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Sample records for splines mars models

  1. Multidimensional splines for modeling FET nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barby, J A

    1986-01-01

    Circuit simulators like SPICE and timing simulators like MOTIS are used extensively for critical path verification of integrated circuits. MOSFET model evaluation dominates the run time of these simulators. Changes in technology results in costly updates, since modifications require reprogramming of the functions and their derivatives. The computational cost of MOSFET models can be reduced by using multidimensional polynomial splines. Since simulators based on the Newton Raphson algorithm require the function and first derivative, quadratic splines are sufficient for this purpose. The cost of updating the MOSFET model due to technology changes is greatly reduced since splines are derived from a set of points. Crucial for convergence speed of simulators is the fact that MOSFET characteristic equations are monotonic. This must be maintained by any simulation model. The splines the author designed do maintain monotonicity.

  2. Preference learning with evolutionary Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through combining an evolutionary method with Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS). Collecting users' feedback through pairwise preferences is recommended over other ranking approaches as this method is more appealing...... for function approximation as well as being relatively easy to interpret. MARS models are evolved based on their efficiency in learning pairwise data. The method is tested on two datasets that collectively provide pairwise preference data of five cognitive states expressed by users. The method is analysed...

  3. Stock price forecasting for companies listed on Tehran stock exchange using multivariate adaptive regression splines model and semi-parametric splines technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Reza; Arashi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important topics of interest to investors is stock price changes. Investors whose goals are long term are sensitive to stock price and its changes and react to them. In this regard, we used multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model and semi-parametric splines technique for predicting stock price in this study. The MARS model as a nonparametric method is an adaptive method for regression and it fits for problems with high dimensions and several variables. semi-parametric splines technique was used in this study. Smoothing splines is a nonparametric regression method. In this study, we used 40 variables (30 accounting variables and 10 economic variables) for predicting stock price using the MARS model and using semi-parametric splines technique. After investigating the models, we select 4 accounting variables (book value per share, predicted earnings per share, P/E ratio and risk) as influencing variables on predicting stock price using the MARS model. After fitting the semi-parametric splines technique, only 4 accounting variables (dividends, net EPS, EPS Forecast and P/E Ratio) were selected as variables effective in forecasting stock prices.

  4. Limit Stress Spline Models for GRP Composites | Ihueze | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spline functions were established on the assumption of three intervals and fitting of quadratic and cubic splines to critical stress-strain responses data. Quadratic ... of data points. Spline model is therefore recommended as it evaluates the function at subintervals, eliminating the error associated with wide range interpolation.

  5. Geometric and computer-aided spline hob modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailov, I. G.; Myasoedova, T. M.; Panchuk, K. L.; Krysova, I. V.; Rogoza, YU A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers acquiring the spline hob geometric model. The objective of the research is the development of a mathematical model of spline hob for spline shaft machining. The structure of the spline hob is described taking into consideration the motion in parameters of the machine tool system of cutting edge positioning and orientation. Computer-aided study is performed with the use of CAD and on the basis of 3D modeling methods. Vector representation of cutting edge geometry is accepted as the principal method of spline hob mathematical model development. The paper defines the correlations described by parametric vector functions representing helical cutting edges designed for spline shaft machining with consideration for helical movement in two dimensions. An application for acquiring the 3D model of spline hob is developed on the basis of AutoLISP for AutoCAD environment. The application presents the opportunity for the use of the acquired model for milling process imitation. An example of evaluation, analytical representation and computer modeling of the proposed geometrical model is reviewed. In the mentioned example, a calculation of key spline hob parameters assuring the capability of hobbing a spline shaft of standard design is performed. The polygonal and solid spline hob 3D models are acquired by the use of imitational computer modeling.

  6. PEMODELAN B-SPLINE DAN MARS PADA NILAI UJIAN MASUK TERHADAP IPK MAHASISWA JURUSAN DISAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL UK. PETRA SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Budiantara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Regression analysis is constructed for capturing the influences of independent variables to dependent ones. It can be done by looking at the relationship between those variables. This task of approximating the mean function can be done essentially in two ways. The quiet often use parametric approach is to assume that the mean curve has some prespecified functional forms. Alternatively, nonparametric approach, .i.e., without reference to a specific form, is used when there is no information of the regression function form (Haerdle, 1990. Therefore nonparametric approach has more flexibilities than the parametric one. The aim of this research is to find the best fit model that captures relationship between admission test score to the GPA. This particular data was taken from the Department of Design Communication and Visual, Petra Christian University, Surabaya for year 1999. Those two approaches were used here. In the parametric approach, we use simple linear, quadric cubic regression, and in the nonparametric ones, we use B-Spline and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS. Overall, the best model was chosen based on the maximum determinant coefficient. However, for MARS, the best model was chosen based on the GCV, minimum MSE, maximum determinant coefficient. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Analisa regresi digunakan untuk melihat pengaruh variabel independen terhadap variabel dependent dengan terlebih dulu melihat pola hubungan variabel tersebut. Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan melalui dua pendekatan. Pendekatan yang paling umum dan seringkali digunakan adalah pendekatan parametrik. Pendekatan parametrik mengasumsikan bentuk model sudah ditentukan. Apabila tidak ada informasi apapun tentang bentuk dari fungsi regresi, maka pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan nonparametrik. (Haerdle, 1990. Karena pendekatan tidak tergantung pada asumsi bentuk kurva tertentu, sehingga memberikan fleksibelitas yang lebih besar. Tujuan penelitian ini

  7. Modeling terminal ballistics using blending-type spline surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Aleksander; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune

    2014-12-01

    We explore using GERBS, a blending-type spline construction, to represent deform able thin-plates and model terminal ballistics. Strategies to construct geometry for different scenarios of terminal ballistics are proposed.

  8. PM10 modeling in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; Antón, Juan Carlos Álvarez; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of the particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size (PM10) by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) at local scale. This research work explores the use of a nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) which has the ability to approximate the relationship between the inputs and outputs, and express the relationship mathematically. In this sense, hazardous air pollutants or toxic air contaminants refer to any substance that may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness, or that may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and dust (PM10) were collected over 3 years (2006-2008) and they are used to create a highly nonlinear model of the PM10 in the Oviedo urban nucleus (Northern Spain) based on the MARS technique. One main objective of this model is to obtain a preliminary estimate of the dependence between PM10 pollutant in the Oviedo urban area at local scale. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on air quality with a view to proposing health and lifestyle improvements. The United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of

  9. Global Nonlinear Model Identification with Multivariate Splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    At present, model based control systems play an essential role in many aspects of modern society. Application areas of model based control systems range from food processing to medical imaging, and from process control in oil refineries to the flight control systems of modern aircraft. Central to a

  10. Design Evaluation of Wind Turbine Spline Couplings Using an Analytical Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Wallen, R.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.; Lambert, S.

    2015-02-01

    Articulated splines are commonly used in the planetary stage of wind turbine gearboxes for transmitting the driving torque and improving load sharing. Direct measurement of spline loads and performance is extremely challenging because of limited accessibility. This paper presents an analytical model for the analysis of articulated spline coupling designs. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, this analytical model quickly yields insights into relationships between the spline design parameters and resulting loads; bending, contact, and shear stresses; and safety factors considering various heat treatment methods. Comparisons of this analytical model against previously published computational approaches are also presented.

  11. Joint surface modeling with thin-plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S K; Ronsky, J L; Lichti, D D; Salkauskas, K; Chapman, M A; Salkauskas, D

    1999-10-01

    Mathematical joint surface models based on experimentally determined data points can be used to investigate joint characteristics such as curvature, congruency, cartilage thickness, joint contact areas, as well as to provide geometric information well suited for finite element analysis. Commonly, surface modeling methods are based on B-splines, which involve tensor products. These methods have had success; however, they are limited due to the complex organizational aspect of working with surface patches, and modeling unordered, scattered experimental data points. An alternative method for mathematical joint surface modeling is presented based on the thin-plate spline (TPS). It has the advantage that it does not involve surface patches, and can model scattered data points without experimental data preparation. An analytical surface was developed and modeled with the TPS to quantify its interpolating and smoothing characteristics. Some limitations of the TPS include discontinuity of curvature at exactly the experimental surface data points, and numerical problems dealing with data sets in excess of 2000 points. However, suggestions for overcoming these limitations are presented. Testing the TPS with real experimental data, the patellofemoral joint of a cat was measured with multistation digital photogrammetry and modeled using the TPS to determine cartilage thicknesses and surface curvature. The cartilage thickness distribution ranged between 100 to 550 microns on the patella, and 100 to 300 microns on the femur. It was found that the TPS was an effective tool for modeling joint surfaces because no preparation of the experimental data points was necessary, and the resulting unique function representing the entire surface does not involve surface patches. A detailed algorithm is presented for implementation of the TPS.

  12. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Balshi; A. David McGuire; Paul Duffy; Mike Flannigan; John Walsh; Jerry Melillo

    2009-01-01

    We developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5o (latitude x longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was...

  13. Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p modeled with a first order continuous autoregressive error term as evidenced by the variogram of the residuals and by a lack of association among residuals. The final model provides a parametric linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19

  14. Evaluation of Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models for Groundwater Potential Mapping Using R and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study mapped and analyzed groundwater potential using two different models, logistic regression (LR and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and compared the results. A spatial database was constructed for groundwater well data and groundwater influence factors. Groundwater well data with a high potential yield of ≥70 m3/d were extracted, and 859 locations (70% were used for model training, whereas the other 365 locations (30% were used for model validation. We analyzed 16 groundwater influence factors including altitude, slope degree, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, distance from drainage, drainage density, lithology, distance from fault, fault density, distance from lineament, lineament density, and land cover. Groundwater potential maps (GPMs were constructed using LR and MARS models and tested using a receiver operating characteristics curve. Based on this analysis, the area under the curve (AUC for the success rate curve of GPMs created using the MARS and LR models was 0.867 and 0.838, and the AUC for the prediction rate curve was 0.836 and 0.801, respectively. This implies that the MARS model is useful and effective for groundwater potential analysis in the study area.

  15. Exact sampling of the unobserved covariates in Bayesian spline models for measurement error problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Anindya; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-07-01

    In truncated polynomial spline or B-spline models where the covariates are measured with error, a fully Bayesian approach to model fitting requires the covariates and model parameters to be sampled at every Markov chain Monte Carlo iteration. Sampling the unobserved covariates poses a major computational problem and usually Gibbs sampling is not possible. This forces the practitioner to use a Metropolis-Hastings step which might suffer from unacceptable performance due to poor mixing and might require careful tuning. In this article we show for the cases of truncated polynomial spline or B-spline models of degree equal to one, the complete conditional distribution of the covariates measured with error is available explicitly as a mixture of double-truncated normals, thereby enabling a Gibbs sampling scheme. We demonstrate via a simulation study that our technique performs favorably in terms of computational efficiency and statistical performance. Our results indicate up to 62 and 54 % increase in mean integrated squared error efficiency when compared to existing alternatives while using truncated polynomial splines and B-splines respectively. Furthermore, there is evidence that the gain in efficiency increases with the measurement error variance, indicating the proposed method is a particularly valuable tool for challenging applications that present high measurement error. We conclude with a demonstration on a nutritional epidemiology data set from the NIH-AARP study and by pointing out some possible extensions of the current work.

  16. SPLINE, Spline Interpolation Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouard, Y.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The problem is to obtain an interpolated function, as smooth as possible, that passes through given points. The derivatives of these functions are continuous up to the (2Q-1) order. The program consists of the following two subprograms: ASPLERQ. Transport of relations method for the spline functions of interpolation. SPLQ. Spline interpolation. 2 - Method of solution: The methods are described in the reference under item 10

  17. Modelling daily dissolved oxygen concentration using least square support vector machine, multivariate adaptive regression splines and M5 model tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddam, Salim; Kisi, Ozgur

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, three types of artificial intelligence techniques, least square support vector machine (LSSVM), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and M5 model tree (M5T) are applied for modeling daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration using several water quality variables as inputs. The DO concentration and water quality variables data from three stations operated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) were used for developing the three models. The water quality data selected consisted of daily measured of water temperature (TE, °C), pH (std. unit), specific conductance (SC, μS/cm) and discharge (DI cfs), are used as inputs to the LSSVM, MARS and M5T models. The three models were applied for each station separately and compared to each other. According to the results obtained, it was found that: (i) the DO concentration could be successfully estimated using the three models and (ii) the best model among all others differs from one station to another.

  18. Multivariate Adaptative Regression Splines (MARS, una alternativa para el análisis de series de tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Vanegas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate Adaptative Regression Splines (MARS es un método de modelación no paramétrico que extiende el modelo lineal incorporando no linealidades e interacciones de variables. Es una herramienta flexible que automatiza la construcción de modelos de predicción, seleccionando variables relevantes, transformando las variables predictoras, tratando valores perdidos y previniendo sobreajustes mediante un autotest. También permite predecir tomando en cuenta factores estructurales que pudieran tener influencia sobre la variable respuesta, generando modelos hipotéticos. El resultado final serviría para identificar puntos de corte relevantes en series de datos. En el área de la salud es poco utilizado, por lo que se propone como una herramienta más para la evaluación de indicadores relevantes en salud pública. Para efectos demostrativos se utilizaron series de datos de mortalidad de menores de 5 años de Costa Rica en el periodo 1978-2008.

  19. Fingerprint Matching by Thin-plate Spline Modelling of Elastic Deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Gerez, Sabih H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel minutiae matching method that describes elastic distortions in fingerprints by means of a thin-plate spline model, which is estimated using a local and a global matching stage. After registration of the fingerprints according to the estimated model, the number of matching

  20. Modelling lecturer performance index of private university in Tulungagung by using survival analysis with multivariate adaptive regression spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, M.; Prastyo, D. D.

    2018-03-01

    Survival analysis performs relationship between independent variables and survival time as dependent variable. In fact, not all survival data can be recorded completely by any reasons. In such situation, the data is called censored data. Moreover, several model for survival analysis requires assumptions. One of the approaches in survival analysis is nonparametric that gives more relax assumption. In this research, the nonparametric approach that is employed is Multivariate Regression Adaptive Spline (MARS). This study is aimed to measure the performance of private university’s lecturer. The survival time in this study is duration needed by lecturer to obtain their professional certificate. The results show that research activities is a significant factor along with developing courses material, good publication in international or national journal, and activities in research collaboration.

  1. A method for fitting regression splines with varying polynomial order in the linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lloyd J; Stewart, Paul W; MacDougall, James E; Helms, Ronald W

    2006-02-15

    The linear mixed model has become a widely used tool for longitudinal analysis of continuous variables. The use of regression splines in these models offers the analyst additional flexibility in the formulation of descriptive analyses, exploratory analyses and hypothesis-driven confirmatory analyses. We propose a method for fitting piecewise polynomial regression splines with varying polynomial order in the fixed effects and/or random effects of the linear mixed model. The polynomial segments are explicitly constrained by side conditions for continuity and some smoothness at the points where they join. By using a reparameterization of this explicitly constrained linear mixed model, an implicitly constrained linear mixed model is constructed that simplifies implementation of fixed-knot regression splines. The proposed approach is relatively simple, handles splines in one variable or multiple variables, and can be easily programmed using existing commercial software such as SAS or S-plus. The method is illustrated using two examples: an analysis of longitudinal viral load data from a study of subjects with acute HIV-1 infection and an analysis of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure profiles.

  2. A New Predictive Model Based on the ABC Optimized Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach for Predicting the Remaining Useful Life in Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life (RUL estimation is considered as one of the most central points in the prognostics and health management (PHM. The present paper describes a nonlinear hybrid ABC–MARS-based model for the prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. Indeed, it is well-known that an accurate RUL estimation allows failure prevention in a more controllable way so that the effective maintenance can be carried out in appropriate time to correct impending faults. The proposed hybrid model combines multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, which have been successfully adopted for regression problems, with the artificial bee colony (ABC technique. This optimization technique involves parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. However, its use in reliability applications has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, remaining useful life values have been predicted here by using the hybrid ABC–MARS-based model from the remaining measured parameters (input variables for aircraft engines with success. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.92 was obtained when this hybrid ABC–MARS-based model was applied to experimental data. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. The main advantage of this predictive model is that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the aircraft engine.

  3. A fourth order spline collocation approach for a business cycle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfy, A.; Khoury, S.; Ibdah, H.

    2013-10-01

    A collocation approach, based on a fourth order cubic B-splines is presented for the numerical solution of a Kaleckian business cycle model formulated by a nonlinear delay differential equation. The equation is approximated and the nonlinearity is handled by employing an iterative scheme arising from Newton's method. It is shown that the model exhibits a conditionally dynamical stable cycle. The fourth-order rate of convergence of the scheme is verified numerically for different special cases.

  4. Application of least square support vector machine and multivariate adaptive regression spline models in long term prediction of river water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Parmar, Kulwinder Singh

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of least square support vector machine (LSSVM), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and M5 model tree (M5Tree) in modeling river water pollution. Various combinations of water quality parameters, Free Ammonia (AMM), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Water Temperature (WT), Total Coliform (TC), Fecal Coliform (FC) and Potential of Hydrogen (pH) monitored at Nizamuddin, Delhi Yamuna River in India were used as inputs to the applied models. Results indicated that the LSSVM and MARS models had almost same accuracy and they performed better than the M5Tree model in modeling monthly chemical oxygen demand (COD). The average root mean square error (RMSE) of the LSSVM and M5Tree models was decreased by 1.47% and 19.1% using MARS model, respectively. Adding TC input to the models did not increase their accuracy in modeling COD while adding FC and pH inputs to the models generally decreased the accuracy. The overall results indicated that the MARS and LSSVM models could be successfully used in estimating monthly river water pollution level by using AMM, TKN and WT parameters as inputs.

  5. APLIKASI SPLINE ESTIMATOR TERBOBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Budiantara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered the nonparametric regression model : Zj = X(tj + ej, j = 1,2,…,n, where X(tj is the regression curve. The random error ej are independently distributed normal with a zero mean and a variance s2/bj, bj > 0. The estimation of X obtained by minimizing a Weighted Least Square. The solution of this optimation is a Weighted Spline Polynomial. Further, we give an application of weigted spline estimator in nonparametric regression. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Diberikan model regresi nonparametrik : Zj = X(tj + ej, j = 1,2,…,n, dengan X (tj kurva regresi dan ej sesatan random yang diasumsikan berdistribusi normal dengan mean nol dan variansi s2/bj, bj > 0. Estimasi kurva regresi X yang meminimumkan suatu Penalized Least Square Terbobot, merupakan estimator Polinomial Spline Natural Terbobot. Selanjutnya diberikan suatu aplikasi estimator spline terbobot dalam regresi nonparametrik. Kata kunci: Spline terbobot, Regresi nonparametrik, Penalized Least Square.

  6. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. Copyright © 2014

  7. Interpolating Spline Curve-Based Perceptual Encryption for 3D Printing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of 3D printing technology, 3D printing has recently been applied to many areas of life including healthcare and the automotive industry. Due to the benefit of 3D printing, 3D printing models are often attacked by hackers and distributed without agreement from the original providers. Furthermore, certain special models and anti-weapon models in 3D printing must be protected against unauthorized users. Therefore, in order to prevent attacks and illegal copying and to ensure that all access is authorized, 3D printing models should be encrypted before being transmitted and stored. A novel perceptual encryption algorithm for 3D printing models for secure storage and transmission is presented in this paper. A facet of 3D printing model is extracted to interpolate a spline curve of degree 2 in three-dimensional space that is determined by three control points, the curvature coefficients of degree 2, and an interpolating vector. Three control points, the curvature coefficients, and interpolating vector of the spline curve of degree 2 are encrypted by a secret key. The encrypted features of the spline curve are then used to obtain the encrypted 3D printing model by inverse interpolation and geometric distortion. The results of experiments and evaluations prove that the entire 3D triangle model is altered and deformed after the perceptual encryption process. The proposed algorithm is responsive to the various formats of 3D printing models. The results of the perceptual encryption process is superior to those of previous methods. The proposed algorithm also provides a better method and more security than previous methods.

  8. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.

  9. Estimating trajectories of energy intake through childhood and adolescence using linear-spline multilevel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Northstone, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2013-07-01

    Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped. We demonstrate the use of linear-spline multilevel models to summarize energy-intake trajectories through childhood and adolescence and their application as exposures, outcomes, or mediators. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children assessed children's dietary intake several times between ages 3 and 13 years, using both food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 3-day food diaries. We estimated energy-intake trajectories for 12,032 children using linear-spline multilevel models. We then assessed the associations of these trajectories with maternal body mass index (BMI), and later offspring BMI, and also their role in mediating the relation between maternal and offspring BMIs. Models estimated average and individual energy intake at 3 years, and linear changes in energy intake from age 3 to 7 years and from age 7 to 13 years. By including the exposure (in this example, maternal BMI) in the multilevel model, we were able to estimate the average energy-intake trajectories across levels of the exposure. When energy-intake trajectories are the exposure for a later outcome (in this case offspring BMI) or a mediator (between maternal and offspring BMI), results were similar, whether using a two-step process (exporting individual-level intercepts and slopes from multilevel models and using these in linear regression/path analysis), or a single-step process (multivariate multilevel models). Trajectories were similar when FFQs and food diaries were assessed either separately, or when combined into one model. Linear-spline multilevel models provide useful summaries of trajectories of dietary intake that can be used as an exposure, outcome, or mediator.

  10. The estimation of time-varying risks in asset pricing modelling using B-Spline method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjannah; Solimun; Rinaldo, Adji

    2017-12-01

    Asset pricing modelling has been extensively studied in the past few decades to explore the risk-return relationship. The asset pricing literature typically assumed a static risk-return relationship. However, several studies found few anomalies in the asset pricing modelling which captured the presence of the risk instability. The dynamic model is proposed to offer a better model. The main problem highlighted in the dynamic model literature is that the set of conditioning information is unobservable and therefore some assumptions have to be made. Hence, the estimation requires additional assumptions about the dynamics of risk. To overcome this problem, the nonparametric estimators can also be used as an alternative for estimating risk. The flexibility of the nonparametric setting avoids the problem of misspecification derived from selecting a functional form. This paper investigates the estimation of time-varying asset pricing model using B-Spline, as one of nonparametric approach. The advantages of spline method is its computational speed and simplicity, as well as the clarity of controlling curvature directly. The three popular asset pricing models will be investigated namely CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model), Fama-French 3-factors model and Carhart 4-factors model. The results suggest that the estimated risks are time-varying and not stable overtime which confirms the risk instability anomaly. The results is more pronounced in Carhart’s 4-factors model.

  11. Comparison between splines and fractional polynomials for multivariable model building with continuous covariates: a simulation study with continuous response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Sauerbrei, Willi; Royston, Patrick

    2013-06-15

    In observational studies, many continuous or categorical covariates may be related to an outcome. Various spline-based procedures or the multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) procedure can be used to identify important variables and functional forms for continuous covariates. This is the main aim of an explanatory model, as opposed to a model only for prediction. The type of analysis often guides the complexity of the final model. Spline-based procedures and MFP have tuning parameters for choosing the required complexity. To compare model selection approaches, we perform a simulation study in the linear regression context based on a data structure intended to reflect realistic biomedical data. We vary the sample size, variance explained and complexity parameters for model selection. We consider 15 variables. A sample size of 200 (1000) and R(2)  = 0.2 (0.8) is the scenario with the smallest (largest) amount of information. For assessing performance, we consider prediction error, correct and incorrect inclusion of covariates, qualitative measures for judging selected functional forms and further novel criteria. From limited information, a suitable explanatory model cannot be obtained. Prediction performance from all types of models is similar. With a medium amount of information, MFP performs better than splines on several criteria. MFP better recovers simpler functions, whereas splines better recover more complex functions. For a large amount of information and no local structure, MFP and the spline procedures often select similar explanatory models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Microscopic Model of Automobile Lane-changing Virtual Desire Trajectory by Spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Pei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microscopic traffic simulation models, they have increasingly become an important tool for transport system analysis and management, which assist the traffic engineer to investigate and evaluate the performance of transport network systems. Lane-changing model is a vital component in any traffic simulation model, which could improve road capacity and reduce vehicles delay so as to reduce the likelihood of congestion occurrence. Therefore, this paper addresses the virtual desire trajectory, a vital part to investigate the behaviour divided into four phases. Based on the boundary conditions, β-spline curves and the corresponding reverse algorithm are introduced firstly. Thus, the relation between the velocity and length of lane-changing is constructed, restricted by the curvature, steering velocity and driving behaviour. Then the virtual desire trajectory curves are presented by Matlab and the error analysis results prove that this proposed description model has higher precision in automobile lane-changing process reconstruction, compared with the surveyed result. KEY WORDS: traffic simulation, lane-changing model, virtual desire trajectory, β-spline curves, driving behaviour

  13. Linear spline multilevel models for summarising childhood growth trajectories: A guide to their application using examples from five birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Matijasevich, Alicia; Petherick, Emily S; Santos, Ana Cristina; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio Jd; Martin, Richard M; Kramer, Michael S; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Barros, Henrique; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2016-10-01

    Childhood growth is of interest in medical research concerned with determinants and consequences of variation from healthy growth and development. Linear spline multilevel modelling is a useful approach for deriving individual summary measures of growth, which overcomes several data issues (co-linearity of repeat measures, the requirement for all individuals to be measured at the same ages and bias due to missing data). Here, we outline the application of this methodology to model individual trajectories of length/height and weight, drawing on examples from five cohorts from different generations and different geographical regions with varying levels of economic development. We describe the unique features of the data within each cohort that have implications for the application of linear spline multilevel models, for example, differences in the density and inter-individual variation in measurement occasions, and multiple sources of measurement with varying measurement error. After providing example Stata syntax and a suggested workflow for the implementation of linear spline multilevel models, we conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the linear spline approach compared with other growth modelling methods such as fractional polynomials, more complex spline functions and other non-linear models. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN TROPICARNE CATTLE WITH RANDOM REGRESSION MODELS USING B-SPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Domínguez Viveros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to estimate variance components, and direct (h2 and maternal (m2 heritability in the growth of Tropicarne cattle based on a random regression model using B-Splines for random effects modeling. Information from 12 890 monthly weightings of 1787 calves, from birth to 24 months old, was analyzed. The pedigree included 2504 animals. The random effects model included genetic and permanent environmental (direct and maternal of cubic order, and residuals. The fixed effects included contemporaneous groups (year – season of weighed, sex and the covariate age of the cow (linear and quadratic. The B-Splines were defined in four knots through the growth period analyzed. Analyses were performed with the software Wombat. The variances (phenotypic and residual presented a similar behavior; of 7 to 12 months of age had a negative trend; from birth to 6 months and 13 to 18 months had positive trend; after 19 months were maintained constant. The m2 were low and near to zero, with an average of 0.06 in an interval of 0.04 to 0.11; the h2 also were close to zero, with an average of 0.10 in an interval of 0.03 to 0.23.

  15. Creating high-resolution digital elevation model using thin plate spline interpolation and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T.

    2009-07-01

    In this report creation of the digital elevation model of Olkiluoto area incorporating a large area of seabed is described. The modeled area covers 960 square kilometers and the apparent resolution of the created elevation model was specified to be 2.5 x 2.5 meters. Various elevation data like contour lines and irregular elevation measurements were used as source data in the process. The precision and reliability of the available source data varied largely. Digital elevation model (DEM) comprises a representation of the elevation of the surface of the earth in particular area in digital format. DEM is an essential component of geographic information systems designed for the analysis and visualization of the location-related data. DEM is most often represented either in raster or Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) format. After testing several methods the thin plate spline interpolation was found to be best suited for the creation of the elevation model. The thin plate spline method gave the smallest error in the test where certain amount of points was removed from the data and the resulting model looked most natural. In addition to the elevation data the confidence interval at each point of the new model was required. The Monte Carlo simulation method was selected for this purpose. The source data points were assigned probability distributions according to what was known about their measurement procedure and from these distributions 1 000 (20 000 in the first version) values were drawn for each data point. Each point of the newly created DEM had thus as many realizations. The resulting high resolution DEM will be used in modeling the effects of land uplift and evolution of the landscape in the time range of 10 000 years from the present. This time range comes from the requirements set for the spent nuclear fuel repository site. (orig.)

  16. Regional Densification of a Global VTEC Model Based on B-Spline Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Eren; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Goss, Andreas; Seitz, Florian; Börger, Klaus; Brandert, Sylvia; Görres, Barbara; Kersten, Wilhelm F.; Bothmer, Volker; Hinrichs, Johannes; Mrotzek, Niclas

    2017-04-01

    The project OPTIMAP is a joint initiative of the Bundeswehr GeoInformation Centre (BGIC), the German Space Situational Awareness Centre (GSSAC), the German Geodetic Research Institute of the Technical University Munich (DGFI-TUM) and the Institute for Astrophysics at the University of Göttingen (IAG). The main goal of the project is the development of an operational tool for ionospheric mapping and prediction (OPTIMAP). Two key features of the project are the combination of different satellite observation techniques (GNSS, satellite altimetry, radio occultations and DORIS) and the regional densification as a remedy against problems encountered with the inhomogeneous data distribution. Since the data from space-geoscientific mission which can be used for modeling ionospheric parameters, such as the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) or the electron density, are distributed rather unevenly over the globe at different altitudes, appropriate modeling approaches have to be developed to handle this inhomogeneity. Our approach is based on a two-level strategy. To be more specific, in the first level we compute a global VTEC model with a moderate regional and spectral resolution which will be complemented in the second level by a regional model in a densification area. The latter is a region characterized by a dense data distribution to obtain a high spatial and spectral resolution VTEC product. Additionally, the global representation means a background model for the regional one to avoid edge effects at the boundaries of the densification area. The presented approach based on a global and a regional model part, i.e. the consideration of a regional densification is called the Two-Level VTEC Model (TLVM). The global VTEC model part is based on a series expansion in terms of polynomial B-Splines in latitude direction and trigonometric B-Splines in longitude direction. The additional regional model part is set up by a series expansion in terms of polynomial B-splines for

  17. 4D-PET reconstruction using a spline-residue model with spatial and temporal roughness penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, George P.; Chappell, Michael A.; McGowan, Daniel R.; Sharma, Ricky A.; Higgins, Geoff S.; Fenwick, John D.

    2018-05-01

    4D reconstruction of dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET) data can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in reconstructed image sequences by fitting smooth temporal functions to the voxel time-activity-curves (TACs) during the reconstruction, though the optimal choice of function remains an open question. We propose a spline-residue model, which describes TACs as weighted sums of convolutions of the arterial input function with cubic B-spline basis functions. Convolution with the input function constrains the spline-residue model at early time-points, potentially enhancing noise suppression in early time-frames, while still allowing a wide range of TAC descriptions over the entire imaged time-course, thus limiting bias. Spline-residue based 4D-reconstruction is compared to that of a conventional (non-4D) maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm, and to 4D-reconstructions based on adaptive-knot cubic B-splines, the spectral model and an irreversible two-tissue compartment (‘2C3K’) model. 4D reconstructions were carried out using a nested-MAP algorithm including spatial and temporal roughness penalties. The algorithms were tested using Monte-Carlo simulated scanner data, generated for a digital thoracic phantom with uptake kinetics based on a dynamic [18F]-Fluromisonidazole scan of a non-small cell lung cancer patient. For every algorithm, parametric maps were calculated by fitting each voxel TAC within a sub-region of the reconstructed images with the 2C3K model. Compared to conventional MAP reconstruction, spline-residue-based 4D reconstruction achieved  >50% improvements for five of the eight combinations of the four kinetics parameters for which parametric maps were created with the bias and noise measures used to analyse them, and produced better results for 5/8 combinations than any of the other reconstruction algorithms studied, while spectral model-based 4D reconstruction produced the best results for 2/8. 2C3K model-based 4D reconstruction generated

  18. Comparative Performance of Complex-Valued B-Spline and Polynomial Models Applied to Iterative Frequency-Domain Decision Feedback Equalization of Hammerstein Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Hong, Xia; Khalaf, Emad F; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Harris, Chris J

    2017-12-01

    Complex-valued (CV) B-spline neural network approach offers a highly effective means for identifying and inverting practical Hammerstein systems. Compared with its conventional CV polynomial-based counterpart, a CV B-spline neural network has superior performance in identifying and inverting CV Hammerstein systems, while imposing a similar complexity. This paper reviews the optimality of the CV B-spline neural network approach. Advantages of B-spline neural network approach as compared with the polynomial based modeling approach are extensively discussed, and the effectiveness of the CV neural network-based approach is demonstrated in a real-world application. More specifically, we evaluate the comparative performance of the CV B-spline and polynomial-based approaches for the nonlinear iterative frequency-domain decision feedback equalization (NIFDDFE) of single-carrier Hammerstein channels. Our results confirm the superior performance of the CV B-spline-based NIFDDFE over its CV polynomial-based counterpart.

  19. Geometric modelling of channel present in reservoir petroleum using Bezier splines; Modelagem da geometria de paleocanais presentes em reservatorios petroliferos usando splines de Bezier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Carlos Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos 25 da ANP]. E-mail: carlos@dme.ufcg.edu.br; Silva, Rosana M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: rosana@dme.ufcg.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents an implementation of a synthetic model of a channel found in oil reservoir. The generation these models is one of the steps to the characterization and simulation of the equal probable three-dimensional geological scenery. O implemented model was obtained from fitting techniques of geometric modeling of curves and surfaces to the geological parameters (width, thickness, sinuosity and preferential direction) that defines the form to be modeled. The parameter sinuosity is related with the parameter wave length and the local amplitude of the channel, the parameter preferential direction indicates the way of the flow and the declivity of the channel. The modeling technique used to represent the surface of the channel is the sweeping technique, the consist in effectuate a translation operation from a curve along a guide curve. The guide curve, in our implementation, was generated by the interpolation of points obtained form sampled values or simulated of the parameter sinuosity, using the cubic splines of Bezier technique. A semi-ellipse, determinate by the parameter width and thickness, representing a transversal section of the channel, is the transferred curve through the guide curve, generating the channel surface. (author)

  20. A Bézier-Spline-based Model for the Simulation of Hysteresis in Variably Saturated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Peche, Aaron; Thiele, Luisa-Bianca; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Most transient variably saturated flow models neglect hysteresis in the p_c-S-relationship (Beven, 2012). Such models tend to inadequately represent matrix potential and saturation distribution. Thereby, when simulating flow and transport processes, fluid and solute fluxes might be overestimated (Russo et al., 1989). In this study, we present a simple, computationally efficient and easily applicable model that enables to adequately describe hysteresis in the p_c-S-relationship for variably saturated flow. This model can be seen as an extension to the existing play-type model (Beliaev and Hassanizadeh, 2001), where scanning curves are simplified as vertical lines between main imbibition and main drainage curve. In our model, we use continuous linear and Bézier-Spline-based functions. We show the successful validation of the model by numerically reproducing a physical experiment by Gillham, Klute and Heermann (1976) describing primary drainage and imbibition in a vertical soil column. With a deviation of 3%, the simple Bézier-Spline-based model performs significantly better that the play-type approach, which deviates by 30% from the experimental results. Finally, we discuss the realization of physical experiments in order to extend the model to secondary scanning curves and in order to determine scanning curve steepness. {Literature} Beven, K.J. (2012). Rainfall-Runoff-Modelling: The Primer. John Wiley and Sons. Russo, D., Jury, W. A., & Butters, G. L. (1989). Numerical analysis of solute transport during transient irrigation: 1. The effect of hysteresis and profile heterogeneity. Water Resources Research, 25(10), 2109-2118. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR025i010p02109. Beliaev, A.Y. & Hassanizadeh, S.M. (2001). A Theoretical Model of Hysteresis and Dynamic Effects in the Capillary Relation for Two-phase Flow in Porous Media. Transport in Porous Media 43: 487. doi:10.1023/A:1010736108256. Gillham, R., Klute, A., & Heermann, D. (1976). Hydraulic properties of a porous

  1. Curve fitting and modeling with splines using statistical variable selection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The successful application of statistical variable selection techniques to fit splines is demonstrated. Major emphasis is given to knot selection, but order determination is also discussed. Two FORTRAN backward elimination programs, using the B-spline basis, were developed. The program for knot elimination is compared in detail with two other spline-fitting methods and several statistical software packages. An example is also given for the two-variable case using a tensor product basis, with a theoretical discussion of the difficulties of their use.

  2. Modeling the dispersion of atmospheric pollution using cubic splines and chapeau functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D W; Kern, C D; Long, P E

    1979-01-01

    Two methods that can be used to solve complex, three-dimensional, advection-diffusion transport equations are investigated. A quasi-Lagrangian cubic spline method and a chapeau function method are compared in advecting a passive scalar. The methods are simple to use, computationally fast, and reasonably accurate. Little numerical dissipation is manifested by the schemes. In simple advection tests with equal mesh spacing, the chapeau function method maintains slightly more accurate peak values than the cubic spline method. In tests with unequal mesh spacing, the cubic spline method has less noise, but slightly more damping than the standard chapeau method has. Both cubic splines and chapeau functions can be used to solve the three-dimensional problem of gaseous emissions dispersion without excessive programing complexity or storage requirements. (10 diagrams, 39 references, 2 tables)

  3. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a Nieto, Paulino Jos?; Garc?a-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ord??ez Gal?n, Celestino; Bernardo S?nchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism i...

  4. Digital elevation model production from scanned topographic contour maps via thin plate spline interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soycan, Arzu; Soycan, Metin

    2009-01-01

    GIS (Geographical Information System) is one of the most striking innovation for mapping applications supplied by the developing computer and software technology to users. GIS is a very effective tool which can show visually combination of the geographical and non-geographical data by recording these to allow interpretations and analysis. DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is an inalienable component of the GIS. The existing TM (Topographic Map) can be used as the main data source for generating DEM by amanual digitizing or vectorization process for the contours polylines. The aim of this study is to examine the DEM accuracies, which were obtained by TMs, as depending on the number of sampling points and grid size. For these purposes, the contours of the several 1/1000 scaled scanned topographical maps were vectorized. The different DEMs of relevant area have been created by using several datasets with different numbers of sampling points. We focused on the DEM creation from contour lines using gridding with RBF (Radial Basis Function) interpolation techniques, namely TPS as the surface fitting model. The solution algorithm and a short review of the mathematical model of TPS (Thin Plate Spline) interpolation techniques are given. In the test study, results of the application and the obtained accuracies are drawn and discussed. The initial object of this research is to discuss the requirement of DEM in GIS, urban planning, surveying engineering and the other applications with high accuracy (a few deci meters). (author)

  5. Applying Emax model and bivariate thin plate splines to assess drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Maiying; Lee, J Jack

    2010-01-01

    We review the semiparametric approach previously proposed by Kong and Lee and extend it to a case in which the dose-effect curves follow the Emax model instead of the median effect equation. When the maximum effects for the investigated drugs are different, we provide a procedure to obtain the additive effect based on the Loewe additivity model. Then, we apply a bivariate thin plate spline approach to estimate the effect beyond additivity along with its 95 per cent point-wise confidence interval as well as its 95 per cent simultaneous confidence interval for any combination dose. Thus, synergy, additivity, and antagonism can be identified. The advantages of the method are that it provides an overall assessment of the combination effect on the entire two-dimensional dose space spanned by the experimental doses, and it enables us to identify complex patterns of drug interaction in combination studies. In addition, this approach is robust to outliers. To illustrate this procedure, we analyzed data from two case studies.

  6. Spline-procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1976-12-01

    This report contains a short introduction to spline functions as well as a complete description of the spline procedures presently available in the HMI-library. These include polynomial splines (using either B-splines or one-sided basis representations) and natural splines, as well as their application to interpolation, quasiinterpolation, L 2 -, and Tchebycheff approximation. Special procedures are included for the case of cubic splines. Complete test examples with input and output are provided for each of the procedures. (orig.) [de

  7. Application of thin plate splines for accurate regional ionosphere modeling with multi-GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Pawel; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    GNSS-derived regional ionosphere models are widely used in both precise positioning, ionosphere and space weather studies. However, their accuracy is often not sufficient to support precise positioning, RTK in particular. In this paper, we presented new approach that uses solely carrier phase multi-GNSS observables and thin plate splines (TPS) for accurate ionospheric TEC modeling. TPS is a closed solution of a variational problem minimizing both the sum of squared second derivatives of a smoothing function and the deviation between data points and this function. This approach is used in UWM-rt1 regional ionosphere model developed at UWM in Olsztyn. The model allows for providing ionospheric TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions - 0.2x0.2 degrees and 2.5 minutes, respectively. For TEC estimation, EPN and EUPOS reference station data is used. The maps are available with delay of 15-60 minutes. In this paper we compare the performance of UWM-rt1 model with IGS global and CODE regional ionosphere maps during ionospheric storm that took place on March 17th, 2015. During this storm, the TEC level over Europe doubled comparing to earlier quiet days. The performance of the UWM-rt1 model was validated by (a) comparison to reference double-differenced ionospheric corrections over selected baselines, and (b) analysis of post-fit residuals to calibrated carrier phase geometry-free observational arcs at selected test stations. The results show a very good performance of UWM-rt1 model. The obtained post-fit residuals in case of UWM maps are lower by one order of magnitude comparing to IGS maps. The accuracy of UWM-rt1 -derived TEC maps is estimated at 0.5 TECU. This may be directly translated to the user positioning domain.

  8. A comparison of tripolar concentric ring electrode and spline Laplacians on a four-layer concentric spherical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated a four-layer concentric spherical head model. We calculated the spline and tripolar Laplacian estimates and compared them to the analytical Laplacian on the spherical surface. In the simulations we used five different dipole groups and two electrode configurations. The comparison shows that the tripolar Laplacian has higher correlation coefficient to the analytical Laplacian in the electrode configurations tested (19, standard 10/20 locations and 64 electrodes).

  9. Median regression spline modeling of longitudinal FEV1 measurements in cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Douglas J; Bailey, Barbara A; Hardie, Jon A; Bakke, Per S; Eagan, Tomas M L; Aarli, Bernt B

    2017-01-01

    Clinical phenotyping, therapeutic investigations as well as genomic, airway secretion metabolomic and metagenomic investigations can benefit from robust, nonlinear modeling of FEV1 in individual subjects. We demonstrate the utility of measuring FEV1 dynamics in representative cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) populations. Individual FEV1 data from CF and COPD subjects were modeled by estimating median regression splines and their predicted first and second derivatives. Classes were created from variables that capture the dynamics of these curves in both cohorts. Nine FEV1 dynamic variables were identified from the splines and their predicted derivatives in individuals with CF (n = 177) and COPD (n = 374). Three FEV1 dynamic classes (i.e. stable, intermediate and hypervariable) were generated and described using these variables from both cohorts. In the CF cohort, the FEV1 hypervariable class (HV) was associated with a clinically unstable, female-dominated phenotypes while stable FEV1 class (S) individuals were highly associated with the male-dominated milder clinical phenotype. In the COPD cohort, associations were found between the FEV1 dynamic classes, the COPD GOLD grades, with exacerbation frequency and symptoms. Nonlinear modeling of FEV1 with splines provides new insights and is useful in characterizing CF and COPD clinical phenotypes.

  10. Efectivity of Additive Spline for Partial Least Square Method in Regression Model Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bilfarsah

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive Spline of Partial Least Square method (ASPL as one generalization of Partial Least Square (PLS method. ASPLS method can be acommodation to non linear and multicollinearity case of predictor variables. As a principle, The ASPLS method approach is cahracterized by two idea. The first is to used parametric transformations of predictors by spline function; the second is to make ASPLS components mutually uncorrelated, to preserve properties of the linear PLS components. The performance of ASPLS compared with other PLS method is illustrated with the fisher economic application especially the tuna fish production.

  11. Approximation and geomatric modeling with simplex B-splines associates with irregular triangular

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auerbach, S.; Gmelig Meyling, R.H.J.; Neamtu, M.; Neamtu, M.; Schaeben, H.

    1991-01-01

    Bivariate quadratic simplical B-splines defined by their corresponding set of knots derived from a (suboptimal) constrained Delaunay triangulation of the domain are employed to obtain a C1-smooth surface. The generation of triangle vertices is adjusted to the areal distribution of the data in the

  12. Comparison of parametric, orthogonal, and spline functions to model individual lactation curves for milk yield in Canadian Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Dimauro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Test day records for milk yield of 57,390 first lactation Canadian Holsteins were analyzed with a linear model that included the fixed effects of herd-test date and days in milk (DIM interval nested within age and calving season. Residuals from this model were analyzed as a new variable and fitted with a five parameter model, fourth-order Legendre polynomials, with linear, quadratic and cubic spline models with three knots. The fit of the models was rather poor, with about 30-40% of the curves showing an adjusted R-square lower than 0.20 across all models. Results underline a great difficulty in modelling individual deviations around the mean curve for milk yield. However, the Ali and Schaeffer (5 parameter model and the fourth-order Legendre polynomials were able to detect two basic shapes of individual deviations among the mean curve. Quadratic and, especially, cubic spline functions had better fitting performances but a poor predictive ability due to their great flexibility that results in an abrupt change of the estimated curve when data are missing. Parametric and orthogonal polynomials seem to be robust and affordable under this standpoint.

  13. Modeling the hydrological cycle on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Machtoub

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a detailed analysis of the hydrological cycle on Mars simulated with a newly developed microphysical model, incorporated in a spectral Mars General Circulation Model. The modeled hydrological cycle is compared well with simulations of other global climate models. The simulated seasonal migration ofwater vapor, circulation instability, and the high degree of temporal variability of localized water vapor outbursts are shown closely consistent with recent observations. The microphysical parameterization provides a significant improvement in the modeling of ice clouds evolved over the tropics and major ancient volcanoes on Mars. The most significant difference between the simulations presented here and other GCM results is the level at which the water ice clouds are found. The model findings also support interpretation of observed thermal anomalies in the Martian tropics during northern spring and summer seasons.

  14. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  15. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lian; Farmer, Chris; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo Xiaodong; Moroz, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  16. About the Modeling of Radio Source Time Series as Linear Splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Xu, Minghui; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald

    2016-12-01

    Many of the time series of radio sources observed in geodetic VLBI show variations, caused mainly by changes in source structure. However, until now it has been common practice to consider source positions as invariant, or to exclude known misbehaving sources from the datum conditions. This may lead to a degradation of the estimated parameters, as unmodeled apparent source position variations can propagate to the other parameters through the least squares adjustment. In this paper we will introduce an automated algorithm capable of parameterizing the radio source coordinates as linear splines.

  17. Improvement of MARS code reflood model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Chung, Bub-Dong

    2011-01-01

    A specifically designed heat transfer model for the reflood process which normally occurs at low flow and low pressure was originally incorporated in the MARS code. The model is essentially identical to that of the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. The model, however, is known to have under-estimated the peak cladding temperature (PCT) with earlier turn-over. In this study, the original MARS code reflood model is improved. Based on the extensive sensitivity studies for both hydraulic and wall heat transfer models, it is found that the dispersed flow film boiling (DFFB) wall heat transfer is the most influential process determining the PCT, whereas the interfacial drag model most affects the quenching time through the liquid carryover phenomenon. The model proposed by Bajorek and Young is incorporated for the DFFB wall heat transfer. Both space grid and droplet enhancement models are incorporated. Inverted annular film boiling (IAFB) is modeled by using the original PSI model of the code. The flow transition between the DFFB and IABF, is modeled using the TRACE code interpolation. A gas velocity threshold is also added to limit the top-down quenching effect. Assessment calculations are performed for the original and modified MARS codes for the Flecht-Seaset test and RBHT test. Improvements are observed in terms of the PCT and quenching time predictions in the Flecht-Seaset assessment. In case of the RBHT assessment, the improvement over the original MARS code is found marginal. A space grid effect, however, is clearly seen from the modified version of the MARS code. (author)

  18. Spline Interpolation of Image

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kuba; J. Zavacky; J. Mihalik

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the use of B spline functions in various digital signal processing applications. The theory of one-dimensional B spline interpolation is briefly reviewed, followed by its extending to two dimensions. After presenting of one and two dimensional spline interpolation, the algorithms of image interpolation and resolution increasing were proposed. Finally, experimental results of computer simulations are presented.

