is a universal property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which describes how energy is shared between partons. Despite its ubiquitous appearance in many QCD calculations, the splitting function cannot be measured directly, since it always appears multiplied by a collinear singularity factor. Recently, however, a new jet substructure observable was introduced which asymptotes to the splitting function for sufficiently high jet energies. This provides a way to expose the splitting function through jet substructure measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. In this Letter, we use public data released by the CMS experiment to study the two-prong substructure of jets and test the 1→2 splitting function of QCD. To our knowledge, this is the first ever physics analysis based on the CMS Open Data.
Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars
2009-01-01
. To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...
Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy
2006-01-01
Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....
Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.
Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M
2011-12-01
This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.
Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bandar Y.Alfaifi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.
Dolan, Michael-John; Luan, Haojiang; Shropshire, William C; Sutcliffe, Ben; Cocanougher, Benjamin; Scott, Robert L; Frechter, Shahar; Zlatic, Marta; Jefferis, Gregory S X E; White, Benjamin H
2017-06-01
Efforts to map neural circuits have been galvanized by the development of genetic technologies that permit the manipulation of targeted sets of neurons in the brains of freely behaving animals. The success of these efforts relies on the experimenter's ability to target arbitrarily small subsets of neurons for manipulation, but such specificity of targeting cannot routinely be achieved using existing methods. In Drosophila melanogaster , a widely-used technique for refined cell type-specific manipulation is the Split GAL4 system, which augments the targeting specificity of the binary GAL4-UAS (Upstream Activating Sequence) system by making GAL4 transcriptional activity contingent upon two enhancers, rather than one. To permit more refined targeting, we introduce here the "Killer Zipper" (KZip + ), a suppressor that makes Split GAL4 targeting contingent upon a third enhancer. KZip + acts by disrupting both the formation and activity of Split GAL4 heterodimers, and we show how this added layer of control can be used to selectively remove unwanted cells from a Split GAL4 expression pattern or to subtract neurons of interest from a pattern to determine their requirement in generating a given phenotype. To facilitate application of the KZip + technology, we have developed a versatile set of LexA op -KZip + fly lines that can be used directly with the large number of LexA driver lines with known expression patterns. KZip + significantly sharpens the precision of neuronal genetic control available in Drosophila and may be extended to other organisms where Split GAL4-like systems are used. Copyright © 2017 Dolan et al.
Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded
CERN PhotoLab
1977-01-01
The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu
2015-06-02
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
Markov branching in the vertex splitting model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefánsson, Sigurdur Örn
2012-01-01
We study a special case of the vertex splitting model which is a recent model of randomly growing trees. For any finite maximum vertex degree D, we find a one parameter model, with parameter α element of [0,1] which has a so-called Markov branching property. When D=∞ we find a two parameter model with an additional parameter γ element of [0,1] which also has this feature. In the case D = 3, the model bears resemblance to Ford's α-model of phylogenetic trees and when D=∞ it is similar to its generalization, the αγ-model. For α = 0, the model reduces to the well known model of preferential attachment. In the case α > 0, we prove convergence of the finite volume probability measures, generated by the growth rules, to a measure on infinite trees which is concentrated on the set of trees with a single spine. We show that the annealed Hausdorff dimension with respect to the infinite volume measure is 1/α. When γ = 0 the model reduces to a model of growing caterpillar graphs in which case we prove that the Hausdorff dimension is almost surely 1/α and that the spectral dimension is almost surely 2/(1 + α). We comment briefly on the distribution of vertex degrees and correlations between degrees of neighbouring vertices
Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms
Liu, Lulu; Keyes, David E.
2015-01-01
The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.
Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Kanno, Yuki; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi
2015-10-01
Short lingual osteotomy is a useful method for the performance of sagittal split ramus osteotomy involving interference between the proximal and distal bone fragments when lateral differences exist in the setback distance. However, this procedure occasionally results in abnormal fracture and nerve injury; expert surgical skill is thus required. We herein describe a novel technique involving the use of an ultrasonic bone-cutting device (Piezosurgery; Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) for vertical osteotomy posterior to the mandibular foramen. Successful short lingual osteotomy was performed using this technique with avoidance of abnormal fracture and neurovascular bundle damage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Rahpeyma
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Lateral ridge split technique is a way to solve the problem of the width in narrow ridges with adequate height. Simultaneous insertion of dental implants will considerably reduce the edentulism time. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients who were managed with ridge splitting technique were enrolled. Thirty-eight locations in both jaws with near equal distribution in quadrants received 82 dental fixtures. Beta Tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb® was used as biomaterial to fill the intercortical space. Submerged implants were used and 3 months later healing caps were placed. Direct bone measurements before and after split were done with a Collis. Patients were clinically re-evaluated at least 6 months after implant loading. All the data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA. Frequency of edentulous spaces and pre/post operative bone width was analyzed. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Difference was considered significant if P value was less than 0.05. Results: Mean value for presplit width was 3.2 ± 0.34 mm while post-split mean width was 5.57 ± 0.49 mm. Mean gain in crest ridge after ridge splitting was 2 ± 0.3 mm. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in width before and after operation ((P < 0.05. All implants (n = 82 survived and were in full function at follow up (at least 6 months after implant loading. Conclusion: Ridge splitting technique in both jaws showed the predictable outcomes, if appropriate cases selected and special attention paid to details; then the waiting time between surgery and beginning of prosthodontic treatment can be reduced to 3 month.
Shield Optimization and Formulation of Regression Equations for Split-Ring Resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tahir Ejaz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Microwave resonators are widely used for numerous applications including communication, biomedical and chemical applications, material testing, and food grading. Split-ring resonators in both planar and nonplanar forms are a simple structure which has been in use for several decades. This type of resonator is characterized with low cost, ease of fabrication, moderate quality factor, low external noise interference, high stability, and so forth. Due to these attractive features and ease in handling, nonplanar form of structure has been utilized for material characterization in 1–5 GHz range. Resonant frequency and quality factor are two important parameters for determination of material properties utilizing perturbation theory. Shield made of conducting material is utilized to enclose split-ring resonator which enhances quality factor. This work presents a novel technique to develop shield around a predesigned nonplanar split-ring resonator to yield optimized quality factor. Based on this technique and statistical analysis regression equations have also been formulated for resonant frequency and quality factor which is a major outcome of this work. These equations quantify dependence of output parameters on various factors of shield made of different materials. Such analysis is instrumental in development of devices/designs where improved/optimum result is required.
The three-point function in split dimensional regularization in the Coulomb gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leibbrandt, G.
1998-01-01
We use a gauge-invariant regularization procedure, called split dimensional regularization, to evaluate the quark self-energy Σ(p) and quark-quark-gluon vertex function Λ μ (p',p) in the Coulomb gauge, ∇-vector.A - vectora=0. The technique of split dimensional regularization was designed to regulate Coulomb-gauge Feynman integrals in non-Abelian theories. The technique which is based on two complex regulating parameters, ω and σ, is shown to generate a well-defined set of Coulomb-gauge integrals. A major component of this project deals with the evaluation of four-propagator and five-propagator Coulomb integrals, some of which are non-local. It is further argued that the standard one-loop BRST identity relating Σ and Λ μ , should by rights be replaced by a more general BRST identity which contains two additional contributions from ghost vertex diagrams. Despite the appearance of non-local Coulomb integrals, both Σ and Λ μ are local functions which satisfy the appropriate BRST identity. Application of split dimensional regularization to two-loop energy integrals is briefly discussed. (orig.)
Hydrogen evolution from water splitting on nanocomposite photocatalysts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenfeng Shangguan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The photocatalytic production of H2 in one step is potentially one of the most promising ways for the conversion and storage of solar energy. The paper overviews our recent studies on the photocatalysts splitting water into hydrogen under irradiation. The attention was mainly focused on the promotion effects of nanosized modifications in the interlayer and surface of photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution with visible light. The photocatalytic activity depended significantly on modification techniques, such as loading, proton exchange, and intercalation. The formation of a "nest" on the particle surface promoted a uniform distribution and strong combination of the nanosized particles on the surface of catalysts. By the methods of intercalation and pillaring as well as by selecting both host and guest, a large variety of molecular designed host–guest systems were obtained. Cadmium sulfide (CdS-intercalated composites showed higher activity and stability. This activity of K4Ce2M10O30 (M=Ta, Nb evolving H2 under visible light irradiation was enhanced by the incorporation of Pt, RuO2 and NiO as co-catalysts. Especially, the nanosized NiOx (Ni–NiO double-layer structure greatly prompted the photocatalytic H2 evolution significantly.
Algebraic K-theory of crystallographic groups the three-dimensional splitting case
Farley, Daniel Scott
2014-01-01
The Farrell-Jones isomorphism conjecture in algebraic K-theory offers a description of the algebraic K-theory of a group using a generalized homology theory. In cases where the conjecture is known to be a theorem, it gives a powerful method for computing the lower algebraic K-theory of a group. This book contains a computation of the lower algebraic K-theory of the split three-dimensional crystallographic groups, a geometrically important class of three-dimensional crystallographic group, representing a third of the total number. The book leads the reader through all aspects of the calculation. The first chapters describe the split crystallographic groups and their classifying spaces. Later chapters assemble the techniques that are needed to apply the isomorphism theorem. The result is a useful starting point for researchers who are interested in the computational side of the Farrell-Jones isomorphism conjecture, and a contribution to the growing literature in the field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, P.K.; Prasad, M.A.
1989-01-01
A numerical study for effective implementation of the antithetic variates technique with geometric splitting/Russian roulette in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations is presented. The study is based on the theory of Monte Carlo errors where a set of coupled integral equations are solved for the first and second moments of the score and for the expected number of flights per particle history. Numerical results are obtained for particle transmission through an infinite homogeneous slab shield composed of an isotropically scattering medium. Two types of antithetic transformations are considered. The results indicate that the antithetic transformations always lead to reduction in variance and increase in efficiency provided optimal antithetic parameters are chosen. A substantial gain in efficiency is obtained by incorporating antithetic transformations in rule of thumb splitting. The advantage gained for thick slabs (∼20 mfp) with low scattering probability (0.1-0.5) is attractively large . (author). 27 refs., 9 tabs
Tune splitting in the presence of linear coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parzen, G.
1991-01-01
The presence of random skew quadrupole field errors will couple the x and y motions. The x and y motions are then each given by the sum of 2 normal modes with the tunes v 1 and v 2 , which may differ appreciably from v x and v y , the unperturbed tunes. This is often called tune splitting since |v 1 - v 2 | is usually larger than |v x - v y |. This tune splitting may be large in proton accelerators using superconducting magnets, because of the relatively large random skew quadrupole field errors that are expected in these magnets. This effect is also increased by the required insertions in proton colliders which generate large β-functions in the insertion region. This tune splitting has been studied in the RHIC accelerator. For RHIC, a tune splitting as large as 0.2 was found in one worse case. A correction system has been developed for correcting this large tune splitting which uses two families of skew quadrupole correctors. It has been found that this correction system corrects most of the large tune splitting, but a residual tune splitting remains that is still appreciable. This paper discusses the corrections to this residual time
Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.
2017-11-01
Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, V.; Sastry, A.; Woo, T.D.; Jones, H.R.
2015-01-01
Aim: To quantify the dose reduction and ensure that the use of a split-bolus protocol provided sufficient vascular enhancement. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2014, both split bolus and traditional two-phase scans were performed on a single CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare) using a two-pump injector (Medrad Stellant). Both protocols used Siemens' proprietary tube current and tube voltage modulation techniques (CARE dose and CARE kV). The protocols were compared retrospectively to assess the dose–length product (DLP), aortic radiodensity at the level of the coeliac axis and radiodensity of the portal vein. Results: There were 151 trauma CT examinations during this period. Seventy-eight used the split-bolus protocol. Seventy-one had traditional two-phase imaging. One patient was excluded as they were under the age of 18 years. The radiodensity measurements for the portal vein were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the split-bolus protocol. The mean aortic enhancement in both protocols exceeded 250 HU, although the traditional two-phase protocol gave greater arterial enhancement (p<0.001) than the split-bolus protocol. The split-bolus protocol had a significantly lower (p<0.001) DLP with 43.5% reduction in the mean DLP compared to the traditional protocol. Conclusion: Split-bolus CT imaging offers significant dose reduction for this relatively young population while retaining both arterial and venous enhancement. -- Highlights: •We implemented a split bolus pan-CT protocol for trauma CT. •We compared the radiation dose and vascular enhancement of the split bolus protocol to a traditional two phase protocol. •The split bolus protocol had a 43.5% reduction in mean DLP
Baryon mass splittings in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, M.K.; Milana, J.
1995-01-01
Baryon masses are calculated in chiral perturbation theory at the one-loop O(p 3 ) level in chiral expansion and to leading order in the heavy baryon expansion. Ultraviolet divergences occur requiring the introduction of counterterms. Despite this necessity, no knowledge of the counterterms is required to determine the violations of the Gell-Mann--Okubo mass relation for the baryon octet or of the decuplet equal-mass-spacing rule, as all divergences cancel exactly at this order. For the same reason all references to an arbitrary scale μ are absent. Neither of these features continue to higher powers in the chiral expansion. We also discuss critically the absolute necessity of simultaneously going beyond the leading-order heavy baryon expansion, if one goes beyond the one-loop O(p 3 ) level. We point out that these corrections in 1/M B generate new divergences ∝m 4 /M 10 . These divergences together with the divergences occurring in one-loop O(p 4 ) graphs of chiral perturbation theory are taken care of by the same set of counterterms. Because of these unknown counterterms one cannot predict the baryon mass splittings at the one-loop O(p 4 ) level even if the parameters of all scrL 1 πN terms are known. We point out another serious problem of going to the one-loop O(p 4 ) level. When the decuplet is off its mass shell there are additional πNΔ and πΔΔ interaction terms. These interactions contribute to the divergent terms ∝(m 4 /M 10 ), and also to nonanalytic terms such as ∝(m 4 /M 10 )ln(m/M 10 ). Without knowledge of the coupling constants appearing in these interactions, one cannot carry out a consistent one-loop O(p 4 ) level calculation
The 2-group of symmetries of a split chain complex
Elgueta, Josep
2010-01-01
We explicitly compute the 2-group of self-equivalences and (homotopy classes of) chain homotopies between them for any {\\it split} chain complex $A_{\\bullet}$ in an arbitrary $\\kb$-linear abelian category ($\\kb$ any commutative ring with unit). In particular, it is shown that it is a {\\it split} 2-group whose equivalence class depends only on the homology of $A_{\\bullet}$, and that it is equivalent to the trivial 2-group when $A_\\bullet$ is a split exact sequence. This provides a description ...
NNLO time-like splitting functions in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moch, S.; Vogt, A.
2008-07-01
We review the status of the calculation of the time-like splitting functions for the evolution of fragmentation functions to the next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. By employing relations between space-like and time-like deep-inelastic processes, all quark-quark and the gluon-gluon time-like splitting functions have been obtained to three loops. The corresponding quantities for the quark-gluon and gluon-quark splitting at this order are presently still unknown except for their second Mellin moments. (orig.)
A splitting algorithm for directional regularization and sparsification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rakêt, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads
2012-01-01
We present a new split-type algorithm for the minimization of a p-harmonic energy with added data fidelity term. The half-quadratic splitting reduces the original problem to two straightforward problems, that can be minimized efficiently. The minimizers to the two sub-problems can typically...... be computed pointwise and are easily implemented on massively parallel processors. Furthermore the splitting method allows for the computation of solutions to a large number of more advanced directional regularization problems. In particular we are able to handle robust, non-convex data terms, and to define...
Grossman, B.; Cinella, P.
1988-01-01
A finite-volume method for the numerical computation of flows with nonequilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry is presented. A thermodynamic model is described which simplifies the coupling between the chemistry and thermodynamics and also results in the retention of the homogeneity property of the Euler equations (including all the species continuity and vibrational energy conservation equations). Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully coupled equations involving fluid dynamics, chemical production and thermodynamic relaxation processes. New forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms are embodied in a fully coupled, implicit, large-block structure, including all the species conservation and energy production equations. Several numerical examples are presented, including high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flows. The methodology is compared to other existing techniques, including spectral and central-differenced procedures, and favorable comparisons are shown regarding accuracy, shock-capturing and convergence rates.
