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Sample records for splice site recognition

  1. Analysis and recognition of 5 ' UTR intron splice sites in human pre-mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, E.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of splice sites in non-coding regions of genes is one of the most challenging aspects of gene structure recognition. We perform a rigorous analysis of such splice sites embedded in human 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), and investigate correlations between this class of splice sites and...

  2. U2AF1 mutations alter splice site recognition in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilagan, Janine O; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Hayes, Brian; Murphy, Michele E; Zebari, Ahmad S; Bradley, Philip; Bradley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing studies have identified common mutations affecting genes encoding components of the RNA splicing machinery in hematological malignancies. Here, we sought to determine how mutations affecting the 3' splice site recognition factor U2AF1 alter its normal role in RNA splicing. We find that U2AF1 mutations influence the similarity of splicing programs in leukemias, but do not give rise to widespread splicing failure. U2AF1 mutations cause differential splicing of hundreds of genes, affecting biological pathways such as DNA methylation (DNMT3B), X chromosome inactivation (H2AFY), the DNA damage response (ATR, FANCA), and apoptosis (CASP8). We show that U2AF1 mutations alter the preferred 3' splice site motif in patients, in cell culture, and in vitro. Mutations affecting the first and second zinc fingers give rise to different alterations in splice site preference and largely distinct downstream splicing programs. These allele-specific effects are consistent with a computationally predicted model of U2AF1 in complex with RNA. Our findings suggest that U2AF1 mutations contribute to pathogenesis by causing quantitative changes in splicing that affect diverse cellular pathways, and give insight into the normal function of U2AF1's zinc finger domains. © 2015 Ilagan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Computational Recognition of RNA Splice Sites by Exact Algorithms for the Quadratic Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Fischer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental problem of bioinformatics is the computational recognition of DNA and RNA binding sites. Given a set of short DNA or RNA sequences of equal length such as transcription factor binding sites or RNA splice sites, the task is to learn a pattern from this set that allows the recognition of similar sites in another set of DNA or RNA sequences. Permuted Markov (PM models and permuted variable length Markov (PVLM models are two powerful models for this task, but the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model is NP-hard. While the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model of order one is equivalent to the traveling salesman problem (TSP, the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model of order two is equivalent to the quadratic TSP (QTSP. Several exact algorithms exist for solving the QTSP, but it is unclear if these algorithms are capable of solving QTSP instances resulting from RNA splice sites of at least 150 base pairs in a reasonable time frame. Here, we investigate the performance of three exact algorithms for solving the QTSP for ten datasets of splice acceptor sites and splice donor sites of five different species and find that one of these algorithms is capable of solving QTSP instances of up to 200 base pairs with a running time of less than two days.

  4. Theory on the Coupled Stochastic Dynamics of Transcription and Splice-Site Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Rajamanickam; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically split into exons that need to be spliced together to form the mature mRNA. The splicing process depends on the dynamics and interactions among transcription by the RNA polymerase II complex (RNAPII) and the spliceosomal complex consisting of multiple small nuclear ribonucleo proteins (snRNPs). Here we propose a biophysically plausible initial theory of splicing that aims to explain the effects of the stochastic dynamics of snRNPs on the splicing patterns of eukaryotic genes. We consider two different ways to model the dynamics of snRNPs: pure three-dimensional diffusion and a combination of three- and one-dimensional diffusion along the emerging pre-mRNA. Our theoretical analysis shows that there exists an optimum position of the splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA at which the time required for snRNPs to find the 5′ donor site is minimized. The minimization of the overall search time is achieved mainly via the increase in non-specific interactions between the snRNPs and the growing pre-mRNA. The theory further predicts that there exists an optimum transcript length that maximizes the probabilities for exons to interact with the snRNPs. We evaluate these theoretical predictions by considering human and mouse exon microarray data as well as RNAseq data from multiple different tissues. We observe that there is a broad optimum position of splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA and an optimum transcript length, which are roughly consistent with the theoretical predictions. The theoretical and experimental analyses suggest that there is a strong interaction between the dynamics of RNAPII and the stochastic nature of snRNP search for 5′ donor splicing sites. PMID:23133354

  5. Theory on the coupled stochastic dynamics of transcription and splice-site recognition.

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    Rajamanickam Murugan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genes are typically split into exons that need to be spliced together to form the mature mRNA. The splicing process depends on the dynamics and interactions among transcription by the RNA polymerase II complex (RNAPII and the spliceosomal complex consisting of multiple small nuclear ribonucleo proteins (snRNPs. Here we propose a biophysically plausible initial theory of splicing that aims to explain the effects of the stochastic dynamics of snRNPs on the splicing patterns of eukaryotic genes. We consider two different ways to model the dynamics of snRNPs: pure three-dimensional diffusion and a combination of three- and one-dimensional diffusion along the emerging pre-mRNA. Our theoretical analysis shows that there exists an optimum position of the splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA at which the time required for snRNPs to find the 5' donor site is minimized. The minimization of the overall search time is achieved mainly via the increase in non-specific interactions between the snRNPs and the growing pre-mRNA. The theory further predicts that there exists an optimum transcript length that maximizes the probabilities for exons to interact with the snRNPs. We evaluate these theoretical predictions by considering human and mouse exon microarray data as well as RNAseq data from multiple different tissues. We observe that there is a broad optimum position of splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA and an optimum transcript length, which are roughly consistent with the theoretical predictions. The theoretical and experimental analyses suggest that there is a strong interaction between the dynamics of RNAPII and the stochastic nature of snRNP search for 5' donor splicing sites.

  6. Differential GC Content between Exons and Introns Establishes Distinct Strategies of Splice-Site Recognition

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    Maayan Amit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During evolution segments of homeothermic genomes underwent a GC content increase. Our analyses reveal that two exon-intron architectures have evolved from an ancestral state of low GC content exons flanked by short introns with a lower GC content. One group underwent a GC content elevation that abolished the differential exon-intron GC content, with introns remaining short. The other group retained the overall low GC content as well as the differential exon-intron GC content, and is associated with longer introns. We show that differential exon-intron GC content regulates exon inclusion level in this group, in which disease-associated mutations often lead to exon skipping. This group's exons also display higher nucleosome occupancy compared to flanking introns and exons of the other group, thus “marking” them for spliceosomal recognition. Collectively, our results reveal that differential exon-intron GC content is a previously unidentified determinant of exon selection and argue that the two GC content architectures reflect the two mechanisms by which splicing signals are recognized: exon definition and intron definition.

  7. Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutations of SNRNP200 Enhance Cryptic Splice-Site Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvačková, Zuzana; Matějů, Daniel; Staněk, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2014), s. 308-317 ISSN 1059-7794 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP301/12/P425; GA ČR GAP302/11/1910; GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Retinitis pigmentosa * pre-mRNA splicing * fidelity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.144, year: 2014

  8. The Human Splicing Factor ASF/SF2 can Specifically Recognize Pre-mRNA 5' Splice Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ping; Manley, James L.

    1994-04-01

    ASF/SF2 is a human protein previously shown to function in in vitro pre-mRNA splicing as an essential factor necessary for all splices and also as an alternative splicing factor, capable of switching selection of 5' splice sites. To begin to study the protein's mechanism of action, we have investigated the RNA binding properties of purified recombinant ASF/SF2. Using UV crosslinking and gel shift assays, we demonstrate that the RNA binding region of ASF/SF2 can interact with RNA in a sequence-specific manner, recognizing the 5' splice site in each of two different pre-mRNAs. Point mutations in the 5' splice site consensus can reduce binding by as much as a factor of 100, with the largest effects observed in competition assays. These findings support a model in which ASF/SF2 aids in the recognition of pre-mRNA 5' splice sites.

  9. GC content around splice sites affects splicing through pre-mRNA secondary structures

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    Chen Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing increases protein diversity by generating multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene through different combinations of exons or through different selections of splice sites. It has been reported that RNA secondary structures are involved in alternative splicing. Here we perform a genomic study of RNA secondary structures around splice sites in humans (Homo sapiens, mice (Mus musculus, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster, and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans to further investigate this phenomenon. Results We observe that GC content around splice sites is closely associated with the splice site usage in multiple species. RNA secondary structure is the possible explanation, because the structural stability difference among alternative splice sites, constitutive splice sites, and skipped splice sites can be explained by the GC content difference. Alternative splice sites tend to be GC-enriched and exhibit more stable RNA secondary structures in all of the considered species. In humans and mice, splice sites of first exons and long exons tend to be GC-enriched and hence form more stable structures, indicating the special role of RNA secondary structures in promoter proximal splicing events and the splicing of long exons. In addition, GC-enriched exon-intron junctions tend to be overrepresented in tissue-specific alternative splice sites, indicating the functional consequence of the GC effect. Compared with regions far from splice sites and decoy splice sites, real splice sites are GC-enriched. We also found that the GC-content effect is much stronger than the nucleotide-order effect to form stable secondary structures. Conclusion All of these results indicate that GC content is related to splice site usage and it may mediate the splicing process through RNA secondary structures.

  10. Method of predicting Splice Sites based on signal interactions

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    Deogun Jitender S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting and proper ranking of canonical splice sites (SSs is a challenging problem in bioinformatics and machine learning communities. Any progress in SSs recognition will lead to better understanding of splicing mechanism. We introduce several new approaches of combining a priori knowledge for improved SS detection. First, we design our new Bayesian SS sensor based on oligonucleotide counting. To further enhance prediction quality, we applied our new de novo motif detection tool MHMMotif to intronic ends and exons. We combine elements found with sensor information using Naive Bayesian Network, as implemented in our new tool SpliceScan. Results According to our tests, the Bayesian sensor outperforms the contemporary Maximum Entropy sensor for 5' SS detection. We report a number of putative Exonic (ESE and Intronic (ISE Splicing Enhancers found by MHMMotif tool. T-test statistics on mouse/rat intronic alignments indicates, that detected elements are on average more conserved as compared to other oligos, which supports our assumption of their functional importance. The tool has been shown to outperform the SpliceView, GeneSplicer, NNSplice, Genio and NetUTR tools for the test set of human genes. SpliceScan outperforms all contemporary ab initio gene structural prediction tools on the set of 5' UTR gene fragments. Conclusion Designed methods have many attractive properties, compared to existing approaches. Bayesian sensor, MHMMotif program and SpliceScan tools are freely available on our web site. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Manyuan Long, Arcady Mushegian and Mikhail Gelfand.

  11. Position dependence of the rous sarcoma virus negative regulator of splicing element reflects proximity to a 5' splice site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuedi; McNally, Mark T.

    2003-01-01

    Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) requires incomplete splicing of its viral transcripts to maintain efficient replication. A splicing inhibitor element, the negative regulator of splicing (NRS), is located near the 5' end of the RNA but the significance of this positioning is not known. In a heterologous intron the NRS functions optimally when positioned close to the authentic 5' splice site. This observation led us to investigate the basis of the position dependence. Four explanations were put forth and stressed the role of three major elements involved in splicing, the 3' splice site, the 5' splice site, and the 5' end cap structure. NRS function was unrelated to its position relative to the 3' splice site or the cap structure and appeared to depend on its position relative to the authentic 5' splice site. We conclude that position dependence may reflect distance constraints necessary for competition of the NRS with the authentic 5' splice site for pairing with the 3' splice sites

  12. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

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    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  13. Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer

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    Reyka G. Jayasinghe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function. Notably, we found that neoantigens induced by SCMs are likely several folds more immunogenic compared to missense mutations, exemplified by the recurrent GATA3 SCM. Further, high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumors with SCMs, suggesting candidates for immune blockade therapy. Our work highlights the importance of integrating DNA and RNA data for understanding the functional and the clinical implications of mutations in human diseases. : Jayasinghe et al. identify nearly 2,000 splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs from over 8,000 tumor samples across 33 cancer types. They provide a more accurate interpretation of previously mis-annotated mutations, highlighting the importance of integrating data types to understand the functional and the clinical implications of splicing mutations in human disease. Keywords: splicing, RNA, mutations of clinical relevance

  14. Splice Site Mutations in the ATP7A Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Tümer, Zeynep; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2011-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. We describe 33 novel splice site mutations detected in patients with MD or the milder phenotypic form, Occipital Horn Syndrome. We review these 33 mutations together with 28 previously published splice site mutations. We investigate 12...... mutations for their effect on the mRNA transcript in vivo. Transcriptional data from another 16 mutations were collected from the literature. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutations, predicted with the bioinformatics tool Human Splice Finder, were investigated and evaluated in relation...... to in vivo results. Ninety-six percent of the mutations identified in 45 patients with classical MD were predicted to have a significant effect on splicing, which concurs with the absence of any detectable wild-type transcript in all 19 patients investigated in vivo. Sixty-seven percent of the mutations...

  15. HIV-1 splicing is controlled by local RNA structure and binding of splicing regulatory proteins at the major 5' splice site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2015-01-01

    The 5' leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome contains the major 5' splice site (ss) that is used in the production of the many spliced viral RNAs. This splice-donor (SD) region can fold into a stable stem-loop structure and the thermodynamic stability of this RNA

  16. Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Reyka G; Cao, Song; Gao, Qingsong; Wendl, Michael C; Vo, Nam Sy; Reynolds, Sheila M; Zhao, Yanyan; Climente-González, Héctor; Chai, Shengjie; Wang, Fang; Varghese, Rajees; Huang, Mo; Liang, Wen-Wei; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Sengupta, Sohini; Li, Zhi; Payne, Samuel H; Fenyö, David; Miner, Jeffrey H; Walter, Matthew J; Vincent, Benjamin; Eyras, Eduardo; Chen, Ken; Shmulevich, Ilya; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2018-04-03

    For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creating mutations (SCMs) across 8,656 TCGA tumors. We report 1,964 originally mis-annotated mutations having clear evidence of creating alternative splice junctions. TP53 and GATA3 have 26 and 18 SCMs, respectively, and ATRX has 5 from lower-grade gliomas. Mutations in 11 genes, including PARP1, BRCA1, and BAP1, were experimentally validated for splice-site-creating function. Notably, we found that neoantigens induced by SCMs are likely several folds more immunogenic compared to missense mutations, exemplified by the recurrent GATA3 SCM. Further, high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in tumors with SCMs, suggesting candidates for immune blockade therapy. Our work highlights the importance of integrating DNA and RNA data for understanding the functional and the clinical implications of mutations in human diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Splice-Site Prediction with Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Tatsuhiko

    2018-04-18

    Accurate splice-site prediction is essential to delineate gene structures from sequence data. Several computational techniques have been applied to create a system to predict canonical splice sites. For classification tasks, deep neural networks (DNNs) have achieved record-breaking results and often outperformed other supervised learning techniques. In this study, a new method of splice-site prediction using DNNs was proposed. The proposed system receives an input sequence data and returns an answer as to whether it is splice site. The length of input is 140 nucleotides, with the consensus sequence (i.e., "GT" and "AG" for the donor and acceptor sites, respectively) in the middle. Each input sequence model is applied to the pretrained DNN model that determines the probability that an input is a splice site. The model consists of convolutional layers and bidirectional long short-term memory network layers. The pretraining and validation were conducted using the data set tested in previously reported methods. The performance evaluation results showed that the proposed method can outperform the previous methods. In addition, the pattern learned by the DNNs was visualized as position frequency matrices (PFMs). Some of PFMs were very similar to the consensus sequence. The trained DNN model and the brief source code for the prediction system are uploaded. Further improvement will be achieved following the further development of DNNs.