  19. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  20. Automatic optimal filament segmentation with sub-pixel accuracy using generalized linear models and B-spline level-sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xun; Geyer, Veikko F; Bowne-Anderson, Hugo; Howard, Jonathon; Sbalzarini, Ivo F

    2016-08-01

    Biological filaments, such as actin filaments, microtubules, and cilia, are often imaged using different light-microscopy techniques. Reconstructing the filament curve from the acquired images constitutes the filament segmentation problem. Since filaments have lower dimensionality than the image itself, there is an inherent trade-off between tracing the filament with sub-pixel accuracy and avoiding noise artifacts. Here, we present a globally optimal filament segmentation method based on B-spline vector level-sets and a generalized linear model for the pixel intensity statistics. We show that the resulting optimization problem is convex and can hence be solved with global optimality. We introduce a simple and efficient algorithm to compute such optimal filament segmentations, and provide an open-source implementation as an ImageJ/Fiji plugin. We further derive an information-theoretic lower bound on the filament segmentation error, quantifying how well an algorithm could possibly do given the information in the image. We show that our algorithm asymptotically reaches this bound in the spline coefficients. We validate our method in comprehensive benchmarks, compare with other methods, and show applications from fluorescence, phase-contrast, and dark-field microscopy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The modeling of quadratic B-splines surfaces for the tomographic reconstruction in the FCC- type-riser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Geovane Vitor; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Pires, Renan Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    The 3D tomography reconstruction has been a profitable alternative in the analysis of the FCC-type- riser (Fluid Catalytic Cracking), for appropriately keeping track of the sectional catalyst concentration distribution in the process of oil refining. The method of tomography reconstruction proposed by M. Azzi and colleagues (1991) uses a relatively small amount of trajectories (from 3 to 5) and projections (from 5 to 7) of gamma rays, a desirable feature in the industrial process tomography. Compared to more popular methods, such as the FBP (Filtered Back Projection), which demands a much higher amount of gamma rays projections, the method by Azzi et al. is more appropriate for the industrial process, where the physical limitations and the cost of the process require more economical arrangements. The use of few projections and trajectories facilitates the diagnosis in the flow dynamical process. This article proposes an improvement in the basis functions introduced by Azzi et al., through the use of quadratic B-splines functions. The use of B-splines functions makes possible a smoother surface reconstruction of the density distribution, since the functions are continuous and smooth. This work describes how the modeling can be done. (author)

  2. New Model for Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    A new model for ionospheric irregularities at Mars is presented. It is shown that wind-driven currents in the dynamo region of the Martian ionosphere can be unstable to the electromagnetic gradient drift instability. This plasma instability can generate ionospheric density and magnetic field irregularities with scale sizes of approximately 15-20 km down to a few kilometers. We show that the instability-driven magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes relative to background are correlated with the ionospheric density fluctuation amplitudes relative to background. Our results can explain recent observations made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft in the Martian ionosphere dynamo region.

  3. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  4. Spline models of contemporary, 2030, 2060, and 2090 climates for Mexico and their use in understanding climate-change impacts on the vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston; Pierre Duval; Remi St-Amant; Jean Beaulieu; Bryce A. Richardson

    2010-01-01

    Spatial climate models were developed for Mexico and its periphery (southern USA, Cuba, Belize and Guatemala) for monthly normals (1961-1990) of average, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation using thin plate smoothing splines of ANUSPLIN software on ca. 3,800 observations. The fit of the model was generally good: the signal was considerably less than one-...

  5. A radar-echo model for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.W.; Moore, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers developed a radar-echo model for Mars based on 12.6 cm continuous wave radio transmissions backscattered from the planet. The model broadly matches the variations in depolarized and polarized total radar cross sections with longitude observed by Goldstone in 1986 along 7 degrees S. and yields echo spectra that are generally similiar to the observed spectra. Radar map units in the model include an extensive cratered uplands unit with weak depolarized echo cross sections, average thermal inertias, moderate normal refelectivities, and moderate rms slopes; the volcanic units of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis regions with strong depolarized echo cross sections, low thermal inertia, low normal reflectivities, and large rms slopes; and the northern planes units with moderate to strong depolarized echo cross sections, moderate to very high thermal inertias, moderate to large normal reflectivities, and moderate rms slopes. The relevance of the model to the interpretation of radar echoes from Mars is discussed

  6. Mars Propellant Liquefaction Modeling in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  7. Series-NonUniform Rational B-Spline (S-NURBS) model: a geometrical interpolation framework for chaotic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Qingqing; Wang, Tingting; Yin, Peifeng; Wang, Binghong

    2013-09-01

    Time series is widely exploited to study the innate character of the complex chaotic system. Existing chaotic models are weak in modeling accuracy because of adopting either error minimization strategy or an acceptable error to end the modeling process. Instead, interpolation can be very useful for solving differential equations with a small modeling error, but it is also very difficult to deal with arbitrary-dimensional series. In this paper, geometric theory is considered to reduce the modeling error, and a high-precision framework called Series-NonUniform Rational B-Spline (S-NURBS) model is developed to deal with arbitrary-dimensional series. The capability of the interpolation framework is proved in the validation part. Besides, we verify its reliability by interpolating Musa dataset. The main improvement of the proposed framework is that we are able to reduce the interpolation error by properly adjusting weights series step by step if more information is given. Meanwhile, these experiments also demonstrate that studying the physical system from a geometric perspective is feasible.

  8. PARAMETRIC AND NON PARAMETRIC (MARS: MULTIVARIATE ADDITIVE REGRESSION SPLINES) LOGISTIC REGRESSIONS FOR PREDICTION OF A DICHOTOMOUS RESPONSE VARIABLE WITH AN EXAMPLE FOR PRESENCE/ABSENCE OF AMPHIBIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a reference manual that could be used by investigators for making informed use of logistic regression using two methods (standard logistic regression and MARS). The details for analyses of relationships between a dependent binary response ...

  9. Correlation studies for B-spline modeled F2 Chapman parameters obtained from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Limberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of ionospheric key quantities such as the maximum electron density of the F2 layer NmF2, the corresponding F2 peak height hmF2 and the F2 scale height HF2 are of high relevance in 4-D ionosphere modeling to provide information on the vertical structure of the electron density (Ne. The Ne distribution with respect to height can, for instance, be modeled by the commonly accepted F2 Chapman layer. An adequate and observation driven description of the vertical Ne variation can be obtained from electron density profiles (EDPs derived by ionospheric radio occultation measurements between GPS and low Earth orbiter (LEO satellites. For these purposes, the six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C satellites provide an excellent opportunity to collect EDPs that cover most of the ionospheric region, in particular the F2 layer. For the contents of this paper, F3/C EDPs have been exploited to determine NmF2, hmF2 and HF2 within a regional modeling approach. As mathematical base functions, endpoint-interpolating polynomial B-splines are considered to model the key parameters with respect to longitude, latitude and time. The description of deterministic processes and the verification of this modeling approach have been published previously in Limberger et al. (2013, whereas this paper should be considered as an extension dealing with related correlation studies, a topic to which less attention has been paid in the literature. Relations between the B-spline series coefficients regarding specific key parameters as well as dependencies between the three F2 Chapman key parameters are in the main focus. Dependencies are interpreted from the post-derived correlation matrices as a result of (1 a simulated scenario without data gaps by taking dense, homogenously distributed profiles into account and (2 two real data scenarios on 1 July 2008 and 1 July 2012 including sparsely, inhomogeneously distributed F3/C EDPs. Moderate correlations between hmF2 and HF2 as

  10. Interpolating cubic splines

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gary D

    2000-01-01

    A spline is a thin flexible strip composed of a material such as bamboo or steel that can be bent to pass through or near given points in the plane, or in 3-space in a smooth manner. Mechanical engineers and drafting specialists find such (physical) splines useful in designing and in drawing plans for a wide variety of objects, such as for hulls of boats or for the bodies of automobiles where smooth curves need to be specified. These days, physi­ cal splines are largely replaced by computer software that can compute the desired curves (with appropriate encouragment). The same mathematical ideas used for computing "spline" curves can be extended to allow us to compute "spline" surfaces. The application ofthese mathematical ideas is rather widespread. Spline functions are central to computer graphics disciplines. Spline curves and surfaces are used in computer graphics renderings for both real and imagi­ nary objects. Computer-aided-design (CAD) systems depend on algorithms for computing spline func...

  11. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  12. Mars 2020 Model Based Systems Engineering Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Alexandra Marie

    2017-01-01

    The pilot study is led by the Integration Engineering group in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). The Integration Engineering (IE) group is responsible for managing the interfaces between the spacecraft and launch vehicle. This pilot investigates the utility of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) with respect to managing and verifying interface requirements. The main objectives of the pilot are to model several key aspects of the Mars 2020 integrated operations and interface requirements based on the design and verification artifacts from Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and to demonstrate how MBSE could be used by LSP to gain further insight on the interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle as well as to enhance how LSP manages the launch service. The method used to accomplish this pilot started through familiarization of SysML, MagicDraw, and the Mars 2020 and MSL systems through books, tutorials, and NASA documentation. MSL was chosen as the focus of the model since its processes and verifications translate easily to the Mars 2020 mission. The study was further focused by modeling specialized systems and processes within MSL in order to demonstrate the utility of MBSE for the rest of the mission. The systems chosen were the In-Flight Disconnect (IFD) system and the Mass Properties process. The IFD was chosen as a system of focus since it is an interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle which can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a system perspective. The Mass Properties process was chosen as a process of focus since the verifications for mass properties occur throughout the lifecycle and can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a multi-discipline perspective. Several iterations of both perspectives have been modeled and evaluated. While the pilot study will continue for another 2 weeks, pros and cons of using MBSE for LSP IE have been identified. A pro of using MBSE includes an integrated view of the disciplines, requirements, and

  13. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.

  14. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

  15. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Nieto, Paulino José; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ordóñez Galán, Celestino; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-28

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC-MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc . Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC-MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

  16. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Nieto, Paulino José; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ordóñez Galán, Celestino; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed. PMID:28787882

  17. Fuel behavior modeling using the MARS computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, S.C.S.; Faya, A.J.G.

    1983-01-01

    The fuel behaviour modeling code MARS against experimental data, was evaluated. Two cases were selected: an early comercial PWR rod (Maine Yankee rod) and an experimental rod from the Canadian BWR program (Canadian rod). The MARS predictions are compared with experimental data and predictions made by other fuel modeling codes. Improvements are suggested for some fuel behaviour models. Mars results are satisfactory based on the data available. (Author) [pt

  18. Radiobiological modelling with MarCell software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, J.S.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Jones introduced a bone marrow radiation cell kinetics model with great potential for application in the fields of health physics, radiation research, and medicine. However, until recently, only the model developers have been able to apply it because of the complex array of biological and physical assignments needed for evaluation of a particular radiation exposure protocol. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of MarCell (MARrow CELL Kinetics) software for MS-DOS, a user-friendly computer implementation of that mathematical model that allows almost anyone with an elementary knowledge of radiation physics and/or medical procedures to apply the model. A hands-on demonstration of the software will be given by guiding the user through evaluation of a medical total body irradiation protocol and a nuclear fallout scenario. A brief overview of the software is given in the Appendix

  19. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeyeong Choe

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the

  20. Designing interactively with elastic splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Fisker, Ann-Sofie

    2018-01-01

    We present an algorithm for designing interactively with C1 elastic splines. The idea is to design the elastic spline using a C1 cubic polynomial spline where each polynomial segment is so close to satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation for elastic curves that the visual difference becomes neglig...... negligible. Using a database of cubic Bézier curves we are able to interactively modify the cubic spline such that it remains visually close to an elastic spline....

  1. Numerical discretization-based estimation methods for ordinary differential equation models via penalized spline smoothing with applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi; Kumar, Arun

    2012-06-01

    Differential equations are extensively used for modeling dynamics of physical processes in many scientific fields such as engineering, physics, and biomedical sciences. Parameter estimation of differential equation models is a challenging problem because of high computational cost and high-dimensional parameter space. In this article, we propose a novel class of methods for estimating parameters in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, which is motivated by HIV dynamics modeling. The new methods exploit the form of numerical discretization algorithms for an ODE solver to formulate estimating equations. First, a penalized-spline approach is employed to estimate the state variables and the estimated state variables are then plugged in a discretization formula of an ODE solver to obtain the ODE parameter estimates via a regression approach. We consider three different order of discretization methods, Euler's method, trapezoidal rule, and Runge-Kutta method. A higher-order numerical algorithm reduces numerical error in the approximation of the derivative, which produces a more accurate estimate, but its computational cost is higher. To balance the computational cost and estimation accuracy, we demonstrate, via simulation studies, that the trapezoidal discretization-based estimate is the best and is recommended for practical use. The asymptotic properties for the proposed numerical discretization-based estimators are established. Comparisons between the proposed methods and existing methods show a clear benefit of the proposed methods in regards to the trade-off between computational cost and estimation accuracy. We apply the proposed methods t an HIV study to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approaches. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  2. The Asymptotic Behavior of Particle Size Distribution Undergoing Brownian Coagulation Based on the Spline-Based Method and TEMOM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the particle size distribution is reconstructed using finite moments based on a converted spline-based method, in which the number of linear system of equations to be solved reduced from 4m × 4m to (m + 3 × (m + 3 for (m + 1 nodes by using cubic spline compared to the original method. The results are verified by comparing with the reference firstly. Then coupling with the Taylor-series expansion moment method, the evolution of particle size distribution undergoing Brownian coagulation and its asymptotic behavior are investigated.

  3. Mars approach for global sensitivity analysis of differential equation models with applications to dynamics of influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonok; Wu, Hulin

    2012-01-01

    Differential equation models are widely used for the study of natural phenomena in many fields. The study usually involves unknown factors such as initial conditions and/or parameters. It is important to investigate the impact of unknown factors (parameters and initial conditions) on model outputs in order to better understand the system the model represents. Apportioning the uncertainty (variation) of output variables of a model according to the input factors is referred to as sensitivity analysis. In this paper, we focus on the global sensitivity analysis of ordinary differential equation (ODE) models over a time period using the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) as a meta model based on the concept of the variance of conditional expectation (VCE). We suggest to evaluate the VCE analytically using the MARS model structure of univariate tensor-product functions which is more computationally efficient. Our simulation studies show that the MARS model approach performs very well and helps to significantly reduce the computational cost. We present an application example of sensitivity analysis of ODE models for influenza infection to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  4. Interpolating Spline Curve-Based Perceptual Encryption for 3D Printing Models

    OpenAIRE

    Giao N. Pham; Suk-Hwan Lee; Ki-Ryong Kwon

    2018-01-01

    With the development of 3D printing technology, 3D printing has recently been applied to many areas of life including healthcare and the automotive industry. Due to the benefit of 3D printing, 3D printing models are often attacked by hackers and distributed without agreement from the original providers. Furthermore, certain special models and anti-weapon models in 3D printing must be protected against unauthorized users. Therefore, in order to prevent attacks and illegal copying and to ensure...

  5. Model systems for life processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    In the evolution of life forms nonphotosynthetic mechanisms are developed. The question remains whether a total life system could evolve which is not dependent upon photosynthesis. In trying to visualize life on other planets, the photosynthetic process has problems. On Mars, the high intensity of light at the surface is a concern and alternative mechanisms need to be defined and analyzed. In the UV search for alternate mechanisms, several different areas may be identified. These involve activated inorganic compounds in the atmosphere, such as the products of photodissociation of carbon dioxide and the organic material which may be created by natural phenomena. In addition, a life system based on the pressure of the atmospheric constituents, such as carbon dioxide, is a possibility. These considerations may be important for the understanding of evolutionary processes of life on another planet. Model systems which depend on these alternative mechanisms are defined and related to presently planned and future planetary missions.

  6. Forecasting Multivariate Road Traffic Flows Using Bayesian Dynamic Graphical Models, Splines and Other Traffic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Queen, Catriona; Albers, Casper J.

    Traffic flow data are routinely collected for many networks worldwide. These invariably large data sets can be used as part of a traffic management system, for which good traffic flow forecasting models are crucial. The linear multiregression dynamic model (LMDM) has been shown to be promising for

  7. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Discusses the fundamental facts concerning this mysterious planet, including its mass, size, and atmosphere, as well as the various missions that helped planetary scientists document the geological history of Mars. This volume also describes Mars'' seasons with their surface effects on the planet and how they have changed over time.

  8. Two-component mixture cure rate model with spline estimated nonparametric components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Du, Pang; Liang, Hua

    2012-09-01

    In some survival analysis of medical studies, there are often long-term survivors who can be considered as permanently cured. The goals in these studies are to estimate the noncured probability of the whole population and the hazard rate of the susceptible subpopulation. When covariates are present as often happens in practice, to understand covariate effects on the noncured probability and hazard rate is of equal importance. The existing methods are limited to parametric and semiparametric models. We propose a two-component mixture cure rate model with nonparametric forms for both the cure probability and the hazard rate function. Identifiability of the model is guaranteed by an additive assumption that allows no time-covariate interactions in the logarithm of hazard rate. Estimation is carried out by an expectation-maximization algorithm on maximizing a penalized likelihood. For inferential purpose, we apply the Louis formula to obtain point-wise confidence intervals for noncured probability and hazard rate. Asymptotic convergence rates of our function estimates are established. We then evaluate the proposed method by extensive simulations. We analyze the survival data from a melanoma study and find interesting patterns for this study. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Payment, Simone

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, fun, and approachable book offers everything young readers need to know to begin their study of the Red Planet. They will learn about the fundamental aspects of the Mars, including its size, mass, surface features, interior, orbit, and spin. Further, they will learn about the history of the missions to Mars, including the Viking spacecraft and the Curiosity and MAVEN rovers. Finally, readers will learn about why scientists think there's a chance that Mars is or was suitable for life. With stunning imagery from NASA itself, readers will have a front seat-view of the missi

  10. Improved choked flow model for MARS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Sun; Lee, Won Jae; Ha, Kwi Seok; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Choked flow calculation is improved by using a new sound speed criterion for bubbly flow that is derived by the characteristic analysis of hyperbolic two-fluid model. This model was based on the notion of surface tension for the interfacial pressure jump terms in the momentum equations. Real eigenvalues obtained as the closed-form solution of characteristic polynomial represent the sound speed in the bubbly flow regime that agrees well with the existing experimental data. The present sound speed shows more reasonable result in the extreme case than the Nguyens did. The present choked flow criterion derived by the present sound speed is employed in the MARS code and assessed by using the Marviken choked flow tests. The assessment results without any adjustment made by some discharge coefficients demonstrate more accurate predictions of choked flow rate in the bubbly flow regime than those of the earlier choked flow calculations. By calculating the Typical PWR (SBLOCA) problem, we make sure that the present model can reproduce the reasonable transients of integral reactor system

  11. Forecasting the daily power output of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on multivariate adaptive regression splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanting; He, Yong; Su, Yan; Shu, Lianjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Suggests a nonparametric model based on MARS for output power prediction. • Compare the MARS model with a wide variety of prediction models. • Show that the MARS model is able to provide an overall good performance in both the training and testing stages. - Abstract: Both linear and nonlinear models have been proposed for forecasting the power output of photovoltaic systems. Linear models are simple to implement but less flexible. Due to the stochastic nature of the power output of PV systems, nonlinear models tend to provide better forecast than linear models. Motivated by this, this paper suggests a fairly simple nonlinear regression model known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), as an alternative to forecasting of solar power output. The MARS model is a data-driven modeling approach without any assumption about the relationship between the power output and predictors. It maintains simplicity of the classical multiple linear regression (MLR) model while possessing the capability of handling nonlinearity. It is simpler in format than other nonlinear models such as ANN, k-nearest neighbors (KNN), classification and regression tree (CART), and support vector machine (SVM). The MARS model was applied on the daily output of a grid-connected 2.1 kW PV system to provide the 1-day-ahead mean daily forecast of the power output. The comparisons with a wide variety of forecast models show that the MARS model is able to provide reliable forecast performance.

  12. Model Based Autonomy for Robust Mars Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter model-based autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.

  13. The GEM-Mars general circulation model for Mars: Description and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, L.; Daerden, F.

    2018-01-01

    GEM-Mars is a gridpoint-based three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of the Mars atmosphere extending from the surface to approximately 150 km based on the GEM (Global Environmental Multiscale) model, part of the operational weather forecasting and data assimilation system for Canada. After the initial modification for Mars, the model has undergone considerable changes. GEM-Mars is now based on GEM 4.2.0 and many physical parameterizations have been added for Mars-specific atmospheric processes and surface-atmosphere exchange. The model simulates interactive carbon dioxide-, dust-, water- and atmospheric chemistry cycles. Dust and water ice clouds are radiatively active. Size distributed dust is lifted by saltation and dust devils. The model includes 16 chemical species (CO2, Argon, N2, O2, CO, H2O, CH4, O3, O(1D), O, H, H2, OH, HO2, H2O2 and O2(a1Δg)) and has fully interactive photochemistry (15 reactions) and gas-phase chemistry (31 reactions). GEM-Mars provides a good simulation of the water and ozone cycles. A variety of other passive tracers can be included for dedicated studies, such as the emission of methane. The model has both a hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic formulation, and together with a flexible grid definition provides a single platform for simulations on a variety of horizontal scales. The model code is fully parallelized using OMP and MPI. Model results are evaluated by comparison to a selection of observations from instruments on the surface and in orbit, relating to atmosphere and surface temperature and pressure, dust and ice content, polar ice mass, polar argon, and global water and ozone vertical columns. GEM-Mars will play an integral part in the analysis and interpretation of data that is received by the NOMAD spectrometer on the ESA-Roskosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The present paper provides an overview of the current status and capabilities of the GEM-Mars model and lays the foundations for more in-depth studies in support

  14. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2016-02-07

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  15. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Goertzen, Andrew L; Stortz, Greg

    2016-01-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x–y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5–82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  16. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  17. Interpolation of natural cubic spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available From the result in [1] it follows that there is a unique quadratic spline which bounds the same area as that of the function. The matching of the area for the cubic spline does not follow from the corresponding result proved in [2]. We obtain cubic splines which preserve the area of the function.

  18. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  19. Modeling susceptibility difference artifacts produced by metallic implants in magnetic resonance imaging with point-based thin-plate spline image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Y; Smith, M; Mintchev, M

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suffers from geometric distortions arising from various sources. One such source are the non-linearities associated with the presence of metallic implants, which can profoundly distort the obtained images. These non-linearities result in pixel shifts and intensity changes in the vicinity of the implant, often precluding any meaningful assessment of the entire image. This paper presents a method for correcting these distortions based on non-rigid image registration techniques. Two images from a modelled three-dimensional (3D) grid phantom were subjected to point-based thin-plate spline registration. The reference image (without distortions) was obtained from a grid model including a spherical implant, and the corresponding test image containing the distortions was obtained using previously reported technique for spatial modelling of magnetic susceptibility artifacts. After identifying the nonrecoverable area in the distorted image, the calculated spline model was able to quantitatively account for the distortions, thus facilitating their compensation. Upon the completion of the compensation procedure, the non-recoverable area was removed from the reference image and the latter was compared to the compensated image. Quantitative assessment of the goodness of the proposed compensation technique is presented.

  20. Modeling and Mapping of Soil Salinity with Reflectance Spectroscopy and Landsat Data Using Two Quantitative Methods (PLSR and MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nawar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of soil salinity levels is necessary for the prevention and mitigation of land degradation in arid environments. To assess the potential of remote sensing in estimating and mapping soil salinity in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, two predictive models were constructed based on the measured soil electrical conductivity (ECe and laboratory soil reflectance spectra resampled to Landsat sensor’s resolution. The models used were partial least squares regression (PLSR and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS. The results indicated that a good prediction of the soil salinity can be made based on the MARS model (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 6.53, and ratio of performance to deviation (RPD = 1.96, which performed better than the PLSR model (R2 = 0.70, RMSE = 6.95, and RPD = 1.82. The models were subsequently applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to the reflectance values derived from two Landsat images (2006 and 2012 to generate quantitative maps of the soil salinity. The resulting maps were validated successfully for 37 and 26 sampling points for 2006 and 2012, respectively, with R2 = 0.72 and 0.74 for 2006 and 2012, respectively, for the MARS model, and R2 = 0.71 and 0.73 for 2006 and 2012, respectively, for the PLSR model. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity, especially in areas with high levels of salinity. The method developed in this paper can be used for other satellite data, like those provided by Landsat 8, and can be applied in other arid and semi-arid environments.

  1. Modeling Fetal Weight for Gestational Age: A Comparison of a Flexible Multi-level Spline-based Model with Other Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villandré, Luc; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Perez Trejo, Maria Esther; Abenhaim, Haim; Jacobsen, Geir; Platt, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for longitudinal measures of fetal weight as a function of gestational age. We use a linear mixed model, with a Box-Cox transformation of fetal weight values, and restricted cubic splines, in order to flexibly but parsimoniously model median fetal weight. We systematically compare our model to other proposed approaches. All proposed methods are shown to yield similar median estimates, as evidenced by overlapping pointwise confidence bands, except after 40 completed weeks, where our method seems to produce estimates more consistent with observed data. Sex-based stratification affects the estimates of the random effects variance-covariance structure, without significantly changing sex-specific fitted median values. We illustrate the benefits of including sex-gestational age interaction terms in the model over stratification. The comparison leads to the conclusion that the selection of a model for fetal weight for gestational age can be based on the specific goals and configuration of a given study without affecting the precision or value of median estimates for most gestational ages of interest. PMID:21931571

  2. Statistical analysis of sediment toxicity by additive monotone regression splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.J.; Besten, den P.J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling nonlinearity and thresholds in dose-effect relations is a major challenge, particularly in noisy data sets. Here we show the utility of nonlinear regression with additive monotone regression splines. These splines lead almost automatically to the estimation of thresholds. We applied this

  3. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  4. Deconvolution using thin-plate splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Udo v.; Gori, Silvio

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous problem of estimating 2-dimensional profile information from a set of line integrated measurements is tackled with Bayesian probability theory by exploiting prior information about local smoothness. For this purpose thin-plate-splines (the 2-D minimal curvature analogue of cubic-splines in 1-D) are employed. The optimal number of support points required for inversion of 2-D tomographic problems is determined using model comparison. Properties of this approach are discussed and the question of suitable priors is addressed. Finally, we illustrated the properties of this approach with 2-D inversion results using data from line-integrated measurements from fusion experiments

  5. LOCALLY REFINED SPLINES REPRESENTATION FOR GEOSPATIAL BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dokken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When viewed from distance, large parts of the topography of landmasses and the bathymetry of the sea and ocean floor can be regarded as a smooth background with local features. Consequently a digital elevation model combining a compact smooth representation of the background with locally added features has the potential of providing a compact and accurate representation for topography and bathymetry. The recent introduction of Locally Refined B-Splines (LR B-splines allows the granularity of spline representations to be locally adapted to the complexity of the smooth shape approximated. This allows few degrees of freedom to be used in areas with little variation, while adding extra degrees of freedom in areas in need of more modelling flexibility. In the EU fp7 Integrating Project IQmulus we exploit LR B-splines for approximating large point clouds representing bathymetry of the smooth sea and ocean floor. A drastic reduction is demonstrated in the bulk of the data representation compared to the size of input point clouds. The representation is very well suited for exploiting the power of GPUs for visualization as the spline format is transferred to the GPU and the triangulation needed for the visualization is generated on the GPU according to the viewing parameters. The LR B-splines are interoperable with other elevation model representations such as LIDAR data, raster representations and triangulated irregular networks as these can be used as input to the LR B-spline approximation algorithms. Output to these formats can be generated from the LR B-spline applications according to the resolution criteria required. The spline models are well suited for change detection as new sensor data can efficiently be compared to the compact LR B-spline representation.

  6. Gradient-based optimization with B-splines on sparse grids for solving forward-dynamics simulations of three-dimensional, continuum-mechanical musculoskeletal system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, J; Sprenger, M; Pflüger, D; Röhrle, O

    2018-05-01

    Investigating the interplay between muscular activity and motion is the basis to improve our understanding of healthy or diseased musculoskeletal systems. To be able to analyze the musculoskeletal systems, computational models are used. Albeit some severe modeling assumptions, almost all existing musculoskeletal system simulations appeal to multibody simulation frameworks. Although continuum-mechanical musculoskeletal system models can compensate for some of these limitations, they are essentially not considered because of their computational complexity and cost. The proposed framework is the first activation-driven musculoskeletal system model, in which the exerted skeletal muscle forces are computed using 3-dimensional, continuum-mechanical skeletal muscle models and in which muscle activations are determined based on a constraint optimization problem. Numerical feasibility is achieved by computing sparse grid surrogates with hierarchical B-splines, and adaptive sparse grid refinement further reduces the computational effort. The choice of B-splines allows the use of all existing gradient-based optimization techniques without further numerical approximation. This paper demonstrates that the resulting surrogates have low relative errors (less than 0.76%) and can be used within forward simulations that are subject to constraint optimization. To demonstrate this, we set up several different test scenarios in which an upper limb model consisting of the elbow joint, the biceps and triceps brachii, and an external load is subjected to different optimization criteria. Even though this novel method has only been demonstrated for a 2-muscle system, it can easily be extended to musculoskeletal systems with 3 or more muscles. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Ali, M. K., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my [Unit Penyelidikan Rumpai Laut (UPRL), Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Sulaiman, J., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my [Program Matematik dengan Ekonomi, Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  8. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-01-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m 2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R 2 ), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested

  9. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  10. Hilbertian kernels and spline functions

    CERN Document Server

    Atteia, M

    1992-01-01

    In this monograph, which is an extensive study of Hilbertian approximation, the emphasis is placed on spline functions theory. The origin of the book was an effort to show that spline theory parallels Hilbertian Kernel theory, not only for splines derived from minimization of a quadratic functional but more generally for splines considered as piecewise functions type. Being as far as possible self-contained, the book may be used as a reference, with information about developments in linear approximation, convex optimization, mechanics and partial differential equations.

  11. Spline techniques for magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinall, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This report is an overview of B-spline techniques, oriented toward magnetic field computation. These techniques form a powerful mathematical approximating method for many physics and engineering calculations. In section 1, the concept of a polynomial spline is introduced. Section 2 shows how a particular spline with well chosen properties, the B-spline, can be used to build any spline. In section 3, the description of how to solve a simple spline approximation problem is completed, and some practical examples of using splines are shown. All these sections deal exclusively in scalar functions of one variable for simplicity. Section 4 is partly digression. Techniques that are not B-spline techniques, but are closely related, are covered. These methods are not needed for what follows, until the last section on errors. Sections 5, 6, and 7 form a second group which work toward the final goal of using B-splines to approximate a magnetic field. Section 5 demonstrates how to approximate a scalar function of many variables. The necessary mathematics is completed in section 6, where the problems of approximating a vector function in general, and a magnetic field in particular, are examined. Finally some algorithms and data organization are shown in section 7. Section 8 deals with error analysis

  12. A free-knot spline modeling framework for piecewise linear logistic regression in complex samples with body mass index and mortality as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Keith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the design, evaluation, and implementation of a framework for detecting and modeling nonlinearity between a binary outcome and a continuous predictor variable adjusted for covariates in complex samples. The framework provides familiar-looking parameterizations of output in terms of linear slope coefficients and odds ratios. Estimation methods focus on maximum likelihood optimization of piecewise linear free-knot splines formulated as B-splines. Correctly specifying the optimal number and positions of the knots improves the model, but is marked by computational intensity and numerical instability. Our inference methods utilize both parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping. Unlike other nonlinear modeling packages, this framework is designed to incorporate multistage survey sample designs common to nationally representative datasets. We illustrate the approach and evaluate its performance in specifying the correct number of knots under various conditions with an example using body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and the complex multi-stage sampling design from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to simulate binary mortality outcomes data having realistic nonlinear sample-weighted risk associations with BMI. BMI and mortality data provide a particularly apt example and area of application since BMI is commonly recorded in large health surveys with complex designs, often categorized for modeling, and nonlinearly related to mortality. When complex sample design considerations were ignored, our method was generally similar to or more accurate than two common model selection procedures, Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, in terms of correctly selecting the correct number of knots. Our approach provided accurate knot selections when complex sampling weights were incorporated, while AIC and BIC were not effective under these conditions.

  13. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  14. MARS CODE MANUAL VOLUME V: Models and Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Bae, Sung Won; Lee, Seung Wook; Yoon, Churl; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This models and correlations manual provides a complete list of detailed information of the thermal-hydraulic models used in MARS, so that this report would be very useful for the code users. The overall structure of the manual is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  15. Application of thin-plate spline transformations to finite element models, or, how to turn a bog turtle into a spotted turtle to analyze both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, C Tristan

    2009-05-01

    Finite element (FE) models are popular tools that allow biologists to analyze the biomechanical behavior of complex anatomical structures. However, the expense and time required to create models from specimens has prevented comparative studies from involving large numbers of species. A new method is presented for transforming existing FE models using geometric morphometric methods. Homologous landmark coordinates are digitized on the FE model and on a target specimen into which the FE model is being transformed. These coordinates are used to create a thin-plate spline function and coefficients, which are then applied to every node in the FE model. This function smoothly interpolates the location of points between landmarks, transforming the geometry of the original model to match the target. This new FE model is then used as input in FE analyses. This procedure is demonstrated with turtle shells: a Glyptemys muhlenbergii model is transformed into Clemmys guttata and Actinemys marmorata models. Models are loaded and the resulting stresses are compared. The validity of the models is tested by crushing actual turtle shells in a materials testing machine and comparing those results to predictions from FE models. General guidelines, cautions, and possibilities for this procedure are also presented.

  16. Ground Contact Model for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Way, David

    2012-01-01

    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2) has been successful in simulating the flight of launch vehicles and entry bodies on earth and other planets. POST 2 has been the primary simulation tool for the Entry Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of numerous Mars lander missions such as Mars Pathfinder in 1997, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A and MER-B) in 2004, Mars Phoenix lander in 2007, and it is now the main trajectory simulation tool for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. In all previous missions, the POST 2 simulation ended before ground impact, and a tool other than POST 2 simulated landing dynamics. It would be ideal for one tool to simulate the entire EDL sequence, thus avoiding errors that could be introduced by handing off position, velocity, or other fight parameters from one simulation to the other. The desire to have one continuous end-to-end simulation was the motivation for developing the ground interaction model in POST 2. Rover landing, including the detection of the postlanding state, is a very critical part of the MSL mission, as the EDL landing sequence continues for a few seconds after landing. The method explained in this paper illustrates how a simple ground force interaction model has been added to POST 2, which allows simulation of the entire EDL from atmospheric entry through touchdown.

  17. Straight-sided Spline Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    and the subject of improving the design. The present paper concentrates on the optimization of splines and the predictions of stress concentrations, which are determined by finite element analysis (FEA). Using design modifications, that do not change the spline load carrying capacity, it is shown that large...

  18. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazco, Julio G.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P.; Jordan, David R.; Eilers, Paul H.C.; Malosetti, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Abstract: Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and

  19. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Velazco (Julio G.); M.X. Rodríguez-Álvarez (María Xosé); M.P. Boer (Martin); D.R. Jordan (David R.); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); M. Malosetti (Marcos); F. van Eeuwijk (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials._ __Abstract:__ Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for

  20. Improvement of Mars surface snow albedo modeling in LMD Mars GCM with SNICAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M.; Millour, E.

    2017-12-01

    The current version of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) Mars GCM (original-MGCM) uses annually repeating (prescribed) albedo values from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations. We integrate the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model with MGCM (SNICAR-MGCM) to prognostically determine H2O and CO2 ice cap albedos interactively in the model. Over snow-covered regions mean SNICAR-MGCM albedo is higher by about 0.034 than original-MGCM. Changes in albedo and surface dust content also impact the shortwave energy flux at the surface. SNICAR-MGCM model simulates a change of -1.26 W/m2 shortwave flux on a global scale. Globally, net CO2 ice deposition increases by about 4% over one Martian annual cycle as compared to original-MGCM simulations. SNICAR integration reduces the net mean global surface temperature, and the global surface pressure of Mars by about 0.87% and 2.5% respectively. Changes in albedo also show a similar distribution as dust deposition over the globe. The SNICAR-MGCM model generates albedos with higher sensitivity to surface dust content as compared to original-MGCM. For snow-covered regions, we improve the correlation between albedo and optical depth of dust from -0.91 to -0.97 with SNICAR-MGCM as compared to original-MGCM. Using new diagnostic capabilities with this model, we find that cryospheric surfaces (with dust) increase the global surface albedo of Mars by 0.022. The cryospheric effect is severely muted by dust in snow, however, which acts to decrease the planet-mean surface albedo by 0.06.

  1. Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries.

  2. Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Burton, Hanna E; Espino, Daniel M

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending) and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries.

  3. On Characterization of Quadratic Splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Zhang, Shuzhong

    2005-01-01

    that the representation can be refined in a neighborhood of a non-degenerate point and a set of non-degenerate minimizers. Based on these characterizations, many existing algorithms for specific convex quadratic splines are also finite convergent for a general convex quadratic spline. Finally, we study the relationship...... between the convexity of a quadratic spline function and the monotonicity of the corresponding LCP problem. It is shown that, although both conditions lead to easy solvability of the problem, they are different in general....

  4. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  5. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.; Carroll, R.J.; Wand, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  6. Radiation heat transfer model using Monte Carlo ray tracing method on hierarchical ortho-Cartesian meshes and non-uniform rational basis spline surfaces for description of boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczyński Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a solution of radiation heat transfer problems in enclosures filled with nonparticipating medium using ray tracing on hierarchical ortho-Cartesian meshes. The idea behind the approach is that radiative heat transfer problems can be solved on much coarser grids than their counterparts from computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The resulting code is designed as an add-on to OpenFOAM, an open-source CFD program. Ortho-Cartesian mesh involving boundary elements is created based upon CFD mesh. Parametric non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS surfaces are used to define boundaries of the enclosure, allowing for dealing with domains of complex shapes. Algorithm for determining random, uniformly distributed locations of rays leaving NURBS surfaces is described. The paper presents results of test cases assuming gray diffusive walls. In the current version of the model the radiation is not absorbed within gases. However, the ultimate aim of the work is to upgrade the functionality of the model, to problems in absorbing, emitting and scattering medium projecting iteratively the results of radiative analysis on CFD mesh and CFD solution on radiative mesh.

  7. Three-field modeling for MARS 1-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Lim, Ho-Gon; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chung, Bub-Dong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the three-field modeling of the two-phase mixture is developed. The finite difference equations for the three-field equations thereafter are devised. The solution scheme has been implemented into the MARS 1-D code. The three-field formulations adopted are similar to those for MARS 3-D module, in a sense that the mass and momentum are treated separately for the entrained liquid and continuous liquid. As in the MARS-3D module, the entrained liquid and continuous liquid are combined into one for the energy equation, assuming thermal equilibrium between the two. All the non-linear terms are linearized to arrange the finite difference equation set into a linear matrix form with respect to the unknown arguments. The problems chosen for the assessment of the newly added entrained field consist of basic conceptual tests. Among the tests are gas-only test, liquid-only test, gas-only with supplied entrained liquid test, Edwards pipe problem, and GE level swell problem. The conceptual tests performed confirm the sound integrity of the three-field solver

  8. Photometry and shape modeling of Mars crosser asteroid (1011 Laodamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolovska G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of photometric observations of Mars crosser asteroid 1011 Laodamia conducted at Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen over a twelve year interval (2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013 is made. Based on the obtained lightcurves the spin vector, sense of rotation, and preliminary shape model of (1011 Laodamia have been determined using the lightcurve inversion method. The aim of this investigation is to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters and to contribute in improving the model in combination with other techniques and sparse data produced by photometric asteroid surveys such as Pan-STARRS or GAIA.

  9. Quasi interpolation with Voronoi splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Entezari, Alireza

    2011-12-01

    We present a quasi interpolation framework that attains the optimal approximation-order of Voronoi splines for reconstruction of volumetric data sampled on general lattices. The quasi interpolation framework of Voronoi splines provides an unbiased reconstruction method across various lattices. Therefore this framework allows us to analyze and contrast the sampling-theoretic performance of general lattices, using signal reconstruction, in an unbiased manner. Our quasi interpolation methodology is implemented as an efficient FIR filter that can be applied online or as a preprocessing step. We present visual and numerical experiments that demonstrate the improved accuracy of reconstruction across lattices, using the quasi interpolation framework. © 2011 IEEE

  10. Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....

  11. 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries from 2D angiographic projections using non-uniform rational basis splines (NURBS for accurate modelling of coronary stenoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Galassi

    Full Text Available Assessment of coronary stenosis severity is crucial in clinical practice. This study proposes a novel method to generate 3D models of stenotic coronary arteries, directly from 2D coronary images, and suitable for immediate assessment of the stenosis severity.From multiple 2D X-ray coronary arteriogram projections, 2D vessels were extracted. A 3D centreline was reconstructed as intersection of surfaces from corresponding branches. Next, 3D luminal contours were generated in a two-step process: first, a Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS circular contour was designed and, second, its control points were adjusted to interpolate computed 3D boundary points. Finally, a 3D surface was generated as an interpolation across the control points of the contours and used in the analysis of the severity of a lesion. To evaluate the method, we compared 3D reconstructed lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, an invasive imaging modality that enables high-resolution endoluminal visualization of lesion anatomy.Validation was performed on routine clinical data. Analysis of paired cross-sectional area discrepancies indicated that the proposed method more closely represented OCT contours than conventional approaches in luminal surface reconstruction, with overall root-mean-square errors ranging from 0.213mm2 to 1.013mm2, and maximum error of 1.837mm2. Comparison of volume reduction due to a lesion with corresponding FFR measurement suggests that the method may help in estimating the physiological significance of a lesion.The algorithm accurately reconstructed 3D models of lesioned arteries and enabled quantitative assessment of stenoses. The proposed method has the potential to allow immediate analysis of the stenoses in clinical practice, thereby providing incremental diagnostic and prognostic information to guide treatments in real time and without the need for invasive techniques.

  12. Using Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline and Artificial Neural Network to Simulate Urbanization in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadlou, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Tayyebi, A.; Shafizadeh-Moghadam, H.

    2015-12-01

    Land use change (LUC) models used for modelling urban growth are different in structure and performance. Local models divide the data into separate subsets and fit distinct models on each of the subsets. Non-parametric models are data driven and usually do not have a fixed model structure or model structure is unknown before the modelling process. On the other hand, global models perform modelling using all the available data. In addition, parametric models have a fixed structure before the modelling process and they are model driven. Since few studies have compared local non-parametric models with global parametric models, this study compares a local non-parametric model called multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and a global parametric model called artificial neural network (ANN) to simulate urbanization in Mumbai, India. Both models determine the relationship between a dependent variable and multiple independent variables. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) to compare the power of the both models for simulating urbanization. Landsat images of 1991 (TM) and 2010 (ETM+) were used for modelling the urbanization process. The drivers considered for urbanization in this area were distance to urban areas, urban density, distance to roads, distance to water, distance to forest, distance to railway, distance to central business district, number of agricultural cells in a 7 by 7 neighbourhoods, and slope in 1991. The results showed that the area under the ROC curve for MARS and ANN was 94.77% and 95.36%, respectively. Thus, ANN performed slightly better than MARS to simulate urban areas in Mumbai, India.

  13. Isogeometric analysis using T-splines

    KAUST Repository

    Bazilevs, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    We explore T-splines, a generalization of NURBS enabling local refinement, as a basis for isogeometric analysis. We review T-splines as a surface design methodology and then develop it for engineering analysis applications. We test T-splines on some elementary two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluid and structural analysis problems and attain good results in all cases. We summarize the current status of T-splines, their limitations, and future possibilities. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Bayesian Analysis for Penalized Spline Regression Using WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian M. Crainiceanu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Penalized splines can be viewed as BLUPs in a mixed model framework, which allows the use of mixed model software for smoothing. Thus, software originally developed for Bayesian analysis of mixed models can be used for penalized spline regression. Bayesian inference for nonparametric models enjoys the flexibility of nonparametric models and the exact inference provided by the Bayesian inferential machinery. This paper provides a simple, yet comprehensive, set of programs for the implementation of nonparametric Bayesian analysis in WinBUGS. Good mixing properties of the MCMC chains are obtained by using low-rank thin-plate splines, while simulation times per iteration are reduced employing WinBUGS specific computational tricks.

  15. Subpixel Snow Cover Mapping from MODIS Data by Nonparametric Regression Splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Kuter, S.; Weber, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    Spatial extent of snow cover is often considered as one of the key parameters in climatological, hydrological and ecological modeling due to its energy storage, high reflectance in the visible and NIR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, significant heat capacity and insulating properties. A significant challenge in snow mapping by remote sensing (RS) is the trade-off between the temporal and spatial resolution of satellite imageries. In order to tackle this issue, machine learning-based subpixel snow mapping methods, like Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), from low or moderate resolution images have been proposed. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) is a nonparametric regression tool that can build flexible models for high dimensional and complex nonlinear data. Although MARS is not often employed in RS, it has various successful implementations such as estimation of vertical total electron content in ionosphere, atmospheric correction and classification of satellite images. This study is the first attempt in RS to evaluate the applicability of MARS for subpixel snow cover mapping from MODIS data. Total 16 MODIS-Landsat ETM+ image pairs taken over European Alps between March 2000 and April 2003 were used in the study. MODIS top-of-atmospheric reflectance, NDSI, NDVI and land cover classes were used as predictor variables. Cloud-covered, cloud shadow, water and bad-quality pixels were excluded from further analysis by a spatial mask. MARS models were trained and validated by using reference fractional snow cover (FSC) maps generated from higher spatial resolution Landsat ETM+ binary snow cover maps. A multilayer feed-forward ANN with one hidden layer trained with backpropagation was also developed. The mutual comparison of obtained MARS and ANN models was accomplished on independent test areas. The MARS model performed better than the ANN model with an average RMSE of 0.1288 over the independent test areas; whereas the average RMSE of the ANN model

  16. A Study of Soil and Duricrust Models for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2001-03-01

    Analysis of soil and duricrust formation mechanisms on Mars. Soil analog mixtures have been prepared, characterized and tested through wet/dry cycling experiments; results are compared with Mars Pathfinder soil data (spectral, chemical and magnetic).

  17. Progress in the development of the GMM-2 gravity field model for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    Last year we published the GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1) gravity model for Mars. We have completely re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner 9 tracking data in the development of the new field, designated GMM-2. The model is complete to degree and order 70. Various aspects of the model are discussed.

  18. Model for Volatile Incorporation into Soils and Dust on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Yen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Martian soils with high content of compounds of sulfur and chlorine are ubiquitous on Mars, having been found at all five landing sites. Sulfate and chloride salts are implicated by a variety of evidence, but few conclusive specific identifications have been made. Discovery of jarosite and Mg-Ca sulfates in outcrops at Meridiani Planum (MER mission) and regional-scale beds of kieserite and gypsum (Mars Express mission) notwithstanding, the sulfates in soils are uncertain. Chlorides or other Cl-containing minerals have not been uniquely identified directly by any method. Viking and Pathfinder missions found trends in the elemental analytical data consistent with MgSO4, but Viking results are biased by duricrust samples and Pathfinder by soil contamination of rock surfaces. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) missions have taken extensive data on soils with no confirmation of trends implicating any particular cation. In our model of martian dust and soil, the S and Cl are initially incorporated by condensation or chemisorption on grains directly from gas phase molecules in the atmosphere. It is shown by modeling that the coatings thus formed cannot quantitatively explain the apparent elemental composition of these materials, and therefore involve the migration of ions and formation of microscopic weathering rinds. Original cation inventories of unweathered particles are isochemically conserved. Exposed rock surfaces should also have micro rinds, depending upon the length of time of exposure. Martian soils may therefore have unusual chemical properties when interacting with aqueous layers or infused fluids. Potential ramifications to the quantitative accuracy of x-ray fluorescence and Moessbauer spectroscopy on unprocessed samples are also assessed.

  19. Automatic Shape Control of Triangular B-Splines of Arbitrary Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying He; Xian-Feng Gu; Hong Qin

    2006-01-01

    Triangular B-splines are powerful and flexible in modeling a broader class of geometric objects defined over arbitrary, non-rectangular domains. Despite their great potential and advantages in theory, practical techniques and computational tools with triangular B-splines are less-developed. This is mainly because users have to handle a large number of irregularly distributed control points over arbitrary triangulation. In this paper, an automatic and efficient method is proposed to generate visually pleasing, high-quality triangular B-splines of arbitrary topology. The experimental results on several real datasets show that triangular B-splines are powerful and effective in both theory and practice.

  20. Spline approximation, Part 1: Basic methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Nikolaj; Neitzel, Frank; Petrovic, Svetozar

    2018-04-01

    In engineering geodesy point clouds derived from terrestrial laser scanning or from photogrammetric approaches are almost never used as final results. For further processing and analysis a curve or surface approximation with a continuous mathematical function is required. In this paper the approximation of 2D curves by means of splines is treated. Splines offer quite flexible and elegant solutions for interpolation or approximation of "irregularly" distributed data. Depending on the problem they can be expressed as a function or as a set of equations that depend on some parameter. Many different types of splines can be used for spline approximation and all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages depending on the approximation problem. In a series of three articles spline approximation is presented from a geodetic point of view. In this paper (Part 1) the basic methodology of spline approximation is demonstrated using splines constructed from ordinary polynomials and splines constructed from truncated polynomials. In the forthcoming Part 2 the notion of B-spline will be explained in a unique way, namely by using the concept of convex combinations. The numerical stability of all spline approximation approaches as well as the utilization of splines for deformation detection will be investigated on numerical examples in Part 3.

  1. Spline and spline wavelet methods with applications to signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, Amir Z; Zheludev, Valery A

    This volume provides universal methodologies accompanied by Matlab software to manipulate numerous signal and image processing applications. It is done with discrete and polynomial periodic splines. Various contributions of splines to signal and image processing from a unified perspective are presented. This presentation is based on Zak transform and on Spline Harmonic Analysis (SHA) methodology. SHA combines approximation capabilities of splines with the computational efficiency of the Fast Fourier transform. SHA reduces the design of different spline types such as splines, spline wavelets (SW), wavelet frames (SWF) and wavelet packets (SWP) and their manipulations by simple operations. Digital filters, produced by wavelets design process, give birth to subdivision schemes. Subdivision schemes enable to perform fast explicit computation of splines' values at dyadic and triadic rational points. This is used for signals and images upsampling. In addition to the design of a diverse library of splines, SW, SWP a...