TMD splitting functions in kT factorization. The real contribution to the gluon-to-gluon splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hentschinski, M.; Kusina, A.; Kutak, K.; Serino, M.
2018-01-01
We calculate the transverse momentum dependent gluon-to-gluon splitting function within k T -factorization, generalizing the framework employed in the calculation of the quark splitting functions in Hautmann et al. (Nucl Phys B 865:54-66, arXiv:1205.1759, 2012), Gituliar et al. (JHEP 01:181, arXiv:1511.08439, 2016), Hentschinski et al. (Phys Rev D 94(11):114013, arXiv:1607.01507, 2016) and demonstrate at the same time the consistency of the extended formalism with previous results. While existing versions of k T factorized evolution equations contain already a gluon-to-gluon splitting function i.e. the leading order Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) kernel or the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) kernel, the obtained splitting function has the important property that it reduces both to the leading order BFKL kernel in the high energy limit, to the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) gluon-to-gluon splitting function in the collinear limit as well as to the CCFM kernel in the soft limit. At the same time we demonstrate that this splitting kernel can be obtained from a direct calculation of the QCD Feynman diagrams, based on a combined implementation of the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio formalism for the calculation of the collinear splitting functions and the framework of high energy factorization. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gururaj Arakeri
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Aim: To present a simple technical modification of a medial osteotomy cut which prevents its misdirection and overcomes various anatomical variations as well as technical problems. Methods: The medial osteotomy cut is modified in the posterior half at an angle of 15°-20° following novel landmarks. Results: The proposed cut exclusively directs the splitting forces downwards to create a favorable lingual fracture, preventing the possibility of an upwards split which would cause a coronoid or condylar fracture. Conclusion: This modification has proven to be successful to date without encountering the complications of a bad split or nerve damage.
Traffic dispersion through a series of signals with irregular split
Nagatani, Takashi
2016-01-01
We study the traffic behavior of a group of vehicles moving through a sequence of signals with irregular splits on a roadway. We present the stochastic model of vehicular traffic controlled by signals. The dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic is clarified by analyzing traffic pattern and travel time numerically. The group of vehicles breaks up more and more by the irregularity of signal's split. The traffic dispersion is induced by the irregular split. We show that the traffic dispersion depends highly on the cycle time and the strength of split's irregularity. Also, we study the traffic behavior through the series of signals at the green-wave strategy. The dependence of the travel time on offset time is derived for various values of cycle time. The region map of the traffic dispersion is shown in (cycle time, offset time)-space.
Solar energy conversion by photocatalytic overall water splitting
Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2015-01-01
to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting (OWS) by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces H2 as a chemical energy in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity
Recent Progress in Energy-Driven Water Splitting.
Tee, Si Yin; Win, Khin Yin; Teo, Wee Siang; Koh, Leng-Duei; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Han, Ming-Yong
2017-05-01
Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness. As the most abundant energy resource, the direct conversion of solar energy to hydrogen is considered the most sustainable energy production method without causing pollutions to the environment. In overall, this review briefly summarizes thermolytic, electrolytic, photolytic and biolytic water splitting. It highlights photonic and electrical driven water splitting together with photovoltaic-integrated solar-driven water electrolysis.
Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm
Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2011-01-01
This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding
Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives
Hisatomi, Takashi; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Domen, Kazunari
2014-01-01
Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical
Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene
2014-01-01
Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...
Electrochemical Water-Splitting Based on Hypochlorite Oxidation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Minhová Macounová, Kateřina; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Krtil, Petr
2015-01-01
Roč. 137, č. 23 (2015), s. 7262-7265 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * hypochlorite oxidation * water-splitting Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.038, year: 2015
Acoustic Split-Beam Echosounder Data (EK60)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories collects data using Simrad EK60 scientific split-beam acoustic echosounders during resource...
Toward visible light response: Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts
Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Domen, Kazunari
2011-01-01
Extensive energy conversion of solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting by powder
Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)
2014-05-01
Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.
Geometrical tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Kristensen, Anders; Xiao, Sanshui
2010-01-01
We investigate the capacitance tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators. An LC-model predicts a simple dependence of resonance frequency on slit aspect ratio. Experimental and numerical data follow the predictions of the LC-model....
Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach
Rashid, Faraan
2012-06-01
We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.
The Wedge Splitting Test: Influence of Aggregate Size and Water-to-Cement Ratio
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pease, Bradley Justin; Skocek, Jan; Geiker, Mette Rica
2007-01-01
Since the development of the wedge splitting test (WST), techniques have been used to extract material properties that can describe the fracture behavior of the tested materials. Inverse analysis approaches are commonly used to estimate the stress-crack width relationship; which is described...... by the elastic modulus, tensile strength, fracture energy, and the assumed softening behavior. The stress-crack width relation can be implemented in finite element models for computing the cracking behavior of cementitious systems. While inverse analysis provides information about the material properties...... of various concrete mixtures there are limitations to the current analysis techniques. To date these techniques analyze the result of one WST specimen, thereby providing an estimate of material properties from single result. This paper utilizes a recent improvement to the inverse analysis technique, which...
QED corrections to the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florian, Daniel de [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica and IFIBA, FCEyN, Capital Federal (Argentina); UNSAM, International Center for Advanced Studies (ICAS), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sborlini, German F.R.; Rodrigo, German [Universitat de Valencia - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna, Valencia (Spain)
2016-05-15
We discuss the combined effect of QED and QCD corrections to the evolution of parton distributions. We extend the available knowledge of the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions to one order higher in QED, and we provide explicit expressions for the splitting kernels up to O(α α{sub S}). The results presented in this article allow one to perform a parton distribution function analysis reaching full NLO QCD-QED combined precision. (orig.)
Split, Croatia - Educational, Adventurous and Sustainable Tourism Destination
Chabik, Szymon; Imran, Md. Azim
2015-01-01
The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to create an audio-visual documentation about an educational trip to Split, Croatia. The trip took place in April, 2014. The educational tour was organized by Laurea University of Applied Sciences. The destination, Split, were chosen by participants’ vote. The tour was arranged and planned by a group of students and the theme of the tour was Educational Tourism. The entire trip was taken into consideration from sustainable, Adventure and educational po...
Visualization of the sequence of a couple splitting outside shop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'......Visualization of tracks of couple walking together before splitting and one goes into shop the other waits outside. The visualization represents the sequence described in figure 7 in the publication 'Taking the temperature of pedestrian movement in public spaces'...
Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisht, P.S.
2004-01-01
Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa
Introducing inducible fluorescent split cholesterol oxidase to mammalian cells.
Chernov, Konstantin G; Neuvonen, Maarit; Brock, Ivonne; Ikonen, Elina; Verkhusha, Vladislav V
2017-05-26
Cholesterol oxidase (COase) is a bacterial enzyme catalyzing the first step in the biodegradation of cholesterol. COase is an important biotechnological tool for clinical diagnostics and production of steroid drugs and insecticides. It is also used for tracking intracellular cholesterol; however, its utility is limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control of its activity. To overcome this we have developed a regulatable fragment complementation system for COase cloned from Chromobacterium sp. The enzyme was split into two moieties that were fused to FKBP (FK506-binding protein) and FRB (rapamycin-binding domain) pair and split GFP fragments. The addition of rapamycin reconstituted a fluorescent enzyme, termed split GFP-COase, the fluorescence level of which correlated with its oxidation activity. A rapid decrease of cellular cholesterol induced by intracellular expression of the split GFP-COase promoted the dissociation of a cholesterol biosensor D4H from the plasma membrane. The process was reversible as upon rapamycin removal, the split GFP-COase fluorescence was lost, and cellular cholesterol levels returned to normal. These data demonstrate that the split GFP-COase provides a novel tool to manipulate cholesterol in mammalian cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey C. S. Wu
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holloway, Christopher L., E-mail: holloway@boulder.nist.gov; Gordon, Joshua A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-06-16
We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.
In Situ Splitting of a Rib Bone Graft for Reconstruction of Orbital Floor and Medial Wall.
Uemura, Tetsuji; Yanai, Tetsu; Yasuta, Masato; Harada, Yoshimi; Morikawa, Aya; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Kurokawa, Masato
2017-06-01
In situ splitting of rib bone graft was conducted in 22 patients for the repair of orbital fracture with no other complicating fractures. A bone graft was harvested from the sixth or seventh rib in the right side. The repair of the orbital floor and medial wall was successful in all the cases. Ten patients had bone grafting to the orbital floor, eight had it done onto medial wall, and 4 onto both floor and wall after reduction. The mean length of in situ rib bone graft was 40.9 mm (range, 20-70 mm), the mean width of these was 14.9 mm (range, 8-20 mm). The bone grafting was done by one leaf for 15 cases and two leafs for 7 cases in size of defects. The technique of in situ splitting of a rib bone graft for the repair of the orbital floor and medial wall is a simple and safe procedure, easily taking out the in situ splitting of a rib, and less pain in donor site. It has proved to be an optimal choice in craniofacial reconstruction, especially the defects of orbital floor and medial wall.
Status report on the 12T split coil test facility SULTAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blau, B.; Aebli, E.; Jakob, B.; Pasztor, G.; Vecsey, G.; della Corte, A.; Pasotti, G.; Sacchetti, N.; Spadoni, M.
1992-01-01
The third phase of upgrading of the superconductor test facility SULTAN into a split coil system (SULTAN III) is in progress. SULTAN III a join project of ENEA (Italy) and PSI (Switzerland) consists of two coil packages, each containing three concentrically mounted superconducting solenoids. Together they will produce a field of nearly 12T between the two coil packages, inside a solenoid bore of 58 cm. The outermost 6T coils have NbTi conductors, whereas the inner 9T and 12T coils are made of A-15 cables. All Nb 3 Sn coils are manufactured by the react-and-wind technique. The split coil arrangement, in connection with a sophisticated sample insert containing a 50 kA superconducting transformer, will allow testing of short samples of high current carrying superconductors, e.g. for fusion applications. The sample insert was designed to allow changing the samples within a few hours without warming up the whole magnet system. This paper deals with the present status and potential of the Split Coil Test Facility SULTAN III
Design and optimization of cascaded DCG based holographic elements for spectrum-splitting PV systems
Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Pelaez, Silvana Ayala; Kostuk, Raymond K.
2017-09-01
In this work, the technique of designing and optimizing broadband volume transmission holograms using dichromate gelatin (DCG) is summarized for solar spectrum-splitting application. Spectrum splitting photovoltaic system uses a series of single bandgap PV cells that have different spectral conversion efficiency properties to more fully utilize the solar spectrum. In such a system, one or more high performance optical filters are usually required to split the solar spectrum and efficiently send them to the corresponding PV cells. An ideal spectral filter should have a rectangular shape with sharp transition wavelengths. DCG is a near ideal holographic material for solar applications as it can achieve high refractive index modulation, low absorption and scattering properties and long-term stability to solar exposure after sealing. In this research, a methodology of designing and modeling a transmission DCG hologram using coupled wave analysis for different PV bandgap combinations is described. To achieve a broad diffraction bandwidth and sharp cut-off wavelength, a cascaded structure of multiple thick holograms is described. A search algorithm is also developed to optimize both single and two-layer cascaded holographic spectrum splitters for the best bandgap combinations of two- and three-junction SSPV systems illuminated under the AM1.5 solar spectrum. The power conversion efficiencies of the optimized systems under the AM1.5 solar spectrum are then calculated using the detailed balance method, and shows an improvement compared with tandem structure.
Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Bogucki, Piotr; Sobieszek, Aleksander
2017-01-01
Electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns were analyzed in a group of ambulatory patients who ranged in age and sex using spectral analysis as well as Directed Transfer Function, a method used to evaluate functional brain connectivity. We tested the impact of window size and choice of reference electrode on the identification of two or more peaks with close frequencies in the spectral power distribution, so called "split alpha." Together with the connectivity analysis, examination of spatiotemporal maps showing the distribution of amplitudes of EEG patterns allowed for better explanation of the mechanisms underlying the generation of split alpha peaks. It was demonstrated that the split alpha spectrum can be generated by two or more independent and interconnected alpha wave generators located in different regions of the cerebral cortex, but not necessarily in the occipital cortex. We also demonstrated the importance of appropriate reference electrode choice during signal recording. In addition, results obtained using the original data were compared with results obtained using re-referenced data, using average reference electrode and reference electrode standardization techniques.
Image Reconstruction for Diffuse Optical Tomography Based on Radiative Transfer Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Bi
2015-01-01
L2 regularization. Results also show the competitive performance of the split Bregman algorithm for the DOT image reconstruction with sparsity regularization compared with other existing L1 algorithms.
Ramos-Méndez, José; Schuemann, Jan; Incerti, Sebastien; Paganetti, Harald; Schulte, Reinhard; Faddegon, Bruce
2017-08-01
Flagged uniform particle splitting was implemented with two methods to improve the computational efficiency of Monte Carlo track structure simulations with TOPAS-nBio by enhancing the production of secondary electrons in ionization events. In method 1 the Geant4 kernel was modified. In method 2 Geant4 was not modified. In both methods a unique flag number assigned to each new split electron was inherited by its progeny, permitting reclassification of the split events as if produced by independent histories. Computational efficiency and accuracy were evaluated for simulations of 0.5-20 MeV protons and 1-20 MeV u-1 carbon ions for three endpoints: (1) mean of the ionization cluster size distribution, (2) mean number of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) classified with DBSCAN, and (3) mean number of SSBs and DSBs classified with a geometry-based algorithm. For endpoint (1), simulation efficiency was 3 times lower when splitting electrons generated by direct ionization events of primary particles than when splitting electrons generated by the first ionization events of secondary electrons. The latter technique was selected for further investigation. The following results are for method 2, with relative efficiencies about 4.5 times lower for method 1. For endpoint (1), relative efficiency at 128 split electrons approached maximum, increasing with energy from 47.2 ± 0.2 to 66.9 ± 0.2 for protons, decreasing with energy from 51.3 ± 0.4 to 41.7 ± 0.2 for carbon. For endpoint (2), relative efficiency increased with energy, from 20.7 ± 0.1 to 50.2 ± 0.3 for protons, 15.6 ± 0.1 to 20.2 ± 0.1 for carbon. For endpoint (3) relative efficiency increased with energy, from 31.0 ± 0.2 to 58.2 ± 0.4 for protons, 23.9 ± 0.1 to 26.2 ± 0.2 for carbon. Simulation results with and without splitting agreed within 1% (2 standard
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions
Mück, Leonie Anna; Gauss, Jürgen
2012-03-21
We propose a generally applicable scheme for the computation of spin-orbit (SO) splittings in degenerate open-shell systems using multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory. As a specific method, Mukherjee's version of MRCC (Mk-MRCC) in conjunction with an effective mean-field SO operator is adapted for this purpose. An expression for the SO splittings is derived and implemented using Mk-MRCC analytic derivative techniques. The computed SO splittings are found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Due to the symmetry properties of the SO operator, SO splittings can be considered a quality measure for the coupling between reference determinants in Jeziorski-Monkhorst based MRCC methods. We thus provide numerical insights into the coupling problem of Mk-MRCC theory. © 2012 American Institute of Physics
Split thickness skin graft meshing ratio indications and common practices.
Pripotnev, Stahs; Papp, Anthony
2017-12-01
Split thickness skin grafting is a commonly used technique in burn surgery for resurfacing wounds that are unlikely to heal without scarring. Meshing and expanding skin grafts allow for reconstruction of larger wounds with smaller donor sites. A retrospective chart review was performed of 210 patients with burns equal to or greater than 20% total body surface area admitted to Vancouver General Hospital between 1998 and 2014. Charts were reviewed to collect data on patient and burn demographics. A survey was sent to Canadian plastic surgeons registered with the CSPS to collect data on common practices in burn surgery nationwide. The patients that received 3:1 or higher meshed grafts were all flame burns, had a significantly higher average TBSA (51.89%±14.87 vs 29.13%±9.48, p=0.001), and a significantly higher full thickness burn TBSA (25.76%±21.97 vs 6.20%±9.04, p=0.001). We found no significant differences in gender, age, or burn location between the less than 2:1 and 3:1 or greater meshing ratio groups. The survey of plastic surgeons performing burn surgery in Canada revealed that 60% of responders had experience with skin grafts using meshing ratios of 3:1 or higher. Of these surgeons, 100% felt that burn size and 36% felt that burn location would influence their decision to use a 3:1 or higher meshing ratio. A larger burn size is the major influencing factor for the use of higher skin graft meshing ratios by Canadian burn surgeons. Furthermore, burn location determines the choice of donor and recipient sites in these cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
[Applicational evaluation of split tooth extractions of upper molars using piezosurgery].