  18. A 5' splice site enhances the recruitment of basal transcription initiation factors in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Kroun; Kahns, Søren; Lykke-Andersen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    RNAs, harboring wild-type or various 5′ splice site mutations, we demonstrate a strong positive correlation between splicing efficiency and transcription activity. Interestingly, a 5′ splice site can stimulate transcription even in the absence of splicing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show enhanced...... a promoter-proximal 5′ splice site via its U1 snRNA interaction can feed back to stimulate transcription initiation by enhancing preinitiation complex assembly....

  19. New splice site acceptor mutation in AIRE gene in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

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    Mireia Mora

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 240300 is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by the presence of at least two of three major diseases: hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. We aim to identify the molecular defects and investigate the clinical and mutational characteristics in an index case and other members of a consanguineous family. We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site acceptor (SSA of intron 5 (c.653-1G>A in two siblings with different clinical outcomes of APS-1. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that this AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the constitutive SSA of intron 5, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSA in intron 5. Surprisingly, the use of an alternative SSA entails the uncovering of a cryptic donor splice site in exon 5. This new transcript generates a truncated protein (p.A214fs67X containing the first 213 amino acids and followed by 68 aberrant amino acids. The mutation affects the proper splicing, not only at the acceptor but also at the donor splice site, highlighting the complexity of recognizing suitable splicing sites and the importance of sequencing the intron-exon junctions for a more precise molecular diagnosis and correct genetic counseling. As both siblings were carrying the same mutation but exhibited a different APS-1 onset, and one of the brothers was not clinically diagnosed, our finding highlights the possibility to suspect mutations in the AIRE gene in cases of childhood chronic candidiasis and/or hypoparathyroidism otherwise unexplained, especially when the phenotype is associated with other autoimmune diseases.

  20. Functions for fission yeast splicing factors SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 in alternative splice-site choice and stress-specific regulated splicing.

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    Geetha Melangath

    Full Text Available Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S. pombe alternative events. We examined the role of factors SpSlu7 or SpPrp18 for these splice events and investigated the relationship to growth phase and stress. Wild-type log and stationary phase cells showed ats1+ exon 3 skipped and intron 3 retained transcripts. Interestingly the non-consensus 5'ss in ats1+ intron 3 caused SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent intron retention. We validated the use of an alternative 5'ss in dtd1+ intron 1 and of an upstream alternative 3'ss in DUF3074 intron 1. The dtd1+ intron 1 non-canonical 5'ss yielded an alternative mRNA whose levels increased in stationary phase. Utilization of dtd1+ intron 1 sub-optimal 5' ss required functional SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 while compromise in SpSlu7 function alone hampered the selection of the DUF3074 intron 1 non canonical 3'ss. We analysed the relative abundance of these splice isoforms during mild thermal, oxidative and heavy metal stress and found stress-specific splice patterns for ats1+ and DUF3074 intron 1 some of which were SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent. By studying ats1+ splice isoforms during compromised transcription elongation rates in wild-type, spslu7-2 and spprp18-5 mutant cells we found dynamic and intron context-specific effects in splice-site choice. Our work thus shows the combinatorial effects of splice site strength, core splicing factor functions and transcription elongation kinetics to dictate alternative splice patterns which in turn serve as an additional

  1. Features generated for computational splice-site prediction correspond to functional elements

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    Wilbur W John

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate selection of splice sites during the splicing of precursors to messenger RNA requires both relatively well-characterized signals at the splice sites and auxiliary signals in the adjacent exons and introns. We previously described a feature generation algorithm (FGA that is capable of achieving high classification accuracy on human 3' splice sites. In this paper, we extend the splice-site prediction to 5' splice sites and explore the generated features for biologically meaningful splicing signals. Results We present examples from the observed features that correspond to known signals, both core signals (including the branch site and pyrimidine tract and auxiliary signals (including GGG triplets and exon splicing enhancers. We present evidence that features identified by FGA include splicing signals not found by other methods. Conclusion Our generated features capture known biological signals in the expected sequence interval flanking splice sites. The method can be easily applied to other species and to similar classification problems, such as tissue-specific regulatory elements, polyadenylation sites, promoters, etc.

  2. Structural Basis for Polypyrimidine Tract Recognition by the Essential Pre-mRNA Splicing Factor U2AF65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickmier, E.; Frato, K.; Shen, H.; Paranawithana, S.; Green, M.; Kielkopf, C.

    2006-01-01

    The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF 65 , guides the early stages of splice site choice by recognizing a polypyrimidine (Py)-tract consensus sequence near the 3'-splice site. Since Py-tracts are relatively poorly conserved in higher eukaryotes, U2AF 65 is faced with the problem of specifying uridine-rich sequences, yet tolerating a variety of nucleotide substitutions found in natural Py-tracts. To better understand these apparently contradictory RNA binding characteristics, the X-ray structure of the U2AF 65 RNA binding domain bound to a Py-tract composed of seven uridines has been determined at 2.5Angstroms resolution. Specific hydrogen bonds between U2AF 65 and the uracil bases provide an explanation for polyuridine recognition. Flexible sidechains and bound water molecules form the majority of the base contacts, and potentially could rearrange when the U2AF 65 structure adapts to different Py-tract sequences. The energetic importance of conserved residues for Py-tract binding is established by analysis of site-directed mutant U2AF 65 proteins using surface plasmon resonance

  3. Effects of secondary structure on pre-mRNA splicing: hairpins sequestering the 5' but not the 3' splice site inhibit intron processing in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H X; Goodall, G J; Kole, R; Filipowicz, W

    1995-01-16

    We have performed a systematic study of the effect of artificial hairpins on pre-mRNA splicing in protoplasts of a dicot plant, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Hairpins with a potential to form 18 or 24 bp stems strongly inhibit splicing when they sequester the 5' splice site or are placed in the middle of short introns. However, similar 24 bp hairpins sequestering the 3' splice site do not prevent this site from being used as an acceptor. Utilization of the stem-located 3' site requires that the base of the stem is separated from the upstream 5' splice site by a minimum of approximately 45 nucleotides and that another 'helper' 3' splice site is present downstream of the stem. The results indicate that the spliceosome or factors associated with it may have a potential to unfold secondary structure present in the downstream portion of the intron, prior to or at the step of the 3' splice site selection. The finding that the helper 3' site is required for utilization of the stem-located acceptor confirms and extends previous observations, obtained with HeLa cell in vitro splicing systems, indicating that the 3' splice site may be recognized at least twice during spliceosome assembly.

  4. On splice site prediction using weight array models: a comparison of smoothing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, Leila; Meinicke, Peter; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    In most eukaryotic genes, protein-coding exons are separated by non-coding introns which are removed from the primary transcript by a process called 'splicing'. The positions where introns are cut and exons are spliced together are called 'splice sites'. Thus, computational prediction of splice sites is crucial for gene finding in eukaryotes. Weight array models are a powerful probabilistic approach to splice site detection. Parameters for these models are usually derived from m-tuple frequencies in trusted training data and subsequently smoothed to avoid zero probabilities. In this study we compare three different ways of parameter estimation for m-tuple frequencies, namely (a) non-smoothed probability estimation, (b) standard pseudo counts and (c) a Gaussian smoothing procedure that we recently developed

  5. Features of 5'-splice-site efficiency derived from disease-causing mutations and comparative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Xavier; Olson, Andrew J; Rao, Atmakuri R

    2008-01-01

    Many human diseases, including Fanconi anemia, hemophilia B, neurofibromatosis, and phenylketonuria, can be caused by 5'-splice-site (5'ss) mutations that are not predicted to disrupt splicing, according to position weight matrices. By using comparative genomics, we identify pairwise dependencies...

  6. Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Several Aspergillus fungal genomic sequences have been published, with many more in progress. Obviously, it is essential to have high-quality, consistently annotated sets of proteins from each of the genomes, in order to make meaningful comparisons. We have developed a dedicated, publicly available......, splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window...... better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene....

  7. Deletions in cox2 mRNA result in loss of splicing and RNA editing and gain of novel RNA editing sites.

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    Stefanie Grüttner

    Full Text Available As previously demonstrated, the maize cox2 RNA is fully edited in cauliflower mitochondria. Use of constructs with a deleted cox2 intron, however, led to a loss of RNA editing at almost all editing sites, with only a few sites still partially edited. Likewise, one deletion in exon 1 and three in exon 2 abolish RNA editing at all cox2 sites analyzed. Furthermore, intron splicing is abolished using these deletions. Mutation of a cytosine residue, which is normally edited and localized directly adjacent to the intron, to thymidine did not result in restoration of splicing, indicating that the loss of splicing was not due to loss of RNA editing. One deletion in exon 2 did not lead to loss of splicing. Instead, most editing sites were found to be edited, only three were not edited. Unexpectedly, we observed additional RNA editing events at new sites. Thus it appears that deletions in the cox2 RNA sequence can have a strong effect on RNA processing, leading to loss of splicing, loss of editing at all sites, or even to a gain of new editing sites. As these effects are not limited to the vicinity of the respective deletions, but appear to be widespread or even affect all editing sites, they may not be explained by the loss of PPR binding sites. Instead, it appears that several parts of the cox2 transcript are required for proper RNA processing. This indicates the roles of the RNA sequence and structural elements in the recognition of the editing sites.

  8. Structural Insights into RNA Recognition by the Alternate-Splicing Regulator CUG-Binding Protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Teplova; J Song; H Gaw; A Teplov; D Patel

    2011-12-31

    CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) regulates multiple aspects of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing, with implications for onset of myotonic dystrophy. CUGBP1 harbors three RRM domains and preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements. We describe crystal structures of CUGBP1 RRM1 and tandem RRM1/2 domains bound to RNAs containing tandem UGU(U/G) elements. Both RRM1 in RRM1-RNA and RRM2 in RRM1/2-RNA complexes use similar principles to target UGU(U/G) elements, with recognition mediated by face-to-edge stacking and water-mediated hydrogen-bonding networks. The UG step adopts a left-handed Z-RNA conformation, with the syn guanine recognized through Hoogsteen edge-protein backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions. NMR studies on the RRM1/2-RNA complex establish that both RRM domains target tandem UGUU motifs in solution, whereas filter-binding assays identify a preference for recognition of GU over AU or GC steps. We discuss the implications of CUGBP1-mediated targeting and sequestration of UGU(U/G) elements on pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation, translational regulation, and mRNA decay.

  9. Splice site prediction in Arabidopsis thaliana pre-mRNA by combining local and global sequence information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Stefan M.; Korning, Peter G.; Tolstrup, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been combined with a rule based system to predict intron splice sites in the dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A two step prediction scheme, where a global prediction of the coding potential regulates a cutoff level for a local predicition of splice sites, is refin...

  10. Ab initio prediction of mutation-induced cryptic splice-site activation and exon skipping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divina, Petr; Kvitkovicova, Andrea; Buratti, E.; Vorechovsky, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2009), s. 759-765 ISSN 1018-4813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mutation * cryptic splice site * exon skipping Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.564, year: 2009

  11. LIBRA: LIgand Binding site Recognition Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Le Viet; Caprari, Silvia; Bizai, Massimiliano; Toti, Daniele; Polticelli, Fabio

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, structural genomics and ab initio molecular modeling activities are leading to the availability of a large number of structural models of proteins whose biochemical function is not known. The aim of this study was the development of a novel software tool that, given a protein's structural model, predicts the presence and identity of active sites and/or ligand binding sites. The algorithm implemented by ligand binding site recognition application (LIBRA) is based on a graph theory approach to find the largest subset of similar residues between an input protein and a collection of known functional sites. The algorithm makes use of two predefined databases for active sites and ligand binding sites, respectively, derived from the Catalytic Site Atlas and the Protein Data Bank. Tests indicate that LIBRA is able to identify the correct binding/active site in 90% of the cases analyzed, 90% of which feature the identified site as ranking first. As far as ligand binding site recognition is concerned, LIBRA outperforms other structure-based ligand binding sites detection tools with which it has been compared. The application, developed in Java SE 7 with a Swing GUI embedding a JMol applet, can be run on any OS equipped with a suitable Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and is available at the following URL: http://www.computationalbiology.it/software/LIBRAv1.zip. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Novel BRCA1 splice-site mutation in ovarian cancer patients of Slavic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokuca, Ana; Dragos, Vita Setrajcic; Stamatovic, Ljiljana; Blatnik, Ana; Boljevic, Ivana; Stegel, Vida; Rakobradovic, Jelena; Skerl, Petra; Jovandic, Stevo; Krajc, Mateja; Magic, Mirjana Brankovic; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) lead to defects in a number of cellular pathways including DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, resulting in the elevated genome instability and predisposing to breast and ovarian cancers. We report a novel mutation LRG_292t1:c.4356delA,p.(Ala1453Glnfs*3) in the 12th exon of BRCA1, in the splice site region near the donor site of intron 12. It is a frameshift mutation with the termination codon generated on the third amino acid position from the site of deletion. Human Splice Finder 3.0 and MutationTaster have assessed this variation as disease causing, based on the alteration of splicing, creation of premature stop codon and other potential alterations initiated by nucleotide deletion. Among the most important alterations are frameshift and splice site changes (score of the newly created donor splice site: 0.82). c.4356delA was associated with two ovarian cancer cases in two families of Slavic origin. It was detected by next generation sequencing, and confirmed with Sanger sequencing in both cases. Because of the fact that it changes the reading frame of the protein, novel mutation c.4356delA p.(Ala1453Glnfs*3) in BRCA1 gene might be of clinical significance for hereditary ovarian cancer. Further functional as well as segregation analyses within the families are necessary for appropriate clinical classification of this variant. Since it has been detected in two ovarian cancer patients of Slavic origin, it is worth investigating founder effect of this mutation in Slavic populations.