  2. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  3. On using smoothing spline and residual correction to fuse rain gauge observations and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengcheng; Zheng, Xiaogu; Tait, Andrew; Dai, Yongjiu; Yang, Chi; Chen, Zhuoqi; Li, Tao; Wang, Zhonglei

    2014-01-01

    Partial thin-plate smoothing spline model is used to construct the trend surface.Correction of the spline estimated trend surface is often necessary in practice.Cressman weight is modified and applied in residual correction.The modified Cressman weight performs better than Cressman weight.A method for estimating the error covariance matrix of gridded field is provided.

  4. Differential constraints for bounded recursive identification with multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform online model identification for nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics is essential to any adaptive model-based control system. In this paper, a new differential equality constrained recursive least squares estimator for multivariate simplex splines is presented that is able

  5. Point based interactive image segmentation using multiquadrics splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sachin; Duraisamy, Prakash; Palniappan, Kannappan; Seetharaman, Guna

    2017-05-01

    Multiquadrics (MQ) are radial basis spline function that can provide an efficient interpolation of data points located in a high dimensional space. MQ were developed by Hardy to approximate geographical surfaces and terrain modelling. In this paper we frame the task of interactive image segmentation as a semi-supervised interpolation where an interpolating function learned from the user provided seed points is used to predict the labels of unlabeled pixel and the spline function used in the semi-supervised interpolation is MQ. This semi-supervised interpolation framework has a nice closed form solution which along with the fact that MQ is a radial basis spline function lead to a very fast interactive image segmentation process. Quantitative and qualitative results on the standard datasets show that MQ outperforms other regression based methods, GEBS, Ridge Regression and Logistic Regression, and popular methods like Graph Cut,4 Random Walk and Random Forest.6

  6. Piecewise linear regression splines with hyperbolic covariates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, John B.; Sposto, Richard

    1992-09-01

    Consider the problem of fitting a curve to data that exhibit a multiphase linear response with smooth transitions between phases. We propose substituting hyperbolas as covariates in piecewise linear regression splines to obtain curves that are smoothly joined. The method provides an intuitive and easy way to extend the two-phase linear hyperbolic response model of Griffiths and Miller and Watts and Bacon to accommodate more than two linear segments. The resulting regression spline with hyperbolic covariates may be fit by nonlinear regression methods to estimate the degree of curvature between adjoining linear segments. The added complexity of fitting nonlinear, as opposed to linear, regression models is not great. The extra effort is particularly worthwhile when investigators are unwilling to assume that the slope of the response changes abruptly at the join points. We can also estimate the join points (the values of the abscissas where the linear segments would intersect if extrapolated) if their number and approximate locations may be presumed known. An example using data on changing age at menarche in a cohort of Japanese women illustrates the use of the method for exploratory data analysis. (author)

  7. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  8. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  9. Construction of local integro quintic splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zhanlav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that the integro quintic splines can locally be constructed without solving any systems of equations. The new construction does not require any additional end conditions. By virtue of these advantages the proposed algorithm is easy to implement and effective. At the same time, the local integro quintic splines possess as good approximation properties as the integro quintic splines. In this paper, we have proved that our local integro quintic spline has superconvergence properties at the knots for the first and third derivatives. The orders of convergence at the knots are six (not five for the first derivative and four (not three for the third derivative.

  10. Spline methods for conversation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The consider the numerical solution of physical theories, in particular hydrodynamics, which can be formulated as systems of conservation laws. To this end we briefly describe the Basis Spline and collocation methods, paying particular attention to representation theory, which provides discrete analogues of the continuum conservation and dispersion relations, and hence a rigorous understanding of errors and instabilities. On this foundation we propose an algorithm for hydrodynamic problems in which most linear and nonlinear instabilities are brought under control. Numerical examples are presented from one-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics. 9 refs., 10 figs

  11. A drill-soil system modelization for future Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, A. E.; Lavagna, M.; Rocchitelli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a first approach to the problem of modeling a drilling process to be carried on in the space environment by a dedicated payload. Systems devoted to work in space present very strict requirements in many different fields such as thermal response, electric power demand, reliability and so on. Thus, models devoted to the operational behaviour simulation represent a fundamental help in the design phase and give a great improvement in the final product quality. As the required power is the crucial constraint within drilling devices, the tool-soil interaction modelization and simulation are finalized to the computation of the power demand as a function of both the drill and the soil parameters. An accurate study of the tool and the soil separately has been firstly carried on and, secondly their interaction has been analyzed. The Dee-Dri system, designed by Tecnospazio and to be part of the lander components in the NASA's Mars Sample Return Mission, has been taken as the tool reference. The Deep-Drill system is a complex rotary tool devoted to the soil perforation and sample collection; it has to operate in a Martian zone made of rocks similar to the terrestrial basalt, then the modelization is restricted to the interaction analysis between the tool and materials belonging to the rock set. The tool geometric modelization has been faced by a finite element approach with a Langrangian formulation: for the static analysis a refined model is assumed considering both the actual geometry of the head and the rod screws; a simplified model has been used to deal with the dynamic analysis. The soil representation is based on the Mohr-Coulomb crack criterion and an Eulerian approach has been selected to model it. However, software limitations in dealing with the tool-soil interface definition required assuming a Langrangian formulation for the soil too. The interaction between the soil and the tool has been modeled by extending the two-dimensional Nishimatsu

  12. Estimation of Covariance Matrix on Bi-Response Longitudinal Data Analysis with Penalized Spline Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamiyati, A.; Fatmawati; Chamidah, N.

    2018-03-01

    The correlation assumption of the longitudinal data with bi-response occurs on the measurement between the subjects of observation and the response. It causes the auto-correlation of error, and this can be overcome by using a covariance matrix. In this article, we estimate the covariance matrix based on the penalized spline regression model. Penalized spline involves knot points and smoothing parameters simultaneously in controlling the smoothness of the curve. Based on our simulation study, the estimated regression model of the weighted penalized spline with covariance matrix gives a smaller error value compared to the error of the model without covariance matrix.

  13. Mars, High-Resolution Digital Terrain Model Quadrangles on the Basis of Mars-Express HRSC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, A.; Spiegel, M.; van Gasselt, S.; Neu, D.; Neukum, G.

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: Since December 2003, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express (MEX) orbiter has been investigating Mars. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), one of the scientific experiments onboard MEX, is a pushbroom stereo color scanning instrument with nine line detectors, each equipped with 5176 CCD sensor elements [1,2]. One of the goals for MEX HRSC is to cover Mars globally in color and stereoscopically at high-resolution. So far, HRSC has covered half of the surface of Mars at a resolution better than 20 meters per pixel. HRSC data allows to derive high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM), color-orthoimage mosaics and additionally higher-level 3D data products. Past work concentrated on producing regional data mosaics for areas of scientific interest in a single strip and/or bundle block adjustment and deriving DTMs [3]. The next logical step, based on substantially the same procedure, is to systematically expand the derivation of DTMs and orthoimage data to the 140 map quadrangle scheme (Q-DTM). Methods: The division of the Mars surface into 140 quadrangles is briefly described in Greeley and Batson [4] and based upon the standard MC 30 (Mars Chart) system. The quadrangles are named by alpha-numerical labels. The workflow for the determination of new orientation data for the derivation of digital terrain models takes place in two steps. First, for each HRSC orbits covering a quadrangle, new exterior orientation parameters are determined [5,6]. The successfully classified exterior orientation parameters become the input for the next step in which the exterior orientation parameters are determined together in a bundle block adjustment. Only those orbit strips which have a sufficient overlap area and a certain number of tie points can be used in a common bundle block adjustment. For the automated determination of tie points, software provided by the Leibniz Universität Hannover [7] is used. Results: For the derivation of Q-DTMs and ortho

  14. Optimization of straight-sided spline design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    and the subject of improving the design. The present paper concentrates on the optimization of splines and the predictions of stress concentrations, which are determined by finite element analysis (FEA). Using different design modifications, that do not change the spline load carrying capacity, it is shown...

  15. Boosted regression trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines and their two-step combinations with multiple linear regression or partial least squares to predict blood-brain barrier passage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Zhang, M H; Petitet, F; Dubus, E; Ijjaali, I; Coomans, D; Vander Heyden, Y

    2008-02-18

    The use of some unconventional non-linear modeling techniques, i.e. classification and regression trees and multivariate adaptive regression splines-based methods, was explored to model the blood-brain barrier (BBB) passage of drugs and drug-like molecules. The data set contains BBB passage values for 299 structural and pharmacological diverse drugs, originating from a structured knowledge-based database. Models were built using boosted regression trees (BRT) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), as well as their respective combinations with stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression in two-step approaches. The best models were obtained using combinations of MARS with either stepwise MLR or PLS. It could be concluded that the use of combinations of a linear with a non-linear modeling technique results in some improved properties compared to the individual linear and non-linear models and that, when the use of such a combination is appropriate, combinations using MARS as non-linear technique should be preferred over those with BRT, due to some serious drawbacks of the BRT approaches.

  16. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael E; Markowitz, David A; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-12-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  17. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Wall

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  18. Effect of Mars Atmospheric Loss on Snow Melt Potential in a 3.5 Gyr Mars Climate Evolution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Megan; Kite, Edwin S.; Mischna, Michael A.

    2018-04-01

    Post-Noachian Martian paleochannels indicate the existence of liquid water on the surface of Mars after about 3.5 Gya (Irwin et al., 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.10.012; Palucis et al., 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JE004905). In order to explore the effects of variations in CO2 partial pressure and obliquity on the possibility of surface water, we created a zero-dimensional surface energy balance model. We combine this model with physically consistent orbital histories to track conditions over the last 3.5 Gyr of Martian history. We find that melting is allowed for atmospheric pressures corresponding to exponential loss rates of dP/dt∝t-3.73 or faster, but this rate is within 0.5σ of the rate calculated from initial measurements made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, if we assume all the escaping oxygen measured by MAVEN comes from atmospheric CO2 (Lillis et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA023525; Tu et al., 2015, https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526146). Melting at this loss rate matches selected key geologic constraints on the formation of Hesperian river networks, assuming optimal melt conditions during the warmest part of each Mars year (Irwin et al., 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.10.012; Kite, Gao, et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo3033; Kite, Sneed et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL072660; Stopar et al., 2006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.07.039). The atmospheric pressure has a larger effect on the surface energy than changes in Mars's mean obliquity. These results show that initial measurements of atmosphere loss by MAVEN are consistent with atmospheric loss being the dominant process that switched Mars from a melt-permitting to a melt-absent climate (Jakosky et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aai7721), but non-CO2 warming will be required if <2 Gya paleochannels are confirmed or if most of the escaping oxygen measured by MAVEN comes from H2O.

  19. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  20. A Study of Soil and Duricrust Models for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project includes analysis of the Mars Pathfinder soil data (spectral, chemical and magnetic) together with analog materials and the products of laboratory alteration experiments in order to describe possible mechanisms for the formation of soil, duricrust and rock coatings on Mars. Soil analog mixtures have been prepared, characterized and tested through wet/dry cycling experiments for changes in binding and spectroscopic properties that are related to what could be expected for duricrusts on Mars. The smectite-based mixture exhibited significantly greater changes (1) in its binding properties throughout the wet/dry cycling experiments than did the palagonite-based mixture, and (2) in its spectral properties following grinding and resieving of the hardened material than did the palagonite-based mixture.

  1. Adaptive B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data for photorealistic rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measured bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF data have been used to represent complex interaction between lights and surface materials for photorealistic rendering. However, their massive size makes it hard to adopt them in practical rendering applications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method for B-spline volume representation of measured BRDF data. It basically performs approximate B-spline volume lofting, which decomposes the problem into three sub-problems of multiple B-spline curve fitting along u-, v-, and w-parametric directions. Especially, it makes the efficient use of knots in the multiple B-spline curve fitting and thereby accomplishes adaptive knot placement along each parametric direction of a resulting B-spline volume. The proposed method is quite useful to realize efficient data reduction while smoothing out the noises and keeping the overall features of BRDF data well. By applying the B-spline volume models of real materials for rendering, we show that the B-spline volume models are effective in preserving the features of material appearance and are suitable for representing BRDF data.

  2. Modeling human orthostatic responses on the Moon and on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Paula; Tank, Jens; Gauger, Peter; Beck, Luis E J; Zirngibl, Hubert; Jordan, Jens; Limper, Ulrich

    2018-04-26

    Since manned missions to the Moon and Mars are planned, we conducted active standing tests with lunar, Martian, terrestrial, and 1.8 loads of inertial resistance (+G z ) modeled through defined parabolic flight maneuvers. We hypothesized that the cardiovascular response to active standing is proportional to the +G z load. During partial-+G z parabolic flights, 14 healthy test subjects performed active stand-up maneuvers under 1 +G z , lunar (0.16 +G z ), Martian (0.38 +G z ), and hyper inertial resistance (1.8 +G z ) while heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously monitored. We quantified amplitudes and timing of orthostatic response immediately following standing up. The maximum early heart rate increase was 21 (SD ± 10) bpm with lunar, 23 (± 11) bpm with Martian, 34 (± 17) bpm with terrestrial +G z , and 40 (± 11) bpm hyper +G z . The time to maximum heart rate increased gradually with increasing loads of inertial resistance. The transient blood pressure reduction was most pronounced with hyper +G z but did not differ significantly between lunar and Martian +G z . The mean arterial pressure nadir was reached significantly later with Martian and lunar compared to 1 +G z . Paradoxically, the time for blood pressure to recover was shortest with terrestrial +G z . While load of inertial resistance directly affects the magnitude of the transient blood pressure reduction and heart rate response to active standing, blood pressure stabilization is most rapidly attained during terrestrial +G z . The observation might suggest that the human cardiovascular system is tuned to cope with orthostatic stress on earth.

  3. Two planets: Earth and Mars - One salt model: The Hydrothermal SCRIW-Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M. T.; Rueslaatten, H.; Johnsen, H. K.; Indreiten, T.

    2011-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth's surface-environment can be regarded as 'water-friendly' and 'salt hostile', the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, 'salt-friendly'. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed 'evaporites', meaning that they formed by the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, with a similar model, as surface water, representing a large ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (i.e., a pressure, P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will form a supercritical water 'vapor' (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (above 400 C and 300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the

  4. Nonlinear (MARS modeling of long-term variations of surface UV-B radiation as revealed from the analysis of Belsk, Poland data for the period 1976–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Krzyścin

    Full Text Available A new, powerful statistical technique, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, is applied to reproduce monthly fractional deviations of UV-B doses over Belsk, Poland, during the snowless (May–October part of the year in the period 1976–2000. Two kinds of regressors were used: local ones (total ozone, percentage of sky covered by low-, mid-, high-level clouds or total solar radiation over Belsk and non-local ones, i.e. those describing the long-distance forcings on the surface UV-B due to changes in the global atmospheric circulation. Standard indices of the Quasi-Biennial, North Atlantic, El Niño-Southern Oscillations, and the 11-year solar activity were used as non-local regressors. The results there indicate that the MARS procedure is able to reproduce the observed year-to-year and decadal oscillations in the UV data. The MARS model yields better model-observation agreement than an ordinary least-squares fit based on the same set of regressors. It is found that MARS is capable of handling interactions between the local and non-local regressors, suggesting a possible nonlinear nature of connections between variables characterizing the atmospheric transparency over Belsk and the long-distance forcings. MARS enables a reconstruction of the surface UV-B variations over any site based on the cloud and ozone data presently stored on web pages.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions

  5. An Open Modelling Approach for Availability and Reliability of Systems - OpenMARS

    CERN Document Server

    Penttinen, Jussi-Pekka; Gutleber, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    This document introduces and gives specification for OpenMARS, which is an open modelling approach for availability and reliability of systems. It supports the most common risk assessment and operation modelling techniques. Uniquely OpenMARS allows combining and connecting models defined with different techniques. This ensures that a modeller has a high degree of freedom to accurately describe the modelled system without limitations imposed by an individual technique. Here the OpenMARS model definition is specified with a tool independent tabular format, which supports managing models developed in a collaborative fashion. Origin of our research is in Future Circular Collider (FCC) study, where we developed the unique features of our concept to model the availability and luminosity production of particle colliders. We were motivated to describe our approach in detail as we see potential further applications in performance and energy efficiency analyses of large scientific infrastructures or industrial processe...

  6. Description of the University of Auckland Global Mars Mesoscale Meteorological Model (GM4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, D. R.; Austin, G. L.

    2005-08-01

    The University of Auckland Global Mars Mesoscale Meteorological Model (GM4) is a numerical weather prediction model of the Martian atmosphere that has been developed through the conversion of the Penn State University / National Center for Atmospheric Research fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5). The global aspect of this model is self consistent, overlapping, and forms a continuous domain around the entire planet, removing the need to provide boundary conditions other than at initialisation, yielding independence from the constraint of a Mars general circulation model. The brief overview of the model will be given, outlining the key physical processes and setup of the model. Comparison between data collected from Mars Pathfinder during its 1997 mission and simulated conditions using GM4 have been performed. Diurnal temperature variation as predicted by the model shows very good correspondence with the surface truth data, to within 5 K for the majority of the diurnal cycle. Mars Viking Data is also compared with the model, with good agreement. As a further means of validation for the model, various seasonal comparisons of surface and vertical atmospheric structure are conducted with the European Space Agency AOPP/LMD Mars Climate Database. Selected simulations over regions of interest will also be presented.

  7. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  8. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  9. Development of the MARS input model for Kori nuclear units 1 transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Jeong, J. J.

    2004-11-01

    KAERI has been developing the 'NSSS transient analyzer' based on best-estimate codes for Kori Nuclear Units 1 plants. The MARS and RETRAN codes have been used as the best-estimate codes for the NSSS transient analyzer. Among these codes, the MARS code is adopted for realistic analysis of small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is greater than 2 inch diameter. So it is necessary to develop the MARS input model for Kori Nuclear Units 1 plants. This report includes the input model (hydrodynamic component and heat structure models) requirements and the calculation note for the MARS input data generation for Kori Nuclear Units 1 plant analyzer (see the Appendix). In order to confirm the validity of the input data, we performed the calculations for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition and a double-ended cold leg break LOCA. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the LOCA calculation seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the MARS input data can be used as a base input deck for the MARS transient analyzer for Kori Nuclear Units 1

  10. Early Mars Climate Modeling and the Faint Young Sun Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. Liquid water is not stable on its surface. There are no lakes, seas, or oceans, and precipitation falls as snowfall. Yet early in its history during the Noachian epoch, there is geological and mineralogical evidence that liquid water from rainfall flowed on its surface creating drainage systems, lakes, and - possibly - seas and oceans. More recent observations by Curiosity in Gale crater hint that such conditions may have persited into the Hesperian. The implication is that early Mars had a wamer climate than it does today as a result of a thicker atmosphere with a more powerful greenhouse effect capable of producing an active hydrological cycle with rainfall, runoff, and evaporation. Since Mariner 9 began accumulating such evidence, researchers have been trying to understand what kind of a climate system could have created greenhouse conditions favorable for liquid water. Unfortunately, the problem is not yet solved.

  11. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    KAUST Repository

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Martinez, Josue G.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Sorensen, Danny C.

    2010-01-01

    in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between

  12. On convexity and Schoenberg's variation diminishing splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yuyu; Kozak, J.

    1992-11-01

    In the paper we characterize a convex function by the monotonicity of a particular variation diminishing spline sequence. The result extends the property known for the Bernstein polynomial sequence. (author). 4 refs

  13. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    KAUST Repository

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Time series associated with single-molecule experiments and/or simulations contain a wealth of multiscale information about complex biomolecular systems. We demonstrate how a collection of Penalized-splines (P-splines) can be useful in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between curves associated with different SDEs partially reflects noise induced by motion evolving on a slower time scale. P-splines assist in "semiparametrically" estimating nonlinear SDEs in situations where a time-dependent external force is applied to a single-molecule system. The P-splines introduced simultaneously use function and derivative scatterplot information to refine curve estimates. We refer to the approach as the PuDI (P-splines using Derivative Information) method. It is shown how generalized least squares ideas fit seamlessly into the PuDI method. Applications demonstrating how utilizing uncertainty information/approximations along with generalized least squares techniques improve PuDI fits are presented. Although the primary application here is in estimating nonlinear SDEs, the PuDI method is applicable to situations where both unbiased function and derivative estimates are available.

  14. Martian methane plume models for defining Mars rover methane source search strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Christopher; Ellery, Alex; Lynch, Brian; Cloutis, Ed

    2018-07-01

    The detection of atmospheric methane on Mars implies an active methane source. This introduces the possibility of a biotic source with the implied need to determine whether the methane is indeed biotic in nature or geologically generated. There is a clear need for robotic algorithms which are capable of manoeuvring a rover through a methane plume on Mars to locate its source. We explore aspects of Mars methane plume modelling to reveal complex dynamics characterized by advection and diffusion. A statistical analysis of the plume model has been performed and compared to analyses of terrestrial plume models. Finally, we consider a robotic search strategy to find a methane plume source. We find that gradient-based techniques are ineffective, but that more sophisticated model-based search strategies are unlikely to be available in near-term rover missions.

  15. Development of the MARS input model for Ulchin 3/4 transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. J.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Hwang, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    KAERI has been developing the NSSS transient analyzer based on best-estimate codes.The MARS and RETRAN code are adopted as the best-estimate codes for the NSSS transient analyzer. Among these two codes, the MARS code is to be used for realistic analysis of small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is greater than 2 inch diameter. This report includes the MARS input model requirements and the calculation note for the MARS input data generation (see the Appendix) for Ulchin 3/4 plant analyzer. In order to confirm the validity of the input data, we performed the calculations for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition and a double-ended cold leg break LOCA. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the LOCA calculation seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the MARS input data can be used as a base input deck for the MARS transient analyzer for Ulchin 3/4

  16. A smoothing spline that approximates Laplace transform functions only known on measurements on the real axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amore, L; Campagna, R; Murli, A; Galletti, A; Marcellino, L

    2012-01-01

    The scientific and application-oriented interest in the Laplace transform and its inversion is testified by more than 1000 publications in the last century. Most of the inversion algorithms available in the literature assume that the Laplace transform function is available everywhere. Unfortunately, such an assumption is not fulfilled in the applications of the Laplace transform. Very often, one only has a finite set of data and one wants to recover an estimate of the inverse Laplace function from that. We propose a fitting model of data. More precisely, given a finite set of measurements on the real axis, arising from an unknown Laplace transform function, we construct a dth degree generalized polynomial smoothing spline, where d = 2m − 1, such that internally to the data interval it is a dth degree polynomial complete smoothing spline minimizing a regularization functional, and outside the data interval, it mimics the Laplace transform asymptotic behavior, i.e. it is a rational or an exponential function (the end behavior model), and at the boundaries of the data set it joins with regularity up to order m − 1, with the end behavior model. We analyze in detail the generalized polynomial smoothing spline of degree d = 3. This choice was motivated by the (ill)conditioning of the numerical computation which strongly depends on the degree of the complete spline. We prove existence and uniqueness of this spline. We derive the approximation error and give a priori and computable bounds of it on the whole real axis. In such a way, the generalized polynomial smoothing spline may be used in any real inversion algorithm to compute an approximation of the inverse Laplace function. Experimental results concerning Laplace transform approximation, numerical inversion of the generalized polynomial smoothing spline and comparisons with the exponential smoothing spline conclude the work. (paper)

  17. Valles Marineris, Mars: High-Resolution Digital Terrain Model on the basis of Mars-Express HRSC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, A.; Spiegel, M.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: Since December 2003, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express (MEX) orbiter has been investigating Mars. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), one of the scientific experiments onboard MEX, is a pushbroom stereo color scanning instrument with nine line detectors, each equipped with 5176 CCD sensor elements. Five CCD lines operate with panchromatic filters and four lines with red, green, blue and infrared filters at different observation angles [1]. MEX has a highly elliptical near-polar orbit and reaches a distance of 270 km at periapsis. Ground resolution of image data predominantly varies with respect to spacecraft altitude and the chosen macro-pixel format. Usually, although not exclusively, the nadir channel provides full resolution of up to 10 m per pixel. Stereo-, photometry and color channels generally have a coarser resolution. One of the goals for MEX HRSC is to cover Mars globally in color and stereoscopically at high-resolution. So far, HRSC has covered almost half of the surface of Mars at a resolution better than 20 meters per pixel. Such data are utilized to derive high resolution digital terrain models (DTM), ortho-image mosaics and additionally higher-level 3D data products such as 3D views. Standardized high-resolution single-strip digital terrain models (using improved orientation data) have been derived at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin-Adlershof [2]. Those datasets, i.e. high-resolution digital terrain models as well as ortho-image data, are distributed as Vicar image files (http://www-mipl.jpl.nasa.gov/external/vicar.html) via the HRSCview web-interface [3], accessible at http://hrscview.fu-berlin.de. A systematic processing workflow is described in detail in [4,5]. In consideration of the scientific interest, the processing of the Valles Marineris region will be discussed in this paper. The DTM mosaic was derived from 82 HRSC orbits at approximately -22° S to 1° N and 250° to 311° E. Methods: Apart from

  18. A new model of equilibrium subsurface hydration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    One of the surprises of the Odyssey mission was the discovery by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) suite of large concentrations of water-equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the shallow subsurface at low latitudes, consistent with 5-7% regolith water content by weight (Mitrofanov et al. Science 297, p. 78, 2002; Feldman et al. Science 297, p. 75, 2002). Water at low latitudes on Mars is generally believed to be sequestered in the form of hydrated minerals. Numerous attempts have been made to relate the global map of WEH to specific mineralogy. For example Feldman et al. (Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16702, 2004) associated an estimated 10% sulfate content of the soil with epsomite (51% water), hexahydrite (46% water) and kieserite (13% water). In such studies, stability maps have been created by assuming equilibration of the subsurface water vapor density with a global mean annual column mass vapor density. Here it is argued that this value significantly understates the subsurface humidity. Results from the Phoenix mission are used to suggest that the midday vapor pressure measured just above the surface is a better proxy for the saturation vapor pressure of subsurface hydrous minerals. The measured frostpoint at the Phoenix site was found to be equal to the surface temperature by night and the modeled temperature at the top of the ice table by day (Zent et al. J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E14, 2010). It was proposed by Hecht (41st LPSC abstract #1533, 2010) that this phenomenon results from water vapor trapping at the coldest nearby surface. At night, the surface is colder than the surface of the ice table; by day it is warmer. Thus, at night, the subsurface is bounded by a fully saturated layer of cold water frost or adsorbed water at the surface, not by the dry boundary layer itself. This argument is not strongly dependent on the particular saturation vapor pressure (SVP) of ice or other subsurface material, only on the thickness of the dry layer. Specifically, the diurnal

  19. Acoustic Emission Signatures of Fatigue Damage in Idealized Bevel Gear Spline for Localized Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In many rotating machinery applications, such as helicopters, the splines of an externally-splined steel shaft that emerges from the gearbox engage with the reverse geometry of an internally splined driven shaft for the delivery of power. The splined section of the shaft is a critical and non-redundant element which is prone to cracking due to complex loading conditions. Thus, early detection of flaws is required to prevent catastrophic failures. The acoustic emission (AE method is a direct way of detecting such active flaws, but its application to detect flaws in a splined shaft in a gearbox is difficult due to the interference of background noise and uncertainty about the effects of the wave propagation path on the received AE signature. Here, to model how AE may detect fault propagation in a hollow cylindrical splined shaft, the splined section is essentially unrolled into a metal plate of the same thickness as the cylinder wall. Spline ridges are cut into this plate, a through-notch is cut perpendicular to the spline to model fatigue crack initiation, and tensile cyclic loading is applied parallel to the spline to propagate the crack. In this paper, the new piezoelectric sensor array is introduced with the purpose of placing them within the gearbox to minimize the wave propagation path. The fatigue crack growth of a notched and flattened gearbox spline component is monitored using a new piezoelectric sensor array and conventional sensors in a laboratory environment with the purpose of developing source models and testing the new sensor performance. The AE data is continuously collected together with strain gauges strategically positioned on the structure. A significant amount of continuous emission due to the plastic deformation accompanied with the crack growth is observed. The frequency spectra of continuous emissions and burst emissions are compared to understand the differences of plastic deformation and sudden crack jump. The

  20. MARS code manual volume I: code structure, system models, and solution methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Yoon, Churl

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This theory manual provides a complete list of overall information of code structure and major function of MARS including code architecture, hydrodynamic model, heat structure, trip / control system and point reactor kinetics model. Therefore, this report would be very useful for the code users. The overall structure of the manual is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  1. Thermal Modeling of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Solar Panel and Instruments during Aerobraking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and started aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. During the spacecraft s design phase, thermal models of the solar panels and instruments were developed to determine which components would be the most limiting thermally during aerobraking. Having determined the most limiting components, thermal limits in terms of heat rate were established. Advanced thermal modeling techniques were developed utilizing Thermal Desktop and Patran Thermal. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique. Analysis established that the solar panels were the most limiting components during the aerobraking phase of the mission.

  2. Conceptual Design and Dynamics Testing and Modeling of a Mars Tumbleweed Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun Philip C.; Harris, Steven B.; Raiszadeh, Behzad; Zaleski, Kristina D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been developing a novel concept for a Mars planetary rover called the Mars Tumbleweed. This concept utilizes the wind to propel the rover along the Mars surface, bringing it the potential to cover vast distances not possible with current Mars rover technology. This vehicle, in its deployed configuration, must be large and lightweight to provide the ratio of drag force to rolling resistance necessary to initiate motion from rest on the Mars surface. One Tumbleweed design concept that satisfies these considerations is called the Eggbeater-Dandelion. This paper describes the basic design considerations and a proposed dynamics model of the concept for use in simulation studies. It includes a summary of rolling/bouncing dynamics tests that used videogrammetry to better understand, characterize, and validate the dynamics model assumptions, especially the effective rolling resistance in bouncing/rolling dynamic conditions. The dynamics test used cameras to capture the motion of 32 targets affixed to a test article s outer structure. Proper placement of the cameras and alignment of their respective fields of view provided adequate image resolution of multiple targets along the trajectory as the test article proceeded down the ramp. Image processing of the frames from multiple cameras was used to determine the target positions. Position data from a set of these test runs was compared with results of a three dimensional, flexible dynamics model. Model input parameters were adjusted to match the test data for runs conducted. This process presented herein provided the means to characterize the dynamics and validate the simulation of the Eggbeater-Dandelion concept. The simulation model was used to demonstrate full scale Tumbleweed motion from a stationary condition on a flat-sloped terrain using representative Mars environment parameters.

  3. Mars Colony in situ resource utilization: An integrated architecture and economics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, René; Do, Sydney; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on our effort to develop an ensemble of specialized models to explore the commercial potential of mining water/ice on Mars in support of a Mars Colony. This ensemble starts with a formal systems architecting framework to describe a Mars Colony and capture its artifacts' parameters and technical attributes. The resulting database is then linked to a variety of ;downstream; analytic models. In particular, we integrated an extraction process (i.e., ;mining;) model, a simulation of the colony's environmental control and life support infrastructure known as HabNet, and a risk-based economics model. The mining model focuses on the technologies associated with in situ resource extraction, processing, storage and handling, and delivery. This model computes the production rate as a function of the systems' technical parameters and the local Mars environment. HabNet simulates the fundamental sustainability relationships associated with establishing and maintaining the colony's population. The economics model brings together market information, investment and operating costs, along with measures of market uncertainty and Monte Carlo techniques, with the objective of determining the profitability of commercial water/ice in situ mining operations. All told, over 50 market and technical parameters can be varied in order to address ;what-if; questions, including colony location.

  4. MARs Tools for Interactive ANalysis (MARTIAN): Google Maps Tools for Visual Exploration of Geophysical Modeling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Haines, M.; Holt, W. E.; Schultz, R. A.; Richard, G.; Haines, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Interactive maps of surface-breaking faults and stress models on Mars provide important tools to engage undergraduate students, educators, and scientists with current geological and geophysical research. We have developed a map based on the Google Maps API -- an Internet based tool combining DHTML and AJAX, -- which allows very large maps to be viewed over the World Wide Web. Typically, small portions of the maps are downloaded as needed, rather than the entire image at once. This set-up enables relatively fast access for users with low bandwidth. Furthermore, Google Maps provides an extensible interactive interface making it ideal for visualizing multiple data sets at the user's choice. The Google Maps API works primarily with data referenced to latitudes and longitudes, which is then mapped in Mercator projection only. We have developed utilities for general cylindrical coordinate systems by converting these coordinates into equivalent Mercator projection before including them on the map. The MARTIAN project is available at http://rock.geo.sunysb.edu/~holt/Mars/MARTIAN/. We begin with an introduction to the Martian surface using a topography model. Faults from several datasets are classified by type (extension vs. compression) and by time epoch. Deviatoric stresses due to gravitational potential energy differences, calculated from the topography and crustal thickness, can be overlain. Several quantitative measures for the fit of the stress field to the faults are also included. We provide introductory text and exercises spanning a range of topics: how are faults identified, what stress is and how it relates to faults, what gravitational potential energy is and how variations in it produce stress, how the models are created, and how these models can be evaluated and interpreted. The MARTIAN tool is used at Stony Brook University in GEO 310: Introduction to Geophysics, a class geared towards junior and senior geosciences majors. Although this project is in its

  5. Compressor Modeling for Transient Analysis of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle by using MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Kwon, Jin Gyu [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung Won; Cha, Jae Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, SCIEL (Supercritical CO{sub 2} Integral Experimental Loop) was chosen as a reference loop and the MARS code was as the transient cycle analysis code. As a result, the compressor homologous curve was developed from the SCIEL experimental data and MARS analysis was performed and presented in the paper. The advantages attract SCO{sub 2}BC as a promising next generation power cycles. The high thermal efficiency comes from the operation of compressor near the critical point where the properties of SCO{sub 2}. The approaches to those of liquid phase, leading drastically lower the compression work loss. However, the advantage requires precise and smooth operation of the cycle near the critical point. However, it is one of the key technical challenges. The experimental data was steady state at compressor rotating speed of 25,000 rpm. The time, 3133 second, was starting point of steady state. Numerical solutions were well matched with the experimental data. The mass flow rate from the MARS analysis of approximately 0.7 kg/s was close to the experimental result of 0.9 kg/s. It is expected that the difference come from the measurement error in the experiment. In this study, the compressor model was developed and implemented in MARS to study the transient analysis of SCO{sub 2}BC in SCIEL. We obtained the homologous curves for the SCIEL compressor using experimental data and performed nodalization of the compressor model using MARS code. In conclusions, it was found that numerical solutions from the MARS model were well matched with experimental data.

  6. Development of the MARS input model for Ulchin 1/2 transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. J.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Chung, B. D.; Hwang, M.

    2003-03-01

    KAERI has been developing the NSSS transient analyzer based on best-estimate codes for Ulchin 1/2 plants. The MARS and RETRAN code are used as the best-estimate codes for the NSSS transient analyzer. Among the two codes, the MARS code is to be used for realistic analysis of small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is greater than 2 inch diameter. This report includes the input model requirements and the calculation note for the Ulchin 1/2 MARS input data generation (see the Appendix). In order to confirm the validity of the input data, we performed the calculations for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition and a double-ended cold leg break LOCA. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the LOCA calculation seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the MARS input data can be used as a base input deck for the MARS transient analyzer for Ulchin 1/2

  7. Energetic protons at Mars. Interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, E.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Dyadechkin, S.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs) from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface). On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos- 2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8RM). In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3- D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars) where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1) a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2) the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3) the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4) how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars-solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment. (orig.)

  8. Energetic protons at Mars. Interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, E.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Dyadechkin, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); McKenna-Lawlor, S. [Space Technology Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Afonin, V.V. [Space Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs) from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface). On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos- 2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8RM). In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3- D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars) where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1) a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2) the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3) the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4) how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars-solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment. (orig.)

  9. B-splines and Faddeev equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizing, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Two numerical methods for solving the three-body equations describing relativistic pion deuteron scattering have been investigated. For separable two body interactions these equations form a set of coupled one-dimensional integral equations. They are plagued by singularities which occur in the kernel of the integral equations as well as in the solution. The methods to solve these equations differ in the way they treat the singularities. First the Fuda-Stuivenberg method is discussed. The basic idea of this method is an one time iteration of the set of integral equations to treat the logarithmic singularities. In the second method, the spline method, the unknown solution is approximated by splines. Cubic splines have been used with cubic B-splines as basis. If the solution is approximated by a linear combination of basis functions, an integral equation can be transformed into a set of linear equations for the expansion coefficients. This set of linear equations is solved by standard means. Splines are determined by points called knots. A proper choice of splines to approach the solution stands for a proper choice of the knots. The solution of the three-body scattering equations has a square root behaviour at a certain point. Hence it was investigated how the knots should be chosen to approximate the square root function by cubic B-splines in an optimal way. Before applying this method to solve numerically the three-body equations describing pion-deuteron scattering, an analytically solvable example has been constructed with a singularity structure of both kernel and solution comparable to those of the three-body equations. The accuracy of the numerical solution was determined to a large extent by the accuracy of the approximation of the square root part. The results for a pion laboratory energy of 47.4 MeV agree very well with those from literature. In a complete calculation for 47.7 MeV the spline method turned out to be a factor thousand faster than the Fuda

  10. Gap Conductance model Validation in the TASS/SMR-S code using MARS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Jun; Yang, Soo Hyung; Chung, Young Jong; Lee, Won Jae

    2010-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing the TASS/SMR-S (Transient and Setpoint Simulation/Small and Medium Reactor) code, which is a thermal hydraulic code for the safety analysis of the advanced integral reactor. An appropriate work to validate the applicability of the thermal hydraulic models within the code should be demanded. Among the models, the gap conductance model which is describes the thermal gap conductivity between fuel and cladding was validated through the comparison with MARS code. The validation of the gap conductance model was performed by evaluating the variation of the gap temperature and gap width as the changed with the power fraction. In this paper, a brief description of the gap conductance model in the TASS/SMR-S code is presented. In addition, calculated results to validate the gap conductance model are demonstrated by comparing with the results of the MARS code with the test case

  11. Updates on Modeling the Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Montmessin, F.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R.; Klassen, D. R.; Wolff, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Global Circulation Models (GCMs) have made steady progress in simulating the current Mars water cycle. It is now widely recognized that clouds are a critical component that can significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes in particular are key to implementing clouds in a GCM: the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on heating/ cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress representing these processes in the NASA Ames GCM, particularly in the presence of radiatively active water ice clouds. We present the current state of our group's water cycle modeling efforts, show results from selected simulations, highlight some of the issues, and discuss avenues for further investigation.­

  12. Schwarz and multilevel methods for quadratic spline collocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christara, C.C. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Smith, B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Smooth spline collocation methods offer an alternative to Galerkin finite element methods, as well as to Hermite spline collocation methods, for the solution of linear elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Recently, optimal order of convergence spline collocation methods have been developed for certain degree splines. Convergence proofs for smooth spline collocation methods are generally more difficult than for Galerkin finite elements or Hermite spline collocation, and they require stronger assumptions and more restrictions. However, numerical tests indicate that spline collocation methods are applicable to a wider class of problems, than the analysis requires, and are very competitive to finite element methods, with respect to efficiency. The authors will discuss Schwarz and multilevel methods for the solution of elliptic PDEs using quadratic spline collocation, and compare these with domain decomposition methods using substructuring. Numerical tests on a variety of parallel machines will also be presented. In addition, preliminary convergence analysis using Schwarz and/or maximum principle techniques will be presented.

  13. Study of cyanotoxins presence from experimental cyanobacteria concentrations using a new data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines in Trasona reservoir (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Nieto, P J; Sánchez Lasheras, F; de Cos Juez, F J; Alonso Fernández, J R

    2011-11-15

    There is an increasing need to describe cyanobacteria blooms since some cyanobacteria produce toxins, termed cyanotoxins. These latter can be toxic and dangerous to humans as well as other animals and life in general. It must be remarked that the cyanobacteria are reproduced explosively under certain conditions. This results in algae blooms, which can become harmful to other species if the cyanobacteria involved produce cyanotoxins. In this research work, the evolution of cyanotoxins in Trasona reservoir (Principality of Asturias, Northern Spain) was studied with success using the data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. The results of the present study are two-fold. On one hand, the importance of the different kind of cyanobacteria over the presence of cyanotoxins in the reservoir is presented through the MARS model and on the other hand a predictive model able to forecast the possible presence of cyanotoxins in a short term was obtained. The agreement of the MARS model with experimental data confirmed the good performance of the same one. Finally, conclusions of this innovative research are exposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of horizontal in-tube condensation models using MARS code. Part I: Stratified flow condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ju-Yeop; Seul, Kwang-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kuseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study collected 11 horizontal in-tube condensation models for stratified flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study assessed the predictive capability of the models for steam condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Purdue-PCCS experiments were simulated using MARS code incorporated with models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cavallini et al. (2006) model predicts well the data for stratified flow condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this study can be used to improve condensation model in RELAP5 or MARS. - Abstract: The accurate prediction of the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer is a primary concern in the optimum design and safety analysis of horizontal heat exchangers of passive safety systems such as the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the emergency condenser system (ECS) and the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS). It is essential to analyze and assess the predictive capability of the previous horizontal in-tube condensation models for each flow regime using various experimental data. This study assessed totally 11 condensation models for the stratified flow, one of the main flow regime encountered in the horizontal condenser, with the heat transfer data from the Purdue-PCCS experiment using the multi-dimensional analysis of reactor safety (MARS) code. From the assessments, it was found that the models by Akers and Rosson, Chato, Tandon et al., Sweeney and Chato, and Cavallini et al. (2002) under-predicted the data in the main condensation heat transfer region, on the contrary to this, the models by Rosson and Meyers, Jaster and Kosky, Fujii, Dobson and Chato, and Thome et al. similarly- or over-predicted the data, and especially, Cavallini et al. (2006) model shows good predictive capability for all test conditions. The results of this study can be used importantly to improve the condensation models in thermal hydraulic code, such as RELAP5 or MARS code.

  15. Spline smoothing of histograms by linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    An algorithm for an approximating function to the frequency distribution is obtained from a sample of size n. To obtain the approximating function a histogram is made from the data. Next, Euclidean space approximations to the graph of the histogram using central B-splines as basis elements are obtained by linear programming. The approximating function has area one and is nonnegative.

  16. Scripted Bodies and Spline Driven Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Kenny; Henriksen, Knud

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will take a close look at the details and technicalities in applying spline driven animation to scripted bodies in the context of dynamic simulation. The main contributions presented in this paper are methods for computing velocities and accelerations in the time domain...

  17. Smoothing two-dimensional Malaysian mortality data using P-splines indexed by age and year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Halim Shukri; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Nonparametric regression implements data to derive the best coefficient of a model from a large class of flexible functions. Eilers and Marx (1996) introduced P-splines as a method of smoothing in generalized linear models, GLMs, in which the ordinary B-splines with a difference roughness penalty on coefficients is being used in a single dimensional mortality data. Modeling and forecasting mortality rate is a problem of fundamental importance in insurance company calculation in which accuracy of models and forecasts are the main concern of the industry. The original idea of P-splines is extended to two dimensional mortality data. The data indexed by age of death and year of death, in which the large set of data will be supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The extension of this idea constructs the best fitted surface and provides sensible prediction of the underlying mortality rate in Malaysia mortality case.

  18. Free web-based modelling platform for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Catalin; Junghanns, Ralf; Glaß, Jana; Sallwey, Jana; Fatkhutdinov, Aybulat; Fichtner, Thomas; Barquero, Felix; Moreno, Miguel; Bonilla, José; Kwoyiga, Lydia

    2017-04-01

    Managed aquifer recharge represents a valuable instrument for sustainable water resources management. The concept implies purposeful infiltration of surface water into underground for later recovery or environmental benefits. Over decades, MAR schemes were successfully installed worldwide for a variety of reasons: to maximize the natural storage capacity of aquifers, physical aquifer management, water quality management, and ecological benefits. The INOWAS-DSS platform provides a collection of free web-based tools for planning, management and optimization of main components of MAR schemes. The tools are grouped into 13 specific applications that cover most relevant challenges encountered at MAR sites, both from quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The applications include among others the optimization of MAR site location, the assessment of saltwater intrusion, the restoration of groundwater levels in overexploited aquifers, the maximization of natural storage capacity of aquifers, the improvement of water quality, the design and operational optimization of MAR schemes, clogging development and risk assessment. The platform contains a collection of about 35 web-based tools of various degrees of complexity, which are either included in application specific workflows or used as standalone modelling instruments. Among them are simple tools derived from data mining and empirical equations, analytical groundwater related equations, as well as complex numerical flow and transport models (MODFLOW, MT3DMS and SEAWAT). Up to now, the simulation core of the INOWAS-DSS, which is based on the finite differences groundwater flow model MODFLOW, is implemented and runs on the web. A scenario analyser helps to easily set up and evaluate new management options as well as future development such as land use and climate change and compare them to previous scenarios. Additionally simple tools such as analytical equations to assess saltwater intrusion are already running online

  19. Information contraction and extraction by multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modelling. Pt. 2. Dominant noise sources in BWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, N.

    1996-01-01

    The multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modeling of a vector noise process is discussed in terms of the estimation of dominant noise sources in BWRs. The discussion is based on a physical approach: a transfer function model on BWR core dynamics is utilized in developing a noise model; a set of input-output relations between three system variables and twelve different noise sources is obtained. By the least-square fitting of a theoretical PSD on neutron noise to an experimental one, four kinds of dominant noise sources are selected. It is shown that some of dominant noise sources consist of two or more different noise sources and have the spectral properties of being coloured and correlated with each other. By diagonalizing the PSD matrix for dominant noise sources, we may obtain an MAR expression for a vector noise process as a response to the diagonal elements(i.e. residual noises) being white and mutually-independent. (Author)

  20. Applications of the spline filter for areal filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Mingsi; Zhang, Hao; Ott, Daniel; Chu, Wei; Song, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a general use isotropic areal spline filter. This new areal spline filter can achieve isotropy by approximating the transmission characteristic of the Gaussian filter. It can also eliminate the effect of void areas using a weighting factor, and resolve end-effect issues by applying new boundary conditions, which replace the first order finite difference in the traditional spline formulation. These improvements make the spline filter widely applicable to 3D surfaces and extend the applications of the spline filter in areal filtration. (technical note)

  1. An isogeometric boundary element method for electromagnetic scattering with compatible B-spline discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. N.; Liu, Z.; Vázquez, R.; Evans, J. A.

    2018-06-01

    We outline the construction of compatible B-splines on 3D surfaces that satisfy the continuity requirements for electromagnetic scattering analysis with the boundary element method (method of moments). Our approach makes use of Non-Uniform Rational B-splines to represent model geometry and compatible B-splines to approximate the surface current, and adopts the isogeometric concept in which the basis for analysis is taken directly from CAD (geometry) data. The approach allows for high-order approximations and crucially provides a direct link with CAD data structures that allows for efficient design workflows. After outlining the construction of div- and curl-conforming B-splines defined over 3D surfaces we describe their use with the electric and magnetic field integral equations using a Galerkin formulation. We use Bézier extraction to accelerate the computation of NURBS and B-spline terms and employ H-matrices to provide accelerated computations and memory reduction for the dense matrices that result from the boundary integral discretization. The method is verified using the well known Mie scattering problem posed over a perfectly electrically conducting sphere and the classic NASA almond problem. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the approach to handle models with complex geometry directly from CAD without mesh generation.

  2. SPLINE LINEAR REGRESSION USED FOR EVALUATING FINANCIAL ASSETS 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu GEAMBAŞU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important preoccupations of financial markets participants was and still is the problem of determining more precise the trend of financial assets prices. For solving this problem there were written many scientific papers and were developed many mathematical and statistical models in order to better determine the financial assets price trend. If until recently the simple linear models were largely used due to their facile utilization, the financial crises that affected the world economy starting with 2008 highlight the necessity of adapting the mathematical models to variation of economy. A simple to use model but adapted to economic life realities is the spline linear regression. This type of regression keeps the continuity of regression function, but split the studied data in intervals with homogenous characteristics. The characteristics of each interval are highlighted and also the evolution of market over all the intervals, resulting reduced standard errors. The first objective of the article is the theoretical presentation of the spline linear regression, also referring to scientific national and international papers related to this subject. The second objective is applying the theoretical model to data from the Bucharest Stock Exchange

  3. Extreme temperature events on Greenland in observations and the MAR regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Amber A.; Eastoe, Emma; Fettweis, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributed 1.7-6.12 mm to global sea level between 1993 and 2010 and is expected to contribute 20-110 mm to future sea level rise by 2100. These estimates were produced by regional climate models (RCMs) which are known to be robust at the ice sheet scale but occasionally miss regional- and local-scale climate variability (e.g. Leeson et al., 2017; Medley et al., 2013). To date, the fidelity of these models in the context of short-period variability in time (i.e. intra-seasonal) has not been fully assessed, for example their ability to simulate extreme temperature events. We use an event identification algorithm commonly used in extreme value analysis, together with observations from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net), to assess the ability of the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) RCM to reproduce observed extreme positive-temperature events at 14 sites around Greenland. We find that MAR is able to accurately simulate the frequency and duration of these events but underestimates their magnitude by more than half a degree Celsius/kelvin, although this bias is much smaller than that exhibited by coarse-scale Era-Interim reanalysis data. As a result, melt energy in MAR output is underestimated by between 16 and 41 % depending on global forcing applied. Further work is needed to precisely determine the drivers of extreme temperature events, and why the model underperforms in this area, but our findings suggest that biases are passed into MAR from boundary forcing data. This is important because these forcings are common between RCMs and their range of predictions of past and future ice sheet melting. We propose that examining extreme events should become a routine part of global and regional climate model evaluation and that addressing shortcomings in this area should be a priority for model development.