Li, D; Guo, C B; Liu, Y; Wang, E B
2016-08-18
To evaluate the efficacy of Piezosurgery in split teeth extractions. A single-center, randomized, split-mouth study was performed using a consecutive serious of unrelated healthy patients attending the departing of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. 40 patients were selected for extraction of maxillary molars without reservation value,splitting or nonvital teeth. They were divided into control (20 patients) and test groups (20 patients) randomly. Surgical treatments for both groups were under local anesthesia. Molar teeth of control group were extracted by common equipments like dental elevators, chisels, forceps, etc. While molar teeth of experimental group were extracted by Piezosurgery, aided with the use of common equipments if needed. Then we compared the duration of surgery, frequency of the usage of chisels, expansion of postoperative bony socket surgical discomfort and postoperative pain between two groups. The average of operation time was (629.5±171.0) s in control group and (456.0±337.2) s in test group. The buccal alveolar bone reduced (1.07±0.64) mm in control group and (1.49±0.61) mm in test group. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P0.05). Piezosugery can be better to preserve alveolar bone, reduce trauma and patient's fear. Application of the piezosugery reflect the characteristics of minimally invasive extraction, which has the value of promotion. The Piezosurgery technique have the advantage of reducing change of buccal alveolar bone during the surgery, but a longer surgical time was required when compared with the conventional technique. VAS value of surgical discomfort, expansion of postoperative bony socket and the operative fear rate, there were no significant difference. Minimally invasive tooth extraction technique has good clinical results and high satisfaction. Piezosurgery proved its worth as the instrument adapted to limiting the destruction of bone tissue.
A Multilevel Adaptive Reaction-splitting Simulation Method for Stochastic Reaction Networks
Moraes, Alvaro; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro
2016-01-01
In this work, we present a novel multilevel Monte Carlo method for kinetic simulation of stochastic reaction networks characterized by having simultaneously fast and slow reaction channels. To produce efficient simulations, our method adaptively classifies the reactions channels into fast and slow channels. To this end, we first introduce a state-dependent quantity named level of activity of a reaction channel. Then, we propose a low-cost heuristic that allows us to adaptively split the set of reaction channels into two subsets characterized by either a high or a low level of activity. Based on a time-splitting technique, the increments associated with high-activity channels are simulated using the tau-leap method, while those associated with low-activity channels are simulated using an exact method. This path simulation technique is amenable for coupled path generation and a corresponding multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm. To estimate expected values of observables of the system at a prescribed final time, our method bounds the global computational error to be below a prescribed tolerance, TOL, within a given confidence level. This goal is achieved with a computational complexity of order O(TOL-2), the same as with a pathwise-exact method, but with a smaller constant. We also present a novel low-cost control variate technique based on the stochastic time change representation by Kurtz, showing its performance on a numerical example. We present two numerical examples extracted from the literature that show how the reaction-splitting method obtains substantial gains with respect to the standard stochastic simulation algorithm and the multilevel Monte Carlo approach by Anderson and Higham. © 2016 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
A Multilevel Adaptive Reaction-splitting Simulation Method for Stochastic Reaction Networks
Moraes, Alvaro
2016-07-07
In this work, we present a novel multilevel Monte Carlo method for kinetic simulation of stochastic reaction networks characterized by having simultaneously fast and slow reaction channels. To produce efficient simulations, our method adaptively classifies the reactions channels into fast and slow channels. To this end, we first introduce a state-dependent quantity named level of activity of a reaction channel. Then, we propose a low-cost heuristic that allows us to adaptively split the set of reaction channels into two subsets characterized by either a high or a low level of activity. Based on a time-splitting technique, the increments associated with high-activity channels are simulated using the tau-leap method, while those associated with low-activity channels are simulated using an exact method. This path simulation technique is amenable for coupled path generation and a corresponding multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm. To estimate expected values of observables of the system at a prescribed final time, our method bounds the global computational error to be below a prescribed tolerance, TOL, within a given confidence level. This goal is achieved with a computational complexity of order O(TOL-2), the same as with a pathwise-exact method, but with a smaller constant. We also present a novel low-cost control variate technique based on the stochastic time change representation by Kurtz, showing its performance on a numerical example. We present two numerical examples extracted from the literature that show how the reaction-splitting method obtains substantial gains with respect to the standard stochastic simulation algorithm and the multilevel Monte Carlo approach by Anderson and Higham. © 2016 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
van den Hondel, Desiree; Sloots, Cornelius; Meeussen, Conny; Wijnen, Rene
2014-02-01
The aim of this article is to identify the ideal type and location of colostomy in children with colorectal disease. A retrospective case study of children with an anorectal malformation who received a colostomy, born between January 1990 and July 2012. Furthermore, a systematic literature search on colostomies in neonates with an anorectal malformation or Hirschsprung disease. Colostomies were classified as loop or split colostomies in the transverse or sigmoid colon. Outcome measures were mortality and complications such as prolapse, technical difficulties with the reconstruction, urinary tract infections, and others. The mortality rate in the 180 children with anorectal malformation was 6%, and none of them were directly related to stoma formation or closure. The overall complication rate was 23% and the specific rates for the two types of procedures and the two locations of the colostomy did not differ (p = 0.389 and p = 0.667, respectively). All prolapses (n = 22) occurred in loop colostomies in the transverse colon. One colostomy required revision because of insufficient length for the reconstruction. Urinary tract infections were not documented. A total of eight studies were included in the systematic review (1982-2011; 2,954 patients). Mortality ranged between 0.1 and 11%. Loop colostomies had more complications than split colostomies (63 vs. 45%; p = 0.007), mainly prolapse (18 vs. 6%; p colostomies (62 vs. 51%, p = 0.006), and prolapse occurred more often in the transverse colon (23 vs. 7%; p colostomies, whereas the other showed frequent episodes of urinary tract infections in 64% of the loop colostomies. The complication to be avoided in transverse colostomies is prolapse and the surgical technique should be modified accordingly. The procedure of split sigmoid colostomy is meticulous, and the risk of insufficient length for the reconstruction remains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage
Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T
2014-01-01
Objective Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. Description We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. Methods After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at −20 cm H2O for 30 min. Results When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. Conclusion The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications. PMID:25478289
Novel Split Chest Tube Improves Post-Surgical Thoracic Drainage.
Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H; Cherry, Brandon H; Gurji, Hunaid A; White, Daniel W; Newton, J Tyler; Scott, Gary F; Hoxha, Besim; Gourlay, Terence; Mallet, Robert T
2014-01-01
Conventional, separate mediastinal and pleural tubes are often inefficient at draining thoracic effusions. We developed a Y-shaped chest tube with split ends that divide within the thoracic cavity, permitting separate intrathoracic placement and requiring a single exit port. In this study, thoracic drainage by the split drain vs. that of separate drains was tested. After sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and left pleurotomy, pigs were fitted with separate chest drains (n=10) or a split tube prototype (n=9) with internal openings positioned in the mediastinum and in the costo-diaphragmatic recess. Separate series of experiments were conducted to test drainage of D5W or 0.58 M sucrose, an aqueous solution with viscosity approximating that of plasma. One litre of fluid was infused into the thorax, and suction was applied at -20 cm H2O for 30 min. When D5W was infused, the split drain left a residual volume of 53 ± 99 ml (mean value ± SD) vs. 148 ± 120 for the separate drain (P=0.007), representing a drainage efficiency (i.e. drained vol/[drained + residual vol]) of 95 ± 10% vs. 86 ± 12% for the separate drains (P = 0.011). In the second series, the split drain evacuated more 0.58 M sucrose in the first minute (967 ± 129 ml) than the separate drains (680 ± 192 ml, Pdrain evacuated a similar volume of sucrose vs. the conventional drain (1089 ± 72 vs. 1056 ± 78 ml; P = 0.5). Residual volume tended to be lower (25 ± 10 vs. 62 ± 72 ml; P = 0.128) and drainage efficiency tended to be higher (98 ± 1 vs. 95 ± 6%; P = 0.111) with the split drain vs. conventional separate drains. The split chest tube drained the thoracic cavity at least as effectively as conventional separate tubes. This new device could potentially alleviate postoperative complications.
En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.
Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat
2011-05-01
Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.
Pulse Splitting for Harmonic Beamforming in Time-Modulated Linear Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Poli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel strategy for harmonic beamforming in time-modulated linear arrays is proposed. The pulse splitting technique is exploited to simultaneously generate two harmonic patterns, one at the central frequency and another at a preselected harmonic of arbitrary order, while controlling the maximum level of the remaining sideband radiations. An optimization strategy based on the particle swarm optimizer is developed in order to determine the optimal parameters describing the pulse sequence used to modulate the excitation weights of the array elements. Representative numerical results are reported and discussed to point out potentialities and limitations of the proposed approach.
An Operator-Integration-Factor Splitting (OIFS) method for Incompressible Flows in Moving Domains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, Saumil S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fischer, Paul F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Min, Misun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomboulides, Ananias G [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)
2017-10-21
In this paper, we present a characteristic-based numerical procedure for simulating incompressible flows in domains with moving boundaries. Our approach utilizes an operator-integration-factor splitting technique to help produce an effcient and stable numerical scheme. Using the spectral element method and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, we investigate flows where the convective acceleration effects are non-negligible. Several examples, ranging from laminar to turbulent flows, are considered. Comparisons with a standard, semi-implicit time-stepping procedure illustrate the improved performance of the scheme.
Symmetrical analysis of the defect level splitting in two-dimensional photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malkova, N; Kim, S; Gopalan, V
2003-01-01
In this paper doubly degenerate defect states in the band gap of the two-dimensional photonic crystal are studied. These states can be split by a convenient distortion of the lattice. Through analogy with the Jahn-Teller effect in solids, we present a group theoretical analysis of the lifting of the degeneracy of doubly degenerate states in a square lattice by different vibronic modes. The effect is supported by the supercell plane-wave model and by the finite difference time domain technique. We suggest ways for using the effect in photonic switching devices and waveguides
An implicit flux-split algorithm to calculate hypersonic flowfields in chemical equilibrium
Palmer, Grant
1987-01-01
An implicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing algorithm that calculates inviscid, hypersonic flows in chemical equilibrium is presented. The flux vectors and flux Jacobians are differenced using a first-order, flux-split technique. The equilibrium composition of the gas is determined by minimizing the Gibbs free energy at every node point. The code is validated by comparing results over an axisymmetric hemisphere against previously published results. The algorithm is also applied to more practical configurations. The accuracy, stability, and versatility of the algorithm have been promising.
Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav
2009-01-01
on how small this antenna can be. In practice, the lower bound is set by losses in utilized materials and manufacturing inaccuracies. As an example, an antenna of ka=0.09 was designed, fabricated and tested. Although the initially fabricated antenna prototype had the input impedance of 43 ohms......, it was subsequently tuned to 50 ohms simply by cutting out the excessive arm length. This tuning technique is especially useful in practical applications, since it allows the antenna to be tuned in-place and thereby compensate for various inaccuracies as well as for an antenna environment....
Deng, Jie; Long, Maureen D.; Creasy, Neala; Wagner, Lara; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estela
2017-08-01
Seismic anisotropy has been documented in many portions of the lowermost mantle, with particularly strong anisotropy thought to be present along the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The region surrounding the Pacific LLSVP, however, has not yet been studied extensively in terms of its anisotropic structure. In this study, we use seismic data from southern Peru, northern Bolivia and Easter Island to probe lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean, mostly relying on data from the Peru Lithosphere and Slab Experiment and Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography experiments. Differential shear wave splitting measurements from phases that have similar ray paths in the upper mantle but different ray paths in the lowermost mantle, such as SKS and SKKS, are used to constrain anisotropy in D″. We measured splitting for 215 same station-event SKS-SKKS pairs that sample the eastern Pacific LLSVP at the base of the mantle. We used measurements of splitting intensity(SI), a measure of the amount of energy on the transverse component, to objectively and quantitatively analyse any discrepancies between SKS and SKKS phases. While the overall splitting signal is dominated by the upper-mantle anisotropy, a minority of SKS-SKKS pairs (∼10 per cent) exhibit strongly discrepant splitting between the phases (i.e. the waveforms require a difference in SI of at least 0.4), indicating a likely contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy. In order to enhance lower mantle signals, we also stacked waveforms within individual subregions and applied a waveform differencing technique to isolate the signal from the lowermost mantle. Our stacking procedure yields evidence for substantial splitting due to lowermost mantle anisotropy only for a specific region that likely straddles the edge of Pacific LLSVP. Our observations are consistent with the localization of deformation and anisotropy near the eastern boundary of the Pacific LLSVP
Analysis of main dynamic parameters of split power transmission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Janulevičius
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The review carried out had shown one basic approach of split power transmission to the organization of drive which is applied to stepless transmissions of tractors and parallel hybrid cars. In the split power transmission the power split device uses a planetary gear. Tractor engine power in the split power transmission is transmitted to the drive shaft via a mechanical and hydraulic path. The theoretical analysis of main parameters of the split power transmission of the tractor is presented. The angular velocity of sun and coronary gears of the differential set is estimated by solution of the system of equations in which one equation is made for planetary differential gear, and another – for hydrostatic drive. The analysis of the transmission gear-ratio dependencies on the ratio of hydraulic machines capacities is carried out. Dependence of the variation of angular velocity of the coronary and the sun gears on the ground speed of the tractor is presented. Dependence of sum shaft torque and its constituents, carried by mechanical and hydraulic lines, on sum shaft angular velocity and ground speed of tractor and engine speed is also presented.
New Splitting Criteria for Decision Trees in Stationary Data Streams.
Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Jaworski, Maciej; Duda, Piotr; Rutkowski, Leszek; Rutkowski, Leszek; Duda, Piotr; Jaworski, Maciej
2018-06-01
The most popular tools for stream data mining are based on decision trees. In previous 15 years, all designed methods, headed by the very fast decision tree algorithm, relayed on Hoeffding's inequality and hundreds of researchers followed this scheme. Recently, we have demonstrated that although the Hoeffding decision trees are an effective tool for dealing with stream data, they are a purely heuristic procedure; for example, classical decision trees such as ID3 or CART cannot be adopted to data stream mining using Hoeffding's inequality. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new algorithms, which are both mathematically justified and characterized by good performance. In this paper, we address this problem by developing a family of new splitting criteria for classification in stationary data streams and investigating their probabilistic properties. The new criteria, derived using appropriate statistical tools, are based on the misclassification error and the Gini index impurity measures. The general division of splitting criteria into two types is proposed. Attributes chosen based on type- splitting criteria guarantee, with high probability, the highest expected value of split measure. Type- criteria ensure that the chosen attribute is the same, with high probability, as it would be chosen based on the whole infinite data stream. Moreover, in this paper, two hybrid splitting criteria are proposed, which are the combinations of single criteria based on the misclassification error and Gini index.
Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg
2017-04-01
We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement
Parallel processing for pitch splitting decomposition
Barnes, Levi; Li, Yong; Wadkins, David; Biederman, Steve; Miloslavsky, Alex; Cork, Chris
2009-10-01
Decomposition of an input pattern in preparation for a double patterning process is an inherently global problem in which the influence of a local decomposition decision can be felt across an entire pattern. In spite of this, a large portion of the work can be massively distributed. Here, we discuss the advantages of geometric distribution for polygon operations with limited range of influence. Further, we have found that even the naturally global "coloring" step can, in large part, be handled in a geometrically local manner. In some practical cases, up to 70% of the work can be distributed geometrically. We also describe the methods for partitioning the problem into local pieces and present scaling data up to 100 CPUs. These techniques reduce DPT decomposition runtime by orders of magnitude.
Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik
2006-01-01
properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...... models are presented, a simple semi-analytical model based on analytical solutions for the crack propagation in a rectangular prismatic body, and a finite element model including plasticity in bulk material as well as crack propagation in interface elements. A numerical study applying these models...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...
Electron refrigeration in hybrid structures with spin-split superconductors
Rouco, M.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Bergeret, F. S.
2018-01-01
Electron tunneling between superconductors and normal metals has been used for an efficient refrigeration of electrons in the latter. Such cooling is a nonlinear effect and usually requires a large voltage. Here we study the electron cooling in heterostructures based on superconductors with a spin-splitting field coupled to normal metals via spin-filtering barriers. The cooling power shows a linear term in the applied voltage. This improves the coefficient of performance of electron refrigeration in the normal metal by shifting its optimum cooling to lower voltage, and also allows for cooling the spin-split superconductor by reverting the sign of the voltage. We also show how tunnel coupling spin-split superconductors with regular ones allows for a highly efficient refrigeration of the latter.
Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting
Garcia Esparza, Angel T.
2016-04-03
Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.
Improved Bunch Splitting for the 75ns LHC Beam
Damerau, H
2011-01-01
The 75ns variant was added to the PS arsenal of LHC-type beams by adapting the 20MHz cavity used to produce the 25 and 50ns variants to operate at a switchable 13MHz. This permitted splitting from harmonic 14 to 28, but at a cost in adiabaticity compared with the h=2142 splitting of the other two cases. Consequently, a delicate empirical optimization was necessary to bring the 75ns beam inside specification. More recently the speed at which the bunches, once fully distinct, are moved apart has been revisited and further optimization achieved. As a by-product, deliberately degrading the splitting by moving the bunches apart too quickly led to sufficient coherent motion in the resultant bunch pair to permit a voltage calibration of the 13MHz cavity by means of the influence on convergence of the rf voltage input into the iterative algorithm of the Tomoscope [1,2].
Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications
Nurlaela, Ela; Ziani, Ahmed; Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2016-01-01
Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.
The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes
It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....
Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl
Singh, Nirpendra
2014-07-25
First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Tantalum nitride for photocatalytic water splitting: concept and applications
Nurlaela, Ela
2016-10-12
Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This review focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, catalytic efficiency, and mass transfer of the reactants. An overview of collaborative experimental and theoretical approaches to achieve efficient photocatalytic water splitting using Ta3N5 is discussed.
Point splitting in a curved space-time background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.
1979-01-01
A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)
The splitting of giant multipole states of deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.; Rowe, D.J.
1977-01-01
A vibrating potential model is applied to deformed nuclei with a deformed harmonic oscillator potential in order to discuss the splitting of isoscalar giant quadrupole states. Eigenfrequencies of the collective states are estimated to be √2ω(1 - delta/3), √2ω(1 - delta/6) and √2ω(1 + delta/3) for K = 0 + ,1 + and 2 + modes, respectively. The splitting of isovector dipole and isovector quadrupole states is also studied according to a schematic model as proposed by Bohr and Mottelson. It is shown that isovector dipole states are split, as in a hydrodynamic model, while isovector quadrupole states with the same scaling factors as those of isocalar quadrupole modes. (Auth.)
Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasch, Marten
2016-04-01
The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R h =(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.
Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2014-02-01
Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible.
Grand unification in higher dimensions with split supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuster, Philip C.
2006-01-01
We investigate gauge coupling unification in higher dimensional GUT models with split supersymmetry. We focus on 5d and 6d orbifold GUTs, which permit a simple solution to several problems of 4D GUTs as well as control over GUT scale threshold corrections. In orbifold GUTs, calculable threshold corrections can raise or lower the prediction for α s (M Z ) in a way that depends on the location of Higgs fields. On the other hand, split supersymmetry lowers the prediction for α s (M Z ). Consequently, split supersymmetry changes the preferred location of the Higgs fields in orbifold GUTs. In the simplest models, we find that gauge coupling unification favors higgs doublets that live on the orbifold fixed points instead of in the bulk. In addition, relatively high scales of supersymmetry breaking of 10 10±2 GeV are generically favored
Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke
2014-01-01
Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible
Rabi splitting in an acoustic cavity embedded plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni, Xu; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng
2014-01-01
We design a structure to realize Rabi splitting and Rabi oscillation in acoustics. We develop rigorous analytical models to analyze the splitting effect from the aspect of phase matching, and from the aspect of mode coupling using a coupled mode model. In this model, we discover that the splitting effect is caused by the coupling of the Fabry–Perot fundamental mode with the resonant mode of an artificial acoustic ‘atom’. We then extract the coupling strength and analyze the impact of structural parameters on it. In addition, we demonstrate Rabi oscillation in the time domain. Such quantum phenomena in the classical regime may have potential applications in the design of novel ultrasonic devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidarinasab, A.; Dabir, B.; Sahimi, M.; Badii, Kh.
2003-01-01
During the past years, one of the most important problems has been air pollution in urban areas. In this regards, ozone, as one of the major products of photochemical reactions, has great importance. The term 'photochemical' is applied to a number of secondary pollutants that appear as a result of sun-related reactions, ozone being the most important one. So far various models have been suggested to predict these pollutants. In this paper, we developed the model that has been introduced by Dabir, et al. [4]. In this model more than 48 chemical species and 114 chemical reactions are involved. The result of this development, showed good to excellent agreement across the region for compounds such as O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, and SO 2 with regard to VOC and NMHC. The results of the simulation were compared with previous work [4] and the effects of increasing the number of components and reactions were evaluated. The results of the operator splitting method were compared with non splitting solving method. The result showed that splitting method with one-tenth time step collapsed with non splitting method (Crank-Nicolson, under-relaxation iteration method without splitting of the equation terms). Then we developed one dimensional model to 3-D and were compared with experimental data
Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.
Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong
2014-07-07
Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting
Using Protection Layers for a 2-Photon Water Splitting Device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seger, Brian; Mei, Bastian Timo; Frydendal, Rasmus
2015-01-01
The 2-photon tandem device for photocatalytic water splitting has been theoretically shown to provide a higher efficiency than a single photon device(1). This increased efficiency can be achieved by having one material optimized to absorb high energy photons (large bandgap) and another material...... optimized to absorb low energy photons (small bandgap). To a large degree this approach has been hindered by corrosion issues. In this talk I will first discuss how our computational screening of 2,400 materials showed that very few materials can efficiently absorb light without corroding in water splitting...
Double collinear splitting amplitudes at next-to-leading order
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sborlini, Germán F.R. [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València -Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Florian, Daniel de [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València -Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)
2014-01-07
We compute the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the 1→2 splitting amplitudes in different dimensional regularization (DREG) schemes. Besides recovering previously known results, we explore new DREG schemes and analyze their consistency by comparing the divergent structure with the expected behavior predicted by Catani’s formula. Through the introduction of scalar-gluons, we show the relation among splittings matrices computed using different schemes. Also, we extended this analysis to cover the double collinear limit of scattering amplitudes in the context of QCD+QED.
Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil
2017-01-01
The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...
Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatemeh Hosseini Alast
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.
On the local edge antimagicness of m-splitting graphs
Albirri, E. R.; Dafik; Slamin; Agustin, I. H.; Alfarisi, R.
2018-04-01
Let G be a connected and simple graph. A split graph is a graph derived by adding new vertex v‧ in every vertex v‧ such that v‧ adjacent to v in graph G. An m-splitting graph is a graph which has m v‧-vertices, denoted by mSpl(G). A local edge antimagic coloring in G = (V, E) graph is a bijection f:V (G)\\to \\{1,2,3,\\ldots,|V(G)|\\} in which for any two adjacent edges e 1 and e 2 satisfies w({e}1)\
Modelling of uranium/plutonium splitting in purex process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boullis, B.; Baron, P.
1987-06-01
A mathematical model simulating the highly complex uranium/plutonium splitting operation in PUREX process has been achieved by the french ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique''. The development of such a model, which includes transfer and redox reactions kinetics for all the species involved, required an important experimental work in the field of basis chemical data acquisition. The model has been successfully validated by comparison of its results with those of specific trials achieved (at laboratory scale), and with the available results of the french reprocessing units operation. It has then been used for the design of french new plants splitting operations
SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon
2014-01-01
output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....
Measurement of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen
Juhász, B; Federmann, S
2011-01-01
The ASACUSA collaboration at the Antiproton Decelerator of CERN is planning to measure the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using an atomic beam line, consisting of a cusp trap as a source of partially polarized antihydrogen atoms, a radiofrequency spin-flip cavity, a superconducting sextupole magnet as spin analyser, and an antihydrogen detector. This will be a measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment, and also a test of the CPT invariance. Monte Carlo simulations predict that the antihydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting can be determined with a relative precision of ~10−7. The first preliminary measurements of the hyperfine transitions will start in 2011.
Refrigerant lines in split-type air conditioners
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rettenberger, P
1979-01-01
Condensator and evaporating units of split-type air conditioners are evaluated and filled with the refrigerant by the producer. The line systems are hermetically closed and prevent the loss of refrigerant and the penetration of moisture or dirt. The best installation method is the 'bendable lines'. They combine flexibility and easy installation with the advantages of the copper pipe. Several ducting systems and their connecting elements like couplings and valves are described, their installation is explained. These flexible systems are especially suitable for small air-condition plants of the split-type the evaporating unit of which is portable and can put where it is desired.
Normal-Mode Splitting in a Weakly Coupled Optomechanical System
Rossi, Massimiliano; Kralj, Nenad; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David
2018-02-01
Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode splitting when the pump field fluctuations are antisquashed by a phase-sensitive feedback loop operating close to its instability threshold. Under these conditions the optical cavity exhibits an effectively reduced decay rate, so that the system is effectively promoted to the strong coupling regime.
Rodriguez-Garcia, Jesus O.; Burguete, Javier
2017-11-01
A new experimental setup has been developed in order to study rotating flows. Our research is derived from the experiments carried out in our group relating to this kind of flows, and the setup is inspired by the simulations performed by Lopez & Gutierrez-Castillo using a split-cylinder flow. In their work they study the different bifurcations taking place into the flow, among others, finding inertial waves in different configurations of the movement of the split-cylinder. Our setup consists in a split-cylinder in which each half can move in co-rotation or in counter-rotation. Moreover, we can set the rotation velocity of each half independently in order to study these different configurations of the flow. The aspect ratio defined as Γ = H / R can be modified, where H is the internal length of the cylinder and R is its radius. With this setup, we study the flow developed inside the split-cylinder depending on the Reynolds number like the different symmetry-breaking that should appear according to Lopez & Gutierrez-Castillo. To obtain the experimental data we use both laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The firsts results got are in the co-rotation case rotating one half faster than the other. We acknowledge support from Spanish Government Grant FIS 2014-54101-P. Jesús O. Rodríguez-García acknowledge research Grant from Asociación de Amigos de la Universidad de Navarra.
The three-point function in split dimensional regularization in the Coulomb gauge
Leibbrandt, G
1998-01-01
We use a gauge-invariant regularization procedure, called ``split dimensional regularization'', to evaluate the quark self-energy $\\Sigma (p)$ and quark-quark-gluon vertex function $\\Lambda_\\mu (p^\\prime,p)$ in the Coulomb gauge, $\\vec{\\bigtriangledown}\\cdot\\vec{A}^a = 0$. The technique of split dimensional regularization was designed to regulate Coulomb-gauge Feynman integrals in non-Abelian theories. The technique which is based on two complex regulating parameters, $\\omega$ and $\\sigma$, is shown to generate a well-defined set of Coulomb-gauge integrals. A major component of this project deals with the evaluation of four-propagator and five-propagator Coulomb integrals, some of which are nonlocal. It is further argued that the standard one-loop BRST identity relating $\\Sigma$ and $\\Lambda_\\mu$, should by rights be replaced by a more general BRST identity which contains two additional contributions from ghost vertex diagrams. Despite the appearance of nonlocal Coulomb integrals, both $\\Sigma$ and $\\Lambda_\\...
SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting
Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.
2017-12-01
We have developed a semi-automatic, MATLAB-based GUI to combine standard seismological tasks such as the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting. Shear-wave splitting analysis is widely used to infer seismic anisotropy, which can be interpreted in terms of lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, shape-preferred orientation caused by fluid-filled cracks or alternating layers. Seismic anisotropy provides a unique link between directly observable surface structures and the more elusive dynamic processes in the mantle below. Thus, resolving the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere is of particular importance for geodynamic modeling and interpretations. The increasing number of seismic stations from temporary experiments and permanent installations creates a new basis for comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. However, the increasingly large data sets pose new challenges for the rapid and reliably analysis of teleseismic waveforms and for the interpretation of the measurements. Well-established routines and programs are available but are often impractical for analyzing large data sets from hundreds of stations. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same well-defined quality criteria which may complicate comparison with results from different studies. SplitRacer has been designed to overcome these challenges by incorporation of the following processing steps: i) downloading of waveform data from multiple stations in mseed-format using FDSNWS tools; ii) automated initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold; iii) particle-motion analysis of selected phases at longer periods to detect and correct for sensor misalignment; iv) splitting analysis of selected phases based on transverse-energy minimization for multiple, randomly-selected, relevant time windows; v) one and two-layer joint-splitting analysis for all phases at one station by
Relations among the crack growth modes resulting from tensor splitting
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kafka, Vratislav
2015-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-335 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : fracture mechanics * combination of crack-growth modes * non-local effect * tensor splitting Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://journal.it.cas.cz/60(15)4-Contents/60(15)4a.pdf
Fundaments of transport equation splitting and the eigenvalue problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stancic, V.
2000-01-01
In order to remove some singularities concerning the boundary conditions of one dimensional transport equation, a split form of transport equation describing the forward i.e. μ≥0, and a backward μ<0 directed neutrons is being proposed here. The eigenvalue problem has also been considered here (author)
Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulahci, Murat
2007-01-01
In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...
Iterative group splitting algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems
Nam, Haewoon
2014-05-01
An efficient feedback algorithm for opportunistic scheduling systems based on iterative group splitting is proposed in this paper. Similar to the opportunistic splitting algorithm, the proposed algorithm adjusts (or lowers) the feedback threshold during a guard period if no user sends a feedback. However, when a feedback collision occurs at any point of time, the proposed algorithm no longer updates the threshold but narrows down the user search space by dividing the users into multiple groups iteratively, whereas the opportunistic splitting algorithm keeps adjusting the threshold until a single user is found. Since the threshold is only updated when no user sends a feedback, it is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly alleviates the signaling overhead for the threshold distribution to the users by the scheduler. More importantly, the proposed algorithm requires a less number of mini-slots than the opportunistic splitting algorithm to make a user selection with a given level of scheduling outage probability or provides a higher ergodic capacity given a certain number of mini-slots. © 2013 IEEE.
Reduction of Biomass Moisture by Crushing/Splitting - A Concept
Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois; Colin Ashmore
1986-01-01
A biomass crusher/splitter concept is presented as a possible n&ant of tsafntainfng rights-of-way (ROW) or harvesting energy wood plantations. The conceptual system would cut, crush, and split small woody biomass leaving it in windrows for drying. A subsequent operation would bale and transport the dried material for use as an energy source. A survey of twenty...
A Quantitative Analysis of Children's Splitting Operations and Fraction Schemes
Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.
2009-01-01
Teaching experiments with pairs of children have generated several hypotheses about students' construction of fractions. For example, Steffe (2004) hypothesized that robust conceptions of improper fractions depends on the development of a splitting operation. Results from teaching experiments that rely on scheme theory and Steffe's hierarchy of…
Science Fair Report: Flight of the Split-Fingered Fastball.
Mitchell, Richard J.
1991-01-01
Reports on the results of an eighth grade student's experiments, conducted with a moving car, concerning the aerodynamics of a baseball in flight. Describes the peculiar diving ability of the split-fingered fastball, as well as the dancing and weaving effect of the knuckleball. (JJK)
Mode splitting effect in FEMs with oversized Bragg resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Sedykh, S. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kuzikov, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhegorodsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and “cold” microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.