  13. Recognition of functional sites in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman-Peleg, Alexandra; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

    2004-06-04

    Recognition of regions on the surface of one protein, that are similar to a binding site of another is crucial for the prediction of molecular interactions and for functional classifications. We first describe a novel method, SiteEngine, that assumes no sequence or fold similarities and is able to recognize proteins that have similar binding sites and may perform similar functions. We achieve high efficiency and speed by introducing a low-resolution surface representation via chemically important surface points, by hashing triangles of physico-chemical properties and by application of hierarchical scoring schemes for a thorough exploration of global and local similarities. We proceed to rigorously apply this method to functional site recognition in three possible ways: first, we search a given functional site on a large set of complete protein structures. Second, a potential functional site on a protein of interest is compared with known binding sites, to recognize similar features. Third, a complete protein structure is searched for the presence of an a priori unknown functional site, similar to known sites. Our method is robust and efficient enough to allow computationally demanding applications such as the first and the third. From the biological standpoint, the first application may identify secondary binding sites of drugs that may lead to side-effects. The third application finds new potential sites on the protein that may provide targets for drug design. Each of the three applications may aid in assigning a function and in classification of binding patterns. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each type of search, provide examples of large-scale searches of the entire Protein Data Base and make functional predictions.

  14. Approaches to link RNA secondary structures with splicing regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plass, Mireya; Eyras, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, alternative splicing is usually regulated by protein factors, which bind to the pre-mRNA and affect the recognition of splicing signals. There is recent evidence that the secondary structure of the pre-mRNA may also play an important role in this process, either by facilitat...... describes the steps in the analysis of the secondary structure of the pre-mRNA and its possible relation to splicing. As a working example, we use the case of yeast and the problem of the recognition of the 3' splice site (3'ss).......In higher eukaryotes, alternative splicing is usually regulated by protein factors, which bind to the pre-mRNA and affect the recognition of splicing signals. There is recent evidence that the secondary structure of the pre-mRNA may also play an important role in this process, either...

  15. Intronic PAH gene mutations cause a splicing defect by a novel mechanism involving U1snRNP binding downstream of the 5' splice site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Pizarro, Ainhoa; Dembic, Maja; Pérez, Belén

    2018-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), one of the most common inherited diseases of amino acid metabolism, is caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Recently, PAH exon 11 was identified as a vulnerable exon due to a weak 3' splice site, with different exonic mutations affecting exon 11 ...

  16. Feature selection for splice site prediction: A new method using EDA-based feature ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzé Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of relevant biological features in large and complex datasets is an important step towards gaining insight in the processes underlying the data. Other advantages of feature selection include the ability of the classification system to attain good or even better solutions using a restricted subset of features, and a faster classification. Thus, robust methods for fast feature selection are of key importance in extracting knowledge from complex biological data. Results In this paper we present a novel method for feature subset selection applied to splice site prediction, based on estimation of distribution algorithms, a more general framework of genetic algorithms. From the estimated distribution of the algorithm, a feature ranking is derived. Afterwards this ranking is used to iteratively discard features. We apply this technique to the problem of splice site prediction, and show how it can be used to gain insight into the underlying biological process of splicing. Conclusion We show that this technique proves to be more robust than the traditional use of estimation of distribution algorithms for feature selection: instead of returning a single best subset of features (as they normally do this method provides a dynamical view of the feature selection process, like the traditional sequential wrapper methods. However, the method is faster than the traditional techniques, and scales better to datasets described by a large number of features.

  17. Multiple splicing defects in an intronic false exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Chasin, L A

    2000-09-01

    Splice site consensus sequences alone are insufficient to dictate the recognition of real constitutive splice sites within the typically large transcripts of higher eukaryotes, and large numbers of pseudoexons flanked by pseudosplice sites with good matches to the consensus sequences can be easily designated. In an attempt to identify elements that prevent pseudoexon splicing, we have systematically altered known splicing signals, as well as immediately adjacent flanking sequences, of an arbitrarily chosen pseudoexon from intron 1 of the human hprt gene. The substitution of a 5' splice site that perfectly matches the 5' consensus combined with mutation to match the CAG/G sequence of the 3' consensus failed to get this model pseudoexon included as the central exon in a dhfr minigene context. Provision of a real 3' splice site and a consensus 5' splice site and removal of an upstream inhibitory sequence were necessary and sufficient to confer splicing on the pseudoexon. This activated context also supported the splicing of a second pseudoexon sequence containing no apparent enhancer. Thus, both the 5' splice site sequence and the polypyrimidine tract of the pseudoexon are defective despite their good agreement with the consensus. On the other hand, the pseudoexon body did not exert a negative influence on splicing. The introduction into the pseudoexon of a sequence selected for binding to ASF/SF2 or its replacement with beta-globin exon 2 only partially reversed the effect of the upstream negative element and the defective polypyrimidine tract. These results support the idea that exon-bridging enhancers are not a prerequisite for constitutive exon definition and suggest that intrinsically defective splice sites and negative elements play important roles in distinguishing the real splicing signal from the vast number of false splicing signals.

  18. Novel splice site mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene in Turkish patients with Laron-type dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Ahmet; Ozon, Alev; Isguven, Pinar S; Coker, Ajda; Peker, Ismail; Yordam, Nursen

    2008-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is involved in growth, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Interaction of GH with the GH receptor (GHR) is necessary for systemic and local production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) which mediates GH actions. Mutations in the GHR cause severe postnatal growth failure; the disorder is an autosomal recessive genetic disease resulting in GH insensitivity, called Laron syndrome. It is characterized by dwarfism with elevated serum GH and low levels of IGF-I. We analyzed the GHR gene for mutations and polymorphisms in eight patients with Laron-type dwarfism from six families. We found three missense mutations (S40L, V125A, I526L), one nonsense mutation (W157X), and one splice site mutation in the extracellular domain of GHR. Furthermore, G168G and exon 3 deletion polymorphisms were detected in patients with Laron syndrome. The splice site mutation, which is a novel mutation, was located at the donor splice site of exon 2/ intron 2 within GHR. Although this mutation changed the highly conserved donor splice site consensus sequence GT to GGT by insertion of a G residue, the intron splicing between exon 2 and exon 3 was detected in the patient. These results imply that the splicing occurs arthe GT site in intron 2, leaving the extra inserted G residue at the end of exon 2, thus changing the open reading frame of GHR resulting in a premature termination codon in exon 3.

  19. Global identification of hnRNP A1 binding sites for SSO-based splicing modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Gitte H; Doktor, Thomas K; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    for this deregulation by blocking other SREs with splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs). However, the location and sequence of most SREs are not well known. RESULTS: Here, we used individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) to establish an in vivo binding map for the key splicing...... regulatory factor hnRNP A1 and to generate an hnRNP A1 consensus binding motif. We find that hnRNP A1 binding in proximal introns may be important for repressing exons. We show that inclusion of the alternative cassette exon 3 in SKA2 can be significantly increased by SSO-based treatment which blocks an i...... downstream of the 5' splice site can be blocked by SSOs to activate the exon. CONCLUSIONS: The hnRNP A1 binding map can be used to identify potential targets for SSO-based therapy. Moreover, together with the hnRNP A1 consensus binding motif, the binding map may be used to predict whether disease...

  20. Synonymous mutations in RNASEH2A create cryptic splice sites impairing RNase H2 enzyme function in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian I; Reijns, Martin A M; Coffin, Stephanie R; Forte, Gabriella M A; Anderson, Beverley H; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Gornall, Hannah; Gent, David; Leitch, Andrea; Botella, Maria P; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Lagae, Lieven; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Perrino, Fred W; Jackson, Andrew P; Crow, Yanick J

    2013-08-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disorder resulting from mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A/2B/2C, SAMHD1, or ADAR1. Here, we provide molecular, biochemical, and cellular evidence for the pathogenicity of two synonymous variants in RNASEH2A. Firstly, the c.69G>A (p.Val23Val) mutation causes the formation of a splice donor site within exon 1, resulting in an out of frame deletion at the end of exon 1, leading to reduced RNase H2 protein levels. The second mutation, c.75C>T (p.Arg25Arg), also introduces a splice donor site within exon 1, and the internal deletion of 18 amino acids. The truncated protein still forms a heterotrimeric RNase H2 complex, but lacks catalytic activity. However, as a likely result of leaky splicing, a small amount of full-length active protein is apparently produced in an individual homozygous for this mutation. Recognition of the disease causing status of these variants allows for diagnostic testing in relevant families. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. BAP1 missense mutation c.2054 A>T (p.E685V completely disrupts normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site in a human mesothelioma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Morrison

    Full Text Available BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is lost or deleted in diverse cancers, including uveal mela¬noma, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, clear cell renal carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, BAP1 germline mutations have been reported in families with combinations of these same cancers. A particular challenge for mutation screening is the classification of non-truncating BAP1 sequence variants because it is not known whether these subtle changes can affect the protein function sufficiently to predispose to cancer development. Here we report mRNA splicing analysis on a homozygous substitution mutation, BAP1 c. 2054 A&T (p.Glu685Val, identified in an MPM cell line derived from a mesothelioma patient. The mutation occurred at the 3rd nucleotide from the 3' end of exon 16. RT-PCR, cloning and subsequent sequencing revealed several aberrant splicing products not observed in the controls: 1 a 4 bp deletion at the end of exon 16 in all clones derived from the major splicing product. The BAP1 c. 2054 A&T mutation introduced a new 5' splice site (GU, which resulted in the deletion of 4 base pairs and presumably protein truncation; 2 a variety of alternative splicing products that led to retention of different introns: introns 14-16; introns 15-16; intron 14 and intron 16; 3 partial intron 14 and 15 retentions caused by activation of alternative 3' splice acceptor sites (AG in the introns. Taken together, we were unable to detect any correctly spliced mRNA transcripts in this cell line. These results suggest that aberrant splicing caused by this mutation is quite efficient as it completely abolishes normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site and activation of cryptic splice sites. These data support the conclusion that BAP1 c.2054 A&T (p.E685V variant is a pathogenic mutation and contributes to MPM through disruption of normal splicing.

  2. Reinforcing the North Atlantic backbone: revision and extension of the composite splice at ODP Site 982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Hodell, David; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using high-resolution XRF core scanning data and establish a robust high-resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology between 8.0 and 4.5 Ma. Splice revisions and verifications resulted in ˜ 11 m of gaps in the original Site 982 isotope stratigraphy, which were filled with 263 new isotope analyses. This new stratigraphy reveals previously unseen benthic δ18O excursions, particularly prior to 6.65 Ma. The benthic δ18O record displays distinct, asymmetric cycles between 7.7 and 6.65 Ma, confirming that high-latitude climate is a prevalent forcing during this interval. An intensification of the 41 kyr beat in both the benthic δ13C and δ18O is also observed ˜ 6.4 Ma, marking a strengthening in the cryosphere-carbon cycle coupling. A large ˜ 0.7 ‰ double excursion is revealed ˜ 6.4-6.3 Ma, which also marks the onset of an interval of average higher δ18O and large precession and obliquity-dominated δ18O excursions between 6.4 and 5.4 Ma, coincident with the culmination of the late Miocene cooling. The two largest benthic δ18O excursions ˜ 6.4-6.3 Ma and TG20/22 coincide with the coolest alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from Site 982, suggesting a strong connection between the late Miocene global cooling, and deep-sea cooling and dynamic ice sheet expansion. The splice revisions and revised astrochronology resolve key stratigraphic issues that have hampered correlation between Site 982, the equatorial Atlantic and the Mediterranean

  3. A novel AVPR2 splice site mutation leads to partial X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in two brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Adams, David; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Raygada, Margarita; Golas, Gretchen; Faucz, Fabio R; Nilsson, Ola; Nella, Aikaterini A; Dileepan, Kavitha; Lodish, Maya; Lee, Paul; Tifft, Cynthia; Markello, Thomas; Gahl, William; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-05-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI, OMIM#304800) is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP, OMIM*192340) receptor type 2 (AVPR2, OMIM*300538) gene. A 20-month-old boy and his 8-year-old brother presented with polyuria, polydipsia, and failure to thrive. Both boys demonstrated partial DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D AVP or desmopressin) responses; thus, NDI diagnosis was delayed. While routine sequencing of AVPR2 showed a potential splice site variant, it was not until exome sequencing confirmed the AVPR2 splice site variant and did not reveal any more likely candidates that the patients' diagnosis was made and proper treatment was instituted. Both patients were hemizygous for two AVPR2 variants predicted in silico to affect AVPR2 messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. A minigene assay revealed that the novel AVPR2 c.276A>G mutation creates a novel splice acceptor site leading to 5' truncation of AVPR2 exon 2 in HEK293 human kidney cells. Both patients have been treated with high-dose DDAVP with a remarkable improvement of their symptoms and accelerated linear growth and weight gain. We present here a unique case of partial X-linked NDI due to an AVPR2 splice site mutation; patients with diabetes insipidus of unknown etiology may harbor splice site mutations that are initially underestimated in their pathogenicity on sequence analysis. • X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by AVPR2 mutations, and disease severity can vary depending on the functional effect of the mutation. What is New: • We demonstrate here that a splice site mutation in AVPR2 leads to partial X-linked NDI in two brothers. • Treatment with high-dose DDAVP led to improvement of polyuria and polydipsia, weight gain, and growth.

  4. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...... ratios for HNPCC in a case-control design were 419 (95 % CI: 53-18,900) for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 19 (5-72) for 307-19A>G, 194 (21-1,768) for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca); ins(attt), and 0.3 (0.1-0.7) for 1,039-8T>A in MLH1. In the general population, incidence rate ratios for 1,039-8T>A carriers versus...