  4. Energetic protons at Mars: interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kallio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface. On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8 RM. In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3-D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1 a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2 the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3 the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4 how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars–solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment.

  5. Chemical reaction path modeling of hydrothermal processes on Mars: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian

    1992-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes are thought to have had significant roles in the development of surficial mineralogies and morphological features on Mars. For example, a significant proportion of the Martian soil could consist of the erosional products of hydrothermally altered impact melt sheets. In this model, impact-driven, vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems hydrothermally altered the surrounding rocks and transported volatiles such as S and Cl to the surface. Further support for impact-driven hydrothermal alteration on Mars was provided by studies of the Ries crater, Germany, where suevite deposits were extensively altered to montmorillonite clays by inferred low-temperature (100-130 C) hydrothermal fluids. It was also suggested that surface outflow from both impact-driven and volcano-driven hydrothermal systems could generate the valley networks, thereby eliminating the need for an early warm wet climate. We use computer-driven chemical reaction path calculation to model chemical processes which were likely associated with postulated Martian hydrothermal systems.

  6. Modeling Reaction Control System Effects on Mars Odyssey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanna, Jill

    2002-01-01

    ...) simulations to determine rotational motion of the spacecraft. The main objective of this study was to assess the reaction control system models and their effects on the atmospheric flight of Odyssey...

  7. T-Spline Based Unifying Registration Procedure for Free-Form Surface Workpieces in Intelligent CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the modern manufacturing industry, the free-form surface is widely used in various fields, and the automatic detection of a free-form surface is an important function of future intelligent three-coordinate measuring machines (CMMs. To improve the intelligence of CMMs, a new visual system is designed based on the characteristics of CMMs. A unified model of the free-form surface is proposed based on T-splines. A discretization method of the T-spline surface formula model is proposed. Under this discretization, the position and orientation of the workpiece would be recognized by point cloud registration. A high accuracy evaluation method is proposed between the measured point cloud and the T-spline surface formula. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has the potential to realize the automatic detection of different free-form surfaces and improve the intelligence of CMMs.

  8. Mars Exploration Rover Terminal Descent Mission Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.

    2004-01-01

    Because of NASA's added reliance on simulation for successful interplanetary missions, the MER mission has developed a detailed EDL trajectory modeling and simulation. This paper summarizes how the MER EDL sequence of events are modeled, verification of the methods used, and the inputs. This simulation is built upon a multibody parachute trajectory simulation tool that has been developed in POST I1 that accurately simulates the trajectory of multiple vehicles in flight with interacting forces. In this model the parachute and the suspended bodies are treated as 6 Degree-of-Freedom (6 DOF) bodies. The terminal descent phase of the mission consists of several Entry, Descent, Landing (EDL) events, such as parachute deployment, heatshield separation, deployment of the lander from the backshell, deployment of the airbags, RAD firings, TIRS firings, etc. For an accurate, reliable simulation these events need to be modeled seamlessly and robustly so that the simulations will remain numerically stable during Monte-Carlo simulations. This paper also summarizes how the events have been modeled, the numerical issues, and modeling challenges.

  9. A diagnostic model to estimate winds and small-scale drag from Mars Observer PMIRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical and modeling studies indicate that small-scale drag due to breaking gravity waves is likely to be of considerable importance for the circulation in the middle atmospheric region (approximately 40-100 km altitude) on Mars. Recent earth-based spectroscopic observations have provided evidence for the existence of circulation features, in particular, a warm winter polar region, associated with gravity wave drag. Since the Mars Observer PMIRR experiment will obtain temperature profiles extending from the surface up to about 80 km altitude, it will be extensively sampling middle atmospheric regions in which gravity wave drag may play a dominant role. Estimating the drag then becomes crucial to the estimation of the atmospheric winds from the PMIRR-observed temperatures. An interative diagnostic model based upon one previously developed and tested with earth satellite temperature data will be applied to the PMIRR measurements to produce estimates of the small-scale zonal drag and three-dimensional wind fields in the Mars middle atmosphere. This model is based on the primitive equations, and can allow for time dependence (the time tendencies used may be based upon those computed in a Fast Fourier Mapping procedure). The small-scale zonal drag is estimated as the residual in the zonal momentum equation; the horizontal winds having first been estimated from the meridional momentum equation and the continuity equation. The scheme estimates the vertical motions from the thermodynamic equation, and thus needs estimates of the diabatic heating based upon the observed temperatures. The latter will be generated using a radiative model. It is hoped that the diagnostic scheme will be able to produce good estimates of the zonal gravity wave drag in the Mars middle atmosphere, estimates that can then be used in other diagnostic or assimilation efforts, as well as more theoretical studies.

  10. Encouraging IS developers to learn business skills: an examination of the MARS model

    OpenAIRE

    Tsay, Han-Huei (Crystal)

    2016-01-01

    Though prior research has recognized business skills as one of the keys to successful information system development, few studies have investigated the determinants of an IS developer’s behavioral intention to learn such skills. Based on the Motivation–Ability–Role Perception–Situational factors (i.e., the MARS model), this study argues that the intention of IS developers to acquire business skills is influenced by learning motivation (M), learning self-efficacy (A), change agent role percept...

  11. Modeling aluminum-silicon chemistries and application to Australian acidic playa lakes as analogues for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. M.; Crowley, J. K.; Thomson, B. J.; Kargel, J. S.; Bridges, N. T.; Hook, S. J.; Baldridge, A.; Brown, A. J.; Ribeiro da Luz, B.; de Souza Filho, C. R.

    2009-06-01

    Recent Mars missions have stimulated considerable thinking about the surficial geochemical evolution of Mars. Among the major relevant findings are the presence in Meridiani Planum sediments of the mineral jarosite (a ferric sulfate salt) and related minerals that require formation from an acid-salt brine and oxidizing environment. Similar mineralogies have been observed in acidic saline lake sediments in Western Australia (WA), and these lakes have been proposed as analogues for acidic sedimentary environments on Mars. The prior version of the equilibrium chemical thermodynamic FREZCHEM model lacked Al and Si chemistries that are needed to appropriately model acidic aqueous geochemistries on Earth and Mars. The objectives of this work were to (1) add Al and Si chemistries to the FREZCHEM model, (2) extend these chemistries to low temperatures (enthalpy data. New aluminum and silicon parameterizations added 12 new aluminum/silicon minerals to this Na-K-Mg-Ca-Fe(II)-Fe(III)-Al-H-Cl-Br-SO 4-NO 3-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-O 2-CH 4-Si-H 2O system that now contain 95 solid phases. There were similarities, differences, and uncertainties between Australian acidic, saline playa lakes and waters that likely led to the Burns formation salt accumulations on Mars. Both systems are similar in that they are dominated by (1) acidic, saline ground waters and sediments, (2) Ca and/or Mg sulfates, and (3) iron precipitates such as jarosite and hematite. Differences include: (1) the dominance of NaCl in many WA lakes, versus the dominance of Fe-Mg-Ca-SO 4 in Meridiani Planum, (2) excessively low K + concentrations in Meridiani Planum due to jarosite precipitation, (3) higher acid production in the presence of high iron concentrations in Meridiani Planum, and probably lower rates of acid neutralization and hence, higher acidities on Mars owing to colder temperatures, and (4) lateral salt patterns in WA lakes. The WA playa lakes display significant lateral variations in mineralogy and water

  12. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Analytic Formulation for the Evaluation of Spline Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Errichello, Robert [GEARTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Halse, Chris [Romax Technology, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    Gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life; however, they commonly meet and exceed the design criteria specified in current standards in the gear, bearing, and wind turbine industry as well as third-party certification criteria. The cost of gearbox replacements and rebuilds, as well as the down time associated with these failures, has elevated the cost of wind energy. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2006; its key goal is to understand the root causes of premature gearbox failures and improve their reliability using a combined approach of dynamometer testing, field testing, and modeling. As part of the GRC program, this paper investigates the design of the spline coupling often used in modern wind turbine gearboxes to connect the planetary and helical gear stages. Aside from transmitting the driving torque, another common function of the spline coupling is to allow the sun to float between the planets. The amount the sun can float is determined by the spline design and the sun shaft flexibility subject to the operational loads. Current standards address spline coupling design requirements in varying detail. This report provides additional insight beyond these current standards to quickly evaluate spline coupling designs.

  13. Stabilized Discretization in Spline Element Method for Solution of Two-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the poor geometric adaptability of spline element method, a geometric precision spline method, which uses the rational Bezier patches to indicate the solution domain, is proposed for two-dimensional viscous uncompressed Navier-Stokes equation. Besides fewer pending unknowns, higher accuracy, and computation efficiency, it possesses such advantages as accurate representation of isogeometric analysis for object boundary and the unity of geometry and analysis modeling. Meanwhile, the selection of B-spline basis functions and the grid definition is studied and a stable discretization format satisfying inf-sup conditions is proposed. The degree of spline functions approaching the velocity field is one order higher than that approaching pressure field, and these functions are defined on one-time refined grid. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed through the Nitsche variational principle in weak form due to the lack of interpolation properties of the B-splines functions. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified with some examples.

  14. Influential input parameters for reflood model of MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Deog Yeon; Bang, Young Seok [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Best Estimate (BE) calculation has been more broadly used in nuclear industries and regulations to reduce the significant conservatism for evaluating Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). Reflood model has been identified as one of the problems in BE calculation. The objective of the Post BEMUSE Reflood Model Input Uncertainty Methods (PREMIUM) program of OECD/NEA is to make progress the issue of the quantification of the uncertainty of the physical models in system thermal hydraulic codes, by considering an experimental result especially for reflood. It is important to establish a methodology to identify and select the parameters influential to the response of reflood phenomena following Large Break LOCA. For this aspect, a reference calculation and sensitivity analysis to select the dominant influential parameters for FEBA experiment are performed.

  15. Simultaneous Modeling of Gradual SEP Events at the Earth and the Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) event is the number one space hazard for spacecraft instruments and astronauts' safety. Recent studies have shown that both longitudinal and radial extent of SEP events can be very significant. In this work, we use the improved Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (iPATH) model to simulate gradual SEP events that have impacts upon both the Earth and the Mars. We follow the propagation of a 2D CME-driven shock. Particles are accelerated at the shock via the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. Transport of the escaped particles to the Earth and the Mars is then followed using a backward stochastic differential equation method. Perpendicular diffusion is considered in both the DSA and the transport process. Model results such as time intensity profile and energetic particle spectrum at the two locations are compared to understand the spatial extent of an SEP event. Observational data at the Earth and the Mars are also studied to validate the model.

  16. Some splines produced by smooth interpolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segeth, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 319, 15 February (2018), s. 387-394 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : smooth data approximation * smooth data interpolation * cubic spline Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300317302746?via%3Dihub

  17. Some splines produced by smooth interpolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segeth, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 319, 15 February (2018), s. 387-394 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : smooth data approximation * smooth data interpolation * cubic spline Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0096300317302746?via%3Dihub

  18. Application of multivariate splines to discrete mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Using methods developed in multivariate splines, we present an explicit formula for discrete truncated powers, which are defined as the number of non-negative integer solutions of linear Diophantine equations. We further use the formula to study some classical problems in discrete mathematics as follows. First, we extend the partition function of integers in number theory. Second, we exploit the relation between the relative volume of convex polytopes and multivariate truncated powers and giv...

  19. The basis spline method and associated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We outline the Basis Spline and Collocation methods for the solution of Partial Differential Equations. Particular attention is paid to the theory of errors, and the handling of non-self-adjoint problems which are generated by the collocation method. We discuss applications to Poisson's equation, the Dirac equation, and the calculation of bound and continuum states of atomic and nuclear systems. 12 refs., 6 figs

  20. Tomographic reconstruction with B-splines surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eric F.; Dantas, Carlos C.; Melo, Silvio B.; Mota, Icaro V.; Lira, Mailson

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques when applied to a limited number of data usually suffer from noise caused by the process of correction or by inconsistencies in the data coming from the stochastic process of radioactive emission and oscillation equipment. The post - processing of the reconstructed image with the application of filters can be done to mitigate the presence of noise. In general these processes also attenuate the discontinuities present in edges that distinguish objects or artifacts, causing excessive blurring in the reconstructed image. This paper proposes a built-in noise reduction at the same time that it ensures adequate smoothness level in the reconstructed surface, representing the unknowns as linear combinations of elements of a piecewise polynomial basis, i.e. a B-splines basis. For that, the algebraic technique ART is modified to accommodate the first, second and third degree bases, ensuring C 0 , C 1 and C 2 smoothness levels, respectively. For comparisons, three methodologies are applied: ART, ART post-processed with regular B-splines filters (ART*) and the proposed method with the built-in B-splines filter (BsART). Simulations with input data produced from common mathematical phantoms were conducted. For the phantoms used the BsART method consistently presented the smallest errors, among the three methods. This study has shown the superiority of the change made to embed the filter in the ART when compared to the post-filtered ART. (author)

  1. A Simple Analytic Model for Estimating Mars Ascent Vehicle Mass and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) is a crucial component in any sample return campaign. In this paper we present a universal model for a two-stage MAV along with the analytic equations and simple parametric relationships necessary to quickly estimate MAV mass and performance. Ascent trajectories can be modeled as two-burn transfers from the surface with appropriate loss estimations for finite burns, steering, and drag. Minimizing lift-off mass is achieved by balancing optimized staging and an optimized path-to-orbit. This model allows designers to quickly find optimized solutions and to see the effects of design choices.

  2. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  3. Earth-Mars Telecommunications and Information Management System (TIMS): Antenna Visibility Determination, Network Simulation, and Management Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odubiyi, Jide; Kocur, David; Pino, Nino; Chu, Don

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of our research on Earth-Mars Telecommunications and Information Management System (TIMS) network modeling and unattended network operations. The primary focus of our research is to investigate the feasibility of the TIMS architecture, which links the Earth-based Mars Operations Control Center, Science Data Processing Facility, Mars Network Management Center, and the Deep Space Network of antennae to the relay satellites and other communication network elements based in the Mars region. The investigation was enhanced by developing Build 3 of the TIMS network modeling and simulation model. The results of several 'what-if' scenarios are reported along with reports on upgraded antenna visibility determination software and unattended network management prototype.

  4. Modeling to Mars: a NASA Model Based Systems Engineering Pathfinder Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lee, Kristopher A.; Miller, Scott T.; Vorndran, Kenneth A.; Vaden, Karl R.; Ross, Eric P.; Powell, Bobby C.; Moses, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) Systems Engineering (SE) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) initiated the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Pathfinder effort in FY16. The goals and objectives of the MBSE Pathfinder include developing and advancing MBSE capability across NASA, applying MBSE to real NASA issues, and capturing issues and opportunities surrounding MBSE. The Pathfinder effort consisted of four teams, with each team addressing a particular focus area. This paper focuses on Pathfinder team 1 with the focus area of architectures and mission campaigns. These efforts covered the timeframe of February 2016 through September 2016. The team was comprised of eight team members from seven NASA Centers (Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center IV&V Facility, Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Stennis Space Center). Collectively, the team had varying levels of knowledge, skills and expertise in systems engineering and MBSE. The team applied their existing and newly acquired system modeling knowledge and expertise to develop modeling products for a campaign (Program) of crew and cargo missions (Projects) to establish a human presence on Mars utilizing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Pathfinder team 1 developed a subset of modeling products that are required for a Program System Requirement Review (SRR)/System Design Review (SDR) and Project Mission Concept Review (MCR)/SRR as defined in NASA Procedural Requirements. Additionally, Team 1 was able to perform and demonstrate some trades and constraint analyses. At the end of these efforts, over twenty lessons learned and recommended next steps have been identified.

  5. TPSLVM: a dimensionality reduction algorithm based on thin plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinwei; Gao, Junbin; Wang, Tianjiang; Shi, Daming

    2014-10-01

    Dimensionality reduction (DR) has been considered as one of the most significant tools for data analysis. One type of DR algorithms is based on latent variable models (LVM). LVM-based models can handle the preimage problem easily. In this paper we propose a new LVM-based DR model, named thin plate spline latent variable model (TPSLVM). Compared to the well-known Gaussian process latent variable model (GPLVM), our proposed TPSLVM is more powerful especially when the dimensionality of the latent space is low. Also, TPSLVM is robust to shift and rotation. This paper investigates two extensions of TPSLVM, i.e., the back-constrained TPSLVM (BC-TPSLVM) and TPSLVM with dynamics (TPSLVM-DM) as well as their combination BC-TPSLVM-DM. Experimental results show that TPSLVM and its extensions provide better data visualization and more efficient dimensionality reduction compared to PCA, GPLVM, ISOMAP, etc.

  6. An overview of challenges in modeling heat and mass transfer for living on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Yoji; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Goto, Eiji; Arai, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Hirafuji, Masayuki; Omori, Katsunori; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Tani, Akira; Toki, Kyoichiro; Yokota, Hiroki; Fujita, Osamu

    2006-09-01

    Engineering a life-support system for living on Mars requires the modeling of heat and mass transfer. This report describes the analysis of heat and mass transfer phenomena in a greenhouse dome, which is being designed as a pressurized life-support system for agricultural production on Mars. In this Martian greenhouse, solar energy will be converted into chemical energy in plant biomass. Agricultural products will be harvested for food and plant cultivation, and waste materials will be processed in a composting microbial ecosystem. Transpired water from plants will be condensed and recycled. In our thermal design and analysis for the Martian greenhouse, we addressed the question of whether temperature and pressure would be maintained in the appropriate range for humans as well as plants. Energy flow and material circulation should be controlled to provide an artificial ecological system on Mars. In our analysis, we assumed that the greenhouse would be maintained at a subatmospheric pressure under 1/3-G gravitational force with 1/2 solar light intensity on Earth. Convection of atmospheric gases will be induced inside the greenhouse, primarily by heating from sunlight. Microclimate (thermal and gas species structure) could be generated locally around plant bodies, which would affect gas transport. Potential effects of those environmental factors are discussed on the phenomena including plant growth and plant physiology and focusing on transport processes. Fire safety is a crucial issue and we evaluate its impact on the total gas pressure in the greenhouse dome.

  7. Mars science laboratory radiation assessment detector (MSL/RAD) modeling workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Norbury, John W.; Reitz, Günther

    2017-08-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) (Hassler et al., 2012; Zeitlin et al., 2016) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover (Grotzinger et al., 2012) is a sophisticated charged and neutral particle radiation analyzer developed by an international team of scientists and engineers from Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado as the leading institution, the University of Kiel and the German Aerospace Center in Cologne, Germany. RAD is a compact, powerful instrument capable of distinguishing between ionizing particles and neutral particles and providing neutron, gamma, and charged particle spectra from protons to iron as well as absorbed dose measurements in tissue-equivalent material. During the 6 month cruise to Mars, inside the MSL spacecraft, RAD served as a proxy to validate models of the radiation levels expected inside a spacecraft that future astronauts might experience (Zeitlin et al., 2013). RAD was turned on one day after the landing on August 7, 2012, exactly 100 years to the day after the discovery of cosmic rays on Earth by Victor Hess. These measurements are the first of their kind on the surface of another planet (Hassler et al., 2014), and the radiation data collected by RAD on the surface of Mars will inform projections of crew health risks and the design of protective surface habitats and other countermeasures for future human missions in the coming decades.

  8. Semi-automated operation of Mars Climate Simulation chamber - MCSC modelled for biological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasashvili, M. V.; Sabashvili, Sh. A.; Tsereteli, S. L.; Aleksidze, N. D.; Dalakishvili, O.

    2017-10-01

    The Mars Climate Simulation Chamber (MCSC) (GEO PAT 12 522/01) is designed for the investigation of the possible past and present habitability of Mars, as well as for the solution of practical tasks necessary for the colonization and Terraformation of the Planet. There are specific tasks such as the experimental investigation of the biological parameters that allow many terrestrial organisms to adapt to the imitated Martian conditions: chemistry of the ground, atmosphere, temperature, radiation, etc. MCSC is set for the simulation of the conduction of various biological experiments, as well as the selection of extremophile microorganisms for the possible Settlement, Ecopoesis and/or Terraformation purposes and investigation of their physiological functions. For long-term purposes, it is possible to cultivate genetically modified organisms (e.g., plants) adapted to the Martian conditions for future Martian agriculture to sustain human Mars missions and permanent settlements. The size of the chamber allows preliminary testing of the functionality of space-station mini-models and personal protection devices such as space-suits, covering and building materials and other structures. The reliability of the experimental biotechnological materials can also be tested over a period of years. Complex and thorough research has been performed to acquire the most appropriate technical tools for the accurate engineering of the MCSC and precious programmed simulation of Martian environmental conditions. This paper describes the construction and technical details of the equipment of the MCSC, which allows its semi-automated, long-term operation.

  9. Computer Modeling of Sand Transport on Mars Using a Compart-Mentalized Fluids Algorithm (CFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Stratton, D.

    1999-01-01

    It has been postulated that aeolian transport on Mars may be significantly different from that on Earth. From laboratory experiments simulating martian grain transport [2], it has been observed that (saltating) grains striking the bed can cause hundreds of secondary reptation trajectories when impact occurs at speeds postulated for Mars. Some of the ballistically induced trajectories "die ouf' and effectively join the ranks on the creep population that is merely nudged along by impact. Many of the induced reptation trajectories, however, are sufficiently high for the grains to become part of the saltation load (it is irrelevant to the boundary layer how a grain attained its initial lift force). When these grains, in turn, strike the surface, they too are capable of inducing more reptating grains. This cascading effect has been discussed in connection with terrestrial aeolian transport in an attempt to dispel the notion that sand motion is divisible only into creep and saltation loads. On Earth, only a few grains are splashed by impact. On Mars, it may be hundreds. We developed a computer model to address this phenomenon because there are some important ramifications: First, this ratio may mean that martian aeolian transport is dominated by reptation flux rather than saltation. On Earth, the flux would be a roughly balanced mixture between reptation/creep and saltation. On Venus, there would be no transport other than by saltation. In other words, an understanding of planetary aeolian processes may not be necessarily understood by extrapolating from the "Earth case", with only gravity and atmospheric density/viscosity being considered as variables. Second, the reptation flux on Mars may be self sustaining, so that little input is required by the wind once transport has been initiated. The number of grains saturating the boundary layer near the bed may mean that average grain speed on Mars might conceivably be less than that on Earth. This would say much for models

  10. An Integrated Economics Model for ISRU in Support of a Mars Colony - Initial Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, Rene; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this effort is to develop an integrated set of risk-based financial and technical models to evaluate multiple Off-Earth Mining (OEM) scenarios. This quantitative, scenario- and simulation-based tool will help identify combinations of market variables, technical parameters, and policy levers that will enable the expansion of the global economy into the solar system and return economic benefits. Human ventures in space are entering a new phase in which missions formerly driven by government agencies are now being replaced by those led by commercial enterprises - in launch, satellite deployment, resupply of the International Space Station, and space tourism. In the not-too-distant future, commercial opportunities will also include the mining of asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. This investigation will examine the role of OEM in a growing space economy. (In this investigation, the term 'mining' is taken to embrace minerals, ice/water, and other in situ resources.) OEM can be the engine that drives the space economy, so it would be useful to understand what OEM market conditions and technology requirements are needed for that economy to prosper. These specific elements will be studied in the wider context of creating an economy that could ultimately support a sustainable Mars Colony. Such a colony will need in situ resources not only for its own survival, but to prosper and grow, it must create viable business ventures, essentially by fulfilling the demand for in situ resources from and on Mars. This investigation will focus on understanding the role and economic prospect for OEM associated with the Human Colonization of Mars (HCM).

  11. Parameterization of Rocket Dust Storms on Mars in the LMD Martian GCM: Modeling Details and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Forget, François; Bertrand, Tanguy; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Navarro, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the detached dust layers observed by the Mars Climate Sounder aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is still debated. Spiga et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20046) revealed that deep mesoscale convective "rocket dust storms" are likely to play an important role in forming these dust layers. To investigate how the detached dust layers are generated by this mesoscale phenomenon and subsequently evolve at larger scales, a parameterization of rocket dust storms to represent the mesoscale dust convection is designed and included into the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) Martian Global Climate Model (GCM). The new parameterization allows dust particles in the GCM to be transported to higher altitudes than in traditional GCMs. Combined with the horizontal transport by large-scale winds, the dust particles spread out and form detached dust layers. During the Martian dusty seasons, the LMD GCM with the new parameterization is able to form detached dust layers. The formation, evolution, and decay of the simulated dust layers are largely in agreement with the Mars Climate Sounder observations. This suggests that mesoscale rocket dust storms are among the key factors to explain the observed detached dust layers on Mars. However, the detached dust layers remain absent in the GCM during the clear seasons, even with the new parameterization. This implies that other relevant atmospheric processes, operating when no dust storms are occurring, are needed to explain the Martian detached dust layers. More observations of local dust storms could improve the ad hoc aspects of this parameterization, such as the trigger and timing of dust injection.

  12. PEMODELAN REGRESI SPLINE (Studi Kasus: Herpindo Jaya Cabang Ngaliyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE BUDIANTARA PUTRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regression analysis is a method of data analysis to describe the relationship between response variables and predictor variables. There are two approaches to estimating the regression function. They are parametric and nonparametric approaches. The parametric approach is used when the relationship between the predictor variables and the response variables are known or the shape of the regression curve is known. Meanwhile, the nonparametric approach is used when the form of the relationship between the response and predictor variables is unknown or no information about the form of the regression function. The aim of this study are to determine the best spline nonparametric regression model on data of quality of the product, price, and advertising on purchasing decisions of Yamaha motorcycle with optimal knots point and to compare it with the multiple regression linear based on the coefficient of determination (R2 and mean square error (MSE. Optimal knot points are defined by two point knots. The result of this analysis is that for this data multiple regression linear is better than the spline regression one.

  13. B-spline tight frame based force matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianbin; Zhu, Guanhua; Tong, Dudu; Lu, Lanyuan; Shen, Zuowei

    2018-06-01

    In molecular dynamics simulations, compared with popular all-atom force field approaches, coarse-grained (CG) methods are frequently used for the rapid investigations of long time- and length-scale processes in many important biological and soft matter studies. The typical task in coarse-graining is to derive interaction force functions between different CG site types in terms of their distance, bond angle or dihedral angle. In this paper, an ℓ1-regularized least squares model is applied to form the force functions, which makes additional use of the B-spline wavelet frame transform in order to preserve the important features of force functions. The B-spline tight frames system has a simple explicit expression which is useful for representing our force functions. Moreover, the redundancy of the system offers more resilience to the effects of noise and is useful in the case of lossy data. Numerical results for molecular systems involving pairwise non-bonded, three and four-body bonded interactions are obtained to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Development and analysis of a twelfth degree and order gravity model for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, E. J.; Balmino, G.

    1979-01-01

    Satellite geodesy techniques previously applied to artificial earth satellites have been extended to obtain a high-resolution gravity field for Mars. Two-way Doppler data collected by 10 Deep Space Network (DSN) stations during Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed to obtain a twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model for the martian gravitational potential. The quality of this model was evaluated by examining the rms residuals within the fit and the ability of the model to predict the spacecraft state beyond the fit. Both indicators show that more data and higher degree and order harmonics will be required to further refine our knowledge of the martian gravity field. The model presented shows much promise, since it resolves local gravity features which correlate highly with the martian topography. An isostatic analysis based on this model, as well as an error analysis, shows rather complete compensation on a global (long wavelength) scale. Though further model refinements are necessary to be certain, local (short wavelength) features such as the shield volcanos in Tharsis appear to be uncompensated. These are interpreted to place some bounds on the internal structure of Mars.

  15. An electrodynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the ionospheres of Mars and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, P.A.; Daniell, R.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    the electrodynamic model for the solar wind interaction with non-magnetic planets (Cloutier and Daniell, Planet. Space Sci. 21, 463, 1973; Daniell and Cloutier, Planet. Space Sci. 25, 621, 1977) is modified to include the effects of non-ohmic currents in the upper ionosphere. The model is then used to calculate convection patterns induced by the solar wind in the ionospheres of Mars and Venus. For Mars the observations of the neutral mass spectrometer or Vikings 1 and 2 provided the neutral atmosphere. Model calculations reproduced the retarding potential analyzer data and indicate that the ionosphere above about 200 km is probably controlled by convection rather than chemistry or diffusion. For Venus a model atmosphere based on Dickenson and Ridley, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1219 (1975) and Mayr et al., J. Geophys. Res. 83, 4411 (1978) was used. The resulting model calculations were compared to radio occultation data from Mariners 5 and 10 and Venera 9 which represent extremes in the variability of the upper Cytherean ionosphere. The model calculations are shown to fall within this variation. These results represent the state of the theory immediately prior to the Pioneer-Venus encounter. (author)

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Soil Mechanics for Path Planning of the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian; Arvidson, Raymond; Lindemann, Randel; Bennett, Keith; Zhou, Feng; Iagnemma, Karl; Senatore, Carmine; Van Dyke, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    To help minimize risk of high sinkage and slippage during drives and to better understand soil properties and rover terramechanics from drive data, a multidisciplinary team was formed under the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project to develop and utilize dynamic computer-based models for rover drives over realistic terrains. The resulting tool, named ARTEMIS (Adams-based Rover Terramechanics and Mobility Interaction Simulator), consists of the dynamic model, a library of terramechanics subroutines, and the high-resolution digital elevation maps of the Mars surface. A 200-element model of the rovers was developed and validated for drop tests before launch, using MSC-Adams dynamic modeling software. Newly modeled terrain-rover interactions include the rut-formation effect of deformable soils, using the classical Bekker-Wong implementation of compaction resistances and bull-dozing effects. The paper presents the details and implementation of the model with two case studies based on actual MER telemetry data. In its final form, ARTEMIS will be used in a predictive manner to assess terrain navigability and will become part of the overall effort in path planning and navigation for both Martian and lunar rovers.

  17. Image edges detection through B-Spline filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastropiero, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    B-Spline signal processing was used to detect the edges of a digital image. This technique is based upon processing the image in the Spline transform domain, instead of doing so in the space domain (classical processing). The transformation to the Spline transform domain means finding out the real coefficients that makes it possible to interpolate the grey levels of the original image, with a B-Spline polynomial. There exist basically two methods of carrying out this interpolation, which produces the existence of two different Spline transforms: an exact interpolation of the grey values (direct Spline transform), and an approximated interpolation (smoothing Spline transform). The latter results in a higher smoothness of the gray distribution function defined by the Spline transform coefficients, and is carried out with the aim of obtaining an edge detection algorithm which higher immunity to noise. Finally the transformed image was processed in order to detect the edges of the original image (the gradient method was used), and the results of the three methods (classical, direct Spline transform and smoothing Spline transform) were compared. The results were that, as expected, the smoothing Spline transform technique produced a detection algorithm more immune to external noise. On the other hand the direct Spline transform technique, emphasizes more the edges, even more than the classical method. As far as the consuming time is concerned, the classical method is clearly the fastest one, and may be applied whenever the presence of noise is not important, and whenever edges with high detail are not required in the final image. (author). 9 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  18. Recursive B-spline approximation using the Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Jauch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel recursive B-spline approximation (RBA algorithm which approximates an unbounded number of data points with a B-spline function and achieves lower computational effort compared with previous algorithms. Conventional recursive algorithms based on the Kalman filter (KF restrict the approximation to a bounded and predefined interval. Conversely RBA includes a novel shift operation that enables to shift estimated B-spline coefficients in the state vector of a KF. This allows to adapt the interval in which the B-spline function can approximate data points during run-time.

  19. LIMIT STRESS SPLINE MODELS FOR GRP COMPOSITES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    INTRODUCTION. The strength of any material used in any design is very important in order to evaluate the performance index of a particular project. Plastics are polymers that are viscoelastic in nature, show time dependence response to applied stress (Creep), [1]. GRP mechanical properties are therefore affected by creep.

  20. Mars Rover Model Celebration: Using Planetary Exploration To Enrich STEM Teaching In Elementary And Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Dominey, W.; Kapral, A.; Carlson, C.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

    2011-12-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The program culminates in a capstone event held at the University of Houston (or other central location in the other communities that will be involved

  1. Gaussian quadrature for splines via homotopy continuation: Rules for C2 cubic splines

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-10-24

    We introduce a new concept for generating optimal quadrature rules for splines. To generate an optimal quadrature rule in a given (target) spline space, we build an associated source space with known optimal quadrature and transfer the rule from the source space to the target one, while preserving the number of quadrature points and therefore optimality. The quadrature nodes and weights are, considered as a higher-dimensional point, a zero of a particular system of polynomial equations. As the space is continuously deformed by changing the source knot vector, the quadrature rule gets updated using polynomial homotopy continuation. For example, starting with C1C1 cubic splines with uniform knot sequences, we demonstrate the methodology by deriving the optimal rules for uniform C2C2 cubic spline spaces where the rule was only conjectured to date. We validate our algorithm by showing that the resulting quadrature rule is independent of the path chosen between the target and the source knot vectors as well as the source rule chosen.

  2. Gaussian quadrature for splines via homotopy continuation: Rules for C2 cubic splines

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for generating optimal quadrature rules for splines. To generate an optimal quadrature rule in a given (target) spline space, we build an associated source space with known optimal quadrature and transfer the rule from the source space to the target one, while preserving the number of quadrature points and therefore optimality. The quadrature nodes and weights are, considered as a higher-dimensional point, a zero of a particular system of polynomial equations. As the space is continuously deformed by changing the source knot vector, the quadrature rule gets updated using polynomial homotopy continuation. For example, starting with C1C1 cubic splines with uniform knot sequences, we demonstrate the methodology by deriving the optimal rules for uniform C2C2 cubic spline spaces where the rule was only conjectured to date. We validate our algorithm by showing that the resulting quadrature rule is independent of the path chosen between the target and the source knot vectors as well as the source rule chosen.

  3. Smoothing data series by means of cubic splines: quality of approximation and introduction of a repeating spline approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Sabine; Wendt, Verena; Linz, Ricarda; Bittner, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Cubic splines with equidistant spline sampling points are a common method in atmospheric science, used for the approximation of background conditions by means of filtering superimposed fluctuations from a data series. What is defined as background or superimposed fluctuation depends on the specific research question. The latter also determines whether the spline or the residuals - the subtraction of the spline from the original time series - are further analysed.Based on test data sets, we show that the quality of approximation of the background state does not increase continuously with an increasing number of spline sampling points and/or decreasing distance between two spline sampling points. Splines can generate considerable artificial oscillations in the background and the residuals.We introduce a repeating spline approach which is able to significantly reduce this phenomenon. We apply it not only to the test data but also to TIMED-SABER temperature data and choose the distance between two spline sampling points in a way that is sensitive for a large spectrum of gravity waves.

  4. Spline-based automatic path generation of welding robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xuejuan; Li Liangyu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible method for the representation of welded seam based on spline interpolation. In this method, the tool path of welding robot can be generated automatically from a 3D CAD model. This technique has been implemented and demonstrated in the FANUC Arc Welding Robot Workstation. According to the method, a software system is developed using VBA of SolidWorks 2006. It offers an interface between SolidWorks and ROBOGUIDE, the off-line programming software of FANUC robot. It combines the strong modeling function of the former and the simulating function of the latter. It also has the capability of communication with on-line robot. The result data have shown its high accuracy and strong reliability in experiments. This method will improve the intelligence and the flexibility of the welding robot workstation.

  5. Modeling soluble salt assemblages on Mars: past aqueous history and present-day habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2014-12-01

    Soluble salt assemblages formed through aqueous processes are widespread on Mars. These minerals are important for understanding the past aqueous history of Mars and indicate critical habitability parameters such as pH, temperature, water activity, and salinity. Equilibrium models have been used to determine solution chemistry and salt precipitation sequences from aqueous chemical data; however, current models are limited by a lack of experimental data for low-temperature perchlorates, and some model predictions are clearly anomalous. To address the need for accurate equilibrium models, we have developed a comprehensive model for low-temperature perchlorate-rich brines using (1) previously neglected literature data, (2) experimental solubilities determined in low-temperature perchlorate solutions, and (3) solubility and heat capacity results determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Our resulting model is a significant improvement over existing models, such as FREZCHEM, particularly for perchlorate mixtures. We have applied our model to evaporation and freezing of a nominal Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) solution measured at the Phoenix site. For a freezing WCL solution, our model indicates that ice, KClO4, hydromagnesite (3MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), calcite (CaCO3), meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O), MgCl2·12H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, and Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O form at the eutectic (209 K); whereas, KClO4, hydromagnesite, kieserite (MgSO4·H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), halite (NaCl), NaClO4·H2O, and Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O form upon complete evaporation at 298 K. In general, evaporation yields more dehydrated mineral assemblages than salts produced by freezing. Hydrated phases that form during evaporation contain 0.3 wt. % water, which compares with 1.2 wt. % during freezing. Given independent evidence for the presence of calcite and minimum water contents in Martian soils of ~1.5 wt. %, salts at the Phoenix site, and possibly elsewhere, appear more likely to have formed during

  6. Mesoscale modeling of the water vapor cycle at Mawrth Vallis: a Mars2020 and ExoMars exploration rovers high-priority landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) was used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 (NASA) Rover at several of their respective proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing at Ls5 [1] and by the ExoMars (ESA) Rover at one of the final landing sites. MRAMS is ideally suited for this type of investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simu-late Mars' atmospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface proper-ties [2, 3]. One of the sights studied for both rovers was Mawrth Vallis (MV), an ancient water outflow channel with light colored clay-rich rocks in the mid-latitude north hemisphere (Oxia Palus quadrangle). MV is the northernmost of the Mars2020 and ExoMars landing sites and the closest to the northern polar cap water source. The primary source of water vapor to the atmosphere is the northern polar cap during the northern summer. In order to highlight MV habitability implications, additional numerical experiments at Ls90, 140 and 180, highest column abundance of water vapor is found over MV [4], were performed to study how the atmospheric circulation connects MV with the polar water source. Once the winter CO2 retreats, the underlying polar water ice is exposed and begins to sublimate. The water is transported equatorward where it is manifested in the tropical aphelion cloud belt. If transport is assumed to be the result of the summer Hadley Cell, then the polar water is carried aloft in the northern high latitude rising branch before moving equatorward and eventually toward the southern high latitudes. Thus, the mean meridional summer circulation precludes a direct water vapor connection between MV and the polar source. Around the equinoxes (Ls0 and Ls180), there is a brief transition period where the rising branch quickly crosses from one hemisphere into the other as it migrates to its more typical solstitial location

  7. Simulating the Current Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.

    2017-12-01

    The water cycle is a critical component of the current Mars climate system, and it is now widely recognized that water ice clouds significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes are key to implementing clouds in a Mars global climate model (GCM): the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on atmospheric heating/cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the atmospheric dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress using the NASA Ames Mars GCM to simulate the current-day water cycle with radiatively active clouds. Cloud fields from our baseline simulation are in generally good agreement with observations. The predicted seasonal extent and peak IR optical depths are consistent MGS/TES observations. Additionally, the thermal response to the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt (ACB) is generally consistent with observations and other climate model predictions. Notably, there is a distinct gap in the predicted clouds over the North Residual Cap (NRC) during local summer, but the clouds reappear in this simulation over the NRC earlier than the observations indicate. Polar clouds are predicted near the seasonal CO2 ice caps, but the column thicknesses of these clouds are generally too thick compared to observations. Our baseline simulation is dry compared to MGS/TES-observed water vapor abundances, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. These areas of disagreement appear to be a consistent with other current water cycle GCMs. Future avenues of investigation will target improving our understanding of what controls the vertical extent of clouds and the apparent seasonal evolution of cloud particle sizes within the ACB.

  8. Discovering Parameters for Ancient Mars Atmospheric Profiles by Modeling Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Clarke, A. B.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Mastin, L. G.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence of explosive volcanic deposits on Mars motivates questions about the behavior of eruption plumes in the Ancient and current Martian atmosphere. Early modeling studies suggested that Martian plumes may rise significantly higher than their terrestrial equivalents (Wilson and Head, 1994, Rev. Geophys., 32, 221-263). We revisit the issue using a steady-state 1-D model of volcanic plumes (Plumeria: Mastin, 2014, JGR, doi:10.1002/2013JD020604) along with a range of reasonable temperature and pressures. The model assumes perfect coupling of particles with the gas phase in the plume, and Stokes number analysis indicates that this is a reasonable assumption for particle diameters less than 5 mm to 1 micron. Our estimates of Knudsen numbers support the continuum assumption. The tested atmospheric profiles include an estimate of current Martian atmosphere based on data from voyager mission (Seif, A., Kirk, D.B., (1977) Geophys., 82,4364-4378), a modern Earth-like atmosphere, and several other scenarios based on variable tropopause heights and near-surface atmospheric density estimates from the literature. We simulated plume heights using mass eruption rates (MER) ranging from 1 x 103 to 1 x 1010 kg s-1 to create a series of new theoretical MER-plume height scaling relationships that may be useful for considering plume injection heights, climate impacts, and global-scale ash dispersal patterns in Mars' recent and ancient geological past. Our results show that volcanic plumes in a modern Martian atmosphere may rise up to three times higher than those on Earth. We also find that the modern Mars atmosphere does not allow eruption columns to collapse, and thus does not allow for the formation of column-collapse pyroclastic density currents, a phenomenon thought to have occurred in Mars' past based on geological observations. The atmospheric density at the surface, and especially the height of the tropopause, affect the slope of the MER-plume height curve and control

  9. The Mars Dust Cycle: Investigating the Effects of Radiatively Active Water Ice Clouds on Surface Stresses and Dust Lifting Potential with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is a critically important component of Mars' current climate system. Dust is present in the atmosphere of Mars year-round but the dust loading varies with season in a generally repeatable manner. Dust has a significant influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation. The dust cycle is the most difficult of the three climate cycles (CO2, water, and dust) to model realistically with general circulation models. Until recently, numerical modeling investigations of the dust cycle have typically not included the effects of couplings to the water cycle through cloud formation. In the Martian atmosphere, dust particles likely provide the seed nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation of water ice clouds. As ice coats atmospheric dust grains, the newly formed cloud particles exhibit different physical and radiative characteristics. Thus, the coupling between the dust and water cycles likely affects the distributions of dust, water vapor and water ice, and thus atmospheric heating and cooling and the resulting circulations. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to investigate the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on surface stress and the potential for dust lifting. The model includes a state-of-the-art water ice cloud microphysics package and a radiative transfer scheme that accounts for the radiative effects of CO2 gas, dust, and water ice clouds. We focus on simulations that are radiatively forced by a prescribed dust map, and we compare simulations that do and do not include radiatively active clouds. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude and spatial patterns of surface stress (and thus dust lifting potential) are substantial influenced by the radiative effects of water ice clouds.

  10. Intensity-based hierarchical elastic registration using approximating splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serifovic-Trbalic, Amira; Demirovic, Damir; Cattin, Philippe C

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new hierarchical approach for elastic medical image registration using approximating splines. In order to obtain the dense deformation field, we employ Gaussian elastic body splines (GEBS) that incorporate anisotropic landmark errors and rotation information. Since the GEBS approach is based on a physical model in form of analytical solutions of the Navier equation, it can very well cope with the local as well as global deformations present in the images by varying the standard deviation of the Gaussian forces. The proposed GEBS approximating model is integrated into the elastic hierarchical image registration framework, which decomposes a nonrigid registration problem into numerous local rigid transformations. The approximating GEBS registration scheme incorporates anisotropic landmark errors as well as rotation information. The anisotropic landmark localization uncertainties can be estimated directly from the image data, and in this case, they represent the minimal stochastic localization error, i.e., the Cramér-Rao bound. The rotation information of each landmark obtained from the hierarchical procedure is transposed in an additional angular landmark, doubling the number of landmarks in the GEBS model. The modified hierarchical registration using the approximating GEBS model is applied to register 161 image pairs from a digital mammogram database. The obtained results are very encouraging, and the proposed approach significantly improved all registrations comparing the mean-square error in relation to approximating TPS with the rotation information. On artificially deformed breast images, the newly proposed method performed better than the state-of-the-art registration algorithm introduced by Rueckert et al. (IEEE Trans Med Imaging 18:712-721, 1999). The average error per breast tissue pixel was less than 2.23 pixels compared to 2.46 pixels for Rueckert's method. The proposed hierarchical elastic image registration approach incorporates the GEBS

  11. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  12. Exponential B-splines and the partition of unity property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Massopust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We provide an explicit formula for a large class of exponential B-splines. Also, we characterize the cases where the integer-translates of an exponential B-spline form a partition of unity up to a multiplicative constant. As an application of this result we construct explicitly given pairs of dual...

  13. About some properties of bivariate splines with shape parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, F.; Marchetti, E.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents and proves geometrical properties of a particular bivariate function spline, built and algorithmically implemented in previous papers. The properties typical of this family of splines impact the field of computer graphics in particular that of the reverse engineering.

  14. Modeling the effectiveness of shielding in the earth-moon-mars radiation environment using PREDICCS: five solar events in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Philip R.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Townsend, Larry W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Case, Anthony W.; Spence, Harlan E.; Wilson, Jody K.; Joyce, Colin J.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs) presents a severe risk to the short-term health of astronauts and the success of human exploration missions beyond Earth's protective shielding. Modeling how shielding mitigates the dose accumulated by astronauts is an essential step toward reducing these risks. PREDICCS (Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating the CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements) is an online tool for the near real-time prediction of radiation exposure at Earth, the Moon, and Mars behind various levels of shielding. We compare shielded dose rates from PREDICCS with dose rates from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon and from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) during its cruise phase to Mars for five solar events in 2012 when Earth, MSL, and Mars were magnetically well connected. Calculations of the accumulated dose demonstrate a reasonable agreement between PREDICCS and RAD ranging from as little as 2% difference to 54%. We determine mathematical relationships between shielding levels and accumulated dose. Lastly, the gradient of accumulated dose between Earth and Mars shows that for the largest of the five solar events, lunar missions require aluminum shielding between 1.0 g cm-2 and 5.0 g cm-2 to prevent radiation exposure from exceeding the 30-day limits for lens and skin. The limits were not exceeded near Mars.

  15. Impact of Dust on Mars Surface Albedo and Energy Flux with LMD General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M.; Millour, E.; Martinez, G.

    2015-12-01

    Mars, just like Earth experience different seasons because of its axial tilt (about 25°). This causes growth and retreat of snow cover (primarily CO2) in Martian Polar regions. The perennial caps are the only place on the planet where condensed H2O is available at surface. On Mars, as much as 30% atmospheric CO2 deposits in each hemisphere depending upon the season. This leads to a significant variation on planet's surface albedo and hence effecting the amount of solar flux absorbed or reflected at the surface. General Circulation Model (GCM) of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) currently uses observationally derived surface albedo from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument for the polar caps. These TES albedo values do not have any inter-annual variability, and are independent of presence of any dust/impurity on surface. Presence of dust or other surface impurities can significantly reduce the surface albedo especially during and right after a dust storm. This change will also be evident in the surface energy flux interactions. Our work focuses on combining earth based Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model with current state of GCM to incorporate the impact of dust on Martian surface albedo, and hence the energy flux. Inter-annual variability of surface albedo and planet's top of atmosphere (TOA) energy budget along with their correlation with currently available mission data will be presented.

  16. MarCell trademark software for modeling bone marrow radiation cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, J.S.; Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Differential equations were used to model cellular injury, repair, and compensatory proliferation in the irradiated bone marrow. Recently, that model was implemented as MarCell trademark, a user-friendly MS-DOS computer program that allows users from a variety of technical disciplines to evaluate complex radiation exposure. The software allows menu selections for different sources of ionizing radiation. Choices for cell lineages include progenitor, stroma, and malignant, and the available species include mouse, rat, dog, sheep, swine, burro, and man. An attractive feature is that any protracted irradiation can be compared with an equivalent prompt dose (EPD) in terms of cell kinetics for either the source used or for a reference such as 250 kVp x rays or 60 Co. EPD is used to mean a dose rate for which no meaningful biological recovery occurs during the period of irradiation. For human as species, output from MarCell trademark includes: risk of 30-day mortality; risk of whole-body cancer and leukemia based either on radiation-induced cytopenia or compensatory cell proliferation; cell survival and repopulation plots as functions of time or dose; and 4-week recovery following treatment. copyright 1997 American Association of Physicists in Medicine

  17. Present-Day Mars' Seismicity Predicted From 3-D Thermal Evolution Models of Interior Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Golombek, M. P.; Breuer, D.; Grott, M.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonné, P.; Tosi, N.; Weber, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport mission, to be launched in 2018, will perform a comprehensive geophysical investigation of Mars in situ. The Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure package aims to detect global and regional seismic events and in turn offer constraints on core size, crustal thickness, and core, mantle, and crustal composition. In this study, we estimate the present-day amount and distribution of seismicity using 3-D numerical thermal evolution models of Mars, taking into account contributions from convective stresses as well as from stresses associated with cooling and planetary contraction. Defining the seismogenic lithosphere by an isotherm and assuming two end-member cases of 573 K and the 1073 K, we determine the seismogenic lithosphere thickness. Assuming a seismic efficiency between 0.025 and 1, this thickness is used to estimate the total annual seismic moment budget, and our models show values between 5.7 × 1016 and 3.9 × 1019 Nm.