Robustness of the Rabi Splitting under Nonlocal Corrections in Plexcitonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger
2018-01-01
, the influence of nonlocality is rather limited, as in most occasions the width of the Rabi splitting remains largely unaffected and the two hybrid modes are well distinguishable. We discuss how this behavior can be understood in view of the popular coupled-harmonic-oscillator model, while we also provide...
Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy versus distraction osteogenesis for mandibular advancements
Baas, E.M.
2015-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to compare the treatment modality of distraction osteogenesis (DO) with the gold standard for mandibular advancement surgery. In fact we compare distraction osteogenesis with the standard of care, which is a conventional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy as described by
Split-Framework in Mandibular Implant-Supported Prosthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danny Omar Mendoza Marin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available During oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with an implant-supported prosthesis, mandibular flexure must be considered an important biomechanical factor when planning the metal framework design, especially if implants are installed posterior to the interforaminal region. When an edentulous mandible is restored with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis connected by a fixed full-arch framework, mandibular flexure may cause needless stress in the overall restorative system and lead to screw loosening, poor fit of prosthesis, loss of the posterior implant, and patient’s discomfort due to deformation properties of the mandible during functional movements. The use of a split-framework could decrease the stress with a precise and passive fit on the implants and restore a more natural functional condition of the mandible, helping in the longevity of the prosthesis. Therefore, the present clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient by a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis with a split-framework to compensate for mandibular flexure. Clinical Significance. The present clinical report shows that the use of a split-framework reduced the risk of loss of the posterior implants or screws loosening with acceptable patient comfort over the period of a year. The split-framework might have compensated for the mandibular flexure during functional activities.
Modelling and Simulation of the Diode Split Transformer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Leo
a significant influence on the picture quality. The most critical component is undoubtedly the diode split transformer (DST). Therefore, if developing a simulation model of the DST is possible, a significant step has been taken in the attempt to model the entire horizontal deflection circuit and to obtain...
Heat split imbalance study for annular fuel rod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xiaojun; Ji Songtao; Zhang Yingchao
2014-01-01
Annular fuel rod has two gaps at inner and outer side. Under irradiation condition, the dimensional change of pellets is always larger than claddings' due to thermal expansion, swelling and densification, and this tends to enlarge the inner gap and reduce the outer gap. The gap size asymmetry must induce heat split imbalance problem that the heat flux will be larger at outer side of the rod. In this work, computer code AFPAC l.0 is used to simulate this heat split imbalance phenomena. The effect of initial gap size, rod inner pressure, roughness of pellets and cladding is studied, the results reveal that: l) Adjusting initial size of both gaps, reducing inner gap and enlarging outer gap could effectively alleviate heat split imbalance problem; 2) Adjusting the initial roughness of pellets and cladding is another effective approach to reducing heat split imbalance; 3) It seems that changing the rod inner pressure has a little effect on solving the heat flux asymmetry problem. (authors)
Triple junction polymer solar cells for photoelectrochemical water splitting
Esiner, S.; Eersel, van H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.
2013-01-01
A triple junction polymer solar cell in a novel 1 + 2 type configuration provides photoelectrochemical water splitting in its maximum power point at V ˜ 1.70 V with an estimated solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of 3.1%. The triple junction cell consists of a wide bandgap front cell and
Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts
Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H
2015-01-01
Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,
Gravitational waves from phase transition in split NMSSM
Demidov, S. V.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Kirpichnikov, D. V.
2018-04-01
We discuss gravitational wave signal from the strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the split NMSSM. We find that for sets of parameters predicting successful electroweak baryogenesis the gravitational wave signal can be within the reach of future experiments LISA, BBO and Ultimate DECIGO.
Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs
Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.
2015-01-01
While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular
A Decade of Shear-Wave Splitting Observations in Alaska
Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Abers, G. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Pavlis, G. L.; Song, X.
2010-12-01
Over the last decade four PASSCAL experiments have been conducted in different regions of Alaska. ARCTIC, BEAAR and MOOS form a north-south transect across the state, from the Arctic Ocean to Price Williams Sound, while the STEEP experiment is currently deployed to the east of that line in the St Elias Mountains of Southeastern Alaska. Shear-wave splitting observations from these networks in addition to several permanent stations of the Alaska Earthquake Information Center were determined in an attempt to understand mantle flow under Alaska in a variety of different geologic settings. Results show two dominant splitting patterns in Alaska, separated by the subducted Pacific Plate. North of the subducted Pacific Plate fast directions are parallel to the trench (along strike of the subducted Pacific Plate) indicating large scale mantle flow in the northeast-southwest direction with higher anisotropy (splitting times) within the mantle wedge. Within or below the Pacific Plate fast directions are normal to the trench in the direction of Pacific Plate convergence. In addition to these two prominent splitting patterns there are several regions that do not match either of these trends. These more complex regions which include the results from STEEP could be due to several factors including effects from the edge of the Pacific Plate. The increase of station coverage that Earthscope will bring to Alaska will aid in developing a more complete model for anisotropy and mantle flow in Alaska.
Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach
Rashid, Faraan; Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2012-01-01
to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We
Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.
2014-10-07
Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.
Analytical Model of Planar Double Split Ring Resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor
2007-01-01
This paper focuses on accurate modelling of microstrip double split ring resonators. The impedance matrix representation for coupled lines is applied for the first time to model the SRR, resulting in excellent model accuracy over a wide frequency range. Phase compensation is implemented to take i...
Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplishing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' problem of science.
Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump: Optimization and Exergy Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix
2017-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of a split condenser heat pump (SCHP). The SCHP setup differs from a traditional heat pump (THP) setup in the way that two separate water streams on the secondary side of the condenser are heated in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one...
Higgs, Binos and Gluinos: Split Susy within Reach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alves, Daniele S.M.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP
2012-09-14
Recent results from the LHC for the Higgs boson with mass between 142 GeV {approx}< m{sub h{sup 0}} {approx}< 147 GeV points to PeV-scale Split Supersymmetry. This article explores the consequences of a Higgs mass in this range and possible discovery modes for Split Susy. Moderate lifetime gluinos, with decay lengths in the 25 {micro}m to 10 yr range, are its imminent smoking gun signature. The 7TeV LHC will be sensitive to the moderately lived gluinos and trilepton signatures from direct electroweakino production. Moreover, the dark matter abundance may be obtained from annihilation through an s-channel Higgs resonance, with the LSP almost purely bino and mass m{sub {chi}{sub 1}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 70 GeV. The Higgs resonance region of Split Susy has visible signatures in dark matter direct and indirect detection and electric dipole moment experiments. If the anomalies go away, the majority of Split Susy parameter space will be excluded.
On Split Lie Algebras with Symmetric Root Systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... and any I j a well described ideal of , satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if j ≠ k . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected.
On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik] = 0 if j = k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected. Keywords. Infinite dimensional Lie ...
Mass splittings within composite Goldstone supermultiplets from broken supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.
1985-01-01
The supersymmetric (SUSY) Dashen formulas are modified to include effects of softly broken supersymmetry and are used to compute the mass splittings and differences in decay constants among the various components of a Goldstone supermultiplet. The general results are applied to chiral-symmetry breaking in two-flavor SUSY QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeo Beom Yoon
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Windows are the primary aperture to introduce solar radiation to the interior space of a building. This experiment explores the use of EnergyPlus software for analyzing the illuminance level on the floor of a room with reference to its distance from the window. For this experiment, a double clear glass window has been used. The preliminary modelling in EnergyPlus showed a consistent result with the experimentally monitored data in real time. EnergyPlus has two mainly used daylighting algorithms: DElight method employing radiosity technique and Detailed method employing split-flux technique. Further analysis for illuminance using DElight and Detailed methods showed significant difference in the results. Finally, we compared the algorithms of the two analysis methods in EnergyPlus.
A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, V.I.; Bell, R.G. III; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.
1996-01-01
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125-fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical system. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two part study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. This paper reports the first part of the shock mitigating materials study. A study to compare three thicknesses (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 in.) of seventeen, unconfined materials for their shock mitigating characteristics has been completed with a split Hopkinson bar configuration. The nominal input as measured by strain gages on the incident Hopkinson bar is 50 fps at sign 100 micros for these tests. It is hypothesized that a shock mitigating material has four purposes: to lengthen the shock pulse, to attenuate the shock pulse, to mitigate high frequency content in the shock pulse, and to absorb energy. Both time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare the materials' achievement of these purposes
Incomplete factorization technique for positive definite linear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manteuffel, T.A.
1980-01-01
This paper describes a technique for solving the large sparse symmetric linear systems that arise from the application of finite element methods. The technique combines an incomplete factorization method called the shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization with the method of generalized conjugate gradients. The shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization produces a splitting of the matrix A that is dependent upon a parameter α. It is shown that if A is positive definite, then there is some α for which this splitting is possible and that this splitting is at least as good as the Jacobi splitting. The method is shown to be more efficient on a set of test problems than either direct methods or explicit iteration schemes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Yan
Full Text Available Increased risk of monozygotic twinning (MZT has been shown to be associated with assisted reproduction techniques, particularly blastocyst culture. Interestingly, inner cell mass (ICM splitting in human '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts that resulted in MZT was reported. However, the underlying cause of MZT is not known. In this study, we investigated in a mouse model whether in vitro culture leads to ICM splitting and its association with hatching types. Blastocyst hatching was observed in: (i in vivo developed blastocysts and (ii-iii in vitro cultured blastocysts following in vivo or in vitro fertilization. We found that '8'-shaped hatching occurred with significantly higher frequency in the two groups of in vitro cultured blastocysts than in the group of in vivo developed blastocysts (24.4% and 20.4% versus 0.8%, respectively; n = 805, P < 0.01. Moreover, Oct4 immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify the ICM in the hatching and hatched blastocysts. Scattered and split distribution of ICM cells was observed around the small zona opening of '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts. This occurred at a high frequency in the in vitro cultured groups. Furthermore, we found more double OCT4-positive masses, suggestive of increased ICM splitting in '8'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts than in 'U'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts (12.5% versus 1.9%, respectively; n = 838, P < 0.01. Therefore, our results demonstrate that extended in vitro culture can cause high frequencies of '8'-shaped hatching, and '8'-shaped hatching that may disturb ICM herniation leading to increased risk of ICM splitting in mouse blastocysts. These results may provide insights into the increased risk of human MZT after in vitro fertilization and blastocyst transfer.
Lee, Gileung; Lee, Kang-Ie; Lee, Yunjoo; Kim, Backki; Lee, Dongryung; Seo, Jeonghwan; Jang, Su; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Koh, Hee-Jong
2018-07-01
The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage. Morphological and chemical analysis revealed that reduction in the width of the lemma and lignin content of the hull in the sph mutant might be the cause of hull splitting. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene, sph (Os04g0447100), which encodes a type-2 13-lipoxygenase. SPH knockout and knockdown transgenic plants displayed the same split-hull phenotype as in the mutant. The sph mutant showed significantly higher linoleic and linolenic acid (substrates of lipoxygenase) contents in spikelets compared to the wild type. It is probably due to the genetic defect of SPH and subsequent decrease in lipoxygenase activity. In dehulling experiment, the sph mutant showed high dehulling efficiency even by a weak tearing force in a dehulling machine. Collectively, the results provide a basis for understanding of the functional role of lipoxygenase in structure and maintenance of hulls, and would facilitate breeding of easy-dehulling rice.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boone, Marc; Draye, Jean Pierre; Verween, Gunther
2014-01-01
While real-time 3-D evaluation of human skin constructs is needed, only 2-D non-invasive imaging techniques are available. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) for real-time 3-D assessment of the epidermal splitting and decell......While real-time 3-D evaluation of human skin constructs is needed, only 2-D non-invasive imaging techniques are available. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) for real-time 3-D assessment of the epidermal splitting...... before and after incubation. Real-time 3-D HD-OCT assessment was compared with 2-D en face assessment by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). (Immuno) histopathology was used as control. HD-OCT imaging allowed real-time 3-D visualization of the impact of selected agents on epidermal splitting, dermo......-epidermal junction, dermal architecture, vascular spaces and cellularity. RCM has a better resolution (1 μm) than HD-OCT (3 μm), permitting differentiation of different collagen fibres, but HD-OCT imaging has deeper penetration (570 μm) than RCM imaging (200 μm). Dispase II and NaCl treatments were found...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banchet, J.; Chahbaz, A.; Sicard, R.; Zellouf, D.E.
2003-01-01
In aircraft structures, titanium parts and engine members are critical structural components, and their inspection crucial. However, these structures are very difficult to inspect ultrasonically because of their large grain structure that increases noise drastically. In this work, phased array inspection setups were developed to detected small defects such as simulated inclusions and porosity contained in thick titanium casting blocks, which are frequently used in the aerospace industry. A Cut Spectrum Processing (CSP)-based algorithm was then implemented on the acquired data by employing a set of parallel bandpass filters with different center frequencies. This process led in substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio and thus, of detectability
1988-09-23
DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE D~istribution Unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATiON REPORT NUMVBER(S) 5. MONITORiG ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) AFGL-TR-88-0237...Collocations were performed on launch sites of the cloud contamination, aerosol problems, collocation 1200 UT radiosondes on 25 Aug 1987. Statistics were...al (1987) and Thomason, 1987). In this imagery opaque clouds to this problem appear white, low clouds and fog appear bright red against a brown
Gauge invariant frequency splitting of the continuum Yang-Mills field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitter, P.K.; Valent, G.
1977-01-01
Frequency splitting plays an important role in Wilson's theory of critical phenomena. Here the authors give a theory of gauge invariant frequency splitting of the Yang-Mills field in 4 dimensions. (Auth.)
A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.
1997-01-01
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 με peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 με peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 micros duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold (-65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 με peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the shock pulse, reflect high
Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)
2007-07-01
This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Young Ouk
2016-01-01
When we use MCNP code for a deep shielding problem, we prefer to use variance reduction technique such as geometry splitting, or weight window, or source biasing to have relative error within reliable confidence interval. To generate importance map for geometry splitting in MCNP calculation, we should know the track entering number and previous importance on each cells since a new importance is calculated based on these information. If a problem is deep shielding problem such that we have zero tracks entering on a cell, we cannot generate new importance map. In this case, discrete ordinates code can provide information to generate importance map easily. In this paper, we use AETIUS code as a discrete ordinates code. Importance map for MCNP is generated based on a zone average flux of AETIUS calculation. The discretization of space, angle, and energy is not necessary for MCNP calculation. This is the big merit of MCNP code compared to the deterministic code. However, deterministic code (i.e., AETIUS) can provide a rough estimate of the flux throughout a problem relatively quickly. This can help MCNP by providing variance reduction parameters. Recently, ADVANTG code is released. This is an automated tool for generating variance reduction parameters for fixed-source continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations with MCNP5 v1.60
Nanofat grafting under a split-thickness skin graft for problematic wound management.
Kemaloğlu, Cemal Alper
2016-01-01
Obesity and certain medical disorders make the reconstruction of skin defects challenging. Different kind of procedure can be used for these defect, besides, skin grafting is one of the most common and simplest procedure. Fat grafting and stem cells which are located in the adipose tissue have been commonly used in plastic surgery for regeneration and rejuvenation purposes. To decrease graft failure rate we performed nanofat grafting under an autologous split-thickness skin graft in our patient who had a problematic wound. The case of a 35-year-old female patient with a traumatic skin defect on her left anterior crural region is described herein. After subsequent flap reconstruction, the result was disappointing and the defect size was widened. The defect was treated with combined grafting (nanofat grafting under an autologous split-thickness skin graft). At the 6 months follow-up assessment after combined grafting, the integrity of the skin graft was good with excellent pliability. Combined grafting for problematic wounds seems to be a useful technique for cases requiring reconstruction. The potential existence of stem cells may be responsible for the successful result in our patient.
Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting reaction
Shetty, Akshatha R.; Hegde, Ampar Chitharanjan
2018-04-01
The present study reports the development of Ni-Mo alloy coatings for water splitting applications, using a citrate bath the inducing effect of Mo (reluctant metal) on electrodeposition, its relationship with their electrocatalytic efficiency were studied. The alkaline water splitting efficiency of Ni-Mo alloy coatings, for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction were tested using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) techniques. Moreover, the practical utility of these electrode materials were evaluated by measuring the amount of H2 and O2 gas evolved. The variation in electrocatalytic activity with composition, structure, and morphology of the coatings were examined using XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses. The experimental results showed that Ni-Mo alloy coating is the best electrode material for alkaline HER and OER reactions, at lower and higher deposition current densities (c. d.'s) respectively. This behavior is attributed by decreased Mo and increased Ni content of the alloy coating and the number of electroactive centers.