  5. Human-specific protein isoforms produced by novel splice sites in the human genome after the human-chimpanzee divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of splice sites is a well-known phenomenon that results in transcript diversity during human evolution. Many novel splice sites are derived from repetitive elements and may not contribute to protein products. Here, we analyzed annotated human protein-coding exons and identified human-specific splice sites that arose after the human-chimpanzee divergence. Results We analyzed multiple alignments of the annotated human protein-coding exons and their respective orthologous mammalian genome sequences to identify 85 novel splice sites (50 splice acceptors and 35 donors in the human genome. The novel protein-coding exons, which are expressed either constitutively or alternatively, produce novel protein isoforms by insertion, deletion, or frameshift. We found three cases in which the human-specific isoform conferred novel molecular function in the human cells: the human-specific IMUP protein isoform induces apoptosis of the trophoblast and is implicated in pre-eclampsia; the intronization of a part of SMOX gene exon produces inactive spermine oxidase; the human-specific NUB1 isoform shows reduced interaction with ubiquitin-like proteins, possibly affecting ubiquitin pathways. Conclusions Although the generation of novel protein isoforms does not equate to adaptive evolution, we propose that these cases are useful candidates for a molecular functional study to identify proteomic changes that might bring about novel phenotypes during human evolution.

  6. Human papillomavirus type 16 E2 and E6 are RNA-binding proteins and inhibit in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs with suboptimal splice sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodaghi, Sohrab; Jia Rong; Zheng Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) genome expresses six regulatory proteins (E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7) which regulate viral DNA replication, gene expression, and cell function. We expressed HPV16 E2, E4, E6, and E7 from bacteria as GST fusion proteins and examined their possible functions in RNA splicing. Both HPV16 E2, a viral transactivator protein, and E6, a viral oncoprotein, inhibited splicing of pre-mRNAs containing an intron with suboptimal splice sites, whereas HPV5 E2 did not. The N-terminal half and the hinge region of HPV16 E2 as well as the N-terminal and central portions of HPV16 E6 are responsible for the suppression. HPV16 E2 interacts with pre-mRNAs through its C-terminal DNA-binding domain. HPV16 E6 binds pre-mRNAs via nuclear localization signal (NLS3) in its C-terminal half. Low-risk HPV6 E6, a cytoplasmic protein, does not bind RNA. Notably, both HPV16 E2 and E6 selectively bind to the intron region of pre-mRNAs and interact with a subset of cellular SR proteins. Together, these findings suggest that HPV16 E2 and E6 are RNA binding proteins and might play roles in posttranscriptional regulation during virus infection

  7. Analysis of 30 putative BRCA1 splicing mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families identifies exonic splice site mutations that escape in silico prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wappenschmidt

    Full Text Available Screening for pathogenic mutations in breast and ovarian cancer genes such as BRCA1/2, CHEK2 and RAD51C is common practice for individuals from high-risk families. However, test results may be ambiguous due to the presence of unclassified variants (UCV in the concurrent absence of clearly cancer-predisposing mutations. Especially the presence of intronic or exonic variants within these genes that possibly affect proper pre-mRNA processing poses a challenge as their functional implications are not immediately apparent. Therefore, it appears necessary to characterize potential splicing UCV and to develop appropriate classification tools. We investigated 30 distinct BRCA1 variants, both intronic and exonic, regarding their spliceogenic potential by commonly used in silico prediction algorithms (HSF, MaxEntScan along with in vitro transcript analyses. A total of 25 variants were identified spliceogenic, either causing/enhancing exon skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites, or both. Except from a single intronic variant causing minor effects on BRCA1 pre-mRNA processing in our analyses, 23 out of 24 intronic variants were correctly predicted by MaxEntScan, while HSF was less accurate in this cohort. Among the 6 exonic variants analyzed, 4 severely impair correct pre-mRNA processing, while the remaining two have partial effects. In contrast to the intronic alterations investigated, only half of the spliceogenic exonic variants were correctly predicted by HSF and/or MaxEntScan. These data support the idea that exonic splicing mutations are commonly disease-causing and concurrently prone to escape in silico prediction, hence necessitating experimental in vitro splicing analysis.

  8. A single splice site mutation in human-specific ARHGAP11B causes basal progenitor amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Namba, Takashi; Pääbo, Svante; Hiller, Michael; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2016-01-01

    The gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and is implicated in neocortex expansion. It arose on the human evolutionary lineage by partial duplication of ARHGAP11A, which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein (RhoGAP). However, a lack of 55 nucleotides in ARHGAP11B mRNA leads to loss of RhoGAP activity by GAP domain truncation and addition of a human-specific carboxy-terminal amino acid sequence. We show that these 55 nucleotides are deleted by mRNA splicing due to a single C→G substitution that creates a novel splice donor site. We reconstructed an ancestral ARHGAP11B complementary DNA without this substitution. Ancestral ARHGAP11B exhibits RhoGAP activity but has no ability to increase basal progenitors during neocortex development. Hence, a single nucleotide substitution underlies the specific properties of ARHGAP11B that likely contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex. PMID:27957544

  9. A family with hereditary hemochromatosis carrying HFE gene splice site mutation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NING Huibin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate a new type of HFE gene mutation in a family with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. MethodsThe analysis of HFE gene was performed for one patient with a confirmed diagnosis of HH and five relatives. Blood genomic DNA was extracted and PCR multiplication was performed for the exon and intron splice sequences of related HFE, HJV, HAMP, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes. After agarose gel electrophoresis and purification, bi-directional direct sequencing was performed to detect mutation sites. ResultsThe proband had abnormal liver function and increases in serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation, as well as T→C homozygous mutation in the fourth base of intron 2 in the intervening sequence of the exon EXON2 of HFE gene (IVs 2+4T→C, C/C homozygous, splicing, abnormal. There were no abnormalities in HJV, HAMP, TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes. The proband′s son had the same homozygous mutation, three relatives had heterozygous mutations, and one relative had no abnormal mutations. ConclusionGene detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of hemochromatosis, and IVs 2+4T→C mutation may be a new pathogenic mutation for HH in China.

  10. Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Caused by Creation of an Ectopic Splice Site within the INS Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Elena; Harries, Lorna W.; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Castaño, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic etiology in a patient who presented with permanent neonatal diabetes at 2 months of age. Methodology/Principal Findings Regulatory elements and coding exons 2 and 3 of the INS gene were amplified and sequenced from genomic and complementary DNA samples. A novel heterozygous INS mutation within the terminal intron of the gene was identified in the proband and her affected father. This mutation introduces an ectopic splice site leading to the insertion of 29 nucleotides from the intronic sequence into the mature mRNA, which results in a longer and abnormal transcript. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the importance of routinely sequencing the exon-intron boundaries and the need to carry out additional studies to confirm the pathogenicity of any identified intronic genetic variants. PMID:22235272

  11. Prenatal diagnosis and a donor splice site mutation in fibrillin in a family with Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, M.; Vandemark, N.; Wang, M.; Han, J.; Rao, V.H. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (United States)); Velinov, M.; Tsipouras, P. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Sciences Center, Farmington (United States)); Wargowski, D.; Becker, J.; Robertson, W.; Droste, S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The Marfan syndrome, an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, is manifested by abnormalities in the cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. Recently, fibrillin, an elastic-associated microfibrillar glycoprotein, has been linked to the Marfan syndrome, and fibrillin mutations in affected individuals have been documented. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with fibrillin-specific markers was used to establish the prenatal diagnosis in an 11-wk-gestation fetus in a four-generation Marfan kindred. At birth, skeletal changes suggestive of the Marfan syndrome were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification of the fibrillin gene mRNA detected a deletion of 123 bp in one allele in affected relatives. This deletion corresponds to an exon encoding an epidermal growth factor-like motif. Examination of genomic DNA showed a G[yields]C transversion at the +1 consensus donor splice site. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2001-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...... at the initiation site of transcription in both types of promoters than previously thought. When tested on the entire B. subtilis genome, the model predicts that approximately half of the sigma (A) recognition sites are of the extended type. Some of the response-regulator aspartate phosphatases were among...

  13. Reinforcing the North Atlantic backbone: revision and extension of the composite splice at ODP Site 982

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Hodell, David; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using hig...

  14. Modification of the Creator recombination system for proteomics applications – improved expression by addition of splice sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwill, Karen; Wells, Clark D; Elder, Kelly; Goudreault, Marilyn; Hersi, Kadija; Kulkarni, Sarang; Hardy, W Rod; Pawson, Tony; Morin, Gregg B

    2006-01-01

    Background Recombinational systems have been developed to rapidly shuttle Open Reading Frames (ORFs) into multiple expression vectors in order to analyze the large number of cDNAs available in the post-genomic era. In the Creator system, an ORF introduced into a donor vector can be transferred with Cre recombinase to a library of acceptor vectors optimized for different applications. Usability of the Creator system is impacted by the ability to easily manipulate DNA, the number of acceptor vectors for downstream applications, and the level of protein expression from Creator vectors. Results To date, we have developed over 20 novel acceptor vectors that employ a variety of promoters and epitope tags commonly employed for proteomics applications and gene function analysis. We also made several enhancements to the donor vectors including addition of different multiple cloning sites to allow shuttling from pre-existing vectors and introduction of the lacZ alpha reporter gene to allow for selection. Importantly, in order to ameliorate any effects on protein expression of the loxP site between a 5' tag and ORF, we introduced a splicing event into our expression vectors. The message produced from the resulting 'Creator Splice' vector undergoes splicing in mammalian systems to remove the loxP site. Upon analysis of our Creator Splice constructs, we discovered that protein expression levels were also significantly increased. Conclusion The development of new donor and acceptor vectors has increased versatility during the cloning process and made this system compatible with a wider variety of downstream applications. The modifications introduced in our Creator Splice system were designed to remove extraneous sequences due to recombination but also aided in downstream analysis by increasing protein expression levels. As a result, we can now employ epitope tags that are detected less efficiently and reduce our assay scale to allow for higher throughput. The Creator Splice

  15. Modification of the Creator recombination system for proteomics applications--improved expression by addition of splice sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwill, Karen; Wells, Clark D; Elder, Kelly; Goudreault, Marilyn; Hersi, Kadija; Kulkarni, Sarang; Hardy, W Rod; Pawson, Tony; Morin, Gregg B

    2006-03-06

    Recombinational systems have been developed to rapidly shuttle Open Reading Frames (ORFs) into multiple expression vectors in order to analyze the large number of cDNAs available in the post-genomic era. In the Creator system, an ORF introduced into a donor vector can be transferred with Cre recombinase to a library of acceptor vectors optimized for different applications. Usability of the Creator system is impacted by the ability to easily manipulate DNA, the number of acceptor vectors for downstream applications, and the level of protein expression from Creator vectors. To date, we have developed over 20 novel acceptor vectors that employ a variety of promoters and epitope tags commonly employed for proteomics applications and gene function analysis. We also made several enhancements to the donor vectors including addition of different multiple cloning sites to allow shuttling from pre-existing vectors and introduction of the lacZ alpha reporter gene to allow for selection. Importantly, in order to ameliorate any effects on protein expression of the loxP site between a 5' tag and ORF, we introduced a splicing event into our expression vectors. The message produced from the resulting 'Creator Splice' vector undergoes splicing in mammalian systems to remove the loxP site. Upon analysis of our Creator Splice constructs, we discovered that protein expression levels were also significantly increased. The development of new donor and acceptor vectors has increased versatility during the cloning process and made this system compatible with a wider variety of downstream applications. The modifications introduced in our Creator Splice system were designed to remove extraneous sequences due to recombination but also aided in downstream analysis by increasing protein expression levels. As a result, we can now employ epitope tags that are detected less efficiently and reduce our assay scale to allow for higher throughput. The Creator Splice system appears to be an extremely

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel XK splice site mutation in a patient with McLeod syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Lionel; Salachas, François; Lucien, Nicole; Maisonobe, Thierry; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves; Babinet, Jérôme; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2009-03-01

    McLeod syndrome is a rare X-linked neuroacanthocytosis syndrome with hematologic, muscular, and neurologic manifestations. McLeod syndrome is caused by mutations in the XK gene whose product is expressed at the red blood cell (RBC) surface but whose function is currently unknown. A variety of XK mutations has been reported but no clear phenotype-genotype correlation has been found, especially for the point mutations affecting splicing sites. A man suspected of neuroacanthocytosis was evaluated by neurologic examination, electromyography, muscle biopsy, muscle computed tomography, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. The McLeod RBC phenotype was disclosed by blood smear and immunohematology analyses and then confirmed at the biochemical level by Western blot analysis. The responsible XK mutation was characterized at the mRNA level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), identified by genomic DNA sequencing, and verified by allele-specific PCR. A novel XK splice site mutation (IVS1-1G>A) has been identified in a McLeod patient who has developed hematologic, neuromuscular, and neurologic symptoms. This is the first reported example of a XK point mutation affecting the 3' acceptor splice site of Intron 1, and it was demonstrated that this mutation indeed induces aberrant splicing of XK RNA and lack of XK protein at the RBC membrane. The detailed characterization at the molecular biology level of this novel XK splice site mutation associated with the clinical description of the patient contributes to a better understanding of the phenotype-genotype correlation in the McLeod syndrome.

  17. A splice site mutation in laminin-α2 results in a severe muscular dystrophy and growth abnormalities in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana A Gupta

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited muscle disorders. In patients, muscle weakness is usually present at or shortly after birth and is progressive in nature. Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A is a form of CMD caused by a defect in the laminin-α2 gene (LAMA2. Laminin-α2 is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with the dystrophin-dystroglycan (DGC complex in membranes providing stability to muscle fibers. In an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen to develop zebrafish models of neuromuscular diseases, we identified a mutant fish that exhibits severe muscular dystrophy early in development. Genetic mapping identified a splice site mutation in the lama2 gene. This splice site is highly conserved in humans and this mutation results in mis-splicing of RNA and a loss of protein function. Homozygous lama2 mutant zebrafish, designated lama2(cl501/cl501, exhibited reduced motor function and progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and died at 8-15 days post fertilization. The skeletal muscles exhibited damaged myosepta and detachment of myofibers in the affected fish. Laminin-α2 deficiency also resulted in growth defects in the brain and eye of the mutant fish. This laminin-α2 deficient mutant fish represents a novel disease model to develop therapies for modulating splicing defects in congenital muscular dystrophies and to restore the muscle function in human patients with CMD.

  18. Generation of iPSC line from desmin-related cardiomyopathy patient carrying splice site mutation of DES gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Khudiakov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human iPSC line was generated from patient-specific adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells carrying desmin (DES gene heterozygous splice site mutation using non-integrative reprogramming method. Reprogramming factors OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, CMYC were delivered using Sendai viruses. iPSCs were characterized by sequencing, karyotype analysis, STR analysis, immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation.