  18. Examination of influential observations in penalized spline regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkan, Semra

    2013-10-01

    In parametric or nonparametric regression models, the results of regression analysis are affected by some anomalous observations in the data set. Thus, detection of these observations is one of the major steps in regression analysis. These observations are precisely detected by well-known influence measures. Pena's statistic is one of them. In this study, Pena's approach is formulated for penalized spline regression in terms of ordinary residuals and leverages. The real data and artificial data are used to see illustrate the effectiveness of Pena's statistic as to Cook's distance on detecting influential observations. The results of the study clearly reveal that the proposed measure is superior to Cook's Distance to detect these observations in large data set.

  19. On the Origins of Mars' Exospheric Nonthermal Oxygen Component as Observed by MAVEN and Modeled by HELIOSARES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, F.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Modolo, R.; Leclercq, L.; Curry, S.; Luhmann, J.; Lillis, R.; Hara, T.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J.; Schneider, N.; Deighan, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Benna, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Forget, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jakosky, B.

    2017-12-01

    The first measurements of the emission brightness of the oxygen atomic exosphere by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission have clearly shown that it is composed of a thermal component produced by the extension of the upper atmosphere and of a nonthermal component. Modeling these measurements allows us to constrain the origins of the exospheric O and, as a consequence, to estimate Mars' present oxygen escape rate. We here propose an analysis of three periods of MAVEN observations based on a set of three coupled models: a hybrid magnetospheric model (LATmos HYbrid Simulation (LatHyS)), an Exospheric General Model (EGM), and the Global Martian Circulation model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-GCM), which provide a description of Mars' environment from the surface up to the solar wind. The simulated magnetosphere by LatHyS is in good agreement with MAVEN Plasma and Field Package instruments data. The LMD-GCM modeled upper atmospheric profiles for the main neutral and ion species are compared to Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer/MAVEN data showing that the LMD-GCM can provide a satisfactory global view of Mars' upper atmosphere. Finally, we were able to reconstruct the expected emission brightness intensity from the oxygen exosphere using EGM. The good agreement with the averaged measured profiles by Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph during these three periods suggests that Mars' exospheric nonthermal component can be fully explained by the reactions of dissociative recombination of the O2+ ion in Mars' ionosphere, limiting significantly our ability to extract information from MAVEN observations of the O exosphere on other nonthermal processes, such as sputtering.

  20. Application of stability enhancing minimum interfacial pressure force model for MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Ho Gon; Kim, Kyung Doo; Ha, Kwi Seok

    2001-04-01

    For thermal-hydraulic modeling of two-phase flow systems, two-fluid model, which assumes that the pressures of liquid, vapor and interface are identical, a so-called single-pressure model, is commonly used in codes for nuclear reactor safety analyses. Typical two-phase model with single pressure assumption possesses complex characteristics that result in system being ill-posed. As a result, typical single pressure model may cause the unbounded growth of instabilities. In order to overcome the ill-posedness of single-pressure two-fluid model, a hyperbolic equation system has been developed by introducing an interfacial pressure force into single pressure two-fluid model. The potential impact of the present model on the stability of finite difference solution has been examined by Von-Neumann stability analysis. The obvious improvement in numerical stability has been found when a semi-implicit time advancement scheme is used. Numerical experiments using the pilot code were also performed for the conceptual problems. It was found that the result was consistent with numerical stability test. The new model was implemented to MARS using Two-step approach. Through the conceptual stability test problems and benchmark problems, the applicability of the new model was verified.

  1. Application of stability enhancing minimum interfacial pressure force model for MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Ho Gon; Kim, Kyung Doo; Ha, Kwi Seok

    2001-04-01

    For thermal-hydraulic modeling of two-phase flow systems, two-fluid model, which assumes that the pressures of liquid, vapor and interface are identical, a so-called single-pressure model, is commonly used in codes for nuclear reactor safety analyses. Typical two-phase model with single pressure assumption possesses complex characteristics that result in system being ill-posed. As a result, typical single pressure model may cause the unbounded growth of instabilities. In order to overcome the ill-posedness of single-pressure two-fluid model, a hyperbolic equation system has been developed by introducing an interfacial pressure force into single pressure two-fluid model. The potential impact of the present model on the stability of finite difference solution has been examined by Von-Neumann stability analysis. The obvious improvement in numerical stability has been found when a semi-implicit time advancement scheme is used. Numerical experiments using the pilot code were also performed for the conceptual problems. It was found that the result was consistent with numerical stability test. The new model was implemented to MARS using Two-step approach. Through the conceptual stability test problems and benchmark problems, the applicability of the new model was verified

  2. Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallee, H

    2012-01-01

    We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs

  3. Nonlinear Multivariate Spline-Based Control Allocation for High-Performance Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.; Chu, Q.P.

    2014-01-01

    High performance flight control systems based on the nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI) principle require highly accurate models of aircraft aerodynamics. In general, the accuracy of the internal model determines to what degree the system nonlinearities can be canceled; the more accurate the model, the better the cancellation, and with that, the higher the performance of the controller. In this paper a new control system is presented that combines NDI with multivariate simplex spline based con...

  4. Validation of intermediate heat and decay heat exchanger model in MARS-LMR with STELLA-1 and JOYO tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong; Ha, Kwiseok; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Eoh, Jaehyuk [Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Design Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 989-111, Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hae-yong, E-mail: hyjeong@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The capability of the MARS-LMR for heat transfer through IHX and DHX is evaluated. • Prediction of heat transfer through IHXs and DHXs is essential in the SFR analysis. • Data obtained from the STELLA-1 and the JOYO test are analyzed with the MARS-LMR. • MARS-LMR adopts the Aoki’s correlation for tube side and Graber-Rieger’s for shell. • The performance of the basic models and other available correlations is evaluated. • The current models in MARS-LMR show best prediction for JOYO and STELLA-1 data. - Abstract: The MARS-LMR code has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to analyze transients in a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). Currently, KAERI is developing a prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) with metallic fuel. The decay heat exchangers (DHXs) and the intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) were designed as a sodium-sodium counter-flow tube bundle type for decay heat removal system (DHRS) and intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), respectively. The IHX and DHX are important components for a heat removal function under normal and accident conditions, respectively. Therefore, sodium heat transfer models for the DHX and IHX heat exchangers were added in MARS-LMR. In order to validate the newly added heat transfer model, experimental data were obtained from the JOYO and STELLA-1 facilities were analyzed. JOYO has two different types of IHXs: type-A (co-axial circular arrangement) and type-B (triangular arrangement). For the code validation, 38 and 39 data points for type A and type B were selected, respectively. A DHX performance test was conducted in STELLA-1, which is the test facility for heat exchangers and primary pump in the PGSFR. The DHX test in STELLA-1 provided eight data points for a code validation. Ten nodes are used in the heat transfer region is used, based on the verification test for the heat transfer models. RMS errors for JOYO IHX type A and type B of 19.1% and 4.3% are obtained

  5. Using Spline Regression in Semi-Parametric Stochastic Frontier Analysis: An Application to Polish Dairy Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    of specifying an unsuitable functional form and thus, model misspecification and biased parameter estimates. Given these problems of the DEA and the SFA, Fan, Li and Weersink (1996) proposed a semi-parametric stochastic frontier model that estimates the production function (frontier) by non......), Kumbhakar et al. (2007), and Henningsen and Kumbhakar (2009). The aim of this paper and its main contribution to the existing literature is the estimation semi-parametric stochastic frontier models using a different non-parametric estimation technique: spline regression (Ma et al. 2011). We apply...... efficiency of Polish dairy farms contributes to the insight into this dynamic process. Furthermore, we compare and evaluate the results of this spline-based semi-parametric stochastic frontier model with results of other semi-parametric stochastic frontier models and of traditional parametric stochastic...

  6. A Coupled Soil-Atmosphere Model of H2O2 on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1994-01-01

    The Viking Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer failed to detect organic compounds on Mars, and both the Viking Labeled Release and the Viking Gas Exchange experiments indicated a reactive soil surface. These results have led to the widespread belief that there are oxidants in the martian soil. Since H2O2 is produced by photochemical processes in the atmosphere of Mars, and has been shown in the laboratory to reproduce closely the Viking LR results, it is a likely candidate for a martian soil oxidant. Here, we report on the results of a coupled soil/atmosphere transport model for H202 on Mars. Upon diffusing into the soil, its concentration is determined by the extent to which it is adsorbed and by the rate at which it is catalytically destroyed. An analytical model for calculating the distribution of H202 in the martian atmosphere and soil is developed. The concentration of H202 in the soil is shown to go to zero at a finite depth, a consequence of the nonlinear soil diffusion equation. The model is parameterized in terms of an unknown quantity, the lifetime of H202 against heterogeneous catalytic destruction in the soil. Calculated concentrations are compared with a H202 concentration of 30 nmoles/cu cm, inferred from the Viking Labeled Release experiment. A significant result of this model is that for a wide range of H202 lifetimes (up to 105 years), the extinction depth was found to be less than 3 m. The maximum possible concentration in the top 4 cm is calculated to be approx. 240 nmoles/cu cm, achieved with lifetimes of greater than 1000 years. Concentrations higher than 30 nmoles/cu cm require lifetimes of greater than 4.3 terrestrial years. For a wide range of H202 lifetimes, it was found that the atmospheric concentration is only weakly coupled with soil loss processes. Losses to the soil become significant only when lifetimes are less than a few hours. If there are depths below which H202 is not transported, it is plausible that organic compounds

  7. Flexible climate modeling systems: Lessons from Snowball Earth, Titan and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2007-12-01

    Climate models are only useful to the extent that real understanding can be extracted from them. Most leading- edge problems in climate change, paleoclimate and planetary climate require a high degree of flexibility in terms of incorporating model physics -- for example in allowing methane or CO2 to be a condensible substance instead of water vapor. This puts a premium on model design that allows easy modification, and on physical parameterizations that are close to fundamentals with as little empirical ad-hoc formulation as possible. I will provide examples from two approaches to this problem we have been using at the University of Chicago. The first is the FOAM general circulation model, which is a clean single-executable Fortran-77/c code supported by auxiliary applications in Python and Java. The second is a new approach based on using Python as a shell for assembling building blocks in compiled-code into full models. Applications to Snowball Earth, Titan and Mars, as well as pedagogical uses, will be discussed. One painful lesson we have learned is that Fortran-95 is a major impediment to portability and cross-language interoperability; in this light the trend toward Fortran-95 in major modelling groups is seen as a significant step backwards. In this talk, I will focus on modeling projects employing a full representation of atmospheric fluid dynamics, rather than "intermediate complexity" models in which the associated transports are parameterized.

  8. B-spline Collocation with Domain Decomposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M I P; Parman, S; Ariwahjoedi, B

    2013-01-01

    A global B-spline collocation method has been previously developed and successfully implemented by the present authors for solving elliptic partial differential equations in arbitrary complex domains. However, the global B-spline approximation, which is simply reduced to Bezier approximation of any degree p with C 0 continuity, has led to the use of B-spline basis of high order in order to achieve high accuracy. The need for B-spline bases of high order in the global method would be more prominent in domains of large dimension. For the increased collocation points, it may also lead to the ill-conditioning problem. In this study, overlapping domain decomposition of multiplicative Schwarz algorithm is combined with the global method. Our objective is two-fold that improving the accuracy with the combination technique, and also investigating influence of the combination technique to the employed B-spline basis orders with respect to the obtained accuracy. It was shown that the combination method produced higher accuracy with the B-spline basis of much lower order than that needed in implementation of the initial method. Hence, the approximation stability of the B-spline collocation method was also increased.

  9. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping

    2015-06-24

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  10. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Zhang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  11. Choosing the Optimal Number of B-spline Control Points (Part 1: Methodology and Approximation of Curves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmening, Corinna; Neuner, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Due to the establishment of terrestrial laser scanner, the analysis strategies in engineering geodesy change from pointwise approaches to areal ones. These areal analysis strategies are commonly built on the modelling of the acquired point clouds. Freeform curves and surfaces like B-spline curves/surfaces are one possible approach to obtain space continuous information. A variety of parameters determines the B-spline's appearance; the B-spline's complexity is mostly determined by the number of control points. Usually, this number of control points is chosen quite arbitrarily by intuitive trial-and-error-procedures. In this paper, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Bayesian Information Criterion are investigated with regard to a justified and reproducible choice of the optimal number of control points of B-spline curves. Additionally, we develop a method which is based on the structural risk minimization of the statistical learning theory. Unlike the Akaike and the Bayesian Information Criteria this method doesn't use the number of parameters as complexity measure of the approximating functions but their Vapnik-Chervonenkis-dimension. Furthermore, it is also valid for non-linear models. Thus, the three methods differ in their target function to be minimized and consequently in their definition of optimality. The present paper will be continued by a second paper dealing with the choice of the optimal number of control points of B-spline surfaces.

  12. Higher order multipoles and splines in plasma simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1978-01-01

    The reduction of spatial grid effects in plasma simulations has been studied numerically using higher order multipole expansions and the spline method in one dimension. It is found that, while keeping the higher order moments such as quadrupole and octopole moments substantially reduces the grid effects, quadratic and cubic splines in general have better stability properties for numerical plasma simulations when the Debye length is much smaller than the grid size. In particular the spline method may be useful in three-dimensional simulations for plasma confinement where the grid size in the axial direction is much greater than the Debye length. (Auth.)

  13. Higher-order multipoles and splines in plasma simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1977-12-01

    Reduction of spatial grid effects in plasma simulations has been studied numerically using higher order multipole expansions and spline method in one dimension. It is found that, while keeping the higher order moments such as quadrupole and octopole moments substantially reduces the grid effects, quadratic and cubic splines in general have better stability properties for numerical plasma simulations when the Debye length is much smaller than the grid size. In particular, spline method may be useful in three dimensional simulations for plasma confinement where the grid size in the axial direction is much greater than the Debye length

  14. Detrending of non-stationary noise data by spline techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.

    1989-11-01

    An off-line method for detrending non-stationary noise data has been investigated. It uses a least squares spline approximation of the noise data with equally spaced breakpoints. Subtraction of the spline approximation from the noise signal at each data point gives a residual noise signal. The method acts as a high-pass filter with very sharp frequency cutoff. The cutoff frequency is determined by the breakpoint distance. The steepness of the cutoff is controlled by the spline order. (author) 12 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs

  15. Modeling and observational occurrences of near-surface drainage in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Sejourne, A.; Kargel, J.; Godin, E.

    2016-12-01

    During the past 15 years, evidence for an ice-rich planet Mars has rapidly mounted, become increasingly varied in terms of types of deposits and types of observational data, and has become more widespread across the surface. The mid-latitudes of Mars, especially Utopia Planitia, show many types of interesting landforms similar to those in periglacial landscapes on Earth that suggest the presence of ice-rich permafrost. These include thermal contraction polygonal networks, scalloped terrains similar to thermokarst pits, debris flows, small mounds like pingos and rock glaciers. Here, we address questions concerning the influence of meltwater in the Utopia Planitia (UP) landscape using analogs of near-surface melting and drainage along ice-wedge troughs on Bylot Island, northern Canada. In Utopia Planitia, based on the identification of sinuous channel-like pits within polygonal networks, we suggest that episodic underground melting was possible under severe periglacial climate conditions. In UP, the collapse pattern and morphology of unconnected sinuous elongated pits that follow the polygon crack are similar to underground melting in Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada). Based on this terrestrial analogue, we develop a thermal model that consists of a thick insulating dusty layer over ice-saturated dust during a period of slight climatic warming relative to today's climate. In the model, the melting point is reached at depths down to 150 m. We suggest that small-scale melting could have occurred below ground within ground-ice polygonal fractures and pooled in underground cavities. Then the water may have been released episodically causing mechanical erosion as well as undermining and collapse. After melting, the dry surface dusty layer might have been blown away, thus exposing the degraded terrain of the substrate layer.

  16. Assessment of susceptibility to earth-flow landslide using logistic regression and multivariate adaptive regression splines: A case of the Belice River basin (western Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Ciaccio, Marilena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, terrain susceptibility to earth-flow occurrence was evaluated by using geographic information systems (GIS) and two statistical methods: Logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). LR has been already demonstrated to provide reliable predictions of earth-flow occurrence, whereas MARS, as far as we know, has never been used to generate earth-flow susceptibility models. The experiment was carried out in a basin of western Sicily (Italy), which extends for 51 km2 and is severely affected by earth-flows. In total, we mapped 1376 earth-flows, covering an area of 4.59 km2. To explore the effect of pre-failure topography on earth-flow spatial distribution, we performed a reconstruction of topography before the landslide occurrence. This was achieved by preparing a digital terrain model (DTM) where altitude of areas hosting landslides was interpolated from the adjacent undisturbed land surface by using the algorithm topo-to-raster. This DTM was exploited to extract 15 morphological and hydrological variables that, in addition to outcropping lithology, were employed as explanatory variables of earth-flow spatial distribution. The predictive skill of the earth-flow susceptibility models and the robustness of the procedure were tested by preparing five datasets, each including a different subset of landslides and stable areas. The accuracy of the predictive models was evaluated by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The results demonstrate that the overall accuracy of LR and MARS earth-flow susceptibility models is from excellent to outstanding. However, AUC values of the validation datasets attest to a higher predictive power of MARS-models (AUC between 0.881 and 0.912) with respect to LR-models (AUC between 0.823 and 0.870). The adopted procedure proved to be resistant to overfitting and stable when changes of the learning and validation samples are

  17. Nonlinear bias compensation of ZiYuan-3 satellite imagery with cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinshan; Fu, Jianhong; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Gong, Jianya

    2017-11-01

    Like many high-resolution satellites such as the ALOS, MOMS-2P, QuickBird, and ZiYuan1-02C satellites, the ZiYuan-3 satellite suffers from different levels of attitude oscillations. As a result of such oscillations, the rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) obtained using a terrain-independent scenario often have nonlinear biases. In the sensor orientation of ZiYuan-3 imagery based on a rational function model (RFM), these nonlinear biases cannot be effectively compensated by an affine transformation. The sensor orientation accuracy is thereby worse than expected. In order to eliminate the influence of attitude oscillations on the RFM-based sensor orientation, a feasible nonlinear bias compensation approach for ZiYuan-3 imagery with cubic splines is proposed. In this approach, no actual ground control points (GCPs) are required to determine the cubic splines. First, the RPCs are calculated using a three-dimensional virtual control grid generated based on a physical sensor model. Second, one cubic spline is used to model the residual errors of the virtual control points in the row direction and another cubic spline is used to model the residual errors in the column direction. Then, the estimated cubic splines are used to compensate the nonlinear biases in the RPCs. Finally, the affine transformation parameters are used to compensate the residual biases in the RPCs. Three ZiYuan-3 images were tested. The experimental results showed that before the nonlinear bias compensation, the residual errors of the independent check points were nonlinearly biased. Even if the number of GCPs used to determine the affine transformation parameters was increased from 4 to 16, these nonlinear biases could not be effectively compensated. After the nonlinear bias compensation with the estimated cubic splines, the influence of the attitude oscillations could be eliminated. The RFM-based sensor orientation accuracies of the three ZiYuan-3 images reached 0.981 pixels, 0.890 pixels, and 1

  18. History of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin and early history of Mars and the relationship between Mars and the other planets are reviewed. The solar system formation and planetary differentiation are examined using data from planetary missions. Different views of Mars are presented, showing how ideas about the planet have changed as the amount of available observational data has increased. Viking aerography and surface characterization are discussed, including the nature of specific atmospheric components and the implications of surface phenomena. Models for the planetary formation and accretion processes are considered. The value of future missions to Mars is stressed

  19. Digital Elevation Models of Patterned Ground in the Canadian Arctic and Implications for the Study of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, P.; Murakami, Y.; Clarke, J.; Sizemore, H.; Siegler, M.; Rupert, S.; Chevrier, V.

    2017-12-01

    Patterned ground forms in periglacial zones from both expansion and contraction of permafrost by freeze-thaw and sub-freezing temperature changes and has been observed on both Earth and Mars from orbital and the surface at the Phoneix and Viking 2 landing sites. The Phoenix mission to Mars studied patterned ground in the vicinity of the spacecraft including the excavation of a trench revealing water permafrost beneath the surface. A study of patterned ground at the Haughton Impact structure on Devon Island used stereo-pair imaging and three-dimensional photographic models to catalog the type and occurrence of patterned ground in the study area. This image catalog was then used to provide new insight into photographic observations gathered by Phoenix. Stereo-pair imagery has been a valuable geoscience tool for decades and it is an ideal tool for comparative planetary geology studies. Stereo-pair images captured on Devon Island were turned into digital elevation models (DEMs) and comparisons were noted between the permafrost and patterned ground environment of Earth and Mars including variations in grain sorting, active layer thickness, and ice table depth. Recent advances in 360° cameras also enabled the creation of a detailed, immersive site models of patterned ground at selected sites in Haughton crater on Devon Island. The information from this ground truth study will enable the development and refinement of existing models to better evaluate patterned ground on Mars and predict its evolution.

  20. Properties of a local dust storm on Mars' Atlantis Chaos by means of radiative transfer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Fabrizio; Altieri, Francesca; Geminale, Anna; Bellucci, Giancarlo; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Carrozzo, Giacomo; Sindoni, Giuseppe; Grassi, Davide

    2017-04-01

    In this study we present the analysis of the dust properties in a local storm imaged in the Atlantis Chaos region on Mars by the OMEGA spectrometer (Bibring et al., 2004) on March 2nd 2005 (ORB1441_5). By means of an inverse radiative transfer code we study the dust properties across the region and try to infer the connection be-tween the local storm dynamics and the orography. OMEGA is a visible and near-IR mapping spectrometer, operating in the spectral range 0.38-5.1 μm with three separate channels with different spectral resolution. The instrument's IFOV is 1.2 mrad. To analyze the storm properties we have used the inverse radiative transfer model MITRA (Oliva et al., 2016; Sindoni et al., 2013) to retrieve the effective radius reff, the optical depth at 880 nm τ880 and the top pressure tp of the dust layer. We used the Mars Climate Database (MCD, Forget et al., 1999) to obtain the atmospheric properties of the studied region to be used as input in our model. Moreover we used the optical constants from Wolff et al. (2009) to describe the dust composition. The properties from the surface have been obtained by ap-plying the SAS method (Geminale et al., 2015) to observations of the same region relatively clear from dust. All retrievals have been performed in the spectral range 500 ÷ 2500 nm. Here we describe the result from our analysis carried out on selected regions of the storm and characterized by a different optical depth of the dust. Aknowledgements: This study has been performed within the UPWARDS project and funded in the context of the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme (H2020-Compet-08-2014), grant agreement UPWARDS-633127. References: Bibring, J-P. et al., 2004. OMEGA: Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité. Mars Express: the scientific payload, Ed. by Andrew Wilson, scientific coordination: Agustin Chicarro. ESA SP-1240, Noordwijk, Netherlands: ESA Publications Division, ISBN 92-9092-556-6, 2004, p. 37 - 49. Forget

  1. Extension of the quantum-kinetic model to lunar and Mars return physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liechty, D. S. [Aerothermodynamics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States); Lewis, M. J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high-mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. A recently introduced molecular-level chemistry model, the quantum-kinetic, or Q-K, model that predicts reaction rates for gases in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties, is extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. Like the Q-K procedures for neutral species chemical reactions, these new models are phenomenological procedures that aim to reproduce the reaction/transition rates but do not necessarily capture the exact physics. These engineering models are necessarily efficient due to the requirement to compute billions of simulated collisions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. The new models are shown to generally agree within the spread of reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for near equilibrium conditions.

  2. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram J. Geha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e ,quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 + e and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc. The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  3. Modelling of EISS GPR's electrical and magnetic antennas for ExoMars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancheri-Astier, M.; Ciarletti, V.; Reineix, A.; Corbel, C.; Dolon, F.; Simon, Y.; Caudoux, C.; Lapauw, L.; Berthelier, Jj.; Ney, R.

    2009-04-01

    magnetic sensor accommodated on the Rover. As a consequence, since the direction that the rover will follow after its egress will not be know until the Lander is on Mars, it is essential to chose a configuration that will result in a radiation pattern compatible with bi-static measurements whatever the direction of the rover is (within a distance of 1 kilometer). Studies based on electromagnetic simulations have been performed to check the impact of the angle between the two monopoles on the radiation pattern. Study of EISS performances is ongoing using numerical modeling and experimental verifications. We use numerical simulation (FDTD code), analytical models and data processing algorithms to determine the performances of each operating mode and to prepare data interpretation. The subsurface survey requires knowledge of the permittivity of the studied sub-surface layers to convert the measured propagation delay into distance. Access to electrical characteristics of ground without return samples and in situ analysis is unusual in space missions and aroused great interest. Results will be presented about different ways EISS can provide estimation of the electrical properties of the shallow subsurface. Simulations that highlight the impact of the chosen resistive profile and of the angle between the two deployed monopoles will be shown. The presentation will mainly be focused on the bi-static mode that greatly improves the 3D representation of subsurface structure and on the associated instrumental requirements such as the perfect synchronization of the two part of the instrument. A method to retrieve the direction of arrival for each detected echo will be presented that allows a more accurate sub-surface mapping. Only the three magnetic field components are required to implement it, which makes the EISS configuration particularly interesting. This method is based on the orthogonality between the propagation vector and the polarization plane.

  4. Simulating Mars' Dust Cycle with a Mars General Circulation Model: Effects of Water Ice Cloud Formation on Dust Lifting Strength and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Haberle, Robert; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for the current climate of Mars. The radiative effects of dust impact the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere [1,2,3]. Although dust is present in the Martian atmosphere throughout the year, the level of dustiness varies with season. The atmosphere is generally the dustiest during northern fall and winter and the least dusty during northern spring and summer [4]. Dust particles are lifted into the atmosphere by dust storms that range in size from meters to thousands of kilometers across [5]. Regional storm activity is enhanced before northern winter solstice (Ls200 degrees - 240 degrees), and after northern solstice (Ls305 degrees - 340 degrees ), which produces elevated atmospheric dust loadings during these periods [5,6,7]. These pre- and post- solstice increases in dust loading are thought to be associated with transient eddy activity in the northern hemisphere with cross-equatorial transport of dust leading to enhanced dust lifting in the southern hemisphere [6]. Interactive dust cycle studies with Mars General Circulation Models (MGCMs) have included the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Although the predicted global dust loadings from these simulations capture some aspects of the observed dust cycle, there are marked differences between the simulated and observed dust cycles [8,9,10]. Most notably, the maximum dust loading is robustly predicted by models to occur near northern winter solstice and is due to dust lifting associated with down slope flows on the flanks of the Hellas basin. Thus far, models have had difficulty simulating the observed pre- and post- solstice peaks in dust loading.

  5. Testing the early Mars H2-CO2 greenhouse hypothesis with a 1-D photochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F.

    2015-09-01

    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (Ramirez, R.M. et al. [2014]. Nat. Geosci. 7(1), 59-63. http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ngeo2000 (accessed 16.09.14)) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ˜1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere was indeed H2-rich, we might be able to see evidence of this in the rock record. The hypothesis proposed here is consistent with new data from the Curiosity Rover, which show evidence for a long-lived lake in Gale Crater near Mt. Sharp. It is also consistent with measured oxygen fugacities of martian meteorites, which show evidence for progressive mantle oxidation over time.

  6. Landscape evolution on Mars - A model of aeolian denudation in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M. D.; Kocurek, G.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Aeolian erosion has been the dominant geomorphic agent to shape the surface of Mars for the past ~3.5 billion years. Although individual geomorphic features evidencing aeolian activity are well understood (e.g., yardangs, dune fields, and wind streaks), landscapes formed by aeolian erosion remain poorly characterized. Intra-crater sedimentary mounds are hypothesized to have formed by wind deflation of craters once filled with flat-lying strata, and, therefore, should be surrounded by landscapes formed by aeolian erosion. Here we present a landscape evolution model that provides both an initial characterization of aeolian landscapes, and a mechanism for large-scale excavation. Wind excavation of Gale Crater to form the 5 km high Mount Sharp would require removal of 6.4 x 104 km3 of sediment. Imagery in Gale Crater from satellites and the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity shows a surface characterized by first-cycle aeolian erosion of bedrock. The overall landscape is interpreted to represent stages in a cycle of aeolian deflation and excavation, enhanced by physical weathering (e.g., thermal fracturing, cratering). Initial wind erosion of bedrock is enhanced along fractures, producing retreating scarps. Underlying less resistant layers then erode faster than the armoring cap rock, increasing relief in scarps to form retreating mesas. As scarp retreat continues, boulders from the armoring cap unit break away and cover the hillslopes of less resistant material below the scarps. Eventually all material from the capping unit is eroded away and a boulder-capped hill remains. Winnowing of fine material flattens hillslope topography, leaving behind a desert pavement. Over long enough time, this pavement is breached and the cycle begins anew. This cycle of landscape denudation by the wind is similar to that of water, but lacks characteristic subaqueous features such as dendritic drainage networks.

  7. PRISMA-MAR: An Architecture Model for Data Visualization in Augmented Reality Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Costa, Mauro Alexandre Folha; Serique Meiguins, Bianchi; Carneiro, Nikolas S.; Gonçalves Meiguins, Aruanda Simões

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension to mobile augmented reality (MAR) environments--the addition of data charts to the more usual text, image and video components. To this purpose, we have designed a client-server architecture including the main necessary modules and services to provide an Information Visualization MAR experience. The server side…

  8. Fast compact algorithms and software for spline smoothing

    CERN Document Server

    Weinert, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    Fast Compact Algorithms and Software for Spline Smoothing investigates algorithmic alternatives for computing cubic smoothing splines when the amount of smoothing is determined automatically by minimizing the generalized cross-validation score. These algorithms are based on Cholesky factorization, QR factorization, or the fast Fourier transform. All algorithms are implemented in MATLAB and are compared based on speed, memory use, and accuracy. An overall best algorithm is identified, which allows very large data sets to be processed quickly on a personal computer.

  9. Numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion systems by modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, R.C.; Rohila, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have applied modified cubic B-spline based differential quadrature method to get numerical solutions of one dimensional reaction-diffusion systems such as linear reaction-diffusion system, Brusselator system, Isothermal system and Gray-Scott system. The models represented by these systems have important applications in different areas of science and engineering. The most striking and interesting part of the work is the solution patterns obtained for Gray Scott model, reminiscent of which are often seen in nature. We have used cubic B-spline functions for space discretization to get a system of ordinary differential equations. This system of ODE’s is solved by highly stable SSP-RK43 method to get solution at the knots. The computed results are very accurate and shown to be better than those available in the literature. Method is easy and simple to apply and gives solutions with less computational efforts.

  10. Winds Measured by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) During the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover's Bagnold Dunes Campaign and Comparison with Numerical Modeling Using MarsWRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire E.; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Marin, Mercedes; Navarro, Sara; Torres, Josefina; Richardson, Mark I.; Battalio, J. Michael; Guzewich, Scott D.; Sullivan, Robert; de la Torre, Manuel; hide

    2016-01-01

    A high density of REMS wind measurements were collected in three science investigations during MSL's Bagnold Dunes Campaign, which took place over approx. 80 sols around southern winter solstice (Ls approx. 90deg) and constituted the first in situ analysis of the environmental conditions, morphology, structure, and composition of an active dune field on Mars. The Wind Characterization Investigation was designed to fully characterize the near-surface wind field just outside the dunes and confirmed the primarily upslope/downslope flow expected from theory and modeling of the circulation on the slopes of Aeolis Mons in this season. The basic pattern of winds is 'upslope' (from the northwest, heading up Aeolis Mons) during the daytime (approx. 09:00-17:00 or 18:00) and 'downslope' (from the southeast, heading down Aeolis Mons) at night (approx. 20:00 to some time before 08:00). Between these times the wind rotates largely clockwise, giving generally westerly winds mid-morning and easterly winds in the early evening. The timings of these direction changes are relatively consistent from sol to sol; however, the wind direction and speed at any given time shows considerable intersol variability. This pattern and timing is similar to predictions from the MarsWRF numerical model, run at a resolution of approx. 490 m in this region, although the model predicts the upslope winds to have a stronger component from the E than the W, misses a wind speed peak at approx. 09:00, and under-predicts the strength of daytime wind speeds by approx. 2-4 m/s. The Namib Dune Lee Investigation reveals 'blocking' of northerly winds by the dune, leaving primarily a westerly component to the daytime winds, and also shows a broadening of the 1 Hz wind speed distribution likely associated with lee turbulence. The Namib Dune Side Investigation measured primarily daytime winds at the side of the same dune, in support of aeolian change detection experiments designed to put limits on the saltation

  11. Modeling the effectiveness of shielding in the earth-moon-mars radiation environment using PREDICCS: five solar events in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Philip R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs presents a severe risk to the short-term health of astronauts and the success of human exploration missions beyond Earth’s protective shielding. Modeling how shielding mitigates the dose accumulated by astronauts is an essential step toward reducing these risks. PREDICCS (Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating the CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements is an online tool for the near real-time prediction of radiation exposure at Earth, the Moon, and Mars behind various levels of shielding. We compare shielded dose rates from PREDICCS with dose rates from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO at the Moon and from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL during its cruise phase to Mars for five solar events in 2012 when Earth, MSL, and Mars were magnetically well connected. Calculations of the accumulated dose demonstrate a reasonable agreement between PREDICCS and RAD ranging from as little as 2% difference to 54%. We determine mathematical relationships between shielding levels and accumulated dose. Lastly, the gradient of accumulated dose between Earth and Mars shows that for the largest of the five solar events, lunar missions require aluminum shielding between 1.0 g cm−2 and 5.0 g cm−2 to prevent radiation exposure from exceeding the 30-day limits for lens and skin. The limits were not exceeded near Mars.

  12. Coupling SPH and thermochemical models of planets: Methodology and example of a Mars-sized body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabek, G. J.; Emsenhuber, A.; Jutzi, M.; Asphaug, E. I.; Gerya, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    Giant impacts have been suggested to explain various characteristics of terrestrial planets and their moons. However, so far in most models only the immediate effects of the collisions have been considered, while the long-term interior evolution of the impacted planets was not studied. Here we present a new approach, combining 3-D shock physics collision calculations with 3-D thermochemical interior evolution models. We apply the combined methods to a demonstration example of a giant impact on a Mars-sized body, using typical collisional parameters from previous studies. While the material parameters (equation of state, rheology model) used in the impact simulations can have some effect on the long-term evolution, we find that the impact angle is the most crucial parameter for the resulting spatial distribution of the newly formed crust. The results indicate that a dichotomous crustal pattern can form after a head-on collision, while this is not the case when considering a more likely grazing collision. Our results underline that end-to-end 3-D calculations of the entire process are required to study in the future the effects of large-scale impacts on the evolution of planetary interiors.

  13. Trajectory Reconstruction and Uncertainty Analysis Using Mars Science Laboratory Pre-Flight Scale Model Aeroballistic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Tolson, Robert H.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) trajectory reconstruction effort at NASA Langley Research Center, free-flight aeroballistic experiments of instrumented MSL scale models was conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. The models carried an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a flush air data system (FADS) similar to the MSL Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) that provided data types similar to those from the MSL entry. Multiple sources of redundant data were available, including tracking radar and on-board magnetometers. These experimental data enabled the testing and validation of the various tools and methodologies that will be used for MSL trajectory reconstruction. The aerodynamic parameters Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were estimated using minimum variance with a priori to combine the pressure data and pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Both linear and non-linear pressure model terms were also estimated for each pressure transducer as a measure of the errors introduced by CFD and transducer calibration. Parameter uncertainties were estimated using a "consider parameters" approach.

  14. Detailed geologic modeling of a turbidity reservoir interval at the Mars discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaffie, M.J.; Chapin, M.A. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co. (United States); Henry, W.A. [Shell Offshore, Inc. (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Detailed reservoir architecture studies using high resolution seismic data coupled with geologic and seismic inversion modeling have been used to evaluate a major hydrocarbon bearing turbidite reservoir found within Prospect Mars. Early interpretations of this interval, based on lower frequency (40 Hz) seismic data, indicated the presence of a single, laterally continuous event covering an area nearly 3 miles square ({approx} 5200 acres). Correlations from well control supported the notion that this seismic event comprised a series of continuous sheet sands exhibiting a high degree of lateral continuity and connectivity. However pressure data taken during fluid sampling of the reservoir suggested the possibility of discontinuities not observed within the resolution of the seismic data. Seismic reprocessing enhancements to increase frequency content revealed the presence of multiple stratigraphic features not previously recognized. Detailed seismic mapping using loop-level seismic attributes and seismic inversion studies constrained by geologic models provide a more realistic depiction of the environment of deposition and improve reservoir simulation modeling for this stratigraphic interval. (author). 3 figs

  15. Building Virtual Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, S. P.; Menzies, A.; Goddard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual and augmented reality enable scientists to visualize environments that are very difficult, or even impossible to visit, such as the surface of Mars. A useful immersive visualization begins with a high quality reconstruction of the environment under study. This presentation will discuss a photogrammetry pipeline developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to reconstruct 3D models of the surface of Mars using stereo images sent back to Earth by the Curiosity Mars rover. The resulting models are used to support a virtual reality tool (OnSight) that allows scientists and engineers to visualize the surface of Mars as if they were standing on the red planet. Images of Mars present challenges to existing scene reconstruction solutions. Surface images of Mars are sparse with minimal overlap, and are often taken from extremely different viewpoints. In addition, the specialized cameras used by Mars rovers are significantly different than consumer cameras, and GPS localization data is not available on Mars. This presentation will discuss scene reconstruction with an emphasis on coping with limited input data, and on creating models suitable for rendering in virtual reality at high frame rate.

  16. Development of Off-take Model, Subcooled Boiling Model, and Radiation Heat Transfer Input Model into the MARS Code for a Regulatory Auditing of CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, C.; Rhee, B. W.; Chung, B. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, S. H.; Kim, M. W. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Korea currently has four operating units of the CANDU-6 type reactor in Wolsong. However, the safety assessment system for CANDU reactors has not been fully established due to a lack of self-reliance technology. Although the CATHENA code had been introduced from AECL, it is undesirable to use a vendor's code for a regulatory auditing analysis. In Korea, the MARS code has been developed for decades and is being considered by KINS as a thermal hydraulic regulatory auditing tool for nuclear power plants. Before this decision, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) had developed the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code for CANDU safety analyses by modifying the model of the existing PWR auditing tool, RELAP5/MOD3. The main purpose of this study is to transplant the CANDU models of the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code to the MARS code including a quality assurance of the developed models.

  17. Development of Off-take Model, Subcooled Boiling Model, and Radiation Heat Transfer Input Model into the MARS Code for a Regulatory Auditing of CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C.; Rhee, B. W.; Chung, B. D.; Ahn, S. H.; Kim, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Korea currently has four operating units of the CANDU-6 type reactor in Wolsong. However, the safety assessment system for CANDU reactors has not been fully established due to a lack of self-reliance technology. Although the CATHENA code had been introduced from AECL, it is undesirable to use a vendor's code for a regulatory auditing analysis. In Korea, the MARS code has been developed for decades and is being considered by KINS as a thermal hydraulic regulatory auditing tool for nuclear power plants. Before this decision, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) had developed the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code for CANDU safety analyses by modifying the model of the existing PWR auditing tool, RELAP5/MOD3. The main purpose of this study is to transplant the CANDU models of the RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code to the MARS code including a quality assurance of the developed models

  18. Validation of Friction Models in MARS-MultiD Module with Two-Phase Cross Flow Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chi-Jin; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cher; Euh, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In the downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) which has direct vessel injection (DVI) lines as an emergency core cooling system, multidimensional two-phase flow may occur due to the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). The accurate prediction about that is high relevance to evaluation of the integrity of the reactor core. For this reason, Yang performed an experiment that was to investigate the two-dimensional film flow which simulated the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer, and obtained the local liquid film velocity and thickness data. From these data, it could be possible to validate the multidimensional modules of system analysis codes. In this study, MARS-MultiD was used to simulate the Yang's experiment, and obtained the local variables. Then, the friction models used in MARS-MultiD were validated by comparing the two-phase flow experimental results with the calculated local variables. In this study, the two-phase cross flow experiment was modeled by the MARS-MultiD. Compared with the experimental results, the calculated results by the code properly presented mass conservation which could be known from the relation between the liquid film velocity and thickness at the same flow rate. The magnitude and direction of the liquid film, however, did not follow well with experimental results. According to the results of Case-2, wall friction should be increased, and interfacial friction should be decreased in MARS-MultiD. These results show that it is needed to modify the friction models in the MARS-MultiD to simulate the two-phase cross flow

  19. Finite nucleus Dirac mean field theory and random phase approximation using finite B splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, J.A.; Furnstahl, R.J.; Rost, E.; Shepard, J.R.; Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742; Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309)

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the finite nucleus Dirac mean field spectrum in a Galerkin approach using finite basis splines. We review the method and present results for the relativistic σ-ω model for the closed-shell nuclei 16 O and 40 Ca. We study the convergence of the method as a function of the size of the basis and the closure properties of the spectrum using an energy-weighted dipole sum rule. We apply the method to the Dirac random-phase-approximation response and present results for the isoscalar 1/sup -/ and 3/sup -/ longitudinal form factors of 16 O and 40 Ca. We also use a B-spline spectral representation of the positive-energy projector to evaluate partial energy-weighted sum rules and compare with nonrelativistic sum rule results

  20. Effects of Tightening Torque on Dynamic Characteristics of Low Pressure Rotors Connected by a Spline Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xi; Liao M ingfu; Li Quankun

    2017-01-01

    A rotor dynamic model is built up for investigating the effects of tightening torque on dynamic character-istics of low pressure rotors connected by a spline coupling .The experimental rotor system is established using a fluted disk and a speed sensor which is applied in an actual aero engine for speed measurement .Through simulating calculation and experiments ,the effects of tightening torque on the dynamic characteristics of the rotor system con-nected by a spline coupling including critical speeds ,vibration modes and unbalance responses are analyzed .The results show that when increasing the tightening torque ,the first two critical speeds and the amplitudes of unbal-ance response gradually increase in varying degrees while the vibration modes are essentially unchanged .In addi-tion ,changing axial and circumferential positions of the mass unbalance can lead to various amplitudes of unbalance response and even the rates of change .

  1. Inverting travel times with a triplication. [spline fitting technique applied to lunar seismic data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    A method based on the use of constrained spline fits is used to overcome the difficulties arising when body-wave data in the form of T-delta are reduced to the tau-p form in the presence of cusps. In comparison with unconstrained spline fits, the method proposed here tends to produce much smoother models which lie approximately in the middle of the bounds produced by the extremal method. The method is noniterative and, therefore, computationally efficient. The method is applied to the lunar seismic data, where at least one triplication is presumed to occur in the P-wave travel-time curve. It is shown, however, that because of an insufficient number of data points for events close to the antipode of the center of the lunar network, the present analysis is not accurate enough to resolve the problem of a possible lunar core.

  2. Simulation of the output power of copper bromide lasers by the MARS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I P; Voynikova, D S; Gocheva-Ilieva, S G

    2012-01-01

    The dependence of the output power of CuBr lasers (operating at wavelengths of 510.6 and 578.2 nm) on ten input physical parameters has been statistically analysed based on a large amount of experimental data accumulated for these lasers. Regression models have been built using the flexible nonparametric method of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to describe both linear and nonlinear local dependences. These models cover more than 97% initial data with an error comparable with the experimental error; they are applied to estimate and predict the output powers of both existing and future lasers. The advantage of the models constructed for estimating laser parameters over the standard parametric methods of multivariate factor and regression analysis is demonstrated.

  3. High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

  4. MARS-LMR modeling for the post-test analysis of Phenix End-of-Life natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong; Ha, Kwi Seok; Chang, Won Pyo; Lee, Kwi Lim

    2011-01-01

    For a successful design and analysis of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), it is required to have a reliable and well-proven system analysis code. To achieve this purpose, KAERI is enhancing the modeling capability of MARS code by adding the SFR-specific models such as pressure drop model, heat transfer model and reactivity feedback model. This version of MARS-LMR will be used as a basic tool in the design and analysis of future SFR systems in Korea. Before wide application of MARS-LMR code, it is required to verify and validate the code models through analyses for appropriate experimental data or analytical results. The end-of-life test of Phenix reactor performed by the CEA provided a unique opportunity to have reliable test data which is very valuable in the validation and verification of a SFR system analysis code. The KAERI joined this international program of the analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural circulation test coordinated by the IAEA from 2008. The main test of natural circulation was completed in 2009. Before the test the KAERI performed the pre-test analysis based on the design condition provided by the CEA. Then, the blind post-test analysis was also performed based on the test conditions measured during the test before the CEA provide the final test results. Finally, the final post-test analysis was performed recently to predict the test results as accurate as possible. This paper introduces the modeling approach of the MARS-LMR used in the final post-test analysis and summarizes the major results of the analysis

  5. Motion characteristic between die and workpiece in spline rolling process with round dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spline rolling process with round dies, additional kinematic compensation is an essential mechanism for improving the division of teeth and pitch accuracy as well as surface quality. The motion characteristic between the die and workpiece under varied center distance in the spline rolling process was investigated. Mathematical models of the instantaneous center of rotation, transmission ratio, and centrodes in the rolling process were established. The models were used to analyze the rolling process of the involute spline with circular dedendum, and the results indicated that (1 with the reduction in the center distance, the instantaneous center moves toward workpiece, and the transmission ratio increases at first and then decreases; (2 the variations in the instantaneous center and transmission ratio are discontinuous, presenting an interruption when the involute flank begins to be formed; (3 the change in transmission ratio at the forming stage of the workpiece with the involute flank can be negligible; and (4 the centrode of the workpiece is an Archimedes line whose polar radius reduces, and the centrode of the rolling die is similar to Archimedes line when the workpiece is with the involute flank.

  6. Enhanced spatio-temporal alignment of plantar pressure image sequences using B-splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco P M; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2013-03-01

    This article presents an enhanced methodology to align plantar pressure image sequences simultaneously in time and space. The temporal alignment of the sequences is accomplished using B-splines in the time modeling, and the spatial alignment can be attained using several geometric transformation models. The methodology was tested on a dataset of 156 real plantar pressure image sequences (3 sequences for each foot of the 26 subjects) that was acquired using a common commercial plate during barefoot walking. In the alignment of image sequences that were synthetically deformed both in time and space, an outstanding accuracy was achieved with the cubic B-splines. This accuracy was significantly better (p align real image sequences with unknown transformation involved, the alignment based on cubic B-splines also achieved superior results than our previous methodology (p alignment on the dynamic center of pressure (COP) displacement was also assessed by computing the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) before and after the temporal alignment of the three image sequence trials of each foot of the associated subject at six time instants. The results showed that, generally, the ICCs related to the medio-lateral COP displacement were greater when the sequences were temporally aligned than the ICCs of the original sequences. Based on the experimental findings, one can conclude that the cubic B-splines are a remarkable solution for the temporal alignment of plantar pressure image sequences. These findings also show that the temporal alignment can increase the consistency of the COP displacement on related acquired plantar pressure image sequences.

  7. Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2014-06-06

    We discretized the two-dimensional linear momentum, microrotation, energy and mass conservation equations from micropolar fluids theory, with the finite element method, creating divergence conforming spaces based on B-spline basis functions to obtain pointwise divergence free solutions [8]. Weak boundary conditions were imposed using Nitsche\\'s method for tangential conditions, while normal conditions were imposed strongly. Once the exact mass conservation was provided by the divergence free formulation, we focused on evaluating the differences between micropolar fluids and conventional fluids, to show the advantages of using the micropolar fluid model to capture the features of complex fluids. A square and an arc heat driven cavities were solved as test cases. A variation of the parameters of the model, along with the variation of Rayleigh number were performed for a better understanding of the system. The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.

  8. A 2D-model of planetary atmospheres based on a collisional approach : application to Mars and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boqueho, V.; Blelly, P. L.; Peymirat, C.