A splitting integration scheme for the SPH simulation of concentrated particle suspensions
Bian, Xin; Ellero, Marco
2014-01-01
Simulating nearly contacting solid particles in suspension is a challenging task due to the diverging behavior of short-range lubrication forces, which pose a serious time-step limitation for explicit integration schemes. This general difficulty limits severely the total duration of simulations of concentrated suspensions. Inspired by the ideas developed in [S. Litvinov, M. Ellero, X.Y. Hu, N.A. Adams, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 5457-5464] for the simulation of highly dissipative fluids, we propose in this work a splitting integration scheme for the direct simulation of solid particles suspended in a Newtonian liquid. The scheme separates the contributions of different forces acting on the solid particles. In particular, intermediate- and long-range multi-body hydrodynamic forces, which are computed from the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, are taken into account using an explicit integration; for short-range lubrication forces, velocities of pairwise interacting solid particles are updated implicitly by sweeping over all the neighboring pairs iteratively, until convergence in the solution is obtained. By using the splitting integration, simulations can be run stably and efficiently up to very large solid particle concentrations. Moreover, the proposed scheme is not limited to the SPH method presented here, but can be easily applied to other simulation techniques employed for particulate suspensions.
Design of a holographic micro-scale spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system
Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Russo, Juan M.; Kostuk, Raymond K.
2015-09-01
Micro-scale PV technology combines the high conversion efficiency of concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) with the low costs and the simple form of flat panel PV. Some of the benefits of micro-scale PV include: reduced semiconductor material usage; improved heat rejection capacity; and more versatile PV cell interconnect configurations. Spectrumsplitting is also a beneficial technique to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of photovoltaic systems. It spatially separates the incident solar spectrum into spectral components and directs them to PV cells with matching bandgaps. This approach avoids the current and lattice matching problems that exist in tandem multi-junction systems. In this paper, we applied the ideas of spectrum-splitting in a micro-scale PV system, and demonstrated a holographic micro-scale spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system. This system consists of a volume transmission hologram in combination with a micro-lens array. An analysis methodology was developed to design the system and determine the performance of the resulting system. The spatial characteristics of the dispersed spectrum, the overall system conversion efficiency, and the improvement over best bandgap will be discussed.
ENTROPIES AND FLUX-SPLITTINGS FOR THE ISENTROPIC EULER EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The authors establish the existence of a large class of mathematical entropies (the so-called weak entropies) associated with the Euler equations for an isentropic, compressible fluid governed by a general pressure law. A mild assumption on the behavior of the pressure law near the vacuum is solely required. The analysis is based on an asymptotic expansion of the fundamental solution (called here the entropy kernel) of a highly singular Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. The entropy kernel is only H lder continuous and its regularity is carefully investigated. Relying on a notion introduced earlier by the authors, it is also proven that, for the Euler equations, the set of entropy flux-splittings coincides with the set of entropies-entropy fluxes. These results imply the existence of a flux-splitting consistent with all of the entropy inequalities.
Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle
Alderman, N. P.
2016-10-31
The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.
Implicit flux-split schemes for the Euler equations
Thomas, J. L.; Walters, R. W.; Van Leer, B.
1985-01-01
Recent progress in the development of implicit algorithms for the Euler equations using the flux-vector splitting method is described. Comparisons of the relative efficiency of relaxation and spatially-split approximately factored methods on a vector processor for two-dimensional flows are made. For transonic flows, the higher convergence rate per iteration of the Gauss-Seidel relaxation algorithms, which are only partially vectorizable, is amply compensated for by the faster computational rate per iteration of the approximately factored algorithm. For supersonic flows, the fully-upwind line-relaxation method is more efficient since the numerical domain of dependence is more closely matched to the physical domain of dependence. A hybrid three-dimensional algorithm using relaxation in one coordinate direction and approximate factorization in the cross-flow plane is developed and applied to a forebody shape at supersonic speeds and a swept, tapered wing at transonic speeds.
Computational Screening of Materials for Water Splitting Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Castelli, Ivano Eligio
Design new materials for energy production in a photoelectrochemical cell, where water is split into hydrogen and oxygen by solar light, is one possible solution to the problem of increasing energy demand and storage. A screening procedure based on ab-initio density functional theory calculations...... Project database, which is based on the experimental ICSD database, and the bandgaps were calculated with focus on finding materials with potential as light harvesters. 24 materials have been proposed for the one-photon water splitting and 23 for the two-photon mechanism. Another method to obtain energy...... from Sun is using a photovoltaic cell that converts solar light into electricity. The absorption spectra of 70 experimentally known compounds, that are expected to be useful for light-to-electricity generation, have been calculated. 17 materials have been predicted to be promising for a single...
Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Song
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.
Design and analysis of unequal split Bagley power dividers
Abu-Alnadi, Omar; Dib, Nihad; Al-Shamaileh, Khair; Sheta, Abdelfattah
2015-03-01
In this article, we propose a general design procedure to develop unequal split Bagley power dividers (BPDs). Based on the mathematical approach carried out in the insight of simple circuit and transmission line theories, exact design equations for 3-way and 5-way BPDs are derived. Utilising the developed equations leads to power dividers with the ability of offering different output power ratios through a suitable choice of the characteristic impedances of the interconnecting transmission lines. For verification purposes, a 1:2:1 3-way, 1:2:1:2:1 5-way and 1:3:1:3:1 5-way BPDs are designed and fabricated. The experimental and full-wave simulation results prove the validity of the designed unequal split BPDs.
Synthesis of Porous Europium Oxide Particles for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Zheng, Kai; Lou, Kai-Li; Meng, Xiao-Ting; Yan, Zi-Qiao; Ye, Zhen-Ni; Su, Rui-Rui; Zhong, Shengliang
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Porous Eu 2 O 3 particles were synthesized by a facile electrochemical method. • Porous Eu 2 O 3 NPs were firstly implemented as photoanode for PEC water splitting. • The Eu 2 O 3 NPs exhibited good PEC performance and stability. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the facile electrochemical synthesis of porous Eu 2 O 3 particles (NPs) and their implementation as photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for the first time. These porous Eu 2 O 3 NPs exhibit a significant photocurrent density of 40 μA cm −2 at 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH electrolyte under white light irradiation (Xe lamp, 100 mW cm −2 ). Moreover, the as-synthesized Eu 2 O 3 NPs have an excellent PEC stability with no obvious decay in its photocurrent after 100 min irradiation
Toward visible light response: Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts
Takanabe, Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
Extensive energy conversion of solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces a mixture of H 2 and O2 (chemical energy) in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. Development of highly efficient photocatalysts is desired. This review addresses why visible light responsive photocatalysts are essential to be developed. The state of the art for the photocatalysts for overall water splitting is briefly described. Moreover, various fundamental aspects for developing efficient photocatalysts, such as particle size of photocatalysts, cocatalysts, and reaction kinetics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 De Gruyter.
Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle
Alderman, N. P.; Sommers, J. M.; Viasus, C. J.; Wang, C. H T; Peneau, V.; Gambarotta, S.; Vidjayacoumar, B.; Al-Bahily, K. A.
2016-01-01
The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.
Photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells
Landman, Avigail; Dotan, Hen; Shter, Gennady E.; Wullenkord, Michael; Houaijia, Anis; Maljusch, Artjom; Grader, Gideon S.; Rothschild, Avner
2017-06-01
Solar water splitting provides a promising path for sustainable hydrogen production and solar energy storage. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale utilization of this technology is reducing the hydrogen production cost. The conventional electrolyser architecture, where hydrogen and oxygen are co-produced in the same cell, gives rise to critical challenges in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells that directly convert solar energy and water to hydrogen. Here we overcome these challenges by separating the hydrogen and oxygen cells. The ion exchange in our cells is mediated by auxiliary electrodes, and the cells are connected to each other only by metal wires, enabling centralized hydrogen production. We demonstrate hydrogen generation in separate cells with solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 7.5%, which can readily surpass 10% using standard commercial components. A basic cost comparison shows that our approach is competitive with conventional photoelectrochemical systems, enabling safe and potentially affordable solar hydrogen production.
Habitat split and the global decline of amphibians.
Becker, Carlos Guilherme; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Batista, Rômulo Fernandes; Prado, Paulo Inácio
2007-12-14
The worldwide decline in amphibians has been attributed to several causes, especially habitat loss and disease. We identified a further factor, namely "habitat split"-defined as human-induced disconnection between habitats used by different life history stages of a species-which forces forest-associated amphibians with aquatic larvae to make risky breeding migrations between suitable aquatic and terrestrial habitats. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, we found that habitat split negatively affects the richness of species with aquatic larvae but not the richness of species with terrestrial development (the latter can complete their life cycle inside forest remnants). This mechanism helps to explain why species with aquatic larvae have the highest incidence of population decline. These findings reinforce the need for the conservation and restoration of riparian vegetation.
Rashba split surface states in BiTeBr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremeev, S V; Rusinov, I P; Nechaev, I A; Chulkov, E V
2013-01-01
Within density functional theory, we study the bulk band structure and surface states of BiTeBr. We consider both ordered and disordered phases, which differ in atomic order in the Te–Br sublattice. On the basis of relativistic ab initio calculations, we show that the ordered BiTeBr is energetically preferable as compared with the disordered one. We demonstrate that both Te- and Br-terminated surfaces of the ordered BiTeBr hold surface states with a giant spin–orbit splitting. The Te-terminated surface-state spin splitting has Rashba-type behavior with the coupling parameter α R ∼ 2 eVÅ. (paper)
Proton polarimetry using an Enge split-pole spectrograph
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moss, J M; Brown, D R; Cornelius, W D [Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.
1976-05-15
A high-efficiency (4 x 10/sup -5/ at A=0.4) high resolution (150 keV) polarimeter used in conjunction with an Enge split-pole spectrograph is described. This device permits for the first time polarization transfer studies in elastic scattering. Spectra are shown for /sup 11/B(p(pol),p(pol)')/sup 11/B (2.14 MeV)at Esub(p)=31 MeV.
Interpretation and inverse analysis of the wedge splitting test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik
2002-01-01
to the wedge splitting test and that it is well suited for the interpretation of test results in terms of s(w). A fine agreement between the hinge and FEM-models has been found. It has also been found that the test and the hinge model form a solid basis for inverse analysis. The paper also discusses possible...... three dimensional problems in the experiment as well as the influence of specimen size....
Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system
Kirschbaum, H.S.
1984-08-14
A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.
Fluorescence of molecules placed near a spherical particle: Rabi splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Dvoynenko
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Theoretical study of spontaneously emitted spectra of point-like source placed near spherical Ag particle was performed. It was shown that near-field electromagnetic interaction between a point-like emitter and spherical Ag particle leads to strong coupling between them at very small emitter-metal surface distances. It was shown that values of Rabi splitting are quantitatively close to that of emitter-flat substrate interaction.
Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Helleberg, M
2008-01-01
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean...... and free dissection of the inferior alveolar nerve during BSSO increased self-reported changes in lower lip sensation and lower lip tactile threshold after BSSO (P discrimination (P
Nuclear spin-orbit splitting from an intermediate Δ excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohta, K.; Terasawa, T.; Tohyama, M.
1980-01-01
The strength of the single particle spin-orbit potential is calculated from the two pion exchange box diagrams involving an intermediate Δ(1232) resonance excitation by taking account of the exclusion principle for the intermediate nucleon states. The effect of the rho meson is also considered. The predicted strength is found to account for a substantial part of the empirical spin-orbit splittings
Transfer Pricing Profit Split Methods : A Practical Solution?
Quttineh, Yousef
2009-01-01
The purpose of this master’s thesis is to explain and analyze whether today’s existing regulations provide sufficient guidance on how to apply the Profit Split Method (PSM) in practice. Since the enterprises’ profits arising from intra-group transactions increases, the tax base for any government also becomes larger and more important. This issue will likely become even more problematic as the globalization branches out and the majority of the global trade is undertaken between associated ent...
Quark potential model of baryon spin-orbit mass splittings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fan; Wong Chunwa
1987-01-01
We show that it is possible to make the P-wave spin-orbit mass splittings in Λ baryons consistent with those of nonstrange baryons in a naive quark model, but only by introducing additional terms in the quark-quark effective interaction. These terms might be related to contributions due to pomeron exchange and sea excitations. The implications of our model in meson spectroscopy and nuclear forces are discussed. (orig.)
Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eides, M.I.
1996-01-01
Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift in hydrogen and muonium are discussed. The problem of sign of the weak-interaction contribution to HFS is clarified, and simple physical arguments that make this sign evident are presented. It is shown that weak-interaction contributions to HFS in hydrogen and muonium have opposite signs. A weak-interaction contribution to the Lamb shift is obtained. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren
2011-01-01
In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....
Theoretical analysis of dislocation splittings in MoSi2
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Paidar, Václav; Čák, Miroslav; Šob, Mojmír; Vitek, V.
2010-01-01
Roč. 240, - (2010), 012007/1/-012007/6/ ISSN 1742-6588 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920; GA MŠk OC09011; GA MŠk OC09014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dislocation splitting * MoSi2 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Shear-wave splitting measurements – Problems and solutions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vecsey, Luděk; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav
2008-01-01
Roč. 462, č. 1-4 (2008), s. 178-196 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300120605; GA AV ČR IAA3012405; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismic anisotropy * shear-wave splitting * comparison of cross- correlation * eigenvalue * transverse minimization methods Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2008
Splitting Schemes & Segregation In Reaction-(Cross-)Diffusion Systems
Carrillo, José A.; Fagioli, Simone; Santambrogio, Filippo; Schmidtchen, Markus
2017-01-01
One of the most fascinating phenomena observed in reaction-diffusion systems is the emergence of segregated solutions, i.e. population densities with disjoint supports. We analyse such a reaction cross-diffusion system. In order to prove existence of weak solutions for a wide class of initial data without restriction about their supports or their positivity, we propose a variational splitting scheme combining ODEs with methods from optimal transport. In addition, this approach allows us to pr...
Isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isakov, V.I.
2007-01-01
The analysis has been made of experimental data on level spectra, single-nucleon transfer reactions near closed shells, and data on polarization effects in charge-exchange (p, n) reactions between isoanalogous states of nuclei with even A. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons in identical orbitals. This conclusion is confirmed in the frame work of different theoretical approaches [ru
Isospin Mass Splittings and the $\\ms$ Corrections in the Semibosonized SU(3)-NJL-Model
Blotz, Andree; Goeke, K.; Praszalowicz, M.
1994-01-01
The mass splittings of hyperons including the isospin splittings are calculated with $O(\\ms^2)$ and $O(\\ms \\dm)$ accuracy respectively within the semibosonized SU(3)-NJL model. The pattern of the isospin splittings is not spoiled by the terms of the order $O(\\ms \\dm)$, and both splittings between the different isospin multiplets and within the same multiplet are well reproduced for acceptable values of $\\ms$ and $\\dm$.
Nanoscale strontium titanate photocatalysts for overall water splitting.
Townsend, Troy K; Browning, Nigel D; Osterloh, Frank E
2012-08-28
SrTiO(3) (STO) is a large band gap (3.2 eV) semiconductor that catalyzes the overall water splitting reaction under UV light irradiation in the presence of a NiO cocatalyst. As we show here, the reactivity persists in nanoscale particles of the material, although the process is less effective at the nanoscale. To reach these conclusions, Bulk STO, 30 ± 5 nm STO, and 6.5 ± 1 nm STO were synthesized by three different methods, their crystal structures verified with XRD and their morphology observed with HRTEM before and after NiO deposition. In connection with NiO, all samples split water into stoichiometric mixtures of H(2) and O(2), but the activity is decreasing from 28 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (bulk STO), to 19.4 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (30 nm STO), and 3.0 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (6.5 nm STO). The reasons for this decrease are an increase of the water oxidation overpotential for the smaller particles and reduced light absorption due to a quantum size effect. Overall, these findings establish the first nanoscale titanate photocatalyst for overall water splitting.
Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by Inorganic Materials
Deng, Xiaohui
2012-12-01
Hydrogen has been identified as a potential energy carrier due to its high energy capacity and environmental harmlessness. Compared with hydrogen production from hydrocarbons such as methane and naphtha in a conventional hydrogen energy system, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water splitting offers a more economic approach since it utilizes the abundant solar irradiation as energy source and water as initial reactant. Powder photocatalyst, which generates electrons and holes under illumination, is the origin where the overall reaction happens. High solar energy conversion efficiency especially from visible range is commonly the target. Besides, cocatalyst for hydrogen and oxygen evolution is also playing an essential role in facilitating the charge separation and enhancing the kinetics. In this thesis, the objective is to achieve high energy conversion efficiency towards water splitting from diverse aspects. The third chapter focuses on a controllable method to fabricate metal pattern, which is candidate for hydrogen evolution cocatalyst while chapter 4 is on the combination of strontium titanium oxide (SrTiO3) with graphene oxide (GO) for a better photocatalytic performance. In the last chapter, photoelectrochemical water splitting by Ta3N5 photoanode and FeOOH as a novel oxygen evolution cocatalyst has been investigated.
Numerical modeling of isothermal compositional grading by convex splitting methods
Li, Yiteng
2017-04-09
In this paper, an isothermal compositional grading process is simulated based on convex splitting methods with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. We first present a new form of gravity/chemical equilibrium condition by minimizing the total energy which consists of Helmholtz free energy and gravitational potential energy, and incorporating Lagrange multipliers for mass conservation. The time-independent equilibrium equations are transformed into a system of transient equations as our solution strategy. It is proved our time-marching scheme is unconditionally energy stable by the semi-implicit convex splitting method in which the convex part of Helmholtz free energy and its derivative are treated implicitly and the concave parts are treated explicitly. With relaxation factor controlling Newton iteration, our method is able to converge to a solution with satisfactory accuracy if a good initial estimate of mole compositions is provided. More importantly, it helps us automatically split the unstable single phase into two phases, determine the existence of gas-oil contact (GOC) and locate its position if GOC does exist. A number of numerical examples are presented to show the performance of our method.
Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in zircaloy cladding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, H. M.
2000-01-01
Fundamental metallurgical aspects of axial splitting in irradiated Zircaloy cladding have been investigated by microstructural characterization and analytical modeling, with emphasis on application of the results to understand high-burnup fuel failure under RIA situations. Optical microscopy, SEM, and TEM were conducted on BWR and PWR fuel cladding tubes that were irradiated to fluence levels of 3.3 x 10 21 n cm -2 to 5.9 x 10 21 n cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) and tested in hot cell at 292--325 C in Ar. The morphology, distribution, and habit planes of macroscopic and microscopic hydrides in as-irradiated and posttest cladding were determined by stereo-TEM. The type and magnitude of the residual stress produced in association with oxide-layer growth and dense hydride precipitation, and several synergistic factors that strongly influence axial-splitting behavior were analyzed. The results of the microstructural characterization and stress analyses were then correlated with axial-splitting behavior of high-burnup PWR cladding reported for simulated-RIA conditions. The effects of key test procedures and their implications for the interpretation of RIA test results are discussed
A split accumulation gate architecture for silicon MOS quantum dots
Rochette, Sophie; Rudolph, Martin; Roy, Anne-Marie; Curry, Matthew; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Dominguez, Jason; Manginell, Ronald; Pluym, Tammy; King Gamble, John; Lilly, Michael; Bureau-Oxton, Chloé; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel
We investigate tunnel barrier modulation without barrier electrodes in a split accumulation gate architecture for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The layout consists of two independent accumulation gates, one gate forming a reservoir and the other the QD. The devices are fabricated with a foundry-compatible, etched, poly-silicon gate stack. We demonstrate 4 orders of magnitude of tunnel-rate control between the QD and the reservoir by modulating the reservoir gate voltage. Last electron charging energies of app. 10 meV and tuning of the ST splitting in the range 100-200 ueV are observed in two different split gate layouts and labs. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Photoelectrochemical devices for solar water splitting - materials and challenges.
Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Junwang
2017-07-31
It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This review commences with a fundamental understanding of semiconductor properties and charge transfer processes in a PEC device. We then describe various configurations of PEC devices, including single light-absorber cells and multi light-absorber devices (PEC, PV-PEC and PV/electrolyser tandem cell). Recent progress on both photoelectrode materials (light absorbers) and electrocatalysts is summarized, and important factors which dominate photoelectrode performance, including light absorption, charge separation and transport, surface chemical reaction rate and the stability of the photoanode, are discussed. Controlling semiconductor properties is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting. Accordingly, strategies to address the challenges for materials development in this area, such as the adoption of smart architectures, innovative device configuration design, co-catalyst loading, and surface protection layer deposition, are outlined throughout the text, to deliver a highly efficient and stable PEC device for water splitting.
SKS splitting observed at Romanian broad-band seismic network
Ivan, Marian; Popa, Mihaela; Ghica, Daniela
2008-12-01
Shear-wave splitting results are presented for the broad-band stations of the Romanian seismic network. For stations BUC1 and CRAR (located in Moesian Platform), IAS (in East-European Platform), TIRR and CVD (in Central Dobrudja-Black Sea microplate), TIM and DRGR (in Dacia-Tisza plate, including Apuseni Mts.), BURAR, BZS and GZR (in, or very close to the Carpathian Arc), the fast directions ( φ) are around 135°. The mean delay values ( δt) of the slow wave are slightly greater for the stations placed in platform areas ( δt ~ 1.5 s) than for the stations situated in the (proximity) of Carpathians ( δt ~ 1.2 s). For the MLR station located in the South-Western part of Vrancea area, at the Carpathian Bend, the fast direction is 48°, similar to VOIR station (located in Southern Carpathians, 70 km West of MLR). At VRI and PLOR, located in the North-Eastern part of Vrancea, the fast axis is oriented approximately on North-South direction, with a possible dependence of the splitting parameters with back azimuth. At least for some stations, the splitting results are not consistent with vertical coherent lithospheric anisotropy.
Conformal scalar fields and chiral splitting on super Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Hoker, E.; Phong, D.H.
1989-01-01
We provide a complete description of correlation functions of scalar superfields on a super Riemann surface, taking into account zero modes and non-trivial topology. They are built out of chirally split correlation functions, or conformal blocks at fixed internal momenta. We formulate effective rules which determine these completely in terms of geometric invariants of the super Riemann surface. The chirally split correlation functions have non-trivial monodromy and produce single-valued amplitudes only upon integration over loop momenta. Our discussion covers the even spin structure as well as the odd spin structure case which had been the source of many difficulties in the past. Super analogues of Green's functions, holomorphic spinors, and prime forms emerge which should pave the way to function theory on super Riemann surfaces. In superstring theories, chirally split amplitudes for scalar superfields are crucial in enforcing the GSO projection required for consistency. However one really knew how to carry this out only in the operator formalism to one-loop order. Our results provide a way of enforcing the GSO projection to any loop. (orig.)
Thermostability promotes the cooperative function of split adenylate kinases.
Nguyen, Peter Q; Liu, Shirley; Thompson, Jeremy C; Silberg, Jonathan J
2008-05-01
Proteins can often be cleaved to create inactive polypeptides that associate into functional complexes through non-covalent interactions, but little is known about what influences the cooperative function of the ensuing protein fragments. Here, we examine whether protein thermostability affects protein fragment complementation by characterizing the function of split adenylate kinases from the mesophile Bacillus subtilis (AKBs) and the hyperthermophile Thermotoga neapolitana (AKTn). Complementation studies revealed that the split AKTn supported the growth of Escherichia coli with a temperature-sensitive AK, but not the fragmented AKBs. However, weak complementation occurred when the AKBs fragments were fused to polypeptides that strongly associate, and this was enhanced by a Q16L mutation that thermostabilizes the full-length protein. To examine how the split AK homologs differ in structure and function, their catalytic activity, zinc content, and circular dichroism spectra were characterized. The reconstituted AKTn had higher levels of zinc, greater secondary structure, and >10(3)-fold more activity than the AKBs pair, albeit 17-fold less active than full-length AKTn. These findings provide evidence that the design of protein fragments that cooperatively function can be improved by choosing proteins with the greatest thermostability for bisection, and they suggest that this arises because hyperthermophilic protein fragments exhibit greater residual structure compared to their mesophilic counterparts.
Beyond the Interconnections: Split Manufacturing in RF Designs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Bi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available With the globalization of the integrated circuit (IC design flow of chip fabrication, intellectual property (IP piracy is becoming the main security threat. While most of the protection methods are dedicated for digital circuits, we are trying to protect radio-frequency (RF designs. For the first time, we applied the split manufacturing method in RF circuit protection. Three different implementation cases are introduced for security and design overhead tradeoffs, i.e., the removal of the top metal layer, the removal of the top two metal layers and the design obfuscation dedicated to RF circuits. We also developed a quantitative security evaluation method to measure the protection level of RF designs under split manufacturing. Finally, a simple Class AB power amplifier and a more sophisticated Class E power amplifier are used for the demonstration through which we prove that: (1 the removal of top metal layer or the top two metal layers can provide high-level protection for RF circuits with a lower request to domestic foundries; (2 the design obfuscation method provides the highest level of circuit protection, though at the cost of design overhead; and (3 split manufacturing may be more suitable for RF designs than for digital circuits, and it can effectively reduce IP piracy in untrusted off-shore foundries.
Assessment of the Maximal Split-Half Coefficient to Estimate Reliability
Thompson, Barry L.; Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun
2010-01-01
The maximal split-half coefficient is computed by calculating all possible split-half reliability estimates for a scale and then choosing the maximal value as the reliability estimate. Osburn compared the maximal split-half coefficient with 10 other internal consistency estimates of reliability and concluded that it yielded the most consistently…
Experimental determination of the relativistic fine structure splitting in a pionic atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, K.-C.; Boehm, F.; Hahn, A.A.; Henrikson, H.E.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Kunselman, R.
1978-01-01
Using a high-resolution crystal spectrometer, the authors have measured the energy splitting of the pionic 5g-4f and 5f-4d transitions in Ti. The observed fine structure splitting agrees, within the experimental error of 3%, with the splitting arising from the calculated relativistic term and other small corrections for spinless particles. (Auth.)
Effect of superconducting electrons on the energy splitting of tunneling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, C.C.; Granato, A.V.
1985-01-01
We consider the effect of superconducting electrons on the magnitude of the energy splitting of a tunneling system. A specific example is a hydrogen atom tunneling in niobium. We find that in this case the splitting is roughly 20% smaller in the normal state than in the superconducting state. This difference in the splitting should be observable in neutron scattering and ultrasonic measurements
Influence of the large-small split effect on strategy choice in complex subtraction.
Xiang, Yan Hui; Wu, Hao; Shang, Rui Hong; Chao, Xiaomei; Ren, Ting Ting; Zheng, Li Ling; Mo, Lei
2018-04-01
Two main theories have been used to explain the arithmetic split effect: decision-making process theory and strategy choice theory. Using the inequality paradigm, previous studies have confirmed that individuals tend to adopt a plausibility-checking strategy and a whole-calculation strategy to solve large and small split problems in complex addition arithmetic, respectively. This supports strategy choice theory, but it is unknown whether this theory also explains performance in solving different split problems in complex subtraction arithmetic. This study used small, intermediate and large split sizes, with each split condition being further divided into problems requiring and not requiring borrowing. The reaction times (RTs) for large and intermediate splits were significantly shorter than those for small splits, while accuracy was significantly higher for large and middle splits than for small splits, reflecting no speed-accuracy trade-off. Further, RTs and accuracy differed significantly between the borrow and no-borrow conditions only for small splits. This study indicates that strategy choice theory is suitable to explain the split effect in complex subtraction arithmetic. That is, individuals tend to choose the plausibility-checking strategy or the whole-calculation strategy according to the split size. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Aligning workload control theory and practice : lot splitting and operation overlapping issues
Fernandes, Nuno O.; Land, Martin J.; Carmo-Silva, S.
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of lot splitting in the context of workload control (WLC). Past studies on WLC assumed that jobs released to the shop floor proceed through the different stages of processing without being split. However, in practice, large jobs are often split into smaller transfer
26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for the taxation of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement for...
A split hand-split foot (SHFM3) gene is located at 10q24{yields}25
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurrieri, F.; Genuardi, M.; Nanni, L.; Sangiorgi, E.; Garofalo, G. [Catholic Univ. of Rome (Italy)] [and others
1996-04-24
The split hand-split foot (SHSF) malformation affects the central rays of the upper and lower limbs. It presents either as an isolated defect or in association with other skeletal or non-skeletal abnormalities. An autosomal SHSF locus (SHFM1) was previously mapped to 7q22.1. We report the mapping of a second autosomal SHSF locus to 10q24{yields}25 region. Maximum lod scores of 3.73, 4.33 and 4.33 at a recombination fraction of zero were obtained for the loci D10S198, PAX2 and D10S1239, respectively. An 19 cM critical region could be defined by haplotype analysis and several genes with a potential role in limb morphogenesis are located in this region. Heterogeneity testing indicates the existence of at least one additional autosomal SHSF locus. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Rehman, Amjad; Abbas, Naveed; Saba, Tanzila; Mahmood, Toqeer; Kolivand, Hoshang
2018-04-10
Splitting the rouleaux RBCs from single RBCs and its further subdivision is a challenging area in computer-assisted diagnosis of blood. This phenomenon is applied in complete blood count, anemia, leukemia, and malaria tests. Several automated techniques are reported in the state of art for this task but face either under or over splitting problems. The current research presents a novel approach to split Rouleaux red blood cells (chains of RBCs) precisely, which are frequently observed in the thin blood smear images. Accordingly, this research address the rouleaux splitting problem in a realistic, efficient and automated way by considering the distance transform and local maxima of the rouleaux RBCs. Rouleaux RBCs are splitted by taking their local maxima as the centres to draw circles by mid-point circle algorithm. The resulting circles are further mapped with single RBC in Rouleaux to preserve its original shape. The results of the proposed approach on standard data set are presented and analyzed statistically by achieving an average recall of 0.059, an average precision of 0.067 and F-measure 0.063 are achieved through ground truth with visual inspection. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hybrid fixation in the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for lower jaw advancement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe Ladeira Pereira
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Miniplate and screw fixation has been widely used in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, but some issues remain unclear concerning its lack of rigidity when compared to Spiessl's bicortical technique. This paper demonstrates the hybrid fixation technique in a case report. A 34-year-old female patient underwent a double jaw surgery with counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible fixed using the hybrid fixation technique. The patient evolved well in the postoperative period and is still under follow up after 14 months, reporting satisfaction with the results and no significant deviation from the treatment plan up to now. No damage to tooth roots was done, maxillomandibular range of motion was within normality and regression of the inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia was observed bilaterally. The hybrid mandibular fixation is clearly visible in the panoramic and cephalometric control radiographs. It seems that the hybrid fixation can sum the advantages of both monocortical and bicortical techniques in lower jaw advancement, increasing fixation stability without significant damage to the mandibular articulation and the inferior alveolar nerve. A statistical investigation seems necessary to prove its efficacy.