  19. An empirical study of ensemble-based semi-supervised learning approaches for imbalanced splice site datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Ana; Caragea, Doina

    2015-01-01

    Recent biochemical advances have led to inexpensive, time-efficient production of massive volumes of raw genomic data. Traditional machine learning approaches to genome annotation typically rely on large amounts of labeled data. The process of labeling data can be expensive, as it requires domain knowledge and expert involvement. Semi-supervised learning approaches that can make use of unlabeled data, in addition to small amounts of labeled data, can help reduce the costs associated with labeling. In this context, we focus on the problem of predicting splice sites in a genome using semi-supervised learning approaches. This is a challenging problem, due to the highly imbalanced distribution of the data, i.e., small number of splice sites as compared to the number of non-splice sites. To address this challenge, we propose to use ensembles of semi-supervised classifiers, specifically self-training and co-training classifiers. Our experiments on five highly imbalanced splice site datasets, with positive to negative ratios of 1-to-99, showed that the ensemble-based semi-supervised approaches represent a good choice, even when the amount of labeled data consists of less than 1% of all training data. In particular, we found that ensembles of co-training and self-training classifiers that dynamically balance the set of labeled instances during the semi-supervised iterations show improvements over the corresponding supervised ensemble baselines. In the presence of limited amounts of labeled data, ensemble-based semi-supervised approaches can successfully leverage the unlabeled data to enhance supervised ensembles learned from highly imbalanced data distributions. Given that such distributions are common for many biological sequence classification problems, our work can be seen as a stepping stone towards more sophisticated ensemble-based approaches to biological sequence annotation in a semi-supervised framework.

  20. ISVASE: identification of sequence variant associated with splicing event using RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohi, Hasan Awad; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2017-06-28

    Exon recognition and splicing precisely and efficiently by spliceosome is the key to generate mature mRNAs. About one third or a half of disease-related mutations affect RNA splicing. Software PVAAS has been developed to identify variants associated with aberrant splicing by directly using RNA-seq data. However, it bases on the assumption that annotated splicing site is normal splicing, which is not true in fact. We develop the ISVASE, a tool for specifically identifying sequence variants associated with splicing events (SVASE) by using RNA-seq data. Comparing with PVAAS, our tool has several advantages, such as multi-pass stringent rule-dependent filters and statistical filters, only using split-reads, independent sequence variant identification in each part of splicing (junction), sequence variant detection for both of known and novel splicing event, additional exon-exon junction shift event detection if known splicing events provided, splicing signal evaluation, known DNA mutation and/or RNA editing data supported, higher precision and consistency, and short running time. Using a realistic RNA-seq dataset, we performed a case study to illustrate the functionality and effectiveness of our method. Moreover, the output of SVASEs can be used for downstream analysis such as splicing regulatory element study and sequence variant functional analysis. ISVASE is useful for researchers interested in sequence variants (DNA mutation and/or RNA editing) associated with splicing events. The package is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/isvase/ .

  1. OCA2 splice site variant in German Spitz dogs with oculocutaneous albinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madleina Caduff

    Full Text Available We investigated a German Spitz family where the mating of a black male to a white female had yielded three puppies with an unexpected light brown coat color, lightly pigmented lips and noses, and blue eyes. Combined linkage and homozygosity analysis based on a fully penetrant monogenic autosomal recessive mode of inheritance identified a critical interval of 15 Mb on chromosome 3. We obtained whole genome sequence data from one affected dog, three wolves, and 188 control dogs. Filtering for private variants revealed a single variant with predicted high impact in the critical interval in LOC100855460 (XM_005618224.1:c.377+2T>G LT844587.1:c.-45+2T>G. The variant perfectly co-segregated with the phenotype in the family. We genotyped 181 control dogs with normal pigmentation from diverse breeds including 22 unrelated German Spitz dogs, which were all homozygous wildtype. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that LOC100855460 actually represents the 5'-end of the canine OCA2 gene. The CanFam 3.1 reference genome assembly is incorrect and separates the first two exons from the remaining exons of the OCA2 gene. We amplified a canine OCA2 cDNA fragment by RT-PCR and determined the correct full-length mRNA sequence (LT844587.1. Variants in the OCA2 gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2 in humans, pink-eyed dilution in mice, and similar phenotypes in corn snakes, medaka and Mexican cave tetra fish. We therefore conclude that the observed oculocutaneous albinism in German Spitz is most likely caused by the identified variant in the 5'-splice site of the first intron of the canine OCA2 gene.

  2. OCA2 splice site variant in German Spitz dogs with oculocutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, Madleina; Bauer, Anina; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Leeb, Tosso

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a German Spitz family where the mating of a black male to a white female had yielded three puppies with an unexpected light brown coat color, lightly pigmented lips and noses, and blue eyes. Combined linkage and homozygosity analysis based on a fully penetrant monogenic autosomal recessive mode of inheritance identified a critical interval of 15 Mb on chromosome 3. We obtained whole genome sequence data from one affected dog, three wolves, and 188 control dogs. Filtering for private variants revealed a single variant with predicted high impact in the critical interval in LOC100855460 (XM_005618224.1:c.377+2T>G LT844587.1:c.-45+2T>G). The variant perfectly co-segregated with the phenotype in the family. We genotyped 181 control dogs with normal pigmentation from diverse breeds including 22 unrelated German Spitz dogs, which were all homozygous wildtype. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that LOC100855460 actually represents the 5'-end of the canine OCA2 gene. The CanFam 3.1 reference genome assembly is incorrect and separates the first two exons from the remaining exons of the OCA2 gene. We amplified a canine OCA2 cDNA fragment by RT-PCR and determined the correct full-length mRNA sequence (LT844587.1). Variants in the OCA2 gene cause oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2) in humans, pink-eyed dilution in mice, and similar phenotypes in corn snakes, medaka and Mexican cave tetra fish. We therefore conclude that the observed oculocutaneous albinism in German Spitz is most likely caused by the identified variant in the 5'-splice site of the first intron of the canine OCA2 gene.

  3. Autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 with a novel splice site mutation in MR gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1 is a rare inherited condition that is characterized by renal resistance to aldosterone as well as salt wasting, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Renal PHA1 is caused by mutations of the human mineralcorticoid receptor gene (MR, but it is a matter of debate whether MR mutations cause mineralcorticoid resistance via haploinsufficiency or dominant negative mechanism. It was previously reported that in a case with nonsense mutation the mutant mRNA was absent in lymphocytes because of nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD and therefore postulated that haploinsufficiency alone can give rise to the PHA1 phenotype in patients with truncated mutations. Methods and Results We conducted genomic DNA analysis and mRNA analysis for familial PHA1 patients extracted from lymphocytes and urinary sediments and could detect one novel splice site mutation which leads to exon skipping and frame shift result in premature termination at the transcript level. The mRNA analysis showed evidence of wild type and exon-skipped RT-PCR products. Conclusion mRNA analysis have been rarely conducted for PHA1 because kidney tissues are unavailable for this disease. However, we conducted RT-PCR analysis using mRNA extracted from urinary sediments. We could demonstrate that NMD does not fully function in kidney cells and that haploinsufficiency due to NMD with premature termination is not sufficient to give rise to the PHA1 phenotype at least in this mutation of our patient. Additional studies including mRNA analysis will be needed to identify the exact mechanism of the phenotype of PHA.

  4. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. CRE promoter sites modulate alternative splicing via p300-mediated histone acetylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, E.; Hnilicová, Jarmila; Staněk, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Grant - others:Charles University Prague(CZ) 274111 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alternative splicing * fibronectin * p300 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.974, year: 2014

  6. CRE promoter sites modulate alternative splicing via p300-mediated histone acetylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Eva; Hnilicová, Jarmila; Staněk, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2014), s. 865-874 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : alternative splicing * fibronectin * p300 * histone acetylation * promoter Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.974, year: 2014

  7. RRM domain of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 is important for pre-mRNA splicing of a specific set of genes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Keh Chien

    2017-04-11

    The RNA recognition motif of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 affects the alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M pre-mRNA and a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 1 (SF1) plays a crucial role in 3\\' splice site recognition by binding directly to the intron branch point. Although plant SF1 proteins possess an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain that is absent in its fungal and metazoan counterparts, the role of the RRM domain in SF1 function has not been characterized. Here, we show that the RRM domain differentially affects the full function of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtSF1 protein under different experimental conditions. For example, the deletion of RRM domain influences AtSF1-mediated control of flowering time, but not the abscisic acid sensitivity response during seed germination. The alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) pre-mRNA is involved in flowering time control. We found that the RRM domain of AtSF1 protein alters the production of alternatively spliced FLM-β transcripts. We also found that the RRM domain affects the alternative splicing of a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA, thereby mediating the heat stress response. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of RRM domain for AtSF1-mediated alternative splicing of a subset of genes involved in the regulation of flowering and adaptation to heat stress.

  8. Correction of a splice-site mutation in the beta-globin gene stimulated by triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Joanna Y; Kuan, Jean Y; Lonkar, Pallavi S

    2008-01-01

    Splice-site mutations in the beta-globin gene can lead to aberrant transcripts and decreased functional beta-globin, causing beta-thalassemia. Triplex-forming DNA oligonucleotides (TFOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in reporter gene loci in mammalian...... DNA fragments, can promote single base-pair modification at the start of the second intron of the beta-globin gene, the site of a common thalassemia-associated mutation. This single base pair change was detected by the restoration of proper splicing of transcripts produced from a green fluorescent...

  9. A homozygote splice site PMS2 mutation as cause of Turcot syndrome gives rise to two different abnormal transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursen, Wenche; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Engebretsen, Lars F; Fjelland, Kristine; Halvorsen, Tore; Myrvold, Helge E

    2009-01-01

    Turcot syndrome is a rare, inherited disease predisposing of tumours in the central nerve system and in the colorectal system. This report describes a Turcot patient with an extraordinary clinical history. The patient is still alive at the age of 43. She was operated at the age of 10 by brain tumour and at the age of 16 by colorectal cancer. She has since then been treated for multiple cancers (gastrointestinal, endometrial, basal cell carcinomas), and removal of adenomatous polyps at several occasions. The aim of this work was to investigate if there was any specific genotype that explains her remarkable clinical history. Microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry analysis for four DNA mismatch repair proteins were performed. DNA mutation analysis was done for genes involved in polyposis and mismatch repair by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and sequencing. cDNA analysis was carried out for the mismatch repair gene PMS2. The patients genotype was found to be a homozygous splice site mutation in the PMS2 gene, c.989-1Gsplicing mutations.

  10. Alternative RNA splicing and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sali; Cheng, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism by which a gene can give rise to multiple distinct mRNA transcripts, yielding protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions. With the recognition that alternative splicing occurs in nearly all human genes, its relationship with cancer-associated pathways has emerged as a rapidly growing field. In this review, we summarize recent findings that have implicated the critical role of alternative splicing in cancer and discuss current understandings of the mechanisms underlying dysregulated alternative splicing in cancer cells. PMID:23765697

  11. Reinforcing the North Atlantic backbone: revision and extension of the composite splice at ODP Site 982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Drury

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using high-resolution XRF core scanning data and establish a robust high-resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology between 8.0 and 4.5 Ma. Splice revisions and verifications resulted in  ∼  11 m of gaps in the original Site 982 isotope stratigraphy, which were filled with 263 new isotope analyses. This new stratigraphy reveals previously unseen benthic δ18O excursions, particularly prior to 6.65 Ma. The benthic δ18O record displays distinct, asymmetric cycles between 7.7 and 6.65 Ma, confirming that high-latitude climate is a prevalent forcing during this interval. An intensification of the 41 kyr beat in both the benthic δ13C and δ18O is also observed  ∼  6.4 Ma, marking a strengthening in the cryosphere–carbon cycle coupling. A large  ∼  0.7 ‰ double excursion is revealed  ∼  6.4–6.3 Ma, which also marks the onset of an interval of average higher δ18O and large precession and obliquity-dominated δ18O excursions between 6.4 and 5.4 Ma, coincident with the culmination of the late Miocene cooling. The two largest benthic δ18O excursions  ∼  6.4–6.3 Ma and TG20/22 coincide with the coolest alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST estimates from Site 982, suggesting a strong connection between the late Miocene global cooling, and deep-sea cooling and dynamic ice sheet expansion. The splice revisions and revised astrochronology resolve key stratigraphic issues that

  12. Clinical, in silico, and experimental evidence for pathogenicity of two novel splice site mutations in the SH3TC2 gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laššuthová, P.; Gregor, Martin; Sarnová, Lenka; Machalová, Eliška; Sedláček, Radislav; Seeman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 26, 3-4 (2012), s. 413-420 ISSN 0167-7063 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/2044 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : exon trapping * peripheral neuropathy * SH3TC2 gene * splice site mutation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.159, year: 2012

  13. Human Splicing Finder: an online bioinformatics tool to predict splicing signals

    OpenAIRE

    Desmet, Francois-Olivier; Hamroun, Dalil; Lalande, Marine; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaelle; Claustres, Mireille; Beroud, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Thousands of mutations are identified yearly. Although many directly affect protein expression, an increasing proportion of mutations is now believed to influence mRNA splicing. They mostly affect existing splice sites, but synonymous, non-synonymous or nonsense mutations can also create or disrupt splice sites or auxiliary cis-splicing sequences. To facilitate the analysis of the different mutations, we designed Human Splicing Finder (HSF), a tool to predict the effec...