    A 2D model of planetary atmospheres has been developed, based on a collisional approach. The multi-moment multi-species transport equations allow to study the atmospheric regions from the ground to the thermosphere and the exosphere in an only one self-consistent model. A 13-moment approximation is used: concentration, velocities, temperature, heat flows and stress tensor are then solved for each species. On Mars, we consider 8 species in the altitude - longitude plane, from surface to 450 km, the altitude above which atomic hydrogen becomes the major species. Main chemical and photodissociation processes are included, and thermal processes are considered above 80 km. On Titan, 3 species are considered in the altitude range 800 - 3000 km, and UV heating and HCN radiative cooling are accounted for. Different solar conditions have been considered, and simulations have been performed in the equatorial region. Results of the model for Mars are compared to Viking and Mariner data and to Bougher et al. [1988] model. Concerning Titan, the results are compared to Müller-Wodarg et al. [2000] model. Temperature profiles on Mars appear to be consistent with experimental data, but horizontal winds are very different from Bougher et al. [1988]. On Titan, results appear to be close to Müller-Wodarg et al. [2000] in the thermosphere; nevertheless, the change in the behavior above the exobase is as important as on Mars. The differences between models are analyzed, and contributions of a multi-moment multi-species approach in 2D are discussed.

  9. Mars Rover Model Celebration: Developing Inquiry Based Lesson Plans to Teach Planetary Science In Elementary And Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.; Dominey, W.; Ramsey, J.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the development of a detailed set of new 5E lesson plans to

  10. Managed Readiness Simulator (MARS) V2: Implementation of the Managed Readiness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The SRDB architecture is described in detail in [6]. Database VBA VBA Runtime Data Sub run() SQL (“UPDATE Table SET Rank = 5”) Run_query_obj...FilterResources”) Algorithms ( VBA & SQL ) End Sub Arena Process Logic Figure 5: MARS V2 simulation architecture. The MARS managed readiness...database layer below it. Using VBA blocks, the algorithm layer can execute complex data operations on the database layer using SQL and can return

  11. Correcting bias in the rational polynomial coefficients of satellite imagery using thin-plate smoothing splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Qing-Quan

    2017-03-01

    The Rational Function Model (RFM) has proven to be a viable alternative to the rigorous sensor models used for geo-processing of high-resolution satellite imagery. Because of various errors in the satellite ephemeris and instrument calibration, the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) supplied by image vendors are often not sufficiently accurate, and there is therefore a clear need to correct the systematic biases in order to meet the requirements of high-precision topographic mapping. In this paper, we propose a new RPC bias-correction method using the thin-plate spline modeling technique. Benefiting from its excellent performance and high flexibility in data fitting, the thin-plate spline model has the potential to remove complex distortions in vendor-provided RPCs, such as the errors caused by short-period orbital perturbations. The performance of the new method was evaluated by using Ziyuan-3 satellite images and was compared against the recently developed least-squares collocation approach, as well as the classical affine-transformation and quadratic-polynomial based methods. The results show that the accuracies of the thin-plate spline and the least-squares collocation approaches were better than the other two methods, which indicates that strong non-rigid deformations exist in the test data because they cannot be adequately modeled by simple polynomial-based methods. The performance of the thin-plate spline method was close to that of the least-squares collocation approach when only a few Ground Control Points (GCPs) were used, and it improved more rapidly with an increase in the number of redundant observations. In the test scenario using 21 GCPs (some of them located at the four corners of the scene), the correction residuals of the thin-plate spline method were about 36%, 37%, and 19% smaller than those of the affine transformation method, the quadratic polynomial method, and the least-squares collocation algorithm, respectively, which demonstrates

  12. Development of the critical thickness correlation for an improvement of MARS code dryout model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, J. H.; Lee, W. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical film dryout analysis defines that the critical heat flux arises when liquid film calculation from evaporation, droplet entrainment and deposition gets dryout. The dryout of film is generally assumed when film thickness becomes zero. However, it was proven that the complete dryout assumption can estimate CHF well for uniform heating case but can not simulate accurately for non-uniform heating case. The critical thickness concept is an appropriate approach physically because there is a possibility of instantaneous disappearance of liquid film when it gets very thin. Therefore, the dryout phenomenon was modeled introducing critical thickness concept and development of proper critical thickness correlation. In this study, MARS code and some steady state dryout experimental data were used to develop a critical thickness correlation. The version including new critical thickness correlation was assessed using the several dryout CHF tests of various test conditions including non uniform heating case and flow reduction transient test and the results showed enhanced agreement with the experimental data

  13. Enhancement of MARS with an Advanced Fuel Model by Coupling FRAPTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyong Chol; Lee, Young Jin; Han, Sam Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    FRAPTRAN calculates heat conduction, heat transfer from cladding to coolant, elastic-plastic fuel and cladding deformation, cladding oxidation, fission gas release, and fuel rod gas pressure. FRAPTRAN is used for analyzing the fuel response under postulated accidents such as reactivity-initiated accidents (RIAs) and loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and also for analyzing and interpreting experimental results. Burnup dependent variables such as fuel densification and swelling, and cladding creep and irradiation growth may be considered by incorporating FRAPCON steady state depletion calculation results as the initial conditions. FRAPTRAN-DLL has been successfully verified and the coupled calculations have shown to provide reasonable results. An EOC core loaded with irradiated fuels was analyzed with the integrated code system. The coupled code system has demonstrated its applicability to variety of applications such as assessing the effects of fuel thermal conductivity degradation with burnup. MARS has been enhanced with the advanced fuel model of FRAPTRAN so that users can use the fuel rod performance evaluation capability in the transient analyses.

  14. Characterization of the particle radiation environment at three potential landing sites on Mars using ESA’s MEREM models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Gonçalves, P.; Keating, A.; Morgado, B.; Heynderickx, D.; Nieminen, P.; Santin, G.; Truscott, P.; Lei, F.; Foing, B.; Balaz, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ‘Mars Energetic Radiation Environment Models’ (dMEREM and eMEREM) recently developed for the European Space Agency are herein used to estimate, for the first time, background Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) radiation and flare related solar energetic particle (SEP) events at three candidate martian landing sites under conditions where particle arrival occurred at solar minimum (December, 2006) and solar maximum (April, 2002) during Solar Cycle 23. The three landing sites were selected on the basis that they are characterized by significantly different hydrological conditions and soil compositions. Energetic particle data sets recorded on orbit at Mars at the relevant times were incomplete because of gaps in the measurements due to operational constraints. Thus, in the present study, comprehensive near-Earth particle measurements made aboard the GOES spacecraft were used as proxies to estimate the overall particle doses at each perspective landing site, assuming in each case that the fluxes fell off as 1/r2 (where r is the helio-radial distance) and that good magnetic connectivity always prevailed. The results indicate that the particle radiation environment on Mars can vary according to the epoch concerned and the landing site selected. Particle estimations obtained using MEREM are in reasonable agreement, given the inherent differences between the models, with the related NASA Heavy Ion-Nucleon Transport Code for Space Radiation/HZETRN. Both sets of results indicated that, for short (30 days) stays, the atmosphere of Mars, in the cases of the SEPs studied and the then prevailing background galactic cosmic radiation, provided sufficient shielding at the planetary surface to maintain annual skin and blood forming organ/BFO dose levels below currently accepted ionizing radiation exposure limits. The threat of occurrence of a hard spectrum SEP during Cruise-Phase transfers to/from Mars over 400 days, combined with the associated cumulative effect of prolonged GCR

  15. Development and assessment of Multi-dimensional flow models in the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. D.; Bae, S. W.; Jeong, J. J.; Lee, S. M

    2005-04-15

    A new multi-dimensional component has been developed to allow for more flexible 3D capabilities in the system code, MARS. This component can be applied in the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. For the development of this model, the 3D convection and diffusion terms are implemented in the momentum and energy equation. And a simple Prandtl's mixing length model is applied for the turbulent viscosity. The developed multi-dimensional component was assessed against five conceptual problems with analytic solution. And some SETs are calculated and compared with experimental data. With this newly developed multi-dimensional flow module, the MARS code can realistic calculate the flow fields in pools such as those occurring in the core, steam generators and IRWST.

  16. Development and assessment of Multi-dimensional flow models in the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, B. D.; Bae, S. W.; Jeong, J. J.; Lee, S. M.

    2005-04-01

    A new multi-dimensional component has been developed to allow for more flexible 3D capabilities in the system code, MARS. This component can be applied in the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. For the development of this model, the 3D convection and diffusion terms are implemented in the momentum and energy equation. And a simple Prandtl's mixing length model is applied for the turbulent viscosity. The developed multi-dimensional component was assessed against five conceptual problems with analytic solution. And some SETs are calculated and compared with experimental data. With this newly developed multi-dimensional flow module, the MARS code can realistic calculate the flow fields in pools such as those occurring in the core, steam generators and IRWST

  17. Shape Preserving Interpolation Using C2 Rational Cubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the construction of new C2 rational cubic spline interpolant with cubic numerator and quadratic denominator. The idea has been extended to shape preserving interpolation for positive data using the constructed rational cubic spline interpolation. The rational cubic spline has three parameters αi, βi, and γi. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on one parameter γi while the other two parameters αi and βi are free parameters that can be used to change the final shape of the resulting interpolating curves. This will enable the user to produce many varieties of the positive interpolating curves. Cubic spline interpolation with C2 continuity is not able to preserve the shape of the positive data. Notably our scheme is easy to use and does not require knots insertion and C2 continuity can be achieved by solving tridiagonal systems of linear equations for the unknown first derivatives di, i=1,…,n-1. Comparisons with existing schemes also have been done in detail. From all presented numerical results the new C2 rational cubic spline gives very smooth interpolating curves compared to some established rational cubic schemes. An error analysis when the function to be interpolated is ft∈C3t0,tn is also investigated in detail.

  18. On developing B-spline registration algorithms for multi-core processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackleford, J A; Kandasamy, N; Sharp, G C

    2010-01-01

    Spline-based deformable registration methods are quite popular within the medical-imaging community due to their flexibility and robustness. However, they require a large amount of computing time to obtain adequate results. This paper makes two contributions towards accelerating B-spline-based registration. First, we propose a grid-alignment scheme and associated data structures that greatly reduce the complexity of the registration algorithm. Based on this grid-alignment scheme, we then develop highly data parallel designs for B-spline registration within the stream-processing model, suitable for implementation on multi-core processors such as graphics processing units (GPUs). Particular attention is focused on an optimal method for performing analytic gradient computations in a data parallel fashion. CPU and GPU versions are validated for execution time and registration quality. Performance results on large images show that our GPU algorithm achieves a speedup of 15 times over the single-threaded CPU implementation whereas our multi-core CPU algorithm achieves a speedup of 8 times over the single-threaded implementation. The CPU and GPU versions achieve near-identical registration quality in terms of RMS differences between the generated vector fields.

  19. Analysis of Phenix End-of-Life asymmetry test with multi-dimensional pool modeling of MARS-LMR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H.-Y.; Ha, K.-S.; Choi, C.-W.; Park, M.-G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pool behaviors under asymmetrical condition in an SFR were evaluated with MARS-LMR. • The Phenix asymmetry test was analyzed one-dimensionally and multi-dimensionally. • One-dimensional modeling has limitation to predict the cold pool temperature. • Multi-dimensional modeling shows improved prediction of stratification and mixing. - Abstract: The understanding of complicated pool behaviors and its modeling is essential for the design and safety analysis of a pool-type Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor. One of the remarkable recent efforts on the study of pool thermal–hydraulic behaviors is the asymmetrical test performed as a part of Phenix End-of-Life tests by the CEA. To evaluate the performance of MARS-LMR code, which is a key system analysis tool for the design of an SFR in Korea, in the prediction of thermal hydraulic behaviors during an asymmetrical condition, the Phenix asymmetry test is analyzed with MARS-LMR in the present study. Pool regions are modeled with two different approaches, one-dimensional modeling and multi-dimensional one, and the prediction results are analyzed to identify the appropriateness of each modeling method. The prediction with one-dimensional pool modeling shows a large deviation from the measured data at the early stage of the test, which suggests limitations to describe the complicated thermal–hydraulic phenomena. When the pool regions are modeled multi-dimensionally, the prediction gives improved results quite a bit. This improvement is explained by the enhanced modeling of pool mixing with the multi-dimensional modeling. On the basis of the results from the present study, it is concluded that an accurate modeling of pool thermal–hydraulics is a prerequisite for the evaluation of design performance and safety margin quantification in the future SFR developments

  20. Cooperation and dialogical modeling for designing a safe Human space exploration mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grès, Stéphane; Tognini, Michel; Le Cardinal, Gilles; Zalila, Zyed; Gueydan, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes an approach for a complex and innovative project requiring international contributions from different communities of knowledge and expertise. Designing a safe and reliable architecture for a manned mission to Mars or the Asteroids necessitates strong cooperation during the early stages of design to prevent and reduce risks for the astronauts at each step of the mission. The stake during design is to deal with the contradictions, antagonisms and paradoxes of the involved partners for the definition and modeling of a shared project of reference. As we see in our research which analyses the cognitive and social aspects of technological risks in major accidents, in such a project, the complexity of the global organization (during design and use) and the integration of a wide and varie d range of sciences and innovative technologies is likely to increase systemic risks as follows: human and cultural mistakes, potential defaults, failures and accidents. We identify as the main danger antiquated centralized models of organization and the operational limits of interdisciplinarity in the sciences. Beyond this, we can see that we need to take carefully into account human cooperation and the quality of relations between heterogeneous partners. Designing an open, self-learning and reliable exploration system able to self-adapt in dangerous and unforeseen situations implies a collective networked intelligence led by a safe process that organizes interaction between the actors and the aims of the project. Our work, supported by the CNES (French Space Agency), proposes an innovative approach to the coordination of a complex project.

  1. [Multimodal medical image registration using cubic spline interpolation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanlie; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2007-12-01

    Based on the characteristic of the PET-CT multimodal image series, a novel image registration and fusion method is proposed, in which the cubic spline interpolation method is applied to realize the interpolation of PET-CT image series, then registration is carried out by using mutual information algorithm and finally the improved principal component analysis method is used for the fusion of PET-CT multimodal images to enhance the visual effect of PET image, thus satisfied registration and fusion results are obtained. The cubic spline interpolation method is used for reconstruction to restore the missed information between image slices, which can compensate for the shortage of previous registration methods, improve the accuracy of the registration, and make the fused multimodal images more similar to the real image. Finally, the cubic spline interpolation method has been successfully applied in developing 3D-CRT (3D Conformal Radiation Therapy) system.

  2. Illumination estimation via thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lilong; Xiong, Weihua; Funt, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Thin-plate spline interpolation is used to interpolate the chromaticity of the color of the incident scene illumination across a training set of images. Given the image of a scene under unknown illumination, the chromaticity of the scene illumination can be found from the interpolated function. The resulting illumination-estimation method can be used to provide color constancy under changing illumination conditions and automatic white balancing for digital cameras. A thin-plate spline interpolates over a nonuniformly sampled input space, which in this case is a training set of image thumbnails and associated illumination chromaticities. To reduce the size of the training set, incremental k medians are applied. Tests on real images demonstrate that the thin-plate spline method can estimate the color of the incident illumination quite accurately, and the proposed training set pruning significantly decreases the computation.

  3. Identification and visualisation of possible ancient ocean shoreline on Mars using submeter-resolution Digital Terrain Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świąder, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) produced from stereoscopic, submeter-resolution High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery provide a solid basis for all morphometric analyses of the surface of Mars. In view of the fact that a more effective use of DTMs is hindered by complicated and time-consuming manual handling, the automated process provided by specialists of the Ames Intelligent Robotics Group (NASA), Ames Stereo Pipeline, constitutes a good alternative. Four DTMs, covering the global dichotomy boundary between the southern highlands and northern lowlands along the line of the presumable Arabia shoreline, were produced and analysed. One of them included forms that are likely to be indicative of an oceanic basin that extended across the lowland northern hemisphere of Mars in the geological past. The high resolution DTMs obtained were used in the process of landscape visualisation.

  4. Mars bevares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hendricks, Elbert

    2009-01-01

    2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen......2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen...

  5. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Instrument Modelling Approach to Streamline Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela; Frew, David; Ashman, Michael; Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Garcia Beteta, Juan Jose; Geiger, Bernhard; Metcalfe, Leo; Nespoli, Federico; Muniz Solaz, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) science operations activities are centralised at ESAC's Science Operations Centre (SOC). The SOC receives the inputs from the principal investigators (PIs) in order to implement and deliver the spacecraft pointing requests and instrument timelines to the Mission Operations Centre (MOC). The high number of orbits per planning cycle has made it necessary to abstract the planning interactions between the SOC and the PI teams at the observation level. This paper describes the modelling approach we have conducted for TGOís instruments to streamline science operations. We have created dynamic observation types that scale to adapt to the conditions specified by the PI teams including observation timing, and pointing block parameters calculated from observation geometry. This approach is considered and improvement with respect to previous missions where the generation of the observation pointing and commanding requests was performed manually by the instrument teams. Automation software assists us to effectively handle the high density of planned orbits with increasing volume of scientific data and to successfully meet opportunistic scientific goals and objectives. Our planning tool combines the instrument observation definition files provided by the PIs together with the flight dynamics products to generate the Pointing Requests and the instrument timeline (ITL). The ITL contains all the validated commands at the TC sequence level and computes the resource envelopes (data rate, power, data volume) within the constraints. At the SOC, our main goal is to maximise the science output while minimising the number of iterations among the teams, ensuring that the timeline does not violate the state transitions allowed in the Mission Operations Rules and Constraints Document.

  6. Elysium region, mars: Tests of lithospheric loading models for the formation of tectonic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.L.; Solomon, S.C.; Head, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The second largest volcanic province on Mars lies in the Elysium region. Like the larger Tharsis province, Elysium is marked by a topographic rise and a broad free air gravity anomaly and also exhibits a complex assortment of tectonic and volcanic features. We test the hypothesis that the tectonic features in the Elysium region are the product of stresses produced by loading of the Martian lithosphere. We consider loading at three different scales: local loading by individual volcanoes, regional loading of the lithosphere from above or below, and quasi-global loading by Tharsis. A comparison of flexural stresses with lithospheric strength and with the inferred maximum depth of faulting confirms that concentric graben around Elysium Mons can be explained as resulting from local flexure of an elastic lithosphere about 50 km thick in response to the volcano load. Volcanic loading on a regional scale, however, leads to predicted stresses inconsistent with all observed tectonic features, suggesting that loading by widespread emplacement of thick plains deposits was not an important factor in the tectonic evolution of the Elysium region. A number of linear extensional features oriented generally NW-SE may have been the result of flexural uplift of the lithosphere on the scale of the Elysium rise. The global stress field associated with the support of the Tharsis rise appears to have influenced the development of many of the tectonic features in the Elysium region, including Cerberus Rupes and the systems of ridges in eastern and western Elysium. The comparisons of stress models for Elysium with the preserved tectonic features support a succession of stress fields operating at different times in the region

  7. Implementation of Wolsong Pump Model, Pressure Tube Deformation Model and Off-take Model into MARS Code for Regulatory Auditing of CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, C.; Rhee, B. W.; Chung, B. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y. J.; Kim, M. W. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Korea currently has four operating units of the CANDU-6 type reactor in Wolsong. However, the safety assessment system for CANDU reactors has not been fully established due to lack of self-reliance technology. Although the CATHENA code had been introduced from AECL, it is undesirable to use vendor's code for regulatory auditing analysis. In Korea, the MARS code has been developed for decades and is being considered by KINS as a thermal hydraulic regulatory auditing tool for nuclear power plants. Before this decision, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) had developed RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code for CANDU safety analyses by modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, RELAP5/MOD3. The main purpose of this study is to transplant the CANDU models of RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code to MARS code including quality assurance of the developed models. This first part of the research series presents the implementation and verification of the Wolsong pump model, the pressure tube deformation model, and the off-take model for arbitrary-angled branch pipes.

  8. Implementation of Wolsong Pump Model, Pressure Tube Deformation Model and Off-take Model into MARS Code for Regulatory Auditing of CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C.; Rhee, B. W.; Chung, B. D.; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Korea currently has four operating units of the CANDU-6 type reactor in Wolsong. However, the safety assessment system for CANDU reactors has not been fully established due to lack of self-reliance technology. Although the CATHENA code had been introduced from AECL, it is undesirable to use vendor's code for regulatory auditing analysis. In Korea, the MARS code has been developed for decades and is being considered by KINS as a thermal hydraulic regulatory auditing tool for nuclear power plants. Before this decision, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) had developed RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code for CANDU safety analyses by modifying the model of existing PWR auditing tool, RELAP5/MOD3. The main purpose of this study is to transplant the CANDU models of RELAP5/MOD3/CANDU code to MARS code including quality assurance of the developed models. This first part of the research series presents the implementation and verification of the Wolsong pump model, the pressure tube deformation model, and the off-take model for arbitrary-angled branch pipes

  9. Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system

  10. Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy

  11. SGTR assessment using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, J.C.; Dawson, S.M.; Deitke, B.; Henry, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    to true or false identifications of the sequence type. The assessment of the sequence type is important information for the accident manager and is also an essential aspect for the MARS Tracker. This evaluates the accident behavior and continually tests its 'understanding' using the MAAP thermal-hydraulic model and the evolving plant data. The tracking of the accident progression by the MARS Tracker enables the system to initiate near term faster than real-time predictions using the MARS Predictors. The MARS Predictors provide the operators with additional insights into the possible future plant states. This paper demonstrates how the MARS software is able to successfully identify and track a simulated SGTR sequence. (author)

  12. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Junli; Deng, Qingqiong; Duan, Fuqing

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF) for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST) is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP) is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  13. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    Full Text Available Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  14. Scoria cones on Mars: detailed investigation of morphometry based on high - resolution Digital Elevation Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Čadek, O.; Hauber, E.; Rossi, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 9 (2015), s. 1512-1527 ISSN 2169-9097 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Mars surface * volcanism * pyroclastic cone * scoria cone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013

  15. Shape of scoria cones on Mars: Insights from numerical modeling of ballistic pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Čadek, O.; Hauber, E.; Rossi, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, November (2014), s. 14-23 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Mars * explosive volcanism * scoria cone * ballistic pathway Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2014

  16. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  17. Modelling tools for managing Induced RiverBank Filtration MAR schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Barbagli, Alessio; Marchina, Chiara; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Nardi, Marco; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    Induced RiverBank Filtration (IRBF) is a widely used technique in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes, when aquifers are hydraulically connected with surface water bodies, with proven positive effects on quality and quantity of groundwater. IRBF allows abstraction of a large volume of water, avoiding large decrease in groundwater heads. Moreover, thanks to the filtration process through the soil, the concentration of chemical species in surface water can be reduced, thus becoming an excellent resource for the production of drinking water. Within the FP7 MARSOL project (demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a SOLution to water scarcity and drought; http://www.marsol.eu/), the Sant'Alessio IRBF (Lucca, Italy) was used to demonstrate the feasibility and technical and economic benefits of managing IRBF schemes (Rossetto et al., 2015a). The Sant'Alessio IRBF along the Serchio river allows to abstract an overall amount of about 0.5 m3/s providing drinking water for 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany (mainly to the town of Lucca, Pisa and Livorno). The supplied water is made available by enhancing river bank infiltration into a high yield (10-2 m2/s transmissivity) sandy-gravelly aquifer by rising the river head and using ten vertical wells along the river embankment. A Decision Support System, consisting in connected measurements from an advanced monitoring network and modelling tools was set up to manage the IRBF. The modelling system is based on spatially distributed and physically based coupled ground-/surface-water flow and solute transport models integrated in the FREEWAT platform (developed within the H2020 FREEWAT project - FREE and Open Source Software Tools for WATer Resource Management; Rossetto et al., 2015b), an open source and public domain GIS-integrated modelling environment for the simulation of the hydrological cycle. The platform aims at improving water resource management by simplifying the application of EU water-related Directives and at

  18. Assessment of wall friction model in multi-dimensional component of MARS with air–water cross flow experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin-Hwa [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chi-Jin [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, high precision and high accuracy analysis on multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear power plant has been considered as state-of-the-art issues. System analysis code, MARS, also adopted a multi-dimensional module to simulate them more accurately. Even though it was applied to represent the multi-dimensional phenomena, but implemented models and correlations in that are one-dimensional empirical ones based on one-dimensional pipe experimental results. Prior to the application of the multi-dimensional simulation tools, however, the constitutive models for a two-phase flow need to be carefully validated, such as the wall friction model. Especially, in a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) system, the injected emergency core coolant (ECC) on the upper part of the downcomer interacts with the lateral steam flow during the reflood phase in the Large-Break Loss-Of-Coolant-Accident (LBLOCA). The interaction between the falling film and lateral steam flow induces a multi-dimensional two-phase flow. The prediction of ECC flow behavior plays a key role in determining the amount of coolant that can be used as core cooling. Therefore, the wall friction model which is implemented to simulate the multi-dimensional phenomena should be assessed by multidimensional experimental results. In this paper, the air–water cross film flow experiments simulating the multi-dimensional phenomenon in upper part of downcomer as a conceptual problem will be introduced. The two-dimensional local liquid film velocity and thickness data were used as benchmark data for code assessment. And then the previous wall friction model of the MARS-MultiD in the annular flow regime was modified. As a result, the modified MARS-MultiD produced improved calculation result than previous one.

  19. Counterexamples to the B-spline Conjecture for Gabor Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Nielsen, Kamilla Haahr

    2016-01-01

    The frame set conjecture for B-splines Bn, n≥2, states that the frame set is the maximal set that avoids the known obstructions. We show that any hyperbola of the form ab=r, where r is a rational number smaller than one and a and b denote the sampling and modulation rates, respectively, has infin...

  20. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preferred which preserves some of the characteristics of the function to be interpolated. In order to tackle such ... Shape preserving properties of the rational (cubic/quadratic) spline interpolant have been studied ... tension parameters which is used to interpolate the given monotonic data is described in. [6]. Shape preserving ...

  1. Spline function fit for multi-sets of correlative data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin; Zhou Hongmo

    1992-01-01

    The Spline fit method for multi-sets of correlative data is developed. The properties of correlative data fit are investigated. The data of 23 Na(n, 2n) cross section are fitted in the cases with and without correlation

  2. Thin-plate spline quadrature of geodetic integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangysen, Herman

    1989-01-01

    Thin-plate spline functions (known for their flexibility and fidelity in representing experimental data) are especially well-suited for the numerical integration of geodetic integrals in the area where the integration is most sensitive to the data, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the evaluation point. Spline quadrature rules are derived for the contribution of a circular innermost zone to Stoke's formula, to the formulae of Vening Meinesz, and to the recursively evaluated operator L(n) in the analytical continuation solution of Molodensky's problem. These rules are exact for interpolating thin-plate splines. In cases where the integration data are distributed irregularly, a system of linear equations needs to be solved for the quadrature coefficients. Formulae are given for the terms appearing in these equations. In case the data are regularly distributed, the coefficients may be determined once-and-for-all. Examples are given of some fixed-point rules. With such rules successive evaluation, within a circular disk, of the terms in Molodensky's series becomes relatively easy. The spline quadrature technique presented complements other techniques such as ring integration for intermediate integration zones.

  3. Multivariate Epi-splines and Evolving Function Identification Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    such extrinsic information as well as observed function and subgradient values often evolve in applications, we establish conditions under which the...previous study [30] dealt with compact intervals of IR. Splines are intimately tied to optimization problems through their variational theory pioneered...approxima- tion. Motivated by applications in curve fitting, regression, probability density estimation, variogram computation, financial curve construction

  4. Splines under tension for gridding three-dimensional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, H.R.; Frazer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    By use of the splines-under-tension concept, a simple algorithm has been developed for the three-dimensional representation of nonuniformly spaced data. The representations provide useful information to the experimentalist when he is attempting to understand the results obtained in a self-adaptive experiment. The shortcomings of the algorithm are discussed as well as the advantages

  5. Tracking the MSL-SAM methane detection source location Through Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction: The putative in situ detection of methane by Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on Curiosi-ty at Gale crater has garnered significant attention because of the potential implications for the presence of geological methane sources or indigenous Martian organisms [1, 2]. SAM reported detection of back-ground levels of atmospheric methane of mean value 0.69±0.25 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at the 95% confidence interval (CI). Additionally, in four sequential measurements spanning a 60-sol period, SAM observed elevated levels of methane of 7.2±2.1 ppbv (95% CI), implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source. There are many major unresolved questions regard-ing this detection: 1) What are the potential sources of the methane release? 2) What causes the rapid decrease in concentration? and 3) Where is the re-lease location? 4) How spatially extensive is the re-lease? 5) For how long is CH4 released? Regarding the first question, the source of methane, is so far not identified. It could be related with geo-logical process like methane release from clathrates [3], serpentinisation [4] and volcanism [5]; or due to biological activity from methanogenesis [6]. To answer the second question, the rapid decrease in concentration, it is important to note that the photo-chemical lifetime of methane is of order 100 years, much longer than the atmospheric mixing time scale, and thus the gas should tend to be well mixed except near a source or shortly after an episodic release. The observed spike of 7 ppb from the background of System (MRAMS). The model was focused on rover locations using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the in-nermost grid that is centered over the landing [8, 9]. MRAMS is ideally suited for this investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simulate Mars' at-mospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface properties [10, 11

  6. Environment of Mars, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    1988-10-01

    A compilation of scientific knowledge about the planet Mars is provided. Information is divided into three categories: atmospheric data, surface data, and astrodynamic data. The discussion of atmospheric data includes the presentation of nine different models of the Mars atmosphere. Also discussed are Martian atmospheric constituents, winds, clouds, and solar irradiance. The great dust storms of Mars are presented. The section on Mars surface data provides an in-depth examination of the physical and chemical properties observed at the two Viking landing sites. Bulk densities, dielectric constants, and thermal inertias across the planet are then described and related back to those specific features found at the Viking landing sites. The astrodynamic materials provide the astronomical constants, time scales, and reference coordinate frames necessary to perform flightpath analysis, navigation design, and science observation design

  7. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  8. Polynomial estimation of the smoothing splines for the new Finnish reference values for spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi

    2016-07-01

    Background Discontinuity of spirometry reference values from childhood into adulthood has been a problem with traditional reference values, thus modern modelling approaches using smoothing spline functions to better depict the transition during growth and ageing have been recently introduced. Following the publication of the new international Global Lung Initiative (GLI2012) reference values also new national Finnish reference values have been calculated using similar GAMLSS-modelling, with spline estimates for mean (Mspline) and standard deviation (Sspline) provided in tables. The aim of this study was to produce polynomial estimates for these spline functions to use in lieu of lookup tables and to assess their validity in the reference population of healthy non-smokers. Methods Linear regression modelling was used to approximate the estimated values for Mspline and Sspline using similar polynomial functions as in the international GLI2012 reference values. Estimated values were compared to original calculations in absolute values, the derived predicted mean and individually calculated z-scores using both values. Results Polynomial functions were estimated for all 10 spirometry variables. The agreement between original lookup table-produced values and polynomial estimates was very good, with no significant differences found. The variation slightly increased in larger predicted volumes, but a range of -0.018 to +0.022 litres of FEV1 representing ± 0.4% of maximum difference in predicted mean. Conclusions Polynomial approximations were very close to the original lookup tables and are recommended for use in clinical practice to facilitate the use of new reference values.

  9. Earth analogs for Martian life - Microbes in evaporites, a new model system for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that 'oases' in which life forms may persist on Mars could occur, by analogy with terrestrial cases, in (1) rocks, as known in endolithic microorganisms, (2) polar ice caps, as seen in snow and ice algae, and (3) volcanic regions, as witnessed in the chemoautotrophs which live in ocean-floor hydrothermal vents. Microorganisms, moreover, have been known to survive in salt crystals, and it has even been shown that organisms can metabolize while encrusted in evaporites. Evaporites which may occur on Mars would be able to attenuate UV light, while remaining more transparent to the 400-700 nm radiation useful in photosynthesis. Suggestions are made for the selection of Martian exobiological investigation sites.

  10. Crater Lakes on Mars: Development of Quantitative Thermal and Geomorphic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, C. J.; Tulaczyk, S.; Asphaug, E.; Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J.

    2005-01-01

    Impact craters on Mars have served as catchments for channel-eroding surface fluids, and hundreds of examples of candidate paleolakes are documented [1,2] (see Figure 1). Because these features show similarity to terrestrial shorelines, wave action has been hypothesized as the geomorphic agent responsible for the generation of these features [3]. Recent efforts have examined the potential for shoreline formation by wind-driven waves, in order to turn an important but controversial idea into a quantitative, falsifiable hypothesis. These studies have concluded that significant wave-action shorelines are unlikely to have formed commonly within craters on Mars, barring Earth-like weather for approx.1000 years [4,5,6].

  11. MARS - a model to simulate transport and chemical transformation of reactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flassak, T.; Kessler, C.; Moussiopoulos, N.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of power plant emissions and industrial emissions on the leeward oxidant levels in an urban area and in a forest is analyzed with a one dimensional version of MARS. The results prove the importance of biogenic emissions and reveal that for a decrease of the oxidant levels in both the urban area and the forest power plant, emission reductions should be accompanied by a drastic decrease in the overall hydrocarbon emissions. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Yield strengths of flows on the earth, Mars, and moon. [application of Bingham plastic model to lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H. J.; Arthur, D. W. G.; Schaber, G. G.

    1978-01-01

    Dimensions of flows on the earth, Mars, and moon and their topographic gradients obtained from remote measurements are used to calculate yield strengths with a view to explore the validity of the Bingham plastic model and determine whether there is a relation between yield strengths and silica contents. Other factors are considered such as the vagaries of natural phenomena that might contribute to erroneous interpretations and measurements. Comparison of yield strengths of Martian and lunar flows with terrestrial flows suggests that the Martian and lunar flows are more akin to terrestrial basalts than they are to terrestrial andesites, trachytes, and rhyolites.

  13. Computer simulation comparison of tripolar, bipolar, and spline Laplacian electrocadiogram estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T; Besio, W; Dai, W

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of the tripolar and bipolar concentric as well as spline Laplacian electrocardiograms (LECGs) and body surface Laplacian mappings (BSLMs) for localizing and imaging the cardiac electrical activation has been investigated based on computer simulation. In the simulation a simplified eccentric heart-torso sphere-cylinder homogeneous volume conductor model were developed. Multiple dipoles with different orientations were used to simulate the underlying cardiac electrical activities. Results show that the tripolar concentric ring electrodes produce the most accurate LECG and BSLM estimation among the three estimators with the best performance in spatial resolution.

  14. Pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline method for analyzing experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crecy, F de

    1994-12-31

    A mathematical tool, using pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline, has been developed for analysis of experimental data points. The main purpose is to obtain, without any a priori given model, a mathematical predictor with related uncertainties, usable at any point in the multidimensional parameter space. The smoothing parameter is determined by a generalized cross validation method. The residual standard deviation obtained is significantly smaller than that of a least square regression. An example of use is given with critical heat flux data, showing a significant decrease of the conception criterion (minimum allowable value of the DNB ratio). (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  15. Pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline method for analyzing experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crecy, F. de.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical tool, using pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline, has been developed for analysis of experimental data points. The main purpose is to obtain, without any a priori given model, a mathematical predictor with related uncertainties, usable at any point in the multidimensional parameter space. The smoothing parameter is determined by a generalized cross validation method. The residual standard deviation obtained is significantly smaller than that of a least square regression. An example of use is given with critical heat flux data, showing a significant decrease of the conception criterion (minimum allowable value of the DNB ratio). (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  16. A Novel Approach of Cardiac Segmentation In CT Image Based On Spline Interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Ma Pengcheng

    2011-01-01

    Organ segmentation in CT images is the basis of organ model reconstruction, thus precisely detecting and extracting the organ boundary are keys for reconstruction. In CT image the cardiac are often adjacent to the surrounding tissues and gray gradient between them is too slight, which cause the difficulty of applying classical segmentation method. We proposed a novel algorithm for cardiac segmentation in CT images in this paper, which combines the gray gradient methods and the B-spline interpolation. This algorithm can perfectly detect the boundaries of cardiac, at the same time it could well keep the timeliness because of the automatic processing.

  17. 2-Dimensional B-Spline Algorithms with Applications to Ray Tracing in Media of Spatially-Varying Refractive Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    In the approach, photon trajectories are computed using a solution of the Eikonal equation (ray-tracing methods) rather than linear trajectories. The...coupling the radiative transport solution into heat transfer and damage models. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: B-Splines, Ray-Tracing, Eikonal Equation...multi-layer biological tissue model. In the approach, photon trajectories are computed using a solution of the Eikonal equation (ray-tracing methods

  18. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallée, H.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the sea level rise (SLR) originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Mod`ele Atmosph´erique R´egional), forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model

  19. Future projections of the climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard with the regional climate model MAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C.; Fettweis, X.; Erpicum, M.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed future projections of the climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Svalbard with the MAR regional climate model forced by the MIROC5 global model, following the RCP8.5 scenario at a spatial resolution of 10 km. MAR predicts a similar evolution of increasing surface melt everywhere in Svalbard followed by a sudden acceleration of the melt around 2050, with a larger melt increase in the south compared to the north of the archipelago and the ice caps. This melt acceleration around 2050 is mainly driven by the albedo-melt feedback associated with the expansion of the ablation/bare ice zone. This effect is dampened in part as the solar radiation itself is projected to decrease due to cloudiness increase. The near-surface temperature is projected to increase more in winter than in summer as the temperature is already close to 0 °C in summer. The model also projects a strong winter west-to-east temperature gradient, related to the large decrease of sea ice cover around Svalbard. At the end of the century (2070-2099 mean), SMB is projected to be negative over the entire Svalbard and, by 2085, all glaciated regions of Svalbard are predicted to undergo net ablation, meaning that, under the RCP8.5 scenario, all the glaciers and ice caps are predicted to start their irreversible retreat before the end of the 21st century.

  20. A Generalized Approach to Model the Spectra and Radiation Dose Rate of Solar Particle Events on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; McDole, Thoren; Kühl, Patrick; Appel, Jan C.; Matthiä, Daniel; Krauss, Johannes; Köhler, Jan

    2018-01-01

    For future human missions to Mars, it is important to study the surface radiation environment during extreme and elevated conditions. In the long term, it is mainly galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) modulated by solar activity that contribute to the radiation on the surface of Mars, but intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events may induce acute health effects. Such events may enhance the radiation level significantly and should be detected as immediately as possible to prevent severe damage to humans and equipment. However, the energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that in deep space due to the influence of the Martian atmosphere. Depending on the intensity and shape of the original solar particle spectra, as well as particle types, the surface spectra may induce entirely different radiation effects. In order to give immediate and accurate alerts while avoiding unnecessary ones, it is important to model and well understand the atmospheric effect on the incoming SEPs, including both protons and helium ions. In this paper, we have developed a generalized approach to quickly model the surface response of any given incoming proton/helium ion spectra and have applied it to a set of historical large solar events, thus providing insights into the possible variety of surface radiation environments that may be induced during SEP events. Based on the statistical study of more than 30 significant solar events, we have obtained an empirical model for estimating the surface dose rate directly from the intensities of a power-law SEP spectra.

  1. The radiation environment on the surface of Mars - Summary of model calculations and comparison to RAD data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Hassler, Donald M; de Wet, Wouter; Ehresmann, Bent; Firan, Ana; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Guo, Jingnan; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Lee, Kerry; Ratliff, Hunter; Rios, Ryan R; Slaba, Tony C; Smith, Michael; Stoffle, Nicholas N; Townsend, Lawrence W; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Zeitlin, Cary

    2017-08-01

    The radiation environment at the Martian surface is, apart from occasional solar energetic particle events, dominated by galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced in their interaction with the Martian atmosphere and albedo particles from the Martian regolith. The highly energetic primary cosmic radiation consists mainly of fully ionized nuclei creating a complex radiation field at the Martian surface. This complex field, its formation and its potential health risk posed to astronauts on future manned missions to Mars can only be fully understood using a combination of measurements and model calculations. In this work the outcome of a workshop held in June 2016 in Boulder, CO, USA is presented: experimental results from the Radiation Assessment Detector of the Mars Science Laboratory are compared to model results from GEANT4, HETC-HEDS, HZETRN, MCNP6, and PHITS. Charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates measured between 15 November 2015 and 15 January 2016 and model results calculated for this time period are investigated. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  2. Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  3. Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  4. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  5. Constraining Controls on the Emplacement of Long Lava Flows on Earth and Mars Through Modeling in ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, K.; Burr, D. M.; Tran, L.

    2017-12-01

    Regional volcanic processes shaped many planetary surfaces in the Solar System, often through the emplacement of long, voluminous lava flows. Terrestrial examples of this type of lava flow have been used as analogues for extensive martian flows, including those within the circum-Cerberus outflow channels. This analogy is based on similarities in morphology, extent, and inferred eruptive style between terrestrial and martian flows, which raises the question of how these lava flows appear comparable in size and morphology on different planets. The parameters that influence the areal extent of silicate lavas during emplacement may be categorized as either inherent or external to the lava. The inherent parameters include the lava yield strength, density, composition, water content, crystallinity, exsolved gas content, pressure, and temperature. Each inherent parameter affects the overall viscosity of the lava, and for this work can be considered a subset of the viscosity parameter. External parameters include the effusion rate, total erupted volume, regional slope, and gravity. To investigate which parameter(s) may control(s) the development of long lava flows on Mars, we are applying a computational numerical-modelling to reproduce the observed lava flow morphologies. Using a matrix of boundary conditions in the model enables us to investigate the possible range of emplacement conditions that can yield the observed morphologies. We have constructed the basic model framework in Model Builder within ArcMap, including all governing equations and parameters that we seek to test, and initial implementation and calibration has been performed. The base model is currently capable of generating a lava flow that propagates along a pathway governed by the local topography. At AGU, the results of model calibration using the Eldgá and Laki lava flows in Iceland will be presented, along with the application of the model to lava flows within the Cerberus plains on Mars. We then

  6. Analytic regularization of uniform cubic B-spline deformation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleford, James A; Yang, Qi; Lourenço, Ana M; Shusharina, Nadya; Kandasamy, Nagarajan; Sharp, Gregory C

    2012-01-01

    Image registration is inherently ill-posed, and lacks a unique solution. In the context of medical applications, it is desirable to avoid solutions that describe physically unsound deformations within the patient anatomy. Among the accepted methods of regularizing non-rigid image registration to provide solutions applicable to medical practice is the penalty of thin-plate bending energy. In this paper, we develop an exact, analytic method for computing the bending energy of a three-dimensional B-spline deformation field as a quadratic matrix operation on the spline coefficient values. Results presented on ten thoracic case studies indicate the analytic solution is between 61-1371x faster than a numerical central differencing solution.

  7. MHD stability analysis using higher order spline functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Akihiro [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Todoroki, Jiro; Sanuki, Heiji

    1999-04-01

    The eigenvalue problem of the linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equation is formulated by using higher order spline functions as the base functions of Ritz-Galerkin approximation. When the displacement vector normal to the magnetic surface (in the magnetic surface) is interpolated by B-spline functions of degree p{sub 1} (degree p{sub 2}), which is continuously c{sub 1}-th (c{sub 2}-th) differentiable on neighboring finite elements, the sufficient conditions for the good approximation is given by p{sub 1}{>=}p{sub 2}+1, c{sub 1}{<=}c{sub 2}+1, (c{sub 1}{>=}1, p{sub 2}{>=}c{sub 2}{>=}0). The influence of the numerical integration upon the convergence of calculated eigenvalues is discussed. (author)

  8. Data approximation using a blending type spline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmo, Rune; Bratlie, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) is a blending type spline construction where local functions at each knot are blended together by C k -smooth basis functions. One way of approximating discrete regular data using GERBS is by partitioning the data set into subsets and fit a local function to each subset. Partitioning and fitting strategies can be devised such that important or interesting data points are interpolated in order to preserve certain features. We present a method for fitting discrete data using a tensor product GERBS construction. The method is based on detection of feature points using differential geometry. Derivatives, which are necessary for feature point detection and used to construct local surface patches, are approximated from the discrete data using finite differences

  9. Examining Mars with SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  10. Non-stationary hydrologic frequency analysis using B-spline quantile regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, B.; Bouezmarni, T.; St-Hilaire, A.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2017-11-01

    Hydrologic frequency analysis is commonly used by engineers and hydrologists to provide the basic information on planning, design and management of hydraulic and water resources systems under the assumption of stationarity. However, with increasing evidence of climate change, it is possible that the assumption of stationarity, which is prerequisite for traditional frequency analysis and hence, the results of conventional analysis would become questionable. In this study, we consider a framework for frequency analysis of extremes based on B-Spline quantile regression which allows to model data in the presence of non-stationarity and/or dependence on covariates with linear and non-linear dependence. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was used to estimate quantiles and their posterior distributions. A coefficient of determination and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) for quantile regression are used in order to select the best model, i.e. for each quantile, we choose the degree and number of knots of the adequate B-spline quantile regression model. The method is applied to annual maximum and minimum streamflow records in Ontario, Canada. Climate indices are considered to describe the non-stationarity in the variable of interest and to estimate the quantiles in this case. The results show large differences between the non-stationary quantiles and their stationary equivalents for an annual maximum and minimum discharge with high annual non-exceedance probabilities.

  11. Splines and polynomial tools for flatness-based constrained motion planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Fajar; De Doná, José; Seron, María

    2012-08-01

    This article addresses the problem of trajectory planning for flat systems with constraints. Flat systems have the useful property that the input and the state can be completely characterised by the so-called flat output. We propose a spline parametrisation for the flat output, the performance output, the states and the inputs. Using this parametrisation the problem of constrained trajectory planning can be cast into a simple quadratic programming problem. An important result is that the B-spline parametrisation used gives exact results for constrained linear continuous-time system. The result is exact in the sense that the constrained signal can be made arbitrarily close to the boundary without having intersampling issues (as one would have in sampled-data systems). Simulation examples are presented, involving the generation of rest-to-rest trajectories. In addition, an experimental result of the method is also presented, where two methods to generate trajectories for a magnetic-levitation (maglev) system in the presence of constraints are compared and each method's performance is discussed. The first method uses the nonlinear model of the plant, which turns out to belong to the class of flat systems. The second method uses a linearised version of the plant model around an operating point. In every case, a continuous-time description is used. The experimental results on a real maglev system reported here show that, in most scenarios, the nonlinear and linearised models produce almost similar, indistinguishable trajectories.

  12. Sequential bayes estimation algorithm with cubic splines on uniform meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossfeld, F.; Mika, K.; Plesser-Walk, E.

    1975-11-01

    After outlining the principles of some recent developments in parameter estimation, a sequential numerical algorithm for generalized curve-fitting applications is presented combining results from statistical estimation concepts and spline analysis. Due to its recursive nature, the algorithm can be used most efficiently in online experimentation. Using computer-sumulated and experimental data, the efficiency and the flexibility of this sequential estimation procedure is extensively demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  13. Nitrogen on Mars: Insights from Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Sutter, B.; Jackson, W. A.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Chrisopher P.; Ming, W.; Archer, P. Douglas; Glavin, D. P.; Fairen, A. G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent detection of nitrate on Mars indicates that nitrogen fixation processes occurred in early martian history. Data collected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity Rover can be integrated with Mars analog work in order to better understand the fixation and mobility of nitrogen on Mars, and thus its availability to putative biology. In particular, the relationship between nitrate and other soluble salts may help reveal the timing of nitrogen fixation and post-depositional behavior of nitrate on Mars. In addition, in situ measurements of nitrogen abundance and isotopic composition may be used to model atmospheric conditions on early Mars.

  14. USING SPLINE FUNCTIONS FOR THE SUBSTANTIATION OF TAX POLICIES BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otgon Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to approach innovative financial instruments for the management of public resources. In the category of these innovative tools have been included polynomial spline functions used for budgetary sizing in the substantiating of fiscal and budgetary policies. In order to use polynomial spline functions there have been made a number of steps consisted in the establishment of nodes, the calculation of specific coefficients corresponding to the spline functions, development and determination of errors of approximation. Also in this paper was done extrapolation of series of property tax data using polynomial spline functions of order I. For spline impelementation were taken two series of data, one reffering to property tax as a resultative variable and the second one reffering to building tax, resulting a correlation indicator R=0,95. Moreover the calculation of spline functions are easy to solve and due to small errors of approximation have a great power of predictibility, much better than using ordinary least squares method. In order to realise the research there have been used as methods of research several steps, namely observation, series of data construction and processing the data with spline functions. The data construction is a daily series gathered from the budget account, reffering to building tax and property tax. The added value of this paper is given by the possibility of avoiding deficits by using spline functions as innovative instruments in the publlic finance, the original contribution is made by the average of splines resulted from the series of data. The research results lead to conclusion that the polynomial spline functions are recommended to form the elaboration of fiscal and budgetary policies, due to relatively small errors obtained in the extrapolation of economic processes and phenomena. Future research directions are taking in consideration to study the polynomial spline functions of second-order, third

  15. Backfitting in Smoothing Spline Anova, with Application to Historical Global Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen

    In the attempt to estimate the temperature history of the earth using the surface observations, various biases can exist. An important source of bias is the incompleteness of sampling over both time and space. There have been a few methods proposed to deal with this problem. Although they can correct some biases resulting from incomplete sampling, they have ignored some other significant biases. In this dissertation, a smoothing spline ANOVA approach which is a multivariate function estimation method is proposed to deal simultaneously with various biases resulting from incomplete sampling. Besides that, an advantage of this method is that we can get various components of the estimated temperature history with a limited amount of information stored. This method can also be used for detecting erroneous observations in the data base. The method is illustrated through an example of modeling winter surface air temperature as a function of year and location. Extension to more complicated models are discussed. The linear system associated with the smoothing spline ANOVA estimates is too large to be solved by full matrix decomposition methods. A computational procedure combining the backfitting (Gauss-Seidel) algorithm and the iterative imputation algorithm is proposed. This procedure takes advantage of the tensor product structure in the data to make the computation feasible in an environment of limited memory. Various related issues are discussed, e.g., the computation of confidence intervals and the techniques to speed up the convergence of the backfitting algorithm such as collapsing and successive over-relaxation.