The suppression of UT tis using MPO constant Q split spectrum processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koo, Kil Mo; Jun, Kye Suk
1997-01-01
It is very important for ultrasonic test method to evaluate the integrity of the class I components in nuclear power plants. However, as the ultrasonic test is affected by internal structures and configurations of test materials, backscattering, that is, time invariant signal(TIS) is generated in large grain size materials. Due to the above reason, the received signal results in tow signal to noise(S/N) ratio. Split spectrum processing (SSP) technique is effective to suppress the time invariant signal like a grain noise. The conventional SSP technique, however, has been applied to unique algorithm. This paper shows that MPO(minimization and polarity threshold) algorithm which is applied simultaneously two algorithms to be utilized, and the signal processing time was shorten by using the new constant-Q SSP with the finite impulse response(FIR) filter of which frequency to bandwidth ratio is constant and the optimum parameters were analysed for the signal processing to longitudinal wave and shear wave with the same condition of inspection on nuclear power plant site. Moreover, the new ultrasonic test instrument, the reference block of the same product form and material specification, stainless steel test specimens and copper test specimens were designed and fabricated for the application of the new SSP technique. As the result of experimental test with new ultrasonic test instrument and test specimens, the signal to noise ratio was improved by applying the new SSP technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murat Ulutaş
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We prospectively assessed the feasibility and safety of a new percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS fixation technique for instrumentation of the thoracic and lumbar spine in this study. All patients were operated in the prone position under general anesthesia. A 6 to 8 cm midline skin incision was made and wide sub-cutaneous dissection was performed. The paravertebral muscles were first dissected subperiosteally into the midline incision of the fascia for lumbar microdiscectomy with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cage implantation. After the secondary paramedian incisions on the fascia, the PPSs were inserted via cleavage of the multifidus muscles directly into the pedicles under fluoroscopy visualization. A total of 35 patients underwent surgery with this new surgical technique. The control group for operative time, blood loss and analgesic usage consisted of 35 randomly selected cases from our department. The control group underwent surgery via conventional pedicle screw instrumentation with paramedian fusion. All patients in the minimal invasive surgery series were ambulatory with minimal pain on the first postoperative day. The operation time and blood loss and the postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly less with this new technique. In conclusion, the minimal invasive mini open split-muscular percutaneous pedicle screw fixation technique is safe and feasible. It can be performed via a short midline skin incision and can also be combined with interbody fusion, causing minimal pain without severe muscle damage.
The split cube in a cage: bulk negative-index material for infrared applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.
2009-01-01
We propose the split cube in a cage (SCiC) design for application in producing a bulk metamaterial. Applying realistic material data for thin silver films, we observe an immediate convergence of the effective parameters obtained with a number of layers towards the bulk properties. Results...... are obtained by two different numerical techniques: the Fourier modal method and the finite integrals method, thus ensuring their validity. The SCiC exhibits a refractive index of −0.6 for frequencies close to the telecommunication bands. The fast convergence of effective parameters allows consideration...... of the SCiC as a bulk (effectively homogeneous) negative-index metamaterial even for a single layer. The bulk-like nature together with the cubic symmetry of the unit cell make the SCiC a promising candidate for potential applications at telecommunication frequencies....
Security of subcarrier wave quantum key distribution against the collective beam-splitting attack.
Miroshnichenko, G P; Kozubov, A V; Gaidash, A A; Gleim, A V; Horoshko, D B
2018-04-30
We consider a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where quantum encoding is carried out at weak sidebands generated around a coherent optical beam as a result of electro-optical phase modulation. We study security of two protocols, B92 and BB84, against one of the most powerful attacks for this class of systems, the collective beam-splitting attack. Our analysis includes the case of high modulation index, where the sidebands are essentially multimode. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a subcarrier wave QKD system with realistic parameters is capable of distributing cryptographic keys over large distances in presence of collective attacks. We also show that BB84 protocol modification with discrimination of only one state in each basis performs not worse than the original BB84 protocol in this class of QKD systems, thus significantly simplifying the development of cryptographic networks using the considered QKD technique.
Double-side illuminated titania nanotubes for high volume hydrogen generation by water splitting
Mohapatra, Susanta K.; Mahajan, Vishal K.; Misra, Mano
2007-11-01
A sonoelectrochemical anodization method is proposed to synthesize TiO2 nanotubular arrays on both sides of a titanium foil (TiO2/Ti/TiO2). Highly ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays of 16 cm2 area with uniform surface distribution can be obtained using this anodization procedure. These double-sided TiO2/Ti/TiO2 materials are used as both photoanode (carbon-doped titania nanotubes) and cathode (Pt nanoparticles dispersed on TiO2 nanotubes; PtTiO2/Ti/PtTiO2) in a specially designed photoelectrochemical cell to generate hydrogen by water splitting at a rate of 38 ml h-1. The nanomaterials are characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, STEM, EDS, FFT, SAED and XPS techniques. The present approach can be used for large-scale hydrogen generation using renewable energy sources.
Determination of permittivity of pulses and cereals using metamaterial split ring resonator
Chakyar, Sreedevi P.; Sikha Simon, K.; Murali, Aathira; Shanto T., A.; Andrews, Jolly; Joseph V., P.
2017-06-01
Relative permittivity of wide variety of pulses and cereals are precisely determined with the help of metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) operating at microwave frequencies using a simple extraction procedure. The unknown permittivity of food samples in powder form are evaluated from a calibration curve drawn between the dielectric constant of some standard samples and LC resonant frequency of SRR test probe with the sample placed over it. The experimental setup consists of SRR test probe arranged between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a vector network analyzer. Unknown relative permittivity of the sample is obtained by placing it on the SRR surface and is evaluated from the calibration curve which is found to be in good agreement with the expected standard values. The possible applications of this sensitive and easy technique are analyzed in the field of food preservation, quality checking, adulteration etc.
An electromagnetism-like method for the maximum set splitting problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kratica Jozef
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetism-like approach (EM for solving the maximum set splitting problem (MSSP is applied. Hybrid approach consisting of the movement based on the attraction-repulsion mechanisms combined with the proposed scaling technique directs EM to promising search regions. Fast implementation of the local search procedure additionally improves the efficiency of overall EM system. The performance of the proposed EM approach is evaluated on two classes of instances from the literature: minimum hitting set and Steiner triple systems. The results show, except in one case, that EM reaches optimal solutions up to 500 elements and 50000 subsets on minimum hitting set instances. It also reaches all optimal/best-known solutions for Steiner triple systems.
NANOSTRUCTURED TiO2 SENSITIZED WITH PORPHYRINS FOR SOLAR WATER-SPLITTING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MARCELA-CORINA ROŞU
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Nanostructured TiO2 sensitized with porphyrins for Solar water-splitting.The production of hydrogen from water using solar light is very promising for generations of an ecologically pure carrier contributing to a clean, sustainable and renewable energy system. The selection of specific photocatalyst material for hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs is based on some important characteristics of semiconductor, such as photo-corrosion and chemical corrosion stability, photocatalytic potential, high sensitivity for UV-visible light. In the present paper, different nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanodes have been prepared via wet-chemical techniques followed by annealing treatment and sensitized with porphyrins and supramolecular complexes of porphyrins. The so obtained photocatalysts were characterized with UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The purpose of these experiments is to show if the prepared materials possess the necessary photocatalytic characteristics and if they can be used with success in H2 production from water decomposition in PECs.
Mechanical splitting of microtubules into protofilament bundles by surface-bound kinesin-1.
VanDelinder, Virginia; Adams, Peter G; Bachand, George D
2016-12-21
The fundamental biophysics of gliding microtubule (MT) motility by surface-tethered kinesin-1 motor proteins has been widely studied, as well as applied to capture and transport analytes in bioanalytical microdevices. In these systems, phenomena such as molecular wear and fracture into shorter MTs have been reported due the mechanical forces applied on the MT during transport. In the present work, we show that MTs can be split longitudinally into protofilament bundles (PFBs) by the work performed by surface-bound kinesin motors. We examine the properties of these PFBs using several techniques (e.g., fluorescence microscopy, SEM, AFM), and show that the PFBs continue to be mobile on the surface and display very high curvature compared to MT. Further, higher surface density of kinesin motors and shorter kinesin-surface tethers promote PFB formation, whereas modifying MT with GMPCPP or higher paclitaxel concentrations did not affect PFB formation.
Analytical modeling of split-gate junction-less transistor for a biosensor application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shradhya Singh
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper represents the analytical modeling of split-gate Dielectric Modulated Junction Less Transistor (JLT for label free electrical detection of bio molecules. Some part of the channel region is opened for providing the binding sites for the bio molecules unlike conventional MOSFET which is enclosed with the gate electrode. Due to this open area, the surface potential of this region affected by the charged and neutral bio molecules immobilized to the open region of channel. Surface potential of the channel region obtained by solving two-Dimensional Poisson's equation by potential profile having parabolic nature through channel region using technique called conformal mapping. By deriving the surface potential model, derivation of threshold model can also be done. For the detection of bio molecule, variation in to the threshold voltage due to binding of bio molecule in the gate underlap region is the sensing metric.
Strangeness, charm and beauty production at the split field magnet detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geist, W.M.
1982-01-01
The Split Field Magnet detector is used to investigate heavy flavour production at the ISR by various techniques: (a) Decays of neutral strange particles are reconstructed in full phase space yielding detailed information on K 0 sub(s) and Λ production. (b) A trigger telescope with electron identification was added to the standard set-up at a polar angle of 90 0 to measure the prompt electron flux due to semileptonic decays of charmed and beauty hadrons. (c) Events with a triggering electron were also fully reconstructed to search for associated production of open charm and-open beauty. (d) A different study of charmed particle production is based on data taken with a K - trigger at forward angles
Boone, Marc; Draye, Jean Pierre; Verween, Gunther; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Verbeken, Gilbert; De Vos, Daniel; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique
2014-10-01
While real-time 3-D evaluation of human skin constructs is needed, only 2-D non-invasive imaging techniques are available. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) for real-time 3-D assessment of the epidermal splitting and decellularization. Human skin samples were incubated with four different agents: Dispase II, NaCl 1 M, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100. Epidermal splitting, dermo-epidermal junction, acellularity and 3-D architecture of dermal matrices were evaluated by High-definition optical coherence tomography before and after incubation. Real-time 3-D HD-OCT assessment was compared with 2-D en face assessment by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). (Immuno) histopathology was used as control. HD-OCT imaging allowed real-time 3-D visualization of the impact of selected agents on epidermal splitting, dermo-epidermal junction, dermal architecture, vascular spaces and cellularity. RCM has a better resolution (1 μm) than HD-OCT (3 μm), permitting differentiation of different collagen fibres, but HD-OCT imaging has deeper penetration (570 μm) than RCM imaging (200 μm). Dispase II and NaCl treatments were found to be equally efficient in the removal of the epidermis from human split-thickness skin allografts. However, a different epidermal splitting level at the dermo-epidermal junction could be observed and confirmed by immunolabelling of collagen type IV and type VII. Epidermal splitting occurred at the level of the lamina densa with dispase II and above the lamina densa (in the lamina lucida) with NaCl. The 3-D architecture of dermal papillae and dermis was more affected by Dispase II on HD-OCT which corresponded with histopathologic (orcein staining) fragmentation of elastic fibres. With SDS treatment, the epidermal removal was incomplete as remnants of the epidermal basal cell layer remained attached to the basement membrane on the dermis. With Triton X-100 treatment
Li, Meng; Cullen, David A; Sasaki, Kotaro; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S; More, Karren; Adzic, Radoslav R
2013-01-09
Splitting the C-C bond is the main obstacle to electrooxidation of ethanol (EOR) to CO(2). We recently demonstrated that the ternary PtRhSnO(2) electrocatalyst can accomplish that reaction at room temperature with Rh having a unique capability to split the C-C bond. In this article, we report the finding that Ir can be induced to split the C-C bond as a component of the ternary catalyst. We characterized and compared the properties of several carbon-supported nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalysts comprising a SnO(2) NP core decorated with multimetallic nanoislands (MM' = PtIr, PtRh, IrRh, PtIrRh) prepared using a seeded growth approach. An array of characterization techniques were employed to establish the composition and architecture of the synthesized MM'/SnO(2) NPs, while electrochemical and in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies elucidated trends in activity and the nature of the reaction intermediates and products. Both EOR reactivity and selectivity toward CO(2) formation of several of these MM'/SnO(2)/C electrocatalysts are significantly higher compared to conventional Pt/C and Pt/SnO(2)/C catalysts. We demonstrate that the PtIr/SnO(2)/C catalyst with high Ir content shows outstanding catalytic properties with the most negative EOR onset potential and reasonably good selectivity toward ethanol complete oxidation to CO(2).
Polinski, Jennifer M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Maclure, Malcolm; Marshall, Blair; Ramsden, Samuel; Dormuth, Colin
2011-02-01
Tablet splitting, in which a higher-dose tablet is split to get 2 doses, reduces patients' drug costs. Statins can be split safely. General practitioners (GPs) may not direct their patients to split statins because of safety concerns or unawareness of costs. Medical chart inserts provide cost-effective education to physicians. The aim of this study was to assess whether providing GPs with statin-splitting chart inserts would increase splitting rates, and to identify predictors of splitting. In 2005 and 2006, we faxed a statin chart insert to British Columbia GPs with a request for a telephone interview. Consenting GPs were mailed 3 statin chart inserts and interviewed by phone (the intervention). In an interrupted time series, we compared monthly rates of statin-splitting prescriptions among intervention and nonintervention GPs before, during, and after the intervention. In multivariate logistic regressions accounting for patient clustering, predictors of splitting included physician and patient demographics and the specific statin prescribed. Of 5051 GPs reached, 282 (6%) agreed to the intervention. Before the intervention, GPs' splitting rate was 2.6%; after intervention, GPs' splitting rate was 7.5%. The rate for the nonintervention GPs was 4.4%. Intervention GPs were 1.68 (95% CI, 1.12-2.53) times more likely to prescribe splitting after the intervention than were nonintervention GPs. Other predictors were a patient's female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.18-1.34), lower patient income (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.18-1.34), and a lack of drug insurance (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.69-2.04). An inexpensive intervention was effective in producing a sustained increase in GPs' splitting rate during 22 months of observed follow-up. Expanding statin-splitting education to all GPs might reduce prescription costs for many patients and payors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vertebral split fractures: Technical feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huwart, Laurent, E-mail: huwart.laurent@wanadoo.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Foti, Pauline, E-mail: pfoti@hotmail.fr [Department of Biostatistics, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Andreani, Olivier, E-mail: andreani.olivier@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.hauger@chubordeaux.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Cervantes, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.cervantes@live.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Brunner, Philippe, E-mail: pbrunner@chpg.mc [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Princesse Grasse de Monaco (Monaco); Boileau, Pascal, E-mail: boileau.p@chu-nice.fr [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France)
2014-01-15
Objective: The treatment of vertebral split fractures remains controversial, consisting of either corset or internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral split fractures. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. Sixty-two consecutive adult patients who had post-traumatic vertebral split fractures (A2 according to the AO classification) without neurological symptoms were prospectively treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty. All these procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance by using only local anaesthesia. Postoperative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. Results: Vertebroplasty was performed on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, creating a cement bridge between the displaced fragment and the rest of the vertebral body. Seven discal cement leakages (11%) were observed, without occurrence of adjacent vertebral compression fractures. The mean VAS measurements ± standard deviation (SD) significantly decreased from 7.9 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 day, 2.2 ± 2.0 at 1 month, and 1.8 ± 1.4 at 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean ODI scores ± SD had also a significant improvement: 62.3 ± 17.2 preoperatively and 15.1 ± 6.0 at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests that type A2 vertebral fractures could be successfully treated by CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty.
Vertebral split fractures: Technical feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huwart, Laurent; Foti, Pauline; Andreani, Olivier; Hauger, Olivier; Cervantes, Elodie; Brunner, Philippe; Boileau, Pascal; Amoretti, Nicolas
2014-01-01
Objective: The treatment of vertebral split fractures remains controversial, consisting of either corset or internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral split fractures. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. Sixty-two consecutive adult patients who had post-traumatic vertebral split fractures (A2 according to the AO classification) without neurological symptoms were prospectively treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty. All these procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance by using only local anaesthesia. Postoperative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. Results: Vertebroplasty was performed on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, creating a cement bridge between the displaced fragment and the rest of the vertebral body. Seven discal cement leakages (11%) were observed, without occurrence of adjacent vertebral compression fractures. The mean VAS measurements ± standard deviation (SD) significantly decreased from 7.9 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 day, 2.2 ± 2.0 at 1 month, and 1.8 ± 1.4 at 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean ODI scores ± SD had also a significant improvement: 62.3 ± 17.2 preoperatively and 15.1 ± 6.0 at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests that type A2 vertebral fractures could be successfully treated by CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty
Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.
1997-01-01
Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate
Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
1997-01-01
Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.