  14. Diverse alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing landscape of circular RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ou; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Luo, Zheng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) derived from back-spliced exons have been widely identified as being co-expressed with their linear counterparts. A single gene locus can produce multiple circRNAs through alternative back-splice site selection and/or alternative splice site selection; however, a detailed map of alternative back-splicing/splicing in circRNAs is lacking. Here, with the upgraded CIRCexplorer2 pipeline, we systematically annotated different types of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing events in circRNAs from various cell lines. Compared with their linear cognate RNAs, circRNAs exhibited distinct patterns of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing. Alternative back-splice site selection was correlated with the competition of putative RNA pairs across introns that bracket alternative back-splice sites. In addition, all four basic types of alternative splicing that have been identified in the (linear) mRNA process were found within circRNAs, and many exons were predominantly spliced in circRNAs. Unexpectedly, thousands of previously unannotated exons were detected in circRNAs from the examined cell lines. Although these novel exons had similar splice site strength, they were much less conserved than known exons in sequences. Finally, both alternative back-splicing and circRNA-predominant alternative splicing were highly diverse among the examined cell lines. All of the identified alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs are available in the CIRCpedia database (http://www.picb.ac.cn/rnomics/circpedia). Collectively, the annotation of alternative back-splicing and alternative splicing in circRNAs provides a valuable resource for depicting the complexity of circRNA biogenesis and for studying the potential functions of circRNAs in different cells. PMID:27365365

  15. Entropic contributions to the splicing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osella, Matteo; Caselle, Michele

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently argued that depletion attraction may play an important role in different aspects of cellular organization, ranging from the organization of transcriptional activity in transcription factories to the formation of nuclear bodies. In this paper, we suggest a new application of these ideas in the context of the splicing process, a crucial step of messenger RNA maturation in eukaryotes. We shall show that entropy effects and the resulting depletion attraction may explain the relevance of the aspecific intron length variable in the choice of splice-site recognition modality. On top of that, some qualitative features of the genome architecture of higher eukaryotes can find evolutionary realistic motivation in the light of our model

  16. A novel T→G splice site mutation of CRYBA1/A3 associated with autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenfei; Su, Dongmei; Li, Qian; Yang, Fan; Ma, Zicheng; Zhu, Siquan; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the disease-causing mutation and the molecular phenotype that are responsible for the presence of an autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract disease in a Chinese family. The family history and clinical data were recorded. The patients were given a physical examination and their blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Direct sequencing was used to detect the mutation. Transcription analysis of the mutant crystallin, beta A1 (CRYBA1/A3) gene was performed to verify whether the defective mutation had influenced the splice of the mature mRNA. The phenotype of the congenital cataract in the family was identified as a nuclear cataract type, by using slit-lamp photography. Direct sequencing revealed a novel mutation IVS3+2 T→G in CRYBA1/A3. This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, but was not found in unaffected family members nor in the 100 unrelated controls. Transcription analysis of the mutant CRYBA1/A3 gene indicated that this mutation had influenced the splice of the mature mRNA. Our study identified a novel splice site mutation in CRYBA1/A3. This mutation was responsible for aberrant splicing of the mature mRNA and had caused the congenital nuclear cataracts in the family. This is the first report relating an IVS3+2 T→G mutation of CRYBA1/A3 to congenital cataracts.

  17. Dynamic regulation of genome-wide pre-mRNA splicing and stress tolerance by the Sm-like protein LSm5 in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2014-01-07

    Background: Sm-like proteins are highly conserved proteins that form the core of the U6 ribonucleoprotein and function in several mRNA metabolism processes, including pre-mRNA splicing. Despite their wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, little is known about the roles of Sm-like proteins in the regulation of splicing.Results: Here, through comprehensive transcriptome analyses, we demonstrate that depletion of the Arabidopsis supersensitive to abscisic acid and drought 1 gene (SAD1), which encodes Sm-like protein 5 (LSm5), promotes an inaccurate selection of splice sites that leads to a genome-wide increase in alternative splicing. In contrast, overexpression of SAD1 strengthens the precision of splice-site recognition and globally inhibits alternative splicing. Further, SAD1 modulates the splicing of stress-responsive genes, particularly under salt-stress conditions. Finally, we find that overexpression of SAD1 in Arabidopsis improves salt tolerance in transgenic plants, which correlates with an increase in splicing accuracy and efficiency for stress-responsive genes.Conclusions: We conclude that SAD1 dynamically controls splicing efficiency and splice-site recognition in Arabidopsis, and propose that this may contribute to SAD1-mediated stress tolerance through the metabolism of transcripts expressed from stress-responsive genes. Our study not only provides novel insights into the function of Sm-like proteins in splicing, but also uncovers new means to improve splicing efficiency and to enhance stress tolerance in a higher eukaryote. 2014 Cui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Exome Sequencing Identified a Splice Site Mutation in FHL1 that Causes Uruguay Syndrome, an X-Linked Disorder With Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Premature Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Schoser, Benedikt; Rao, Aliz R; Quadrelli, Roberto; Vaglio, Alicia; Rupp, Verena; Beichler, Christine; Nelson, Stanley F; Schapacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Windpassinger, Christian; Wilcox, William R

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported a rare X-linked disorder, Uruguay syndrome in a single family. The main features are pugilistic facies, skeletal deformities, and muscular hypertrophy despite a lack of exercise and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy leading to premature death. An ≈19 Mb critical region on X chromosome was identified through identity-by-descent analysis of 3 affected males. Exome sequencing was conducted on one affected male to identify the disease-causing gene and variant. A splice site variant (c.502-2A>G) in the FHL1 gene was highly suspicious among other candidate genes and variants. FHL1A is the predominant isoform of FHL1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Sequencing cDNA showed the splice site variant led to skipping of exons 6 of the FHL1A isoform, equivalent to the FHL1C isoform. Targeted analysis showed that this splice site variant cosegregated with disease in the family. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of muscle from the proband showed a significant decrease in protein expression of FHL1A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of different isoforms of FHL1 demonstrated that the FHL1C is markedly increased. Mutations in the FHL1 gene have been reported in disorders with skeletal and cardiac myopathy but none has the skeletal or facial phenotype seen in patients with Uruguay syndrome. Our data suggest that a novel FHL1 splice site variant results in the absence of FHL1A and the abundance of FHL1C, which may contribute to the complex and severe phenotype. Mutation screening of the FHL1 gene should be considered for patients with uncharacterized myopathies and cardiomyopathies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Changes in exon–intron structure during vertebrate evolution affect the splicing pattern of exons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfman, Sahar; Burstein, David; Penn, Osnat; Savchenko, Anna; Amit, Maayan; Schwartz, Schraga; Pupko, Tal; Ast, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Exon–intron architecture is one of the major features directing the splicing machinery to the short exons that are located within long flanking introns. However, the evolutionary dynamics of exon–intron architecture and its impact on splicing is largely unknown. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed 17 vertebrate genomes and reconstructed the ancestral motifs of both 3′ and 5′ splice sites, as also the ancestral length of exons and introns. Our analyses suggest that vertebrate introns increased in length from the shortest ancestral introns to the longest primate introns. An evolutionary analysis of splice sites revealed that weak splice sites act as a restrictive force keeping introns short. In contrast, strong splice sites allow recognition of exons flanked by long introns. Reconstruction of the ancestral state suggests these phenomena were not prevalent in the vertebrate ancestor, but appeared during vertebrate evolution. By calculating evolutionary rate shifts in exons, we identified cis-acting regulatory sequences that became fixed during the transition from early vertebrates to mammals. Experimental validations performed on a selection of these hexamers confirmed their regulatory function. We additionally revealed many features of exons that can discriminate alternative from constitutive exons. These features were integrated into a machine-learning approach to predict whether an exon is alternative. Our algorithm obtains very high predictive power (AUC of 0.91), and using these predictions we have identified and successfully validated novel alternatively spliced exons. Overall, we provide novel insights regarding the evolutionary constraints acting upon exons and their recognition by the splicing machinery. PMID:21974994

  20. Galactosemia caused by a point mutation that activates cryptic donor splice site in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadelius, C.; Lagerkvist, A. (Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Molin, A.K.; Larsson, A. (Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Von Doebeln, U. (Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-08-01

    Galactosemia affects 1/84,000 in Sweden and is manifested in infancy when the child is exposed to galactose in the diet. If untreated there is a risk of severe early symptoms and, even with a lactose-free diet, late symptoms such as mental retardation and ovarial dysfunction may develop. In classical galactosemia, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) (EC 2.7.7.12) is defective and the normal cDNA sequence of this enzyme has been characterized. Recently eight mutations leading to galactosemia were published. Heparinized venous blood was drawn from a patient with classical galactosemia. In the cDNA from the patient examined, an insertion of 54 bp was found at position 1087. Amplification of the relevant genomic region of the patient's DNA was performed. Exon-intron boundaries and intronic sequences thus determined revealed that the 54-bp insertion was located immediately downstream of exon 10. It was further found that the patient was heterozygous for a point mutation, changing a C to a T (in 5 of 9 clones) at the second base in the intron downstream of the insertion. This alteration creates a sequence which, as well as the ordinary splice site, differs in only two positions from the consensus sequence. It was found that the mutation occurred in only one of the 20 alleles from galactosemic patients and in none of the 200 alleles from normal controls. The mutation is inherited from the mother, who also was found to express the 54-bp-long insertion at the mRNA level. Sequences from the 5[prime] end of the coding region were determined after genomic amplification, revealing a sequence identical to that reported. The mutation on the paternal allele has not been identified. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  1. A novel point mutation (G[sup [minus]1] to T) in a 5[prime] splice donor site of intron 13 of the dystrophin gene results in exon skipping and is responsible for Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Yoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Kitoh, Yoshihiko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Narita, Naoko; Wada, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Matsuo, Masafumi (Kobe Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The mutations in one-third of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients remain unknown, as they do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. The authors now report a defect in the splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), resulting from a maternally inherited mutation of the dystrophin gene in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. This defect results from a G-to-T transversion at the terminal nucleotide of exon 13, within the 5[prime] splice site of intron 13, and causes complete skipping of exon 13 during processing of dystrophin pre-mRNA. The predicted polypeptide encoded by the aberrant mRNA is a truncated dystrophin lacking 40 amino acids from the amino-proximal end of the rod domain. This is the first report of an intraexon point mutation that completely inactivates a 5[prime] splice donor site in dystrophin pre-mRNA. Analysis of the genomic context of the G[sup [minus]1]-to-T mutation at the 5[prime] splice site supports the exon-definition model of pre-mRNA splicing and contributes to the understanding of splice-site selection. 48 refs., 5 figs.

  2. A donor splice site mutation in CISD2 generates multiple truncated, non-functional isoforms in Wolfram syndrome type 2 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Monica; La Sala, Lucia; Rondinelli, Maurizio; Errichiello, Edoardo; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Puca, Annibale Alessandro; Genovese, Stefano; Ceriello, Antonio

    2017-12-13

    Mutations in the gene that encodes CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2) are causative of Wolfram syndrome type 2 (WFS2), a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, peptic ulcer bleeding and defective platelet aggregation. Four mutations in the CISD2 gene have been reported. Among these mutations, the homozygous c.103 + 1G > A substitution was identified in the donor splice site of intron 1 in two Italian sisters and was predicted to cause a exon 1 to be skipped. Here, we employed molecular assays to characterize the c.103 + 1G > A mutation using the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). 5'-RACE coupled with RT-PCR were used to analyse the effect of the c.103 + 1G > A mutation on mRNA splicing. Western blot analysis was used to analyse the consequences of the CISD2 mutation on the encoded protein. We demonstrated that the c.103 + 1G > A mutation functionally impaired mRNA splicing, producing multiple splice variants characterized by the whole or partial absence of exon 1, which introduced amino acid changes and a premature stop. The affected mRNAs resulted in either predicted targets for nonsense mRNA decay (NMD) or non-functional isoforms. We concluded that the c.103 + 1G > A mutation resulted in the loss of functional CISD2 protein in the two Italian WFS2 patients.

  3. Large exon size does not limit splicing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I T; Chasin, L A

    1994-03-01

    Exon sizes in vertebrate genes are, with a few exceptions, limited to less than 300 bases. It has been proposed that this limitation may derive from the exon definition model of splice site recognition. In this model, a downstream donor site enhances splicing at the upstream acceptor site of the same exon. This enhancement may require contact between factors bound to each end of the exon; an exon size limitation would promote such contact. To test the idea that proximity was required for exon definition, we inserted random DNA fragments from Escherichia coli into a central exon in a three-exon dihydrofolate reductase minigene and tested whether the expanded exons were efficiently spliced. DNA from a plasmid library of expanded minigenes was used to transfect a CHO cell deletion mutant lacking the dhfr locus. PCR analysis of DNA isolated from the pooled stable cotransfectant populations displayed a range of DNA insert sizes from 50 to 1,500 nucleotides. A parallel analysis of the RNA from this population by reverse transcription followed by PCR showed a similar size distribution. Central exons as large as 1,400 bases could be spliced into mRNA. We also tested individual plasmid clones containing exon inserts of defined sizes. The largest exon included in mRNA was 1,200 bases in length, well above the 300-base limit implied by the survey of naturally occurring exons. We conclude that a limitation in exon size is not part of the exon definition mechanism.

  4. Detection and quantification of alternative splice sites in Arabidopsis genes AtDCL2 and AtPTB2 with highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and gold nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Ulhas S; Schulz, Burkhard; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-05-02

    Alternative splicing (AS) increases the size of the transcriptome and proteome to enhance the physiological capacity of cells. We demonstrate surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in combination with a DNA hybridization analytical platform to identify and quantify AS genes in plants. AS in AtDCL2 and AtPTB2 were investigated using non-fluorescent Raman probes using a 'sandwich assay'. Utilizing Raman probes conjugated to gold nanoparticles we demonstrate the recognition of RNA sequences specific to AtDCL2 and AtPTB2 splice junction variants with detection sensitivity of up to 0.1 fM. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A splice-site mutation affecting the paired box of PAX3 in a three generation family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, A; Kim, E; Wilcox, E R; Lalwani, A K

    1997-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary disturbances and other developmental defects, is the most frequent form of congenital deafness in humans. Mutations in the PAX3 gene, a transcription factor expressed during embryonic development, is associated with WS types I and III. Here we report the identification of a novel acceptor splice site mutation (86-2 A-->G) in the paired domain of the human PAX3 gene causing WS type I in a three generation family.