  16. An investigation of temporal regularization techniques for dynamic PET reconstructions using temporal splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, Jeroen; D'Asseler, Yves; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Staelens, Steven; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2007-01-01

    The use of a temporal B-spline basis for the reconstruction of dynamic positron emission tomography data was investigated. Maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructions using an expectation maximization framework and maximum A-posteriori (MAP) reconstructions using the generalized expectation maximization framework were evaluated. Different parameters of the B-spline basis of such as order, number of basis functions and knot placing were investigated in a reconstruction task using simulated dynamic list-mode data. We found that a higher order basis reduced both the bias and variance. Using a higher number of basis functions in the modeling of the time activity curves (TACs) allowed the algorithm to model faster changes of the TACs, however, the TACs became noisier. We have compared ML, Gaussian postsmoothed ML and MAP reconstructions. The noise level in the ML reconstructions was controlled by varying the number of basis functions. The MAP algorithm penalized the integrated squared curvature of the reconstructed TAC. The postsmoothed ML was always outperformed in terms of bias and variance properties by the MAP and ML reconstructions. A simple adaptive knot placing strategy was also developed and evaluated. It is based on an arc length redistribution scheme during the reconstruction. The free knot reconstruction allowed a more accurate reconstruction while reducing the noise level especially for fast changing TACs such as blood input functions. Limiting the number of temporal basis functions combined with the adaptive knot placing strategy is in this case advantageous for regularization purposes when compared to the other regularization techniques

  17. Nonlinear Analysis for the Crack Control of SMA Smart Concrete Beam Based on a Bidirectional B-Spline QR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A bidirectional B-spline QR method (BB-sQRM for the study on the crack control of the reinforced concrete (RC beam embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is presented. In the proposed method, the discretization is performed with a set of spline nodes in two directions of the plane model, and structural displacement fields are constructed by the linear combination of the products of cubic B-spline interpolation functions. To derive the elastoplastic stiffness equation of the RC beam, an explicit form is utilized to express the elastoplastic constitutive law of concrete materials. The proposed model is compared with the ANSYS model in several numerical examples. The results not only show that the solutions given by the BB-sQRM are very close to those given by the finite element method (FEM but also prove the high efficiency and low computational cost of the BB-sQRM. Meanwhile, the five parameters, such as depth-span ratio, thickness of concrete cover, reinforcement ratio, prestrain, and eccentricity of SMA wires, are investigated to learn their effects on the crack control. The results show that depth-span ratio of RC beams and prestrain and eccentricity of SMA wires have a significant influence on the control performance of beam cracks.

  18. A Spline-Based Lack-Of-Fit Test for Independent Variable Effect in Poisson Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Shang; Tu, Wanzhu

    2007-05-01

    In regression analysis of count data, independent variables are often modeled by their linear effects under the assumption of log-linearity. In reality, the validity of such an assumption is rarely tested, and its use is at times unjustifiable. A lack-of-fit test is proposed for the adequacy of a postulated functional form of an independent variable within the framework of semiparametric Poisson regression models based on penalized splines. It offers added flexibility in accommodating the potentially non-loglinear effect of the independent variable. A likelihood ratio test is constructed for the adequacy of the postulated parametric form, for example log-linearity, of the independent variable effect. Simulations indicate that the proposed model performs well, and misspecified parametric model has much reduced power. An example is given.

  19. A new class of interpolatory $L$-splines with adjoint end conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bejancu, Aurelian; Al-Sahli, Reyouf S.

    2014-01-01

    A thin plate spline surface for interpolation of smooth transfinite data prescribed along concentric circles was recently proposed by Bejancu, using Kounchev's polyspline method. The construction of the new `Beppo Levi polyspline' surface reduces, via separation of variables, to that of a countable family of univariate $L$-splines, indexed by the frequency integer $k$. This paper establishes the existence, uniqueness and variational properties of the `Beppo Levi $L$-spline' schemes correspond...

  20. Reactive transport and mass balance modeling of the Stimson sedimentary formation and altered fracture zones constrain diagenetic conditions at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T. S.; Rampe, E. B.

    2018-06-01

    On a planet as cold and dry as present-day Mars, evidence of multiple aqueous episodes offers an intriguing view into very different past environments. Fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian depositional environments are being investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity in Gale crater, Mars. Geochemical and mineralogical observations of these sedimentary rocks suggest diagenetic processes affected the sediments. Here, we analyze diagenesis of the Stimson formation eolian parent material, which caused loss of olivine and formation of magnetite. Additional, later alteration in fracture zones resulted in preferential dissolution of pyroxene and precipitation of secondary amorphous silica and Ca sulfate. The ability to compare the unaltered parent material with the reacted material allows constraints to be placed on the characteristics of the altering solutions. In this work we use a combination of a mass balance approach calculating the fraction of a mobile element lost or gained, τ, with fundamental geochemical kinetics and thermodynamics in the reactive transport code CrunchFlow to examine the characteristics of multiple stages of aqueous alteration at Gale crater, Mars. Our model results indicate that early diagenesis of the Stimson sedimentary formation is consistent with leaching of an eolian deposit by a near-neutral solution, and that formation of the altered fracture zones is consistent with a very acidic, high sulfate solution containing Ca, P and Si. These results indicate a range of past aqueous conditions occurring at Gale crater, Mars, with important implications for past martian climate and environments.

  1. Development and assessment of multi-dimensional flow model in MARS compared with the RPI air-water experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Min; Lee, Un Chul; Bae, Sung Won; Chung, Bub Dong

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-Dimensional flow models in system code have been developed during the past many years. RELAP5-3D, CATHARE and TRACE has its specific multi-dimensional flow models and successfully applied it to the system safety analysis. In KAERI, also, MARS(Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code was developed by integrating RELAP5/MOD3 code and COBRA-TF code. Even though COBRA-TF module can analyze three-dimensional flow models, it has a limitation to apply 3D shear stress dominant phenomena or cylindrical geometry. Therefore, Multi-dimensional analysis models are newly developed by implementing three-dimensional momentum flux and diffusion terms. The multi-dimensional model has been assessed compared with multi-dimensional conceptual problems and CFD code results. Although the assessment results were reasonable, the multi-dimensional model has not been validated to two-phase flow using experimental data. In this paper, the multi-dimensional air-water two-phase flow experiment was simulated and analyzed

  2. Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparitive Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.; Beitler, B.; Parry, W. T.; Ormö, J.; Komatsu, G.

    2005-03-01

    Compelling comparisons show why Utah iron oxide-cemented "marbles" are a good analog for Mars hematite "blueberries". Terrestrial examples offer valuable models for interpreting the diagenetic history and importance of water on Mars.

  3. A formational model for the polygonal terrains of Mars: Taking a crack at the genesis of the Martian polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, M. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism for the genesis of the polygonal terrains in Acidalia and Utopia Planitia has long been sought: however, no completely satisfying model was put forth that characterizes the evolution of these complexly patterned terrains. The polygons are roughly hexagonal but some are not entirely enclosed by fractures. These polygonal features range in widths from approximately 5 to 20 km. Several origins were proposed that describe the polygon borders as desiccation cracks, columnar jointing in a cooled lava, or frost-wedge features. These tension-induced cracking hypotheses were addressed by Pechmann, who convincingly disputes these mechanisms of formation based on scale magnitude difficulties and morphology. Pechmann suggests instead that the cracks delineating the 5-20-km-wide polygons on the northern plains of Mars are graben resulting from deep-seated, uniform, horizontal tension. The difficulty with this hypothesis is that no analogous polygonal forms are known to have originated by tectonism on Earth. McGill and Hills propose that the polygonal terrains on Mars resulted from either rapid desiccation of sediments or cooling of volcanics coupled with differential compaction of the material over a buried irregular topographic surface. They suggest that fracturing was enhanced over the areas of positive relief and was suppressed above the topographic lows. McGill and Hills suggest that the spacing of the topographic highs primarily controls the size of the Martian polygons and the physics of the shrinkage process is a secondary concern. Ray et. al. conducted a terrestrial study of patterned ground in periglacial areas of the U.S. to determine the process responsible for polygonal ground formation. They developed a model for polygon formation in which convection of seasonal melt water above a permafrost layer, driven by an unstable density stratification, differentially melts the permafrost interface, causing it to become undulatory.

  4. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE), Version 5.0: Models and Results Database (MAR-D) reference manual. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.D.; Skinner, N.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. The primary function of MAR-D is to create a data repository for completed PRAs and Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) by providing input, conversion, and output capabilities for data used by IRRAS, SARA, SETS, and FRANTIC software. As probabilistic risk assessments and individual plant examinations are submitted to the NRC for review, MAR-D can be used to convert the models and results from the study for use with IRRAS and SARA. Then, these data can be easily accessed by future studies and will be in a form that will enhance the analysis process. This reference manual provides an overview of the functions available within MAR-D and step-by-step operating instructions

  5. SPLPKG WFCMPR WFAPPX, Wilson-Fowler Spline Generator for Computer Aided Design And Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The three programs SPLPKG, WFCMPR, and WFAPPX provide the capability for interactively generating, comparing and approximating Wilson-Fowler Splines. The Wilson-Fowler spline is widely used in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems. It is favored for many applications because it produces a smooth, low curvature fit to planar data points. Program SPLPKG generates a Wilson-Fowler spline passing through given nodes (with given end conditions) and also generates a piecewise linear approximation to that spline within a user-defined tolerance. The program may be used to generate a 'desired' spline against which to compare other Splines generated by CAD/CAM systems. It may also be used to generate an acceptable approximation to a desired spline in the event that an acceptable spline cannot be generated by the receiving CAD/CAM system. SPLPKG writes an IGES file of points evaluated on the spline and/or a file containing the spline description. Program WFCMPR computes the maximum difference between two Wilson-Fowler Splines and may be used to verify the spline recomputed by a receiving system. It compares two Wilson-Fowler Splines with common nodes and reports the maximum distance between curves (measured perpendicular to segments) and the maximum difference of their tangents (or normals), both computed along the entire length of the Splines. Program WFAPPX computes the maximum difference between a Wilson- Fowler spline and a piecewise linear curve. It may be used to accept or reject a proposed approximation to a desired Wilson-Fowler spline, even if the origin of the approximation is unknown. The maximum deviation between these two curves, and the parameter value on the spline where it occurs are reported. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 1600 evaluation points (SPLPKG), 1000 evaluation points (WFAPPX), 1000 linear curve breakpoints (WFAPPX), 100 spline Nodes

  6. Thin-plate spline analysis of mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2001-04-01

    The analysis of mandibular growth changes around the pubertal spurt in humans has several important implications for the diagnosis and orthopedic correction of skeletal disharmonies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mandibular shape and size growth changes around the pubertal spurt in a longitudinal sample of subjects with normal occlusion by means of an appropriate morphometric technique (thin-plate spline analysis). Ten mandibular landmarks were identified on lateral cephalograms of 29 subjects at 6 different developmental phases. The 6 phases corresponded to 6 different maturational stages in cervical vertebrae during accelerative and decelerative phases of the pubertal growth curve of the mandible. Differences in shape between average mandibular configurations at the 6 developmental stages were visualized by means of thin-plate spline analysis and subjected to permutation test. Centroid size was used as the measure of the geometric size of each mandibular specimen. Differences in size at the 6 developmental phases were tested statistically. The results of graphical analysis indicated a statistically significant change in mandibular shape only for the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation. Significant increases in centroid size were found at all developmental phases, with evidence of a prepubertal minimum and of a pubertal maximum. The existence of a pubertal peak in human mandibular growth, therefore, is confirmed by thin-plate spline analysis. Significant morphological changes in the mandible during the growth interval from stage 3 to stage 4 in cervical vertebral maturation may be described as an upward-forward direction of condylar growth determining an overall "shrinkage" of the mandibular configuration along the measurement of total mandibular length. This biological mechanism is particularly efficient in compensating for major increments in mandibular size at the adolescent spurt.

  7. A Bayesian-optimized spline representation of the electrocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilak, F G; McNames, J

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an implementation of a novel spline framework for parametrically representing electrocardiogram (ECG) waveforms. This implementation enables a flexible means to study ECG structure in large databases. Our algorithm allows researchers to identify key points in the waveform and optimally locate them in long-term recordings with minimal manual effort, thereby permitting analysis of trends in the points themselves or in metrics derived from their locations. In the work described here we estimate the location of a number of commonly-used characteristic points of the ECG signal, defined as the onsets, peaks, and offsets of the P, QRS, T, and R′ waves. The algorithm applies Bayesian optimization to a linear spline representation of the ECG waveform. The location of the knots—which are the endpoints of the piecewise linear segments used in the spline representation of the signal—serve as the estimate of the waveform’s characteristic points. We obtained prior information of knot times, amplitudes, and curvature from a large manually-annotated training dataset and used the priors to optimize a Bayesian figure of merit based on estimated knot locations. In cases where morphologies vary or are subject to noise, the algorithm relies more heavily on the estimated priors for its estimate of knot locations. We compared optimized knot locations from our algorithm to two sets of manual annotations on a prospective test data set comprising 200 beats from 20 subjects not in the training set. Mean errors of characteristic point locations were less than four milliseconds, and standard deviations of errors compared favorably against reference values. This framework can easily be adapted to include additional points of interest in the ECG signal or for other biomedical detection problems on quasi-periodic signals. (paper)

  8. Incorporation of a Helical Tube Heat Transfer Model in the MARS Thermal Hydraulic Systems Analysis Code for the T/H Analyses of the SMART Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young Jin Lee; Bub Dong Chung; Jong Chull Jo; Hho Jung Kim; Un Chul Lee

    2004-01-01

    SMART is a medium sized integral type advanced pressurized water reactor currently under development at KAERI. The steam generators of SMART are designed with helically coiled tubes and these are designed to produce superheated steam. The helical shape of the tubes can induce strong centrifugal effect on the secondary coolant as it flows inside the tubes. The presence of centrifugal effect is expected to enhance the formation of cross-sectional circulation flows within the tubes that will increase the overall heat transfer. Furthermore, the centrifugal effect is expected to enhance the moisture separation and thus make it easier to produce superheated steam. MARS is a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-phase, multi-dimensional analysis capability. The MARS code was produced by restructuring and merging the RELAP5 and the COBRA-TF codes. However, MARS as well as most other best-estimate systems analysis codes in current use lack the detailed models needed to describe the thermal hydraulics of helically coiled tubes. In this study, the heat transfer characteristics and relevant correlations for both the tube and shell sides of helical tubes have been investigated, and the appropriate models have been incorporated into the MARS code. The newly incorporated helical tube heat transfer package is available to the MARS users via selection of the appropriate option in the input. A performance analysis on the steam generator of SMART under full power operation was carried out using the modified MARS code. The results of the analysis indicate that there is a significant improvement in the code predictability. (authors)

  9. Iteratively re-weighted bi-cubic spline representation of corneal topography and its comparison to the standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongxia; Janunts, Edgar; Eppig, Timo; Sauer, Tomas; Langenbucher, Achim

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to represent the corneal anterior surface by utilizing radius and height data extracted from a TMS-2N topographic system with three different mathematical approaches and to simulate the visual performance. An iteratively re-weighted bi-cubic spline method is introduced for the local representation of the corneal surface. For comparison, two standard mathematical global representation approaches are used: the general quadratic function and the higher order Taylor polynomial approach. First, these methods were applied in simulations using three corneal models. Then, two real eye examples were investigated: one eye with regular astigmatism, and one eye which had undergone refractive surgery. A ray-tracing program was developed to evaluate the imaging performance of these examples with each surface representation strategy at the best focus plane. A 6 mm pupil size was chosen for the simulation. The fitting error (deviation) of the presented methods was compared. It was found that the accuracy of the topography representation was worst using the quadratic function and best with bicubic spline. The quadratic function cannot precisely describe the irregular corneal shape. In order to achieve a sub-micron fitting precision, the Taylor polynomial's order selection behaves adaptive to the corneal shape. The bi-cubic spline shows more stable performance. Considering the visual performance, the more precise the cornea representation is, the worse the visual performance is. The re-weighted bi-cubic spline method is a reasonable and stable method for representing the anterior corneal surface in measurements using a Placido-ring-pattern-based corneal topographer. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. A spline-based regression parameter set for creating customized DARTEL MRI brain templates from infancy to old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Wilke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This dataset contains the regression parameters derived by analyzing segmented brain MRI images (gray matter and white matter from a large population of healthy subjects, using a multivariate adaptive regression splines approach. A total of 1919 MRI datasets ranging in age from 1–75 years from four publicly available datasets (NIH, C-MIND, fCONN, and IXI were segmented using the CAT12 segmentation framework, writing out gray matter and white matter images normalized using an affine-only spatial normalization approach. These images were then subjected to a six-step DARTEL procedure, employing an iterative non-linear registration approach and yielding increasingly crisp intermediate images. The resulting six datasets per tissue class were then analyzed using multivariate adaptive regression splines, using the CerebroMatic toolbox. This approach allows for flexibly modelling smoothly varying trajectories while taking into account demographic (age, gender as well as technical (field strength, data quality predictors. The resulting regression parameters described here can be used to generate matched DARTEL or SHOOT templates for a given population under study, from infancy to old age. The dataset and the algorithm used to generate it are publicly available at https://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php. Keywords: MRI template creation, Multivariate adaptive regression splines, DARTEL, Structural MRI

  11. C1 Rational Quadratic Trigonometric Interpolation Spline for Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new C1 piecewise rational quadratic trigonometric spline with four local positive shape parameters in each subinterval is constructed to visualize the given planar data. Constraints are derived on these free shape parameters to generate shape preserving interpolation curves for positive and/or monotonic data sets. Two of these shape parameters are constrained while the other two can be set free to interactively control the shape of the curves. Moreover, the order of approximation of developed interpolant is investigated as O(h3. Numeric experiments demonstrate that our method can construct nice shape preserving interpolation curves efficiently.

  12. Compositional Models of Hematite-Rich Spherules (Blueberries) at Meridiani Planum, Mars and Constraints on Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Mittlefehldt, D.

    2006-10-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered hematite-rich spherules (``blueberries'') believed to be diagenetic concretions formed in the bedrock in stagnant or slow-moving groundwater. These spherules likely precipitated from solution, but their origins are poorly understood. Three formation mechanisms are possible: inclusive, replacive and displacive. The first would result in a distinct spherule composition compared to the other two. We propose that chemical clues may help to constrain the nature of blueberry formation. We used Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer data for undisturbed soils that were blueberry-free and with visible blueberries at the surface in Microscopic Imager images. We made plots of the elements versus iron for the spherule-rich soils and compared them to a mixing line representative of a pure hematite end member spherule (called ``the zero model''). This modeled the replacive formation mechanism, in which pure hematite would replace all of the original material. If the spherules grew inclusively, chemical data should reflect a compositional component of the rock grains included during formation. Four models were developed to test for possible compositions of a rock component. These models could not easily explain the APXS data and thus demonstrate that the most plausible rock compositions are not components of blueberries.

  13. Full-turn symplectic map from a generator in a Fourier-spline basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.; Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.; Forest, E.

    1993-04-01

    Given an arbitrary symplectic tracking code, one can construct a full-turn symplectic map that approximates the result of the code to high accuracy. The map is defined implicitly by a mixed-variable generating function. The implicit definition is no great drawback in practice, thanks to an efficient use of Newton's method to solve for the explicit map at each iteration. The generator is represented by a Fourier series in angle variables, with coefficients given as B-spline functions of action variables. It is constructed by using results of single-turn tracking from many initial conditions. The method has been appliedto a realistic model of the SSC in three degrees of freedom. Orbits can be mapped symplectically for 10 7 turns on an IBM RS6000 model 320 workstation, in a run of about one day

  14. Mars: Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The atmosphere of MARS is much thinner than the terrestrial one. However, even the simplest visual telescopic observations show a set of atmospheric events such as seasonal exchange of material between polar caps, temporal appearance of clouds and changes of visibility of dark regions on the disk of the planet. In 1947 the prominent CO2 bands in the near-infrared part of the Martian spectrum were...

  15. CerebroMatic: A Versatile Toolbox for Spline-Based MRI Template Creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Marko; Altaye, Mekibib; Holland, Scott K

    2017-01-01

    Brain image spatial normalization and tissue segmentation rely on prior tissue probability maps. Appropriately selecting these tissue maps becomes particularly important when investigating "unusual" populations, such as young children or elderly subjects. When creating such priors, the disadvantage of applying more deformation must be weighed against the benefit of achieving a crisper image. We have previously suggested that statistically modeling demographic variables, instead of simply averaging images, is advantageous. Both aspects (more vs. less deformation and modeling vs. averaging) were explored here. We used imaging data from 1914 subjects, aged 13 months to 75 years, and employed multivariate adaptive regression splines to model the effects of age, field strength, gender, and data quality. Within the spm/cat12 framework, we compared an affine-only with a low- and a high-dimensional warping approach. As expected, more deformation on the individual level results in lower group dissimilarity. Consequently, effects of age in particular are less apparent in the resulting tissue maps when using a more extensive deformation scheme. Using statistically-described parameters, high-quality tissue probability maps could be generated for the whole age range; they are consistently closer to a gold standard than conventionally-generated priors based on 25, 50, or 100 subjects. Distinct effects of field strength, gender, and data quality were seen. We conclude that an extensive matching for generating tissue priors may model much of the variability inherent in the dataset which is then not contained in the resulting priors. Further, the statistical description of relevant parameters (using regression splines) allows for the generation of high-quality tissue probability maps while controlling for known confounds. The resulting CerebroMatic toolbox is available for download at http://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php.

  16. Modeling the Hydrological Cycle in the Atmosphere of Mars: Influence of a Bimodal Size Distribution of Aerosol Nucleation Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikov, Dmitry S.; Rodin, Alexander V.; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Fedorova, Anna A.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Hartogh, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We present a new implementation of the hydrological cycle scheme into a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The model includes a semi-Lagrangian transport scheme for water vapor and ice and accounts for microphysics of phase transitions between them. The hydrological scheme includes processes of saturation, nucleation, particle growth, sublimation, and sedimentation under the assumption of a variable size distribution. The scheme has been implemented into the Max Planck Institute Martian general circulation model and tested assuming monomodal and bimodal lognormal distributions of ice condensation nuclei. We present a comparison of the simulated annual variations, horizontal and vertical distributions of water vapor, and ice clouds with the available observations from instruments on board Mars orbiters. The accounting for bimodality of aerosol particle distribution improves the simulations of the annual hydrological cycle, including predicted ice clouds mass, opacity, number density, and particle radii. The increased number density and lower nucleation rates bring the simulated cloud opacities closer to observations. Simulations show a weak effect of the excess of small aerosol particles on the simulated water vapor distributions.

  17. A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2003-01-01

    The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

  18. B-Spline Approximations of the Gaussian, their Gabor Frame Properties, and Approximately Dual Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2017-01-01

    We prove that Gabor systems generated by certain scaled B-splines can be considered as perturbations of the Gabor systems generated by the Gaussian, with a deviation within an arbitrary small tolerance whenever the order N of the B-spline is sufficiently large. As a consequence we show that for a...

  19. Adaptive estimation of multivariate functions using conditionally Gaussian tensor-product spline priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate posterior contraction rates for priors on multivariate functions that are constructed using tensor-product B-spline expansions. We prove that using a hierarchical prior with an appropriate prior distribution on the partition size and Gaussian prior weights on the B-spline

  20. B-spline solution of a singularly perturbed boundary value problem arising in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bin; Li Kaitai; Cheng Zhengxing

    2009-01-01

    We use B-spline functions to develop a numerical method for solving a singularly perturbed boundary value problem associated with biology science. We use B-spline collocation method, which leads to a tridiagonal linear system. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by test problems. The numerical result is found in good agreement with exact solution.

  1. Efficient GPU-based texture interpolation using uniform B-splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijters, D.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Suetens, P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents uniform B-spline interpolation, completely contained on the graphics processing unit (GPU). This implies that the CPU does not need to compute any lookup tables or B-spline basis functions. The cubic interpolation can be decomposed into several linear interpolations [Sigg and

  2. B-Spline potential function for maximum a-posteriori image reconstruction in fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Dilipkumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An iterative image reconstruction technique employing B-Spline potential function in a Bayesian framework is proposed for fluorescence microscopy images. B-splines are piecewise polynomials with smooth transition, compact support and are the shortest polynomial splines. Incorporation of the B-spline potential function in the maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction technique resulted in improved contrast, enhanced resolution and substantial background reduction. The proposed technique is validated on simulated data as well as on the images acquired from fluorescence microscopes (widefield, confocal laser scanning fluorescence and super-resolution 4Pi microscopy. A comparative study of the proposed technique with the state-of-art maximum likelihood (ML and maximum-a-posteriori (MAP with quadratic potential function shows its superiority over the others. B-Spline MAP technique can find applications in several imaging modalities of fluorescence microscopy like selective plane illumination microscopy, localization microscopy and STED.

  3. A Novel Structure and Design Optimization of Compact Spline-Parameterized UWB Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziel Slawomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel structure of a compact UWB slot antenna and its design optimization procedure has been presented. In order to achieve a sufficient number of degrees of freedom necessary to obtain a considerable size reduction rate, the slot is parameterized using spline curves. All antenna dimensions are simultaneously adjusted using numerical optimization procedures. The fundamental bottleneck here is a high cost of the electromagnetic (EM simulation model of the structure that includes (for reliability an SMA connector. Another problem is a large number of geometry parameters (nineteen. For the sake of computational efficiency, the optimization process is therefore performed using variable-fidelity EM simulations and surrogate-assisted algorithms. The optimization process is oriented towards explicit reduction of the antenna size and leads to a compact footprint of 199 mm2 as well as acceptable matching within the entire UWB band. The simulation results are validated using physical measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.

  4. Mars @ ASDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  5. NASA Mars Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space

  6. Models of formation and activity of spring mounds in the mechertate-chrita-sidi el hani system, eastern Tunisia: implications for the habitability of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essefi, Elhoucine; Komatsu, Goro; Fairén, Alberto G; Chan, Marjorie A; Yaich, Chokri

    2014-08-28

    Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH) system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early) to the islet ("island") stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i) the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii) the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii) indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common features on Mars

  7. Models of Formation and Activity of Spring Mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani System, Eastern Tunisia: Implications for the Habitability of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhoucine Essefi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early to the islet (“island” stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common

  8. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  9. Exploring the Argumentation Pattern in Modeling-Based Learning about Apparent Motion of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed an analytic framework for coding students' dialogic argumentation and investigated the characteristics of the small-group argumentation pattern observed in modeling-based learning. The participants were 122 second grade high school students in South Korea divided into an experimental and a comparison group. Modeling-based…

  10. From cardinal spline wavelet bases to highly coherent dictionaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrle, Miroslav; Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Wavelet families arise by scaling and translations of a prototype function, called the mother wavelet. The construction of wavelet bases for cardinal spline spaces is generally carried out within the multi-resolution analysis scheme. Thus, the usual way of increasing the dimension of the multi-resolution subspaces is by augmenting the scaling factor. We show here that, when working on a compact interval, the identical effect can be achieved without changing the wavelet scale but reducing the translation parameter. By such a procedure we generate a redundant frame, called a dictionary, spanning the same spaces as a wavelet basis but with wavelets of broader support. We characterize the correlation of the dictionary elements by measuring their 'coherence' and produce examples illustrating the relevance of highly coherent dictionaries to problems of sparse signal representation. (fast track communication)

  11. Splines employment for inverse problem of nonstationary thermal conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.P.; Spolitak, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for an inverse problem of nonstationary thermal conduction which is faced in nonstationary heat transfer data processing when the rewetting in channels with uniform annular fuel element imitators is investigated. In solving the problem both boundary conditions and power density within the imitator are regularized via cubic splines constructed with the use of Reinsch algorithm. The solution can be applied for calculation of temperature distribution in the imitator and the heat flux in two-dimensional approximation (r-z geometry) under the condition that the rewetting front velocity is known, and in one-dimensional r-approximation in cases with negligible axial transport or when there is a lack of data about the temperature disturbance source velocity along the channel

  12. Perbaikan Metode Penghitungan Debit Sungai Menggunakan Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi I. Setiawan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyajikan perbaikan metode pengukuran debit sungai menggunakan fungsi cubic spline interpolation. Fungi ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan profil sungai secara kontinyu yang terbentuk atas hasil pengukuran jarak dan kedalaman sungai. Dengan metoda baru ini, luas dan perimeter sungai lebih mudah, cepat dan tepat dihitung. Demikian pula, fungsi kebalikannnya (inverse function tersedia menggunakan metode. Newton-Raphson sehingga memudahkan dalam perhitungan luas dan perimeter bila tinggi air sungai diketahui. Metode baru ini dapat langsung menghitung debit sungaimenggunakan formula Manning, dan menghasilkan kurva debit (rating curve. Dalam makalah ini dikemukaan satu canton pengukuran debit sungai Rudeng Aceh. Sungai ini mempunyai lebar sekitar 120 m dan kedalaman 7 m, dan pada saat pengukuran mempunyai debit 41 .3 m3/s, serta kurva debitnya mengikuti formula: Q= 0.1649 x H 2.884 , dimana Q debit (m3/s dan H tinggi air dari dasar sungai (m.

  13. Transient Model of a 10 MW Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for Light Water Reactors by using MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung Won; Cha, Jae-Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, recuperation cycle was chosen as a reference loop design and the MARS code was chosen as the transient cycle analysis code. Cycle design condition is focus on operation point of the light-water reactor. Development of a transient model was performed for 10MW-electron SCO{sub 2} coupled with light water reactors. In order to perform transient analysis, cycle transient model was developed and steady-state run was performed and presented in the paper. In this study, the transient model of SCO{sub 2} recuperation Brayton cycle was developed and implemented in MARS to study the steady-state simulation. We performed nodalization of the transient model using MARS code and obtained steady-state results. This study is shown that the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can be used as a power conversion system for light water reactors. Future work will include transient analysis such as partial road operation, power swing, start-up, and shutdown. Cycle control strategy will be considered for various control method.

  14. Modeling of the 10-micron natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.; Mumma, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The NLTE radiative transfer problem is solved to obtain the 00 deg 1 vibrational state population. This model successfully reproduces the existing center-to-limb observations, although higher spatial resolution observations are needed for a definitive test. The model also predicts total fluxes which are close to the observed values. The strength of the emission is predicted to be closely related to the instantaneous near-IR solar heating rate.

  15. Modelling of the 10-micrometer natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.; Mumma, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The NLTE radiative transfer problem is solved to obtain the 00 deg 1 vibrational state population. This model successfully reproduces the existing center-to-limb observations, although higher spatial resolution observations are needed for a definitive test. The model also predicts total fluxes which are close to the observed values. The strength of the emission is predicted to be closely related to the instantaneous near-IR solar heating rate.

  16. A New Image Processing Procedure Integrating PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline Tools to Improve the Orthorectification Accuracy of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the low accuracy of the traditional remote sensing image processing software when orthorectifying satellite images that cover mountainous areas, and in order to make a full use of mutually compatible and complementary characteristics of the remote sensing image processing software PCI-RPC (Rational Polynomial Coefficients and ArcGIS-Spline, this study puts forward a new operational and effective image processing procedure to improve the accuracy of image orthorectification. The new procedure first processes raw image data into an orthorectified image using PCI with RPC model (PCI-RPC, and then the orthorectified image is further processed using ArcGIS with the Spline tool (ArcGIS-Spline. We used the high-resolution CBERS-02C satellite images (HR1 and HR2 scenes with a pixel size of 2 m acquired from Yangyuan County in Hebei Province of China to test the procedure. In this study, when separately using PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline tools directly to process the HR1/HR2 raw images, the orthorectification accuracies (root mean square errors, RMSEs for HR1/HR2 images were 2.94 m/2.81 m and 4.65 m/4.41 m, respectively. However, when using our newly proposed procedure, the corresponding RMSEs could be reduced to 1.10 m/1.07 m. The experimental results demonstrated that the new image processing procedure which integrates PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline tools could significantly improve image orthorectification accuracy. Therefore, in terms of practice, the new procedure has the potential to use existing software products to easily improve image orthorectification accuracy.

  17. Meshing Force of Misaligned Spline Coupling and the Influence on Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Meshing force of misaligned spline coupling is derived, dynamic equation of rotor-spline coupling system is established based on finite element analysis, the influence of meshing force on rotor-spline coupling system is simulated by numerical integral method. According to the theoretical analysis, meshing force of spline coupling is related to coupling parameters, misalignment, transmitting torque, static misalignment, dynamic vibration displacement, and so on. The meshing force increases nonlinearly with increasing the spline thickness and static misalignment or decreasing alignment meshing distance (AMD. Stiffness of coupling relates to dynamic vibration displacement, and static misalignment is not a constant. Dynamic behaviors of rotor-spline coupling system reveal the following: 1X-rotating speed is the main response frequency of system when there is no misalignment; while 2X-rotating speed appears when misalignment is present. Moreover, when misalignment increases, vibration of the system gets intricate; shaft orbit departs from origin, and magnitudes of all frequencies increase. Research results can provide important criterions on both optimization design of spline coupling and trouble shooting of rotor systems.

  18. Heat transfer through particulated media in stagnant gases model and laboratory measurements: Application to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, Sylvain Loic Lucien

    The physical characterization of the upper few centimeters to meters of the Martian surface has greatly benefited from remote temperature measurements. Typical grain sizes, rock abundances, subsurface layering, soil cementation, bedrock exposures, and ice compositions have been derived and mapped using temperature data in conjunction with subsurface models of heat conduction. Yet, these models of heat conduction are simplistic, precluding significant advances in the characterization of the physical nature of the Martian surface. A new model of heat conduction for homogeneous particulated media accounting for the grain size, porosity, gas pressure and composition, temperature, and the effect of any cementing phase is presented. The incorporation of the temperature effect on the bulk conductivity results in a distortion of the predicted diurnal and seasonal temperatures when compared to temperatures predicted with a temperature-independent conductivity model. Such distortions have been observed and interpreted to result from subsurface heterogeneities, but they may simply be explained by a temperature-dependency of the thermal inertia, with additional implications on the derived grain sizes. Cements are shown to significantly increase the bulk conductivity of a particulated medium and bond fractions duricrust. A laboratory setup has been designed, built, calibrated and used to measure the thermal conductivity of particulated samples in order to test and refine the models mentioned above. Preliminary results confirm the influence of the temperature on the bulk conductivity, as well as the effect of changing the gas composition. Cemented samples are shown to conduct heat more efficiently than their uncemented counterparts.

  19. Upgrades to the Mars Initial Reference Ionosphere (MIRI) Model Due to Observations from MAVEN, MEX and MRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, C.; Mendillo, M.; Trovato, J.

    2017-12-01

    A semi-empirical model of the maximum electron density (Nmax) of the martian ionosphere [MIRI-mark-1](1) was derived from an initial set radar observations by the MEX/MARSIS instrument. To extend the model to full electron density profiles, normalized shapes of Ne(h) from a theoretical model(2) were calibrated by MIRI's Nmax. Subsequent topside ionosphere observations from MAVEN indicated that topside shapes from MEX/MARSIS(3) offered improved morphology. The MEX topside shapes were then merged to the bottomside shapes from the theoretical model. Using a larger set of MEX/MARSIS observations (07/31/2005 - 05/24/2015), a new specification of Nmax as a function of solar zenith angle and solar flux is now used to calibrate the normalized Ne(h) profiles. The MIRI-mark-2 model includes the integral with height of Ne(h) to form total electron content (TEC) values. Validation of the MIRI TEC was accomplished using an independent set of TEC derived from the SHARAD(4) experiment on MRO. (1) M. Mendillo, A. Marusiak, P. Withers, D. Morgan and D. Gurnett, A New Semi-empirical Model of the Peak Electron Density of the Martian Ionosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 1-5, doi:10.1002/2013GL057631, 2013. (2) Mayyasi, M. and M. Mendillo (2015), Why the Viking descent probes found only one ionospheric layer at Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7359-7365, doi:10.1002/2015GL065575 (3) Němec, F., D. Morgan, D. Gurnett, and D. Andrews (2016), Empirical model of the Martian dayside ionosphere: Effects of crustal magnetic fields and solar ionizing flux at higher altitudes, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 1760-1771, doi:10.1002/2015/A022060.(4) Campbell, B., and T. Watters (2016), Phase compensation of MARSIS subsurface sounding and estimation of ionospheric properties: New insights from SHARAD results, J.Geophys. Res. Planets, 121, 180-193, doi:10.1002/2015JE004917.

  20. Properties of cryobrines on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möhlmann, D.; Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Brines, i.e. aqueous salty solutions, increasingly play a role in a better understanding of physics and chemistry (and eventually also putative biology) of the upper surface of Mars. Results of physico-chemical modeling and experimentally determined data to characterize properties of cryobrines...... of potential interest with respect to Mars are described. Eutectic diagrams, the related numerical eutectic values of composition and temperature, the water activity of Mars-relevant brines of sulfates, chlorides, perchlorides and carbonates, including related deliquescence relative humidity, are parameters...... and properties, which are described here in some detail. The results characterize conditions for liquid low-temperature brines ("cryobrines") to evolve and to exist, at least temporarily, on present Mars. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  1. Study of counter current flow limitation model of MARS-KS and SPACE codes under Dukler's air/water flooding test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik; Bang, Young Seok

    2015-01-01

    In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler

  2. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  3. Development of quadrilateral spline thin plate elements using the B-net method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Li, Chong-Jun

    2013-08-01

    The quadrilateral discrete Kirchhoff thin plate bending element DKQ is based on the isoparametric element Q8, however, the accuracy of the isoparametric quadrilateral elements will drop significantly due to mesh distortions. In a previouswork, we constructed an 8-node quadrilateral spline element L8 using the triangular area coordinates and the B-net method, which can be insensitive to mesh distortions and possess the second order completeness in the Cartesian coordinates. In this paper, a thin plate spline element is developed based on the spline element L8 and the refined technique. Numerical examples show that the present element indeed possesses higher accuracy than the DKQ element for distorted meshes.

  4. Assessment of the Effects on PCT Evaluation of Enhanced Fuel Model Facilitated by Coupling the MARS Code with the FRAPTRAN Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyong Chol; Lee, Young Jin; Han, Sam Hee [NSE Technology Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The principal objectives of the two safety criteria, peak cladding temperature (PCT) and total oxidation limits, are to ensure that the fuel rod claddings remain sufficiently ductile so that they do not crack and fragment during a LOCA. Another important purpose of the PCT limit is to ensure that the fuel cladding does not enter the regime of runaway oxidation and uncontrollable heat-up. However, even when the PCT limit is satisfied, it is known that cladding failures may still occur in a certain percentage of the fuel rods during a LOCA. This is largely because a 100% fuel failure is assumed for the radiological consequence analysis in the US regulatory practices. In this study, we analyze the effects of cladding failure and other fuel model features on PCT during a LOCA using the MARS-FRAPTRAN coupled code. MARS code has been coupled with FRAPTRAN code to extend fuel modeling capability. The coupling allows feedback of FRAPTRAN results in real time. Because of the significant impact of fuel models on key safety parameters such as PCT, detailed and accurate fuel models should be employed when evaluating PCT in LOCA analysis. It is noteworthy that the ECCS evaluation models laid out in the Appendix K to 10CFR50 require a provision for predicting cladding swelling and rupture and require to assume that the inside of the cladding react with steam after the rupture. The metal-water reaction energy can have significantly large effect on the reflood PCT, especially when fuel failure occurs. Effects of applying an advanced fuel model on the PCT evaluation can be clearly seen when comparing the MARS and the FRAPTRAN results in both the one-way calculation and the feedback calculation. As long as MARS and FRAPTRAN are used respectively in the ranges where they have been validated, the coupled calculation results are expected to be valid and to reveal various aspects of phenomena which have not been discovered in previous uncoupled calculations by MARS or FRAPTRAN.

  5. Thermal structure of the ionosphere of Mars - simulations with one- and two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.P.; Whitten, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Heat flux saturation effects are included in the present one- and two-dimensional models of the Martian upper ionosphere's thermal structure. The inclusion of small upper boundary and volume heat sources is found to yield satisfactory simulations of the dayside ion temperature observation results obtained by Viking 1's retarding potential analyzers. It is noted that the plasma flow-transport of heat from the dayside to the nightside makes no contribution to the ion and electron temperatures that have been calculated for the nightside. 22 references

  6. An Orbit Propagation Software for Mars Orbiting Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An orbit propagation software for the Mars orbiting spacecraft has been developed and verified in preparations for the future Korean Mars missions. Dynamic model for Mars orbiting spacecraft has been studied, and Mars centered coordinate systems are utilized to express spacecraft state vectors. Coordinate corrections to the Mars centered coordinate system have been made to adjust the effects caused by Mars precession and nutation. After spacecraft enters Sphere of Influence (SOI of the Mars, the spacecraft experiences various perturbation effects as it approaches to Mars. Every possible perturbation effect is considered during integrations of spacecraft state vectors. The Mars50c gravity field model and the Mars-GRAM 2001 model are used to compute perturbation effects due to Mars gravity field and Mars atmospheric drag, respectively. To compute exact locations of other planets, JPL's DE405 ephemerides are used. Phobos and Deimos's ephemeris are computed using analytical method because their informations are not released with DE405. Mars Global Surveyor's mapping orbital data are used to verify the developed propagator performances. After one Martian day propagation (12 orbital periods, the results show about maximum ±5 meter errors, in every position state components(radial, cross-track and along-track, when compared to these from the Astrogator propagation in the Satellite Tool Kit. This result shows high reliability of the developed software which can be used to design near Mars missions for Korea, in future.

  7. Numerical and Analytical Model of an Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Solar Panels on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Linell, B.; Chen, A.; Meyer, J.; Clements, S.; Mazumder, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Masuda and collaborators at the University of Tokyo developed a method to confine and transport particles called the electric curtain in which a series of parallel electrodes connected to an AC source generates a traveling wave that acts as a contactless conveyor. The curtain electrodes can be excited by a single-phase or a multi-phase AC voltage. A multi-phase curtain produces a non-uniform traveling wave that provides controlled transport of those particles [1-6]. Multi-phase electric curtains from two to six phases have been developed and studied by several research groups [7-9]. We have developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield prototype using threephase AC voltage electrodes to remove dust from surfaces. The purpose of the modeling work presented here is to research and to better understand the physics governing the electrodynamic shield, as well as to advance and to support the experimental dust shield research.

  8. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention

  9. SPLINE-FUNCTIONS IN THE TASK OF THE FLOW AIRFOIL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Lopatjuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The method and the algorithm of solving the problem of streamlining are presented. Neumann boundary problem is reduced to the solution of integral equations with given boundary conditions using the cubic spline-functions

  10. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Ball spline pitch change mechanism design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Detailed design parameters are presented for a variable-pitch change mechanism. The mechanism is a mechanical system containing a ball screw/spline driving two counteracting master bevel gears meshing pinion gears attached to each of 18 fan blades.

  11. Numerical solution of system of boundary value problems using B-spline with free parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with method of B-spline solution for a system of boundary value problems. The differential equations are useful in various fields of science and engineering. Some interesting real life problems involve more than one unknown function. These result in system of simultaneous differential equations. Such systems have been applied to many problems in mathematics, physics, engineering etc. In present paper, B-spline and B-spline with free parameter methods for the solution of a linear system of second-order boundary value problems are presented. The methods utilize the values of cubic B-spline and its derivatives at nodal points together with the equations of the given system and boundary conditions, ensuing into the linear matrix equation.

  12. Implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines to solve atomic and molecular collision problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C William; MartIn, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    B-spline methods are now well established as widely applicable tools for the evaluation of atomic and molecular continuum states. The mathematical technique of exterior complex scaling has been shown, in a variety of other implementations, to be a powerful method with which to solve atomic and molecular scattering problems, because it allows the correct imposition of continuum boundary conditions without their explicit analytic application. In this paper, an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines is described that can bring the well-developed technology of B-splines to bear on new problems, including multiple ionization and breakup problems, in a straightforward way. The approach is demonstrated for examples involving the continuum motion of nuclei in diatomic molecules as well as electronic continua. For problems involving electrons, a method based on Poisson's equation is presented for computing two-electron integrals over B-splines under exterior complex scaling

  13. A direct method to solve optimal knots of B-spline curves: An application for non-uniform B-spline curves fitting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Than Dung

    Full Text Available B-spline functions are widely used in many industrial applications such as computer graphic representations, computer aided design, computer aided manufacturing, computer numerical control, etc. Recently, there exist some demands, e.g. in reverse engineering (RE area, to employ B-spline curves for non-trivial cases that include curves with discontinuous points, cusps or turning points from the sampled data. The most challenging task in these cases is in the identification of the number of knots and their respective locations in non-uniform space in the most efficient computational cost. This paper presents a new strategy for fitting any forms of curve by B-spline functions via local algorithm. A new two-step method for fast knot calculation is proposed. In the first step, the data is split using a bisecting method with predetermined allowable error to obtain coarse knots. Secondly, the knots are optimized, for both locations and continuity levels, by employing a non-linear least squares technique. The B-spline function is, therefore, obtained by solving the ordinary least squares problem. The performance of the proposed method is validated by using various numerical experimental data, with and without simulated noise, which were generated by a B-spline function and deterministic parametric functions. This paper also discusses the benchmarking of the proposed method to the existing methods in literature. The proposed method is shown to be able to reconstruct B-spline functions from sampled data within acceptable tolerance. It is also shown that, the proposed method can be applied for fitting any types of curves ranging from smooth ones to discontinuous ones. In addition, the method does not require excessive computational cost, which allows it to be used in automatic reverse engineering applications.

  14. On the accurate fast evaluation of finite Fourier integrals using cubic splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, N.

    1993-01-01

    Finite Fourier integrals based on a cubic-splines fit to equidistant data are shown to be evaluated fast and accurately. Good performance, especially on computational speed, is achieved by the optimization of the spline fit and the internal use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm for complex data. The present procedure provides high accuracy with much shorter CPU time than a trapezoidal FFT. (author)

  15. Numerical Solutions for Convection-Diffusion Equation through Non-Polynomial Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kanth A.S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical solutions for convection-diffusion equation via non-polynomial splines are studied. We purpose an implicit method based on non-polynomial spline functions for solving the convection-diffusion equation. The method is proven to be unconditionally stable by using Von Neumann technique. Numerical results are illustrated to demonstrate the efficiency and stability of the purposed method.

  16. Atmospheric Modeling of the Martian Polar Regions: One Mars Year of CRISM EPF Observations of the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; Wolff, M. J.

    2009-03-01

    We have used CRISM Emission Phase Function gimballed observations to investigate atmospheric dust/ice opacity and surface albedo in the south polar region for the first Mars year of MRO operations. This covers the MY28 "dust event" and cap recession.

  17. Comparison Between Polynomial, Euler Beta-Function and Expo-Rational B-Spline Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Arnt R.; Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Laksa˚, Arne; Bang, Børre

    2011-12-01

    Euler Beta-function B-splines (BFBS) are the practically most important instance of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS) which are not true expo-rational B-splines (ERBS). BFBS do not enjoy the full range of the superproperties of ERBS but, while ERBS are special functions computable by a very rapidly converging yet approximate numerical quadrature algorithms, BFBS are explicitly computable piecewise polynomial (for integer multiplicities), similar to classical Schoenberg B-splines. In the present communication we define, compute and visualize for the first time all possible BFBS of degree up to 3 which provide Hermite interpolation in three consecutive knots of multiplicity up to 3, i.e., the function is being interpolated together with its derivatives of order up to 2. We compare the BFBS obtained for different degrees and multiplicities among themselves and versus the classical Schoenberg polynomial B-splines and the true ERBS for the considered knots. The results of the graphical comparison are discussed from analytical point of view. For the numerical computation and visualization of the new B-splines we have used Maple 12.

  18. Final report on Production Test No. 105-245-P -- Effectiveness of cadmium coated splines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, A.B.

    1949-05-19

    This report discussed cadmium coated splines which have been developed to supplement the regular control rod systems under emergency shutdown conditions from higher power levels. The objective of this test was to determine the effectiveness of one such spline placed in a tube in the central zone of a pile, and of two splines in the same tube. In addition, the process control group of the P Division asked that probable spline requirements for safe operation at various power levels be estimated, and the details included in this report. The results of the test indicated a reactivity value of 10.5 {plus_minus} 1.0 ih for a single spline, and 19.0 ih {plus_minus} 1.0 ihfor two splines in tube 1674-B under the loading conditions of 4-27-49, the date of the test. The temperature rise of the cooling water for this tube under these conditions was found to be 37.2{degrees}C for 275 MW operation.