  6. SplicingTypesAnno: annotating and quantifying alternative splicing events for RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Zuo, Fenghua; Ru, Yuanbin; Guo, Jiqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Sablok, Gaurav

    2015-04-01

    Alternative splicing plays a key role in the regulation of the central dogma. Four major types of alternative splicing have been classified as intron retention, exon skipping, alternative 5 splice sites or alternative donor sites, and alternative 3 splice sites or alternative acceptor sites. A few algorithms have been developed to detect splice junctions from RNA-Seq reads. However, there are few tools targeting at the major alternative splicing types at the exon/intron level. This type of analysis may reveal subtle, yet important events of alternative splicing, and thus help gain deeper understanding of the mechanism of alternative splicing. This paper describes a user-friendly R package, extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. SplicingTypesAnno can: (1) provide annotation for major alternative splicing at exon/intron level. By comparing the annotation from GTF/GFF file, it identifies the novel alternative splicing sites; (2) offer a convenient two-level analysis: genome-scale annotation for users with high performance computing environment, and gene-scale annotation for users with personal computers; (3) generate a user-friendly web report and additional BED files for IGV visualization. SplicingTypesAnno is a user-friendly R package for extracting, annotating and analyzing alternative splicing types at exon/intron level for sequence alignment files from RNA-Seq. It is publically available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/splicingtypes/files/ or http://genome.sdau.edu.cn/research/software/SplicingTypesAnno.html. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel deletion in the splice donor site of MLH1 exon 6 in a Japanese colon cancer patient with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Junya; Sato, Yuri; Kita, Mizuho; Nomura, Sachio; Yamamoto, Noriko; Kato, Yo; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Arai, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease that is characterized by a predisposition to cancers, mainly colorectal cancer. Germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 have been described in patients with Lynch syndrome. Here, we report deletion of 2 bp in the splice donor site of the MLH1 exon 6 (c.545+4_545+5delCA) in a 48-year-old Japanese woman with Lynch syndrome. RT-PCR direct sequencing analysis revealed that this mutation led to an increase in the level of an MLH1 transcript in which exon 6 was skipped, and may cause a frameshift (p.E153FfsX8). Therefore, this mutation appears to be pathogenic and is responsible for Lynch syndrome. Additionally, analysis of the patient's tumor cells indicated microsatellite instability high phenotype and loss of the MLH1 and PMS2 proteins. To our knowledge, this is a germline splice site mutation of MLH1 that has not been reported previously. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A splice site mutation in a gene encoding for PDK4, a mitochondrial protein, is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Doberman pinscher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Kathryn M; Lahmers, Sunshine; Keene, Bruce W; White, Stephen N; Oyama, Mark A; Mauceli, Evan; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-08-01

    Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a primary myocardial disease that can result in the development of congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Spontaneous animal models of familial dilated cardiomyopathy exist and the Doberman pinscher dog is one of the most commonly reported canine breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate familial dilated cardiomyopathy in the Doberman pinscher dog using a genome-wide association study for a genetic alteration(s) associated with the development of this disease in this canine model. Genome-wide association analysis identified an area of statistical significance on canine chromosome 14 (p(raw) = 9.999e-05 corrected for genome-wide significance), fine-mapping of additional SNPs flanking this region localized a signal to 23,774,190-23,781,919 (p = 0.001) and DNA sequencing identified a 16-base pair deletion in the 5' donor splice site of intron 10 of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 gene in affected dogs (p dilation, marked pleomorphic mitochondrial alterations with megamitochondria, scattered mitochondria with whorling and vacuolization and mild aggregates of lipofuscin granules. In conclusion, we report the identification of a splice site deletion in the PDK4 gene that is associated with the development of familial dilated cardiomyopathy in the Doberman pinscher dog.

  9. Dynamic Contacts of U2, RES, Cwc25, Prp8 and Prp45 Proteins with the Pre-mRNA Branch-Site and 3' Splice Site during Catalytic Activation and Step 1 Catalysis in Yeast Spliceosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Schneider

    Full Text Available Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast B(act spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the B(act crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25's step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing.

  10. A nucleotide substitution at the 5′ splice site of intron 1 of rice HEADING DATE 1 (HD1 gene homolog in foxtail millet, broadly found in landraces from Europe and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Fukunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated genetic variation of a rice HEADING DATE 1(HD1 homolog in foxtail millet. First, we searched for a rice HD1 homolog in a foxtail millet genome sequence and designed primers to amplify the entire coding sequence of the gene. We compared full HD1 gene sequences of 11 accessions (including Yugu 1, a Chinese cultivar used for genome sequencing from various regions in Europe and Asia, found a nucleotide substitution at a putative splice site of intron 1, and designated the accessions with the nucleotide substitution as carrying a splicing variant. We verified by RT-PCR that this single nucleotide substitution causes aberrant splicing of intron 1. We investigated the geographical distribution of the splicing variant in 480 accessions of foxtail millet from various regions of Europe and Asia and part of Africa by dCAPS and found that the splicing variant is broadly distributed in Europe and Asia. Differences of heading times between accessions with wild type allele of the HD1 gene and those with the splicing variant allele were unclear. We also investigated variation in 13 accessions of ssp. viridis, the wild ancestor, and the results suggested that the wild type is predominant in the wild ancestor.

  11. HOLLYWOOD: a comparative relational database of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Dirk; Huo, George; Tung, Vivian; Burge, Christopher B

    2006-01-01

    RNA splicing is an essential step in gene expression, and is often variable, giving rise to multiple alternatively spliced mRNA and protein isoforms from a single gene locus. The design of effective databases to support experimental and computational investigations of alternative splicing (AS) is a significant challenge. In an effort to integrate accurate exon and splice site annotation with current knowledge about splicing regulatory elements and predicted AS events, and to link information about the splicing of orthologous genes in different species, we have developed the Hollywood system. This database was built upon genomic annotation of splicing patterns of known genes derived from spliced alignment of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and expressed sequence tags, and links features such as splice site sequence and strength, exonic splicing enhancers and silencers, conserved and non-conserved patterns of splicing, and cDNA library information for inferred alternative exons. Hollywood was implemented as a relational database and currently contains comprehensive information for human and mouse. It is accompanied by a web query tool that allows searches for sets of exons with specific splicing characteristics or splicing regulatory element composition, or gives a graphical or sequence-level summary of splicing patterns for a specific gene. A streamlined graphical representation of gene splicing patterns is provided, and these patterns can alternatively be layered onto existing information in the UCSC Genome Browser. The database is accessible at http://hollywood.mit.edu.

  12. Alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms containing exon v10 promote cellular adhesion through the recognition of chondroitin sulfate-modified CD44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, R K; Droll, A; Dougherty, S T; Carpenito, C; Cooper, D L; Dougherty, G J

    1999-01-01

    Correlations have been noted between the expression of certain alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms and the metastatic propensity of various histologically distinct tumor cell types. The precise mechanism by which particular CD44 isoforms contribute to the metastatic process is, however, unclear. In

  13. A pan-cancer analysis of transcriptome changes associated with somatic mutations in U2AF1 reveals commonly altered splicing events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela N Brooks

    Full Text Available Although recurrent somatic mutations in the splicing factor U2AF1 (also known as U2AF35 have been identified in multiple cancer types, the effects of these mutations on the cancer transcriptome have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we identified splicing alterations associated with U2AF1 mutations across distinct cancers using DNA and RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Using RNA-Seq data from 182 lung adenocarcinomas and 167 acute myeloid leukemias (AML, in which U2AF1 is somatically mutated in 3-4% of cases, we identified 131 and 369 splicing alterations, respectively, that were significantly associated with U2AF1 mutation. Of these, 30 splicing alterations were statistically significant in both lung adenocarcinoma and AML, including three genes in the Cancer Gene Census, CTNNB1, CHCHD7, and PICALM. Cell line experiments expressing U2AF1 S34F in HeLa cells and in 293T cells provide further support that these altered splicing events are caused by U2AF1 mutation. Consistent with the function of U2AF1 in 3' splice site recognition, we found that S34F/Y mutations cause preferences for CAG over UAG 3' splice site sequences. This report demonstrates consistent effects of U2AF1 mutation on splicing in distinct cancer cell types.

  14. Homologous SV40 RNA trans-splicing: Special case or prime example of viral RNA trans-splicing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Poddar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date the Simian Virus 40 (SV40 is the only proven example of a virus that recruits the mechanism of RNA trans-splicing to diversify its sequences and gene products. Thereby, two identical viral transcripts are efficiently joined by homologous trans-splicing triggering the formation of a highly transforming 100 kDa super T antigen. Sequences of other viruses including HIV-1 and the human adenovirus type 5 were reported to be involved in heterologous trans-splicing towards cellular or viral sequences but the meaning of these events remains unclear. We computationally and experimentally investigated molecular features associated with viral RNA trans-splicing and identified a common pattern: Viral RNA trans-splicing occurs between strong cryptic or regular viral splice sites and strong regular or cryptic splice sites of the trans-splice partner sequences. The majority of these splice sites are supported by exonic splice enhancers. Splice sites that could compete with the trans-splicing sites for cis-splice reactions are weaker or inexistent. Finally, all but one of the trans-splice reactions seem to be facilitated by one or more complementary binding domains of 11 to 16 nucleotides in length which, however occur with a statistical probability close to one for the given length of the involved sequences. The chimeric RNAs generated via heterologous viral RNA trans-splicing either did not lead to fusion proteins or led to proteins of unknown function. Our data suggest that distinct viral RNAs are highly susceptible to trans-splicing and that heterologous viral trans-splicing, unlike homologous SV40 trans-splicing, represents a chance event.

  15. Tree Hazards Recognition and Reduction in Recreation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Defective trees are potential hazards to people and property in recreation areas. Most reported tree failures within recreation sites in the Rocky Mountain Region occur in lodgepole pine. Defective root systems account for the greatest percentage of failures. External indicators of defects are used to identify trees that may fail. Some tree species, particularly aspen...

  16. Dwarfism with joint laxity in Friesian horses is associated with a splice site mutation in B4GALT7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leegwater, Peter A; Vos-Loohuis, Manon; Ducro, Bart J; Boegheim, Iris J; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Nijman, Isaac J; Monroe, Glen R; Bastiaansen, John W M; Dibbits, Bert W; van de Goor, Leanne H; Hellinga, Ids; Back, Willem; Schurink, Anouk

    2016-10-28

    Inbreeding and population bottlenecks in the ancestry of Friesian horses has led to health issues such as dwarfism. The limbs of dwarfs are short and the ribs are protruding inwards at the costochondral junction, while the head and back appear normal. A striking feature of the condition is the flexor tendon laxity that leads to hyperextension of the fetlock joints. The growth plates of dwarfs display disorganized and thickened chondrocyte columns. The aim of this study was to identify the gene defect that causes the recessively inherited trait in Friesian horses to understand the disease process at the molecular level. We have localized the genetic cause of the dwarfism phenotype by a genome wide approach to a 3 Mb region on the p-arm of equine chromosome 14. The DNA of two dwarfs and one control Friesian horse was sequenced completely and we identified the missense mutation ECA14:g.4535550C > T that cosegregated with the phenotype in all Friesians analyzed. The mutation leads to the amino acid substitution p.(Arg17Lys) of xylosylprotein beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 encoded by B4GALT7. The protein is one of the enzymes that synthesize the tetrasaccharide linker between protein and glycosaminoglycan moieties of proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. The mutation not only affects a conserved arginine codon but also the last nucleotide of the first exon of the gene and we show that it impedes splicing of the primary transcript in cultured fibroblasts from a heterozygous horse. As a result, the level of B4GALT7 mRNA in fibroblasts from a dwarf is only 2 % compared to normal levels. Mutations in B4GALT7 in humans are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome progeroid type 1 and Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome. Growth retardation and ligamentous laxity are common manifestations of these syndromes. We suggest that the identified mutation of equine B4GALT7 leads to the typical dwarfism phenotype in Friesian horses due to deficient splicing of transcripts of

  17. Thorough in silico and in vitro cDNA analysis of 21 putative BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice variants and a complex tandem duplication in BRCA2 allowing the identification of activated cryptic splice donor sites in BRCA2 exon 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Annelot; Machackova, Eva; Coene, Ilse; Cremin, Carol; Turner, Kristin; Portigal-Todd, Cheryl; Asrat, Marie Jill; Nuk, Jennifer; Mindlin, Allison; Young, Sean; MacMillan, Andree; Van Maerken, Tom; Trbusek, Martin; McKinnon, Wendy; Wood, Marie E; Foulkes, William D; Santamariña, Marta; de la Hoya, Miguel; Foretova, Lenka; Poppe, Bruce; Vral, Anne; Rosseel, Toon; De Leeneer, Kim; Vega, Ana; Claes, Kathleen B M

    2018-04-01

    For 21 putative BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice site variants, the concordance between mRNA analysis and predictions by in silico programs was evaluated. Aberrant splicing was confirmed for 12 alterations. In silico prediction tools were helpful to determine for which variants cDNA analysis is warranted, however, predictions for variants in the Cartegni consensus region but outside the canonical sites, were less reliable. Learning algorithms like Adaboost and Random Forest outperformed the classical tools. Further validations are warranted prior to implementation of these novel tools in clinical settings. Additionally, we report here for the first time activated cryptic donor sites in the large exon 11 of BRCA2 by evaluating the effect at the cDNA level of a novel tandem duplication (5' breakpoint in intron 4; 3' breakpoint in exon 11) and of a variant disrupting the splice donor site of exon 11 (c.6841+1G > C). Additional sites were predicted, but not activated. These sites warrant further research to increase our knowledge on cis and trans acting factors involved in the conservation of correct transcription of this large exon. This may contribute to adequate design of ASOs (antisense oligonucleotides), an emerging therapy to render cancer cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and platinum therapies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Biochemical study of multiple drug recognition sites on central benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifiletti, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor complex of mammalian brain possesses recognition sites which mediate (at least in part) the pharmacologic actions of the 1,4-benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Evidence is provided suggesting the existence of least seven distinct drug recognition sites on this complex. Interactions between the various recognition sites have been explored using radioligand binding techniques. This information is utilized to provide a comprehensive scheme for characterizing receptor-active drugs on an anxiolytic-anticonvulsant/proconvulsant continuum using radioligand binding techniques, as well as a comprehensive program for identifying potential endogenous receptor-active substances. Further evidence is provided here supporting the notion of benzodiazepine recognition site heterogeneity. Classical 1,4-benzodiazepines do not appear to differentiate two populations of benzodiazepine receptors in an equilibrium sense, but appear to do so in a kinetic sense. An apparent physical separation of the two receptor subtypes can be achieved by differential solubilization. The benzodiazepine binding subunit can be identified by photoaffinity labeling with the benzodiazepine agonist (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepan. Conditions for reproducible partial proteolytic mapping of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled receptors are established. From these maps, it is concluded that there are probably no major differences in the primary sequence of the benzodiazepine binding subunit in various regions of the rat central nervous system.