  19. The humanation of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L. W.

    Early developments related to human excursions to Mars are examined, taking into account plans considered by von Braun, and the 'ambitious goal of a manned flight to Mars by the end of the century', proposed at the launch of Apollo 11. In response to public reaction, plans for manned flights to Mars in the immediate future were given up, and unmanned reconnaissance of Mars was continued. An investigation is conducted concerning the advantages of manned exploration of Mars in comparison to a study by unmanned space probes, and arguments regarding a justification for interplanetary flight to Mars are discussed. Attention is given to the possibility to consider Mars as a 'back-up' planet for preserving earth life, an international Mars expedition as a world peace project, the role of Mars in connection with resource utilization considerations, and questions of exploration ethics.

  20. MRI non-uniformity correction through interleaved bias estimation and B-spline deformation with a template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, E; Carmichael, O; Decarli, C

    2012-01-01

    We propose a template-based method for correcting field inhomogeneity biases in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the human brain. At each algorithm iteration, the update of a B-spline deformation between an unbiased template image and the subject image is interleaved with estimation of a bias field based on the current template-to-image alignment. The bias field is modeled using a spatially smooth thin-plate spline interpolation based on ratios of local image patch intensity means between the deformed template and subject images. This is used to iteratively correct subject image intensities which are then used to improve the template-to-image deformation. Experiments on synthetic and real data sets of images with and without Alzheimer's disease suggest that the approach may have advantages over the popular N3 technique for modeling bias fields and narrowing intensity ranges of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. This bias field correction method has the potential to be more accurate than correction schemes based solely on intrinsic image properties or hypothetical image intensity distributions.

  1. MRI Non-Uniformity Correction Through Interleaved Bias Estimation and B-Spline Deformation with a Template*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, E.; Carmichael, O.; DeCarli, C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a template-based method for correcting field inhomogeneity biases in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the human brain. At each algorithm iteration, the update of a B-spline deformation between an unbiased template image and the subject image is interleaved with estimation of a bias field based on the current template-to-image alignment. The bias field is modeled using a spatially smooth thin-plate spline interpolation based on ratios of local image patch intensity means between the deformed template and subject images. This is used to iteratively correct subject image intensities which are then used to improve the template-to-image deformation. Experiments on synthetic and real data sets of images with and without Alzheimer’s disease suggest that the approach may have advantages over the popular N3 technique for modeling bias fields and narrowing intensity ranges of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. This bias field correction method has the potential to be more accurate than correction schemes based solely on intrinsic image properties or hypothetical image intensity distributions. PMID:23365843

  2. Spline Truncated Multivariabel pada Permodelan Nilai Ujian Nasional di Kabupaten Lombok Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fitriyani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regression model is used to analyze the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable. If the regression curve form is not known, then the regression curve estimation can be done by nonparametric regression approach. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the value resulted by National Examination and the factors that influence it. The statistical analysis used was multivariable truncated spline, in order to analyze the relationship between variables. The research that has been done showed that the best model obtained by using three knot points. This model produced a minimum GCV value of 44.46 and the value of determination coefficient of 58.627%. The parameter test showed that all factors used were significantly influence the National Examination Score for Senior High School students in West Lombok Regency year 2017. The variables were as follows: National Examination Score of Junior High School; School or Madrasah Examination Score; the value of Student’s Report Card; Student’s House Distance to School; and Number of Student’s Siblings.

  3. RELAP5/Mod3.3 and MARS3.0a Modeling of a Siphon Break Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Ki; Kim, Heon Il; Park, Cheol; Yoon, Ju Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Pool water plays a very important role as a final heat sink for most pool-type research reactors following postulated events. Therefore, one of design criteria for the reactors is that the water level of reactor pool must not decrease below a predefined elevation even against the most severe accident due to ruptures of coolant boundary of connecting systems to the reactor pool. In order to accomplish the design criterion, all the connecting systems are usually arranged to be above the elevation of reactor core. However, some research reactors with a downward flow in the reactor core have a primary cooling system located below the elevation of reactor core because of meeting an available net positive suction head of pumps in the system. These reactors have a provision consisting of pipes penetrating a reactor pool wall at a higher elevation than that of reactor core and siphon break devices to meet the design criterion. A series of experiments was carried out to figure out thermal hydraulic characteristics during siphon is blocked and establish design requirements for siphon breaker. The experimental study provided a lot of data and observations to the process of siphon break, but it does not provide a sufficient theoretical analysis and present practical design requirements applicable to industry. The experimental range is not also sufficient to cover operating conditions of siphon breakers for research reactors. A series of numerical simulations on the experimental data has been tried by using thermal hydraulic system analysis codes, RELAP5/Mod3.3 and MARS3.0a. This paper includes a part of the numerical simulations. First output from this study shows an importance of an adequate use of thermal hydraulic models in the codes and a big different prediction between the two codes especially in relation to the use of choked flow option. From this study, it seems that RELAP5/Mod3.3 has some problems on the control of a choked flow option-flag or the prediction of a

  4. Evaluation of the spline reconstruction technique for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastis, George A., E-mail: gkastis@academyofathens.gr; Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra [Research Center of Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Athens 11527 (Greece); Gaitanis, Anastasios [Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens (BRFAA), Athens 11527 (Greece); Fernández, Yolanda [Centre d’Imatge Molecular Experimental (CIME), CETIR-ERESA, Barcelona 08950 (Spain); Hutton, Brian F. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Fokas, Athanasios S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The spline reconstruction technique (SRT), based on the analytic formula for the inverse Radon transform, has been presented earlier in the literature. In this study, the authors present an improved formulation and numerical implementation of this algorithm and evaluate it in comparison to filtered backprojection (FBP). Methods: The SRT is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of “custom made” cubic splines. By restricting reconstruction only within object pixels and by utilizing certain mathematical symmetries, the authors achieve a reconstruction time comparable to that of FBP. The authors have implemented SRT in STIR and have evaluated this technique using simulated data from a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system, as well as real data obtained from clinical and preclinical PET scanners. For the simulation studies, the authors have simulated sinograms of a point-source and three digital phantoms. Using these sinograms, the authors have created realizations of Poisson noise at five noise levels. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the authors have determined contrast and bias for different regions of the phantoms as a function of noise level. For the real-data studies, sinograms of an{sup 18}F-FDG injected mouse, a NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom, and a Derenzo phantom have been acquired from a commercial PET system. The authors have determined: (a) coefficient of variations (COV) and contrast from the NEMA phantom, (b) contrast for the various sections of the Derenzo phantom, and (c) line profiles for the Derenzo phantom. Furthermore, the authors have acquired sinograms from a whole-body PET scan of an {sup 18}F-FDG injected cancer patient, using the GE Discovery ST PET/CT system. SRT and FBP reconstructions of the thorax have been visually evaluated. Results: The results indicate an improvement in FWHM and FWTM in both simulated and real

  5. A spline-based regression parameter set for creating customized DARTEL MRI brain templates from infancy to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Marko

    2018-02-01

    This dataset contains the regression parameters derived by analyzing segmented brain MRI images (gray matter and white matter) from a large population of healthy subjects, using a multivariate adaptive regression splines approach. A total of 1919 MRI datasets ranging in age from 1-75 years from four publicly available datasets (NIH, C-MIND, fCONN, and IXI) were segmented using the CAT12 segmentation framework, writing out gray matter and white matter images normalized using an affine-only spatial normalization approach. These images were then subjected to a six-step DARTEL procedure, employing an iterative non-linear registration approach and yielding increasingly crisp intermediate images. The resulting six datasets per tissue class were then analyzed using multivariate adaptive regression splines, using the CerebroMatic toolbox. This approach allows for flexibly modelling smoothly varying trajectories while taking into account demographic (age, gender) as well as technical (field strength, data quality) predictors. The resulting regression parameters described here can be used to generate matched DARTEL or SHOOT templates for a given population under study, from infancy to old age. The dataset and the algorithm used to generate it are publicly available at https://irc.cchmc.org/software/cerebromatic.php.

  6. Value of the New Spline QTc Formula in Adjusting for Pacing-Induced Changes in Heart Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirmand Nouraei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine whether a new QTc calculation based on a Spline fit model derived and validated from a large population remained stable in the same individual across a range of heart rates (HRs. Second, to determine whether this formula incorporating QRS duration can be of value in QT measurement, compared to direct measurement of the JT interval, during ventricular pacing. Methods. Individuals (N=30; 14 males aged 51.9 ± 14.3 years were paced with decremental atrial followed by decremental ventricular pacing. Results. The new QTc changed minimally with shorter RR intervals, poorly fit even a linear relationship, and did not fit a second-order polynomial. In contrast, the Bazett formula (QTcBZT showed a steep and marked increase in QTc with shorter RR intervals. For atrial pacing data, QTcBZT was fit best by a second-order polynomial and demonstrated a dramatic increase in QTc with progressively shorter RR intervals. For ventricular pacing, the new QTc minus QRS duration did not meaningfully change with HR in contrast to the HR dependency of QTcBZT and JT interval. Conclusion. The new QT correction formula is minimally impacted by HR acceleration induced by atrial or ventricular pacing. The Spline QTc minus QRS duration is an excellent method to estimate QTc in ventricular paced complexes.

  7. Spline-based image-to-volume registration for three-dimensional electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonic, S.; Sorzano, C.O.S.; Thevenaz, P.; El-Bez, C.; De Carlo, S.; Unser, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm based on a continuous framework for a posteriori angular and translational assignment in three-dimensional electron microscopy (3DEM) of single particles. Our algorithm can be used advantageously to refine the assignment of standard quantized-parameter methods by registering the images to a reference 3D particle model. We achieve the registration by employing a gradient-based iterative minimization of a least-squares measure of dissimilarity between an image and a projection of the volume in the Fourier transform (FT) domain. We compute the FT of the projection using the central-slice theorem (CST). To compute the gradient accurately, we take advantage of a cubic B-spline model of the data in the frequency domain. To improve the robustness of the algorithm, we weight the cost function in the FT domain and apply a 'mixed' strategy for the assignment based on the minimum value of the cost function at registration for several different initializations. We validate our algorithm in a fully controlled simulation environment. We show that the mixed strategy improves the assignment accuracy; on our data, the quality of the angular and translational assignment was better than 2 voxel (i.e., 6.54 A). We also test the performance of our algorithm on real EM data. We conclude that our algorithm outperforms a standard projection-matching refinement in terms of both consistency of 3D reconstructions and speed

  8. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. © 2011 IEEE

  9. An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Exploring Regolith Depth and Cycling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C.; Needham, D. H.; Watters, W. A.; Hundal, C.

    2017-12-01

    Regolith or loose sediment is ubiquitous on the surface of Mars, but our understanding of how this fragmental layer forms and evolves with time is limited. In particular, how regolith thickness varies spatially on Mars is not well known. A common perspective is to start from the canonical model for lunar regolith, which is not unreasonable, given that both Mars and the Moon are heavily cratered surfaces. However, this lunar-like paradigm is not supported by observations of Mars from recent missions. On Mars, bedrock exposures are more common and bedrock is generally closer to the surface than on the Moon, and the processes modifying the regolith differ substantially on the two bodies. Moreover, boulders on the Moon have much shorter lifetimes than on Mars, so boulders are much less common on the lunar surface. The sediment transport processes infilling craters differs dramatically on these two bodies as well. On Mars, fine-grained sediment is efficiently transported (advectively) by wind and trapped in craters rapidly after they form. Lateral transport of lunar regolith is comparatively inefficient and dominated by slow impact-driven (diffusive) transport of regolith. The goal of this contribution is to discuss observational constraints on Mars' regolith depth, and to place observations into a model for Mars landform evolution and regolith cycle. Our operating hypothesis is that the inter-crater surface on Mars is comparatively starved of fine-grained sediment (compared to the Moon), because transport and trapping of fines in craters out-competes physical weathering. Moreover, thick sedimentary bodies on Mars often get (weakly) cemented and lithified due to interactions with fluids, even in the most recent, Amazonian epoch. This is consistent with what is observed at the MER and MSL landing sites and what is known from the SNC meteorites.

  11. MARS Validation Plan and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seung-hoon; Cho, Yong-jin

    2008-01-01

    The KINS Reactor Thermal-hydraulic Analysis System (KINS-RETAS) under development is directed toward a realistic analysis approach of best-estimate (BE) codes and realistic assumptions. In this system, MARS is pivoted to provide the BE Thermal-Hydraulic (T-H) response in core and reactor coolant system to various operational transients and accidental conditions. As required for other BE codes, the qualification is essential to ensure reliable and reasonable accuracy for a targeted MARS application. Validation is a key element of the code qualification, and determines the capability of a computer code in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur. The MARS validation was made by its developer KAERI, on basic premise that its backbone code RELAP5/MOD3.2 is well qualified against analytical solutions, test or operational data. A screening was made to select the test data for MARS validation; some models transplanted from RELAP5, if already validated and found to be acceptable, were screened out from assessment. It seems to be reasonable, but does not demonstrate whether code adequacy complies with the software QA guidelines. Especially there may be much difficulty in validating the life-cycle products such as code updates or modifications. This paper presents the plan for MARS validation, and the current implementation status

  12. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  13. A chord error conforming tool path B-spline fitting method for NC machining based on energy minimization and LSPIA

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shanshan; Ou, Daojiang; Yan, Changya; Lee, Chen-Han

    2015-01-01

    Piecewise linear (G01-based) tool paths generated by CAM systems lack G1 and G2 continuity. The discontinuity causes vibration and unnecessary hesitation during machining. To ensure efficient high-speed machining, a method to improve the continuity of the tool paths is required, such as B-spline fitting that approximates G01 paths with B-spline curves. Conventional B-spline fitting approaches cannot be directly used for tool path B-spline fitting, because they have shortages such as numerical...

  14. PySpline: A Modern, Cross-Platform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged XAS Edge and EXAFS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenderholt, Adam; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2007-01-01

    PySpline is a modern computer program for processing raw averaged XAS and EXAFS data using an intuitive approach which allows the user to see the immediate effect of various processing parameters on the resulting k- and R-space data. The Python scripting language and Qt and Qwt widget libraries were chosen to meet the design requirement that it be cross-platform (i.e. versions for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux). PySpline supports polynomial pre- and post-edge background subtraction, splining of the EXAFS region with a multi-segment polynomial spline, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the resulting k3-weighted EXAFS data

  15. Mars Atmosphere Resource Verification INsitu (MARVIN) - In Situ Resource Demonstration for the Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Araghi, Koorosh; Ess, Kim M.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Calle, Carlos I.; Clark, Larry; Iacomini, Christie

    2014-01-01

    The making of oxygen from resources in the Martian atmosphere, known as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), has the potential to provide substantial benefits for future robotic and human exploration. In particular, the ability to produce oxygen on Mars for use in propulsion, life support, and power systems can provide significant mission benefits such as a reducing launch mass, lander size, and mission and crew risk. To advance ISRU for possible incorporation into future human missions to Mars, NASA proposed including an ISRU instrument on the Mars 2020 rover mission, through an announcement of opportunity (AO). The purpose of the the Mars Atmosphere Resource Verification INsitu or (MARVIN) instrument is to provide the first demonstration on Mars of oxygen production from acquired and stored Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide, as well as take measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature, and of suspended dust particle sizes and amounts entrained in collected atmosphere gases at different times of the Mars day and year. The hardware performance and environmental data obtained will be critical for future ISRU systems that will reduce the mass of propellants and other consumables launched from Earth for robotic and human exploration, for better understanding of Mars dust and mitigation techniques to improve crew safety, and to help further define Mars global circulation models and better understand the regional atmospheric dynamics on Mars. The technologies selected for MARVIN are also scalable for future robotic sample return and human missions to Mars using ISRU.

  16. Mars Atmospheric Conversion to Methane and Water: An Engineering Model of the Sabatier Reactor with Characterization of Ru/Al2O3 for Long Duration Use on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Anne J.; Shah, Malay; Petersen, Elspeth; Hintze, Paul; Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Processing Module (APM) is a Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology designed to demonstrate conversion of the Martian atmosphere into methane and water. The Martian atmosphere consists of approximately 95 carbon dioxide (CO2) and residual argon and nitrogen. APM utilizes cryocoolers for CO2 acquisition from a simulated Martian atmosphere and pressure. The captured CO2 is sublimated and pressurized as a feedstock into the Sabatier reactor, which converts CO2 and hydrogen to methane and water. The Sabatier reaction occurs over a packed bed reactor filled with Ru/Al2O3 pellets. The long duration use of the APM system and catalyst was investigated for future scaling and failure limits. Failure of the catalyst was detected by gas chromatography and temperature sensors on the system. Following this, characterization and experimentation with the catalyst was carried out with analysis including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with elemental dispersive spectroscopy. This paper will discuss results of the catalyst performance, the overall APM Sabatier approach, as well as intrinsic catalyst considerations of the Sabatier reactor performance incorporated into a chemical model.

  17. Space cutter compensation method for five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Ding

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of the good machining performance of traditional three-axis nonuniform rational basis spline interpolation and the space cutter compensation issue in multi-axis machining, this article presents a triple nonuniform rational basis spline five-axis interpolation method, which uses three nonuniform rational basis spline curves to describe cutter center location, cutter axis vector, and cutter contact point trajectory, respectively. The relative position of the cutter and workpiece is calculated under the workpiece coordinate system, and the cutter machining trajectory can be described precisely and smoothly using this method. The three nonuniform rational basis spline curves are transformed into a 12-dimentional Bézier curve to carry out discretization during the discrete process. With the cutter contact point trajectory as the precision control condition, the discretization is fast. As for different cutters and corners, the complete description method of space cutter compensation vector is presented in this article. Finally, the five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining method is further verified in a two-turntable five-axis machine.

  18. The Mars water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

  19. Thin plate spline feature point matching for organ surfaces in minimally invasive surgery imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning

    2013-03-01

    Robust feature point matching for images with large view angle changes in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a challenging task due to low texture and specular reflections in these images. This paper presents a new approach that can improve feature matching performance by exploiting the inherent geometric property of the organ surfaces. Recently, intensity based template image tracking using a Thin Plate Spline (TPS) model has been extended for 3D surface tracking with stereo cameras. The intensity based tracking is also used here for 3D reconstruction of internal organ surfaces. To overcome the small displacement requirement of intensity based tracking, feature point correspondences are used for proper initialization of the nonlinear optimization in the intensity based method. Second, we generate simulated images from the reconstructed 3D surfaces under all potential view positions and orientations, and then extract feature points from these simulated images. The obtained feature points are then filtered and re-projected to the common reference image. The descriptors of the feature points under different view angles are stored to ensure that the proposed method can tolerate a large range of view angles. We evaluate the proposed method with silicon phantoms and in vivo images. The experimental results show that our method is much more robust with respect to the view angle changes than other state-of-the-art methods.

  20. High resolution present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Svalbard modelled by MAR and implementation of a new online SMB downscaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C.; Fettweis, X.; Kittel, C.; Erpicum, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of high resolution simulations of the climate and SMB of Svalbard with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-40 then ERA-Interim, as well as an online downscaling method allowing us to model the SMB and its components at a resolution twice as high (2.5 vs 5 km here) using only about 25% more CPU time. Spitsbergen, the largest island in Svalbard, has a very hilly topography and a high spatial resolution is needed to correctly represent the local topography and the complex pattern of ice distribution and precipitation. However, high resolution runs with an RCM fully coupled to an energy balance module like MAR require a huge amount of computation time. The hydrostatic equilibrium hypothesis used in MAR also becomes less valid as the spatial resolution increases. We therefore developed in MAR a method to run the snow module at a resolution twice as high as the atmospheric module. Near-surface temperature and humidity are corrected on a grid with a resolution twice as high, as a function of their local gradients and the elevation difference between the corresponding pixels in the 2 grids. We compared the results of our runs at 5 km and with SMB downscaled at 2.5 km over 1960 — 2016 and compared those to previous 10 km runs. On Austfonna, where the slopes are gentle, the agreement between observations and the 5 km SMB is better than with the 10 km SMB. It is again improved at 2.5 km but the gain is relatively small, showing the interest of our method rather than running a time consuming classic 2.5 km resolution simulation. On Spitsbergen, we show that a spatial resolution of 2.5 km is still not enough to represent the complex pattern of topography, precipitation and SMB. Due to a change in the summer atmospheric circulation, from a westerly flow over Svalbard to a northwesterly flow bringing colder air, the SMB of Svalbard was stable between 2006 and 2012, while several melt records were broken in Greenland, due to conditions more

  1. A calibration and data assimilation method using the Bayesian MARS emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripling, H.F.; McClarren, R.G.; Kuranz, C.C.; Grosskopf, M.J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We outline a transparent, flexible method for the calibration of uncertain inputs to computer models. ► We account for model, data, emulator, and measurement uncertainties. ► The method produces improved predictive results, which are validated using leave one-out experiments. ► Our implementation leverages the Bayesian MARS emulator, but any emulator may be substituted. -- Abstract: We present a method for calibrating the uncertain inputs to a computer model using available experimental data. The goal of the procedure is to estimate the posterior distribution of the uncertain inputs such that when samples from the posterior are used as inputs to future model runs, the model is more likely to replicate (or predict) the experimental response. The calibration is performed by sampling the space of the uncertain inputs, using the computer model (or, more likely, an emulator for the computer model) to assign weights to the samples, and applying the weights to produce the posterior distributions and generate predictions of new experiments with confidence bounds. The method is similar to Metropolis–Hastings calibration methods with independently sampled updates, except that we generate samples beforehand and replace the candidate acceptance routine with a weighting scheme. We apply our method to the calibration of a Hyades 2D model of laser energy deposition in beryllium. We employ a Bayesian Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (BMARS) emulator as a surrogate for Hyades 2D. We treat a range of uncertainties in our application, including uncertainties in the experimental inputs, experimental measurement error, and systematic experimental timing errors. The resulting posterior distributions agree with our existing intuition, and we validate the results by performing a series of leave-one-out predictions. We find that the calibrated predictions are considerably more accurate and less uncertain than blind sampling of the forward model alone.

  2. Mars Drilling Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  3. Mutual information based CT registration of the lung at exhale and inhale breathing states using thin-plate splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coselmon, Martha M.; Balter, James M.; McShan, Daniel L.; Kessler, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    The advent of dynamic radiotherapy modeling and treatment techniques requires an infrastructure to weigh the merits of various interventions (breath holding, gating, tracking). The creation of treatment planning models that account for motion and deformation can allow the relative worth of such techniques to be evaluated. In order to develop a treatment planning model of a moving and deforming organ such as the lung, registration tools that account for deformation are required. We tested the accuracy of a mutual information based image registration tool using thin-plate splines driven by the selection of control points and iterative alignment according to a simplex algorithm. Eleven patients each had sequential CT scans at breath-held normal inhale and exhale states. The exhale right lung was segmented from CT and served as the reference model. For each patient, thirty control points were used to align the inhale CT right lung to the exhale CT right lung. Alignment accuracy (the standard deviation of the difference in the actual and predicted inhale position) was determined from locations of vascular and bronchial bifurcations, and found to be 1.7, 3.1, and 3.6 mm about the RL, AP, and IS directions. The alignment accuracy was significantly different from the amount of measured movement during breathing only in the AP and IS directions. The accuracy of alignment including thin-plate splines was more accurate than using affine transformations and the same iteration and scoring methodology. This technique shows promise for the future development of dynamic models of the lung for use in four-dimensional (4-D) treatment planning

  4. Modeling of Output Characteristics of a UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Georgieva Gocheva-Ilieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines experiment data for a Ne-CuBr UV copper ion laser excited by longitudinal pulsed discharge emitting in multiline regime. The flexible multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARSs method has been used to develop nonparametric regression models describing the laser output power and service life of the devices. The models have been constructed as explicit functions of 9 basic input laser characteristics. The obtained models account for local nonlinearities of the relationships within the various multivariate subregions. The built best MARS models account for over 98% of data. The models are used to estimate the investigated output laser characteristics of existing UV lasers. The capabilities for using the models in predicting existing and future experiments have been demonstrated. Specific analyses have been presented comparing the models with actual experiments. The obtained results are applicable for guiding and planning the engineering experiment. The modeling methodology can be applied for a wide range of similar lasers and laser devices.

  5. Seasonal and Static Gravity Field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k 2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k 2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k 2 of 0.1697 +/-0.0027 (3- sigma). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C 30 and, for the first time, C 50 . Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C 30 for approx.1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics ( l = 60–80) than previous solutions.

  6. A finite strain Eulerian formulation for compressible and nearly incompressible hyperelasticity using high-order B-spline finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra

    2011-10-05

    We present a numerical formulation aimed at modeling the nonlinear response of elastic materials using large deformation continuum mechanics in three dimensions. This finite element formulation is based on the Eulerian description of motion and the transport of the deformation gradient. When modeling a nearly incompressible solid, the transport of the deformation gradient is decomposed into its isochoric part and the Jacobian determinant as independent fields. A homogeneous isotropic hyperelastic solid is assumed and B-splines-based finite elements are used for the spatial discretization. A variational multiscale residual-based approach is employed to stabilize the transport equations. The performance of the scheme is explored for both compressible and nearly incompressible applications. The numerical results are in good agreement with theory illustrating the viability of the computational scheme. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Splines and their reciprocal-bases in volume-integral equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors briefly outline the use of higher-order splines and their reciprocal-bases in discretizing the volume-integral equations of electromagnetics. The discretization is carried out by means of the method of moments, in which the expansion functions are the higher-order splines, and the testing functions are the corresponding reciprocal-basis functions. These functions satisfy an orthogonality condition with respect to the spline expansion functions. Thus, the method is not Galerkin, but the structure of the resulting equations is quite regular, nevertheless. The theory is applied to the volume-integral equations for the unknown current density, or unknown electric field, within a scattering body, and to the equations for eddy-current nondestructive evaluation. Numerical techniques for computing the matrix elements are also given

  8. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  9. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the sea level rise (SLR originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS, we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 general circulation models (GCMs. Our results indicate that in a warmer climate, mass gain from increased winter snowfall over the GrIS does not compensate mass loss through increased meltwater run-off in summer. Despite the large spread in the projected near-surface warming, all the MAR projections show similar non-linear increase of GrIS surface melt volume because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from GCM output, we show that the uncertainty from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of the projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a GrIS SMB decrease equivalent to a mean SLR of +4 ± 2 cm and +9 ± 4 cm for the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. These estimates do not consider the positive melt–elevation feedback, although sensitivity experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes demonstrate that this is a significant feedback, and highlight the importance of coupling regional climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow the assessment of future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes to rising temperatures, as well as their mutual feedbacks.

  10. A fractional spline collocation-Galerkin method for the time-fractional diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezza L.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to numerically solve a diffusion differential problem having time derivative of fractional order. To this end we propose a collocation-Galerkin method that uses the fractional splines as approximating functions. The main advantage is in that the derivatives of integer and fractional order of the fractional splines can be expressed in a closed form that involves just the generalized finite difference operator. This allows us to construct an accurate and efficient numerical method. Several numerical tests showing the effectiveness of the proposed method are presented.

  11. Sequential and simultaneous SLAR block adjustment. [spline function analysis for mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberl, F.

    1975-01-01

    Two sequential methods of planimetric SLAR (Side Looking Airborne Radar) block adjustment, with and without splines, and three simultaneous methods based on the principles of least squares are evaluated. A limited experiment with simulated SLAR images indicates that sequential block formation with splines followed by external interpolative adjustment is superior to the simultaneous methods such as planimetric block adjustment with similarity transformations. The use of the sequential block formation is recommended, since it represents an inexpensive tool for satisfactory point determination from SLAR images.

  12. [Medical image elastic registration smoothed by unconstrained optimized thin-plate spline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuxiang; Chen, Wufan; Liu, Zhexing

    2003-12-01

    Elastic registration of medical image is an important subject in medical image processing. Previous work has concentrated on selecting the corresponding landmarks manually and then using thin-plate spline interpolating to gain the elastic transformation. However, the landmarks extraction is always prone to error, which will influence the registration results. Localizing the landmarks manually is also difficult and time-consuming. We the optimization theory to improve the thin-plate spline interpolation, and based on it, used an automatic method to extract the landmarks. Combining these two steps, we have proposed an automatic, exact and robust registration method and have gained satisfactory registration results.

  13. Preconditioning cubic spline collocation method by FEM and FDM for elliptic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Dong [KyungPook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    In this talk we discuss the finite element and finite difference technique for the cubic spline collocation method. For this purpose, we consider the uniformly elliptic operator A defined by Au := -{Delta}u + a{sub 1}u{sub x} + a{sub 2}u{sub y} + a{sub 0}u in {Omega} (the unit square) with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions and its discretization based on Hermite cubic spline spaces and collocation at the Gauss points. Using an interpolatory basis with support on the Gauss points one obtains the matrix A{sub N} (h = 1/N).

  14. Large Break LOCA Analysis with New downcomer Nodalizaion and Multi-Dimensional Model and Effect of Cross flow option in MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyung-wook; Lee, Sang-yong; Oh, Seung-jong; Kim, Woong-bae [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The phenomena of LOCA have been investigated for long time. The most extensive research project for LOCA was the 2D/3D program experiments. The results of the 2D/3D experiments show flow conditions in the downcomer during end-of-blowdown were highly multi-dimensional at full-scale. In this paper, the authors modified the nodalization of MARS code LBLOCA input deck and performed LBLOCA analysis with new input deck. An LBLOCA analysis for APR1400 with new downcomer input deck was conducted using KREM with MARS-KS 1.4 Version code. Analysis was processed under LBCOCA of 100% break size of cold leg case. The authors developed input deck with new downcomer nodalizaion and Multi-Dimensional downcomer model, then implemented LOCA analysis with new input decks and compared with existing analysis results. PCT from new input and multi-dimensional input deck shows similar PCT trend from original input deck. There occurred more rapid drop of PCT from new and multidimensional input deck than original input deck. PCT from new and multidimensional input deck are satisfied with PCT design limit. It can be concluded that there occurs no acceptance criteria issue even though new and multidimensional input deck are applied to LBLOCA analysis. In future study, comparative analysis with experiment results will be implemented.

  15. SERS Assay for Copper(II) Ions Based on Dual Hot-Spot Model Coupling with MarR Protein: New Cu2+-Specific Biorecognition Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Su, Zhenhe; Wang, Limin; Dong, Jinbo; Xue, Juanjuan; Yu, Jiao; Wang, Yuan; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-06-20

    We have developed a rapid and ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay for Cu 2+ detection using the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) as specific bridging molecules in a SERS hot-spot model. In the assay, Cu 2+ induces formation of MarR tetramers, which provide Au nanoparticle (NP)-AuNP bridges, resulting in the formation of SERS hot spots. 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) was used as a Raman reporter. The addition of Cu 2+ increased the Raman intensity of 4-MBA. Use of a dual hot-spot signal-amplification strategy based on AuNP-AgNP heterodimers combined through antigen-antibody reactions increased the sensitivity of the sensing platform by 50-fold. The proposed method gave a linear response for Cu 2+ detection in the range of 0.5-1000 nM, with a detection limit of 0.18 nM, which is 5 orders of magnitude lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency limit for Cu 2+ in drinking water (20 μM). In addition, all analyses can be completed in less than 15 min. The high sensitivity, high specificity, and rapid detection capacity of the SERS assay therefore provide a combined advantage over current assays.

  16. Short-range ensemble predictions based on convection perturbations in the Eta Model for the Serra do Mar region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J. F. F.; Chou, S. C.; Gomes, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southeast Brazil, in the coastal and mountain region called Serra do Mar, between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, is subject to frequent events of landslides and floods. The Eta Model has been producing good quality forecasts over South America at about 40-km horizontal resolution. For that type of hazards, however, more detailed and probabilistic information on the risks should be provided with the forecasts. Thus, a short-range ensemble prediction system (SREPS) based on the Eta Model is being constructed. Ensemble members derived from perturbed initial and lateral boundary conditions did not provide enough spread for the forecasts. Members with model physics perturbation are being included and tested. The objective of this work is to construct more members for the Eta SREPS by adding physics perturbed members. The Eta Model is configured at 10-km resolution and 38 layers in the vertical. The domain covered is most of Southeast Brazil, centered over the Serra do Mar region. The constructed members comprise variations of the cumulus parameterization Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Kain-Fritsch (KF) schemes. Three members were constructed from the BMJ scheme by varying the deficit of saturation pressure profile over land and sea, and 2 members of the KF scheme were included using the standard KF and a momentum flux added to KF scheme version. One of the runs with BMJ scheme is the control run as it was used for the initial condition perturbation SREPS. The forecasts were tested for 6 cases of South America Convergence Zone (SACZ) events. The SACZ is a common summer season feature of Southern Hemisphere that causes persistent rain for a few days over the Southeast Brazil and it frequently organizes over Serra do Mar region. These events are particularly interesting because of the persistent rains that can accumulate large amounts and cause generalized landslides and death. With respect to precipitation, the KF scheme versions have shown to be able to reach the

  17. Constructing an Educational Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    January 14th 2004, President George Bush announces his plans to catalyst the space program into a new era of space exploration and discovery. His vision encompasses a robotics program to explore our solar system, a return to the moon, the human exploration of Mars, and to promote international prosperity towards our endeavors. We at NASA now have the task of constructing this vision in a very real timeframe. I have been chosen to begin phase 1 of making this vision a reality. I will be working on creating an Educational Mars Simulation of human exploration of Mars to stimulate interest and involvement with the project from investors and the community. GRC s Computer Services Division (CSD) in collaboration with the Office of Education Programs will be designing models, constructing terrain, and programming this simulation to create a realistic portrayal of human exploration on mars. With recent and past technological breakthroughs in computing, my primary goal can be accomplished with only the aid of 3-4 software packages. Lightwave 3D is the modeling package we have selected to use for the creation of our digital objects. This includes a Mars pressurized rover, rover cockpit, landscape/terrain, and habitat. Once we have the models completed they need textured so Photoshop and Macromedia Fireworks are handy for bringing these objects to life. Before directly importing all of this data into a simulation environment, it is necessary to first render a stunning animation of the desired final product. This animation with represent what we hope to capture out of the simulation and it will include all of the accessories like ray-tracing, fog effects, shadows, anti-aliasing, particle effects, volumetric lighting, and lens flares. Adobe Premier will more than likely be used for video editing and adding ambient noises and music. Lastly, V-Tree is the real-time 3D graphics engine which will facilitate our realistic simulation. Additional information is included in the

  18. Isotopic reconstruction of the weaning process in the archaeological population of Canímar Abajo, Cuba: A Bayesian probability mixing model approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Chinique de Armas

    Full Text Available The general lack of well-preserved juvenile skeletal remains from Caribbean archaeological sites has, in the past, prevented evaluations of juvenile dietary changes. Canímar Abajo (Cuba, with a large number of well-preserved juvenile and adult skeletal remains, provided a unique opportunity to fully assess juvenile paleodiets from an ancient Caribbean population. Ages for the start and the end of weaning and possible food sources used for weaning were inferred by combining the results of two Bayesian probability models that help to reduce some of the uncertainties inherent to bone collagen isotope based paleodiet reconstructions. Bone collagen (31 juveniles, 18 adult females was used for carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses. The isotope results were assessed using two Bayesian probability models: Weaning Ages Reconstruction with Nitrogen isotopes and Stable Isotope Analyses in R. Breast milk seems to have been the most important protein source until two years of age with some supplementary food such as tropical fruits and root cultigens likely introduced earlier. After two, juvenile diets were likely continuously supplemented by starch rich foods such as root cultigens and legumes. By the age of three, the model results suggest that the weaning process was completed. Additional indications suggest that animal marine/riverine protein and maize, while part of the Canímar Abajo female diets, were likely not used to supplement juvenile diets. The combined use of both models here provided a more complete assessment of the weaning process for an ancient Caribbean population, indicating not only the start and end ages of weaning but also the relative importance of different food sources for different age juveniles.

  19. Quick trips to Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed

  20. Cars on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  1. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  2. Habitable Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) Concept. [Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) Layout and Configuration: 6-Crew, Habitable, Nested Tank Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Victor; Rucker, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    NASA's ultimate goal is the human exploration of Mars. Among the many difficult aspects of a trip to Mars is the return mission that would transport the astronauts from the Martian surface back into Mars orbit. One possible conceptual design to accomplish this task is a two-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). In order to assess this design, a general layout and configuration for the spacecraft must be developed. The objective of my internship was to model a conceptual MAV design to support NASA's latest human Mars mission architecture trade studies, technology prioritization decisions, and mass, cost, and schedule estimates.

  3. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  4. 3D shape recovery of a newborn skull using thin-plate splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeer, R J; Prager, R W

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to construct a mesh-model of a newborn skull for finite element analysis to study its deformation when subjected to the forces present during labour. The current state of medical imaging technology has reached a level which allows accurate visualisation and shape recovery of biological organs and body-parts. However, a sufficiently large set of medical images cannot always be obtained, often because of practical or ethical reasons, and the requirement to recover the shape of the biological object of interest has to be met by other means. Such is the case for a newborn skull. A method to recover the three-dimensional (3D) shape from (minimum) two orthogonal atlas images of the object of interest and a homologous object is described. This method is based on matching landmarks and curves on the orthogonal images of the object of interest with corresponding landmarks and curves on the homologous or 'master'-object which is fully defined in 3D space. On the basis of this set of corresponding landmarks, a thin-plate spline function can be derived to warp from the 'master'-object space to the 'slave'-object space. This method is applied to recover the 3D shape of a newborn skull. Images from orthogonal view-planes are obtained from an atlas. The homologous object is an adult skull, obtained from CT-images made available by the Visible Human Project. After shape recovery, a mesh-model of the newborn skull is generated.

  5. A modified linear algebraic approach to electron scattering using cubic splines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modified linear algebraic approach to the solution of the Schrodiner equation for low-energy electron scattering is presented. The method uses a piecewise cubic-spline approximation of the wavefunction. Results in the static-potential and the static-exchange approximations for e - +H s-wave scattering are compared with unmodified linear algebraic and variational linear algebraic methods. (author)

  6. Kinetic energy classification and smoothing for compact B-spline basis sets in quantum Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogel, Jaron T.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of defect properties of transition metal oxides have become feasible in recent years due to increases in computing power. As the system size has grown, availability of on-node memory has become a limiting factor. Saving memory while minimizing computational cost is now a priority. The main growth in memory demand stems from the B-spline representation of the single particle orbitals, especially for heavier elements such as transition metals where semi-core states are present. Despite the associated memory costs, splines are computationally efficient. In this work, we explore alternatives to reduce the memory usage of splined orbitals without significantly affecting numerical fidelity or computational efficiency. We make use of the kinetic energy operator to both classify and smooth the occupied set of orbitals prior to splining. By using a partitioning scheme based on the per-orbital kinetic energy distributions, we show that memory savings of about 50% is possible for select transition metal oxide systems. For production supercells of practical interest, our scheme incurs a performance penalty of less than 5%.

  7. Isogeometric finite element data structures based on Bézier extraction of T-splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, M.A.; Borden, M.J.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Sederberg, T.W.; Hughes, T.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We develop finite element data structures for T-splines based on Bézier extraction generalizing our previous work for NURBS. As in traditional finite element analysis, the extracted Bézier elements are defined in terms of a fixed set of polynomial basis functions, the so-called Bernstein basis. The

  8. Spline Trajectory Algorithm Development: Bezier Curve Control Point Generation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Lauren R.; Allen, B. Danette

    2016-01-01

    A greater need for sophisticated autonomous piloting systems has risen in direct correlation with the ubiquity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. Whether surveying unknown or unexplored areas of the world, collecting scientific data from regions in which humans are typically incapable of entering, locating lost or wanted persons, or delivering emergency supplies, an unmanned vehicle moving in close proximity to people and other vehicles, should fly smoothly and predictably. The mathematical application of spline interpolation can play an important role in autopilots' on-board trajectory planning. Spline interpolation allows for the connection of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Space coordinates through a continuous set of smooth curves. This paper explores the motivation, application, and methodology used to compute the spline control points, which shape the curves in such a way that the autopilot trajectory is able to meet vehicle-dynamics limitations. The spline algorithms developed used to generate these curves supply autopilots with the information necessary to compute vehicle paths through a set of coordinate waypoints.

  9. A thin-plate spline analysis of the face and tongue in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, E K; Lowe, A A; Fleetham, J A

    1997-12-01

    The shape characteristics of the face and tongue in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients were investigated using thin-plate (TP) splines. A relatively new analytic tool, the TP spline method, provides a means of size normalization and image analysis. When shape is one's main concern, various sizes of a biologic structure may be a source of statistical noise. More seriously, the strong size effect could mask underlying, actual attributes of the disease. A set of size normalized data in the form of coordinates was generated from cephalograms of 80 male subjects. The TP spline method envisioned the differences in the shape of the face and tongue between OSA patients and nonapneic subjects and those between the upright and supine body positions. In accordance with OSA severity, the hyoid bone and the submental region positioned inferiorly and the fourth vertebra relocated posteriorly with respect to the mandible. This caused a fanlike configuration of the lower part of the face and neck in the sagittal plane in both upright and supine body positions. TP splines revealed tongue deformations caused by a body position change. Overall, the new morphometric tool adopted here was found to be viable in the analysis of morphologic changes.

  10. Least square fitting of low resolution gamma ray spectra with cubic B-spline basis functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Menghua; Liu Lianggang; Qi Dongxu; You Zhong; Xu Aoao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the least square fitting method with the cubic B-spline basis functions is derived to reduce the influence of statistical fluctuations in the gamma ray spectra. The derived procedure is simple and automatic. The results show that this method is better than the convolution method with a sufficient reduction of statistical fluctuation. (authors)

  11. Application of Cubic Box Spline Wavelets in the Analysis of Signal Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakowski Waldemar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the subject literature, wavelets such as the Mexican hat (the second derivative of a Gaussian or the quadratic box spline are commonly used for the task of singularity detection. The disadvantage of the Mexican hat, however, is its unlimited support; the disadvantage of the quadratic box spline is a phase shift introduced by the wavelet, making it difficult to locate singular points. The paper deals with the construction and properties of wavelets in the form of cubic box splines which have compact and short support and which do not introduce a phase shift. The digital filters associated with cubic box wavelets that are applied in implementing the discrete dyadic wavelet transform are defined. The filters and the algorithme à trous of the discrete dyadic wavelet transform are used in detecting signal singularities and in calculating the measures of signal singularities in the form of a Lipschitz exponent. The article presents examples illustrating the use of cubic box spline wavelets in the analysis of signal singularities.

  12. Numerical Solution of the Blasius Viscous Flow Problem by Quartic B-Spline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aminikhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method is proposed to study the laminar boundary layer about a flat plate in a uniform stream of fluid. The presented method is based on the quartic B-spline approximations with minimizing the error L2-norm. Theoretical considerations are discussed. The computed results are compared with some numerical results to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  13. Integration by cell algorithm for Slater integrals in a spline basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Y.; Fischer, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    An algorithm for evaluating Slater integrals in a B-spline basis is introduced. Based on the piecewise property of the B-splines, the algorithm divides the two-dimensional (r 1 , r 2 ) region into a number of rectangular cells according to the chosen grid and implements the two-dimensional integration over each individual cell using Gaussian quadrature. Over the off-diagonal cells, the integrands are separable so that each two-dimensional cell-integral is reduced to a product of two one-dimensional integrals. Furthermore, the scaling invariance of the B-splines in the logarithmic region of the chosen grid is fully exploited such that only some of the cell integrations need to be implemented. The values of given Slater integrals are obtained by assembling the cell integrals. This algorithm significantly improves the efficiency and accuracy of the traditional method that relies on the solution of differential equations and renders the B-spline method more effective when applied to multi-electron atomic systems

  14. Evaluation of optimization methods for nonrigid medical image registration using mutual information and B-splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, S.; Staring, M.; Pluim, J.P.W.

    2007-01-01

    A popular technique for nonrigid registration of medical images is based on the maximization of their mutual information, in combination with a deformation field parameterized by cubic B-splines. The coordinate mapping that relates the two images is found using an iterative optimization procedure.

  15. Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness and Magnetization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the distribution of visible and buried impact basins (Quasi-Circular Depressions or QCDs) on Mars > 200 km in diameter with free air gravity, crustal thickness and magnetization models shows some QCDs have coincident gravity anomalies but most do not. Very few QCDs have closely coincident magnetization anomalies, and only the oldest of the very large impact basins have strong magnetic anomalies within their main rings. Crustal thickness data show a large number of Circular Thinned Areas (CTAs). Some of these correspond to known impact basins, while others may represent buried impact basins not always recognized as QCDs in topography data alone. If true, the buried lowlands may be even older than we have previously estimated.

  16. A new model for Mars atmospheric dust based upon analysis of ultraviolet through infrared observations from Mariner 9, Viking, and Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; McMillan, W. W.; Rousch, T.

    1995-01-01

    We propose key modifications to the Toon et al. (1977) model of the particle size distribution and composition of Mars atmospheric dust, based on a variety of spacecraft and wavelength observations of the dust. A much broader (r(sub eff)variance-0.8 micron), smaller particle size (r(sub mode)-0.02 microns) distribution coupled with a "palagonite-like" composition is argued to fit the complete ultraviolet-to-30-micron absorption properties of the dust better than the montmorillonite-basalt r(sub eff)variance= 0.4 micron, r(sub mode)= 0.40 micron dust model of Toon et al. Mariner 9 (infrared interferometer spectrometer) IRIS spectra of high atmospheric dust opacities during the 1971 - 1972 Mars global dust storm are analyzed in terms of the Toon et al. dust model, and a Hawaiian palagonite sample with two different size distribution models incorporating smaller dust particle sizes. Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) emission-phase-function (EPF) observations at 9 microns are analyzed to retrieve 9-micron dust opacities coincident with solar band dust opacities obtained from the same EPF sequences. These EPF dust opacities provide an independent measurement of the visible/9-microns extinction opacity ratio (> or equal to 2) for Mars atmospheric dust, which is consistent with a previous measurement by Martin (1986). Model values for the visible/9-microns opacity ratio and the ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos are calculated for the palagonite model with the smaller particle size distributions and compared to the same properties for the Toon et al. model of dust. The montmorillonite model of the dust is found to fit the detailed shape of the dust 9-micron absorption well. However, it predicts structured, deep absorptions at 20 microns which are not observed and requires a separate ultraviolet-visible absorbing component to match the observed behavior of the dust in this wavelength region. The modeled palagonite does not match the 8- to 9-micron

  17. The Nitrate/(Per)Chlorate Relationship on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Sutter, Brad; Jackson, W. Andrew; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Archer, P. Douglas; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate was recently detected in Gale Crater sediments on Mars at abundances up to approximately 600 mg/kg, confirming predictions of its presence at abundances consistent with models based on impact-generated nitrate and other sources of fixed nitrogen. Terrestrial Mars analogs, Mars meteorites, and other solar system materials help establish a context for interpreting in situ nitrate measurements on Mars, particularly in relation to other cooccuring salts. We compare the relative abundance of nitrates to oxychlorine (chlorate and/or perchlorate, hereafter (per)chlorate) salts on Mars and Earth. The nitrate/(per)chlorate ratio on Mars is greater than 1, significantly lower than on Earth (nitrate/(per)chlorate greater than 10(exp.3)), suggesting not only the absence of biological activity but also different (per)chlorate formation mechanisms on Mars than on Earth.

  18. Trajectory control of an articulated robot with a parallel drive arm based on splines under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Jong

    Today's industrial robots controlled by mini/micro computers are basically simple positioning devices. The positioning accuracy depends on the mathematical description of the robot configuration to place the end-effector at the desired position and orientation within the workspace and on following the specified path which requires the trajectory planner. In addition, the consideration of joint velocity, acceleration, and jerk trajectories are essential for trajectory planning of industrial robots to obtain smooth operation. The newly designed 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism which permits the joint actuators to be placed in the same horizontal line to reduce the arm inertia and to increase load capacity and stiffness is selected. First, the forward kinematic and inverse kinematic problems are examined. The forward kinematic equations are successfully derived based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation with independent joint angle constraints. The inverse kinematic problems are solved using the arm-wrist partitioned approach with independent joint angle constraints. Three types of curve fitting methods used in trajectory planning, i.e., certain degree polynomial functions, cubic spline functions, and cubic spline functions under tension, are compared to select the best possible method to satisfy both smooth joint trajectories and positioning accuracy for a robot trajectory planner. Cubic spline functions under tension is the method selected for the new trajectory planner. This method is implemented for a 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism to improve the smoothness of the joint trajectories and the positioning accuracy of the manipulator. Also, this approach is compared with existing trajectory planners, 4-3-4 polynomials and cubic spline functions, via circular arc motion simulations. The new trajectory planner using cubic spline functions under tension is implemented into the microprocessor based robot controller and

  19. Prostate multimodality image registration based on B-splines and quadrature local energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-05-01

    Needle biopsy of the prostate is guided by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) imaging. The TRUS images do not provide proper spatial localization of malignant tissues due to the poor sensitivity of TRUS to visualize early malignancy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive for the detection of early stage malignancy, and therefore, a novel 2D deformable registration method that overlays pre-biopsy MRI onto TRUS images has been proposed. The registration method involves B-spline deformations with Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as the similarity measure computed from the texture images obtained from the amplitude responses of the directional quadrature filter pairs. Registration accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by computing the Dice Similarity coefficient (DSC) and 95% Hausdorff Distance (HD) values for 20 patients prostate mid-gland slices and Target Registration Error (TRE) for 18 patients only where homologous structures are visible in both the TRUS and transformed MR i