  19. A novel splice-site mutation in ALS2 establishes the diagnosis of juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a family with early onset anarthria and generalized dystonias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siddiqi

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of childhood neurological disorders remains challenging given the overlapping clinical presentation across subgroups and heterogeneous presentation within subgroups. To determine the underlying genetic cause of a severe neurological disorder in a large consanguineous Pakistani family presenting with severe scoliosis, anarthria and progressive neuromuscular degeneration, we performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping accompanied by whole-exome sequencing in two affected first cousins and their unaffected parents to find the causative mutation. We identified a novel homozygous splice-site mutation (c.3512+1G>A in the ALS2 gene (NM_020919.3 encoding alsin that segregated with the disease in this family. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in ALS2 are known to cause juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, one of the many neurological conditions having overlapping symptoms with many neurological phenotypes. RT-PCR validation revealed that the mutation resulted in exon-skipping as well as the use of an alternative donor splice, both of which are predicted to cause loss-of-function of the resulting proteins. By examining 216 known neurological disease genes in our exome sequencing data, we also identified 9 other rare nonsynonymous mutations in these genes, some of which lie in highly conserved regions. Sequencing of a single proband might have led to mis-identification of some of these as the causative variant. Our findings established a firm diagnosis of juvenile ALS in this family, thus demonstrating the use of whole exome sequencing combined with linkage analysis in families as a powerful tool for establishing a quick and precise genetic diagnosis of complex neurological phenotypes.

  20. X-linked Alport syndrome associated with a synonymous p.Gly292Gly mutation alters the splicing donor site of the type IV collagen alpha chain 5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue Jun; Nozu, Kandai; Eguchi, Aya; Nozu, Yoshimi; Morisada, Naoya; Shono, Akemi; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Shima, Yuko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Vorechovsky, Igor; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-10-01

    X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS) is a progressive hereditary nephropathy caused by mutations in the type IV collagen alpha chain 5 gene (COL4A5). Although many COL4A5 mutations have previously been identified, pathogenic synonymous mutations have not yet been described. A family with XLAS underwent mutational analyses of COL4A5 by PCR and direct sequencing, as well as transcript analysis of potential splice site mutations. In silico analysis was also conducted to predict the disruption of splicing factor binding sites. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of kidney biopsies was used to detect α2 and α5 chain expression. We identified a hemizygous point mutation, c.876A>T, in exon 15 of COL4A5 in the proband and his brother, which is predicted to result in a synonymous amino acid change, p.(Gly292Gly). Transcript analysis showed that this mutation potentially altered splicing because it disrupted the splicing factor binding site. The kidney biopsy of the proband showed lamellation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), while IHC revealed negative α5(IV) staining in the GBM and Bowman's capsule, which is typical of XLAS. This is the first report of a synonymous COL4A5 substitution being responsible for XLAS. Our findings suggest that transcript analysis should be conducted for the future correct assessment of silent mutations.

  1. Human Splicing Finder: an online bioinformatics tool to predict splicing signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, François-Olivier; Hamroun, Dalil; Lalande, Marine; Collod-Béroud, Gwenaëlle; Claustres, Mireille; Béroud, Christophe

    2009-05-01

    Thousands of mutations are identified yearly. Although many directly affect protein expression, an increasing proportion of mutations is now believed to influence mRNA splicing. They mostly affect existing splice sites, but synonymous, non-synonymous or nonsense mutations can also create or disrupt splice sites or auxiliary cis-splicing sequences. To facilitate the analysis of the different mutations, we designed Human Splicing Finder (HSF), a tool to predict the effects of mutations on splicing signals or to identify splicing motifs in any human sequence. It contains all available matrices for auxiliary sequence prediction as well as new ones for binding sites of the 9G8 and Tra2-beta Serine-Arginine proteins and the hnRNP A1 ribonucleoprotein. We also developed new Position Weight Matrices to assess the strength of 5' and 3' splice sites and branch points. We evaluated HSF efficiency using a set of 83 intronic and 35 exonic mutations known to result in splicing defects. We showed that the mutation effect was correctly predicted in almost all cases. HSF could thus represent a valuable resource for research, diagnostic and therapeutic (e.g. therapeutic exon skipping) purposes as well as for global studies, such as the GEN2PHEN European Project or the Human Variome Project.

  2. Lethal chondrodysplasia in a family of Holstein cattle is associated with a de novo splice site variant of COL2A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Menzi, Fiona; McEvoy, Fintan

    2016-01-01

    was predicted to affect splicing as it altered the conserved splice donor sequence GT at the 5’-end of COL2A1 intron 36, which was changed to AT. All five available cases carried the mutant allele in heterozygous state and all five dams were homozygous wild type. The sire VH Cadiz Captivo was shown...

  3. A short in-frame deletion in NTRK1 tyrosine kinase domain caused by a novel splice site mutation in a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístegui Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by the lack of reaction to noxious stimuli and anhidrosis. It is caused by mutations in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes the high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor I for Neurotrophic Growth Factor (NGF. Case Presentation We present the case of a female patient diagnosed with CIPA at the age of 8 months. The patient is currently 6 years old and her psychomotor development conforms to her age (RMN, SPECT and psychological study are in the range of normality. PCR amplification of DNA, followed by direct sequencing, was used to investigate the presence of NTRK1 gene mutations. Reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR amplification of RNA, followed by cloning and sequencing of isolated RT-PCR products was used to characterize the effect of the mutations on NTRK1 mRNA splicing. The clinical diagnosis of CIPA was confirmed by the detection of two splice-site mutations in NTRK1, revealing that the patient was a compound heterozygote at this gene. One of these alterations, c.574+1G>A, is located at the splice donor site of intron 5. We also found a second mutation, c.2206-2 A>G, not previously reported in the literature, which is located at the splice acceptor site of intron 16. Each parent was confirmed to be a carrier for one of the mutations by DNA sequencing analysis. It has been proposed that the c.574+1G>A mutation would cause exon 5 skipping during NTRK1 mRNA splicing. We could confirm this prediction and, more importantly, we provide evidence that the novel c.2206-2A>G mutation also disrupts normal NTRK1 splicing, leading to the use of an alternative splice acceptor site within exon 17. As a consequence, this mutation would result in the production of a mutant NTRK1 protein with a seven aminoacid in-frame deletion in its tyrosine kinase domain. Conclusions We present the first description of a CIPA-associated NTRK1 mutation

  4. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  5. TU-FG-209-12: Treatment Site and View Recognition in X-Ray Images with Hierarchical Multiclass Recognition Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, X; Mazur, T; Yang, D [Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate an approach of automatically recognizing anatomical sites and imaging views (the orientation of the image acquisition) in 2D X-ray images. Methods: A hierarchical (binary tree) multiclass recognition model was developed to recognize the treatment sites and views in x-ray images. From top to bottom of the tree, the treatment sites are grouped hierarchically from more general to more specific. Each node in the hierarchical model was designed to assign images to one of two categories of anatomical sites. The binary image classification function of each node in the hierarchical model is implemented by using a PCA transformation and a support vector machine (SVM) model. The optimal PCA transformation matrices and SVM models are obtained by learning from a set of sample images. Alternatives of the hierarchical model were developed to support three scenarios of site recognition that may happen in radiotherapy clinics, including two or one X-ray images with or without view information. The performance of the approach was tested with images of 120 patients from six treatment sites – brain, head-neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis – with 20 patients per site and two views (AP and RT) per patient. Results: Given two images in known orthogonal views (AP and RT), the hierarchical model achieved a 99% average F1 score to recognize the six sites. Site specific view recognition models have 100 percent accuracy. The computation time to process a new patient case (preprocessing, site and view recognition) is 0.02 seconds. Conclusion: The proposed hierarchical model of site and view recognition is effective and computationally efficient. It could be useful to automatically and independently confirm the treatment sites and views in daily setup x-ray 2D images. It could also be applied to guide subsequent image processing tasks, e.g. site and view dependent contrast enhancement and image registration. The senior author received research grants from View

  6. TU-FG-209-12: Treatment Site and View Recognition in X-Ray Images with Hierarchical Multiclass Recognition Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, X; Mazur, T; Yang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate an approach of automatically recognizing anatomical sites and imaging views (the orientation of the image acquisition) in 2D X-ray images. Methods: A hierarchical (binary tree) multiclass recognition model was developed to recognize the treatment sites and views in x-ray images. From top to bottom of the tree, the treatment sites are grouped hierarchically from more general to more specific. Each node in the hierarchical model was designed to assign images to one of two categories of anatomical sites. The binary image classification function of each node in the hierarchical model is implemented by using a PCA transformation and a support vector machine (SVM) model. The optimal PCA transformation matrices and SVM models are obtained by learning from a set of sample images. Alternatives of the hierarchical model were developed to support three scenarios of site recognition that may happen in radiotherapy clinics, including two or one X-ray images with or without view information. The performance of the approach was tested with images of 120 patients from six treatment sites – brain, head-neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis – with 20 patients per site and two views (AP and RT) per patient. Results: Given two images in known orthogonal views (AP and RT), the hierarchical model achieved a 99% average F1 score to recognize the six sites. Site specific view recognition models have 100 percent accuracy. The computation time to process a new patient case (preprocessing, site and view recognition) is 0.02 seconds. Conclusion: The proposed hierarchical model of site and view recognition is effective and computationally efficient. It could be useful to automatically and independently confirm the treatment sites and views in daily setup x-ray 2D images. It could also be applied to guide subsequent image processing tasks, e.g. site and view dependent contrast enhancement and image registration. The senior author received research grants from View

  7. Widespread alternative and aberrant splicing revealed by lariat sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankiw, Nicholas; Raghavan, Madhura; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Grimson, Andrew; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important and ancient feature of eukaryotic gene structure, the existence of which has likely facilitated eukaryotic proteome expansions. Here, we have used intron lariat sequencing to generate a comprehensive profile of splicing events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, amongst the simplest organisms that possess mammalian-like splice site degeneracy. We reveal an unprecedented level of alternative splicing, including alternative splice site selection for over half of all annotated introns, hundreds of novel exon-skipping events, and thousands of novel introns. Moreover, the frequency of these events is far higher than previous estimates, with alternative splice sites on average activated at ∼3% the rate of canonical sites. Although a subset of alternative sites are conserved in related species, implying functional potential, the majority are not detectably conserved. Interestingly, the rate of aberrant splicing is inversely related to expression level, with lowly expressed genes more prone to erroneous splicing. Although we validate many events with RNAseq, the proportion of alternative splicing discovered with lariat sequencing is far greater, a difference we attribute to preferential decay of aberrantly spliced transcripts. Together, these data suggest the spliceosome possesses far lower fidelity than previously appreciated, highlighting the potential contributions of alternative splicing in generating novel gene structures. PMID:26261211

  8. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  9. Hereditary cancer genes are highly susceptible to splicing mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemedi, Rachel; Maguire, Samantha; Murray, Michael F.; Monaghan, Sean F.

    2018-01-01

    Substitutions that disrupt pre-mRNA splicing are a common cause of genetic disease. On average, 13.4% of all hereditary disease alleles are classified as splicing mutations mapping to the canonical 5′ and 3′ splice sites. However, splicing mutations present in exons and deeper intronic positions are vastly underreported. A recent re-analysis of coding mutations in exon 10 of the Lynch Syndrome gene, MLH1, revealed an extremely high rate (77%) of mutations that lead to defective splicing. This finding is confirmed by extending the sampling to five other exons in the MLH1 gene. Further analysis suggests a more general phenomenon of defective splicing driving Lynch Syndrome. Of the 36 mutations tested, 11 disrupted splicing. Furthermore, analyzing past reports suggest that MLH1 mutations in canonical splice sites also occupy a much higher fraction (36%) of total mutations than expected. When performing a comprehensive analysis of splicing mutations in human disease genes, we found that three main causal genes of Lynch Syndrome, MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2, belonged to a class of 86 disease genes which are enriched for splicing mutations. Other cancer genes were also enriched in the 86 susceptible genes. The enrichment of splicing mutations in hereditary cancers strongly argues for additional priority in interpreting clinical sequencing data in relation to cancer and splicing. PMID:29505604

  10. Hereditary cancer genes are highly susceptible to splicing mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy L Rhine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Substitutions that disrupt pre-mRNA splicing are a common cause of genetic disease. On average, 13.4% of all hereditary disease alleles are classified as splicing mutations mapping to the canonical 5' and 3' splice sites. However, splicing mutations present in exons and deeper intronic positions are vastly underreported. A recent re-analysis of coding mutations in exon 10 of the Lynch Syndrome gene, MLH1, revealed an extremely high rate (77% of mutations that lead to defective splicing. This finding is confirmed by extending the sampling to five other exons in the MLH1 gene. Further analysis suggests a more general phenomenon of defective splicing driving Lynch Syndrome. Of the 36 mutations tested, 11 disrupted splicing. Furthermore, analyzing past reports suggest that MLH1 mutations in canonical splice sites also occupy a much higher fraction (36% of total mutations than expected. When performing a comprehensive analysis of splicing mutations in human disease genes, we found that three main causal genes of Lynch Syndrome, MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2, belonged to a class of 86 disease genes which are enriched for splicing mutations. Other cancer genes were also enriched in the 86 susceptible genes. The enrichment of splicing mutations in hereditary cancers strongly argues for additional priority in interpreting clinical sequencing data in relation to cancer and splicing.

  11. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  12. Early-Onset X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa in a Heterozygous Female Harboring an Intronic Donor Splice Site Mutation in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Kay, Christine Nichols

    2015-01-01

    To report a heterozygous female presenting with an early-onset and severe form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). This is a case series presenting the clinical findings in a heterozygous female with XLRP and two of her family members. Fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, ocular coherence tomography, and visual perimetry are presented. The proband reported here is a heterozygous female who presented at the age of 8 years with an early onset and aggressive form of XLRP. The patient belongs to a four-generation family with a total of three affected females and four affected males. The patient was initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at the age of 4 years. Genetic testing identified a heterozygous donor splice site mutation in intron 1 (IVS1 + 1G > A) of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene. The father of the proband was diagnosed with RP when he was a young child. The sister of the proband, evaluated at the age of 6 years, showed macular pigmentary changes. Although carriers of XLRP are usually asymptomatic or have a mild disease of late onset, the proband presented here exhibited an early-onset, aggressive form of the disease. It is not clear why some carrier females manifest a severe phenotype. A better understanding of the genetic processes involved in the penetrance and expressivity of XLRP in heterozygous females could assist in providing the appropriate counseling to affected families.

  13. A polymorphism in the splice donor site of ZNF419 results in the novel renal cell carcinoma-associated minor histocompatibility antigen ZAPHIR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Broen

    Full Text Available Nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT can induce remission in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC, but this graft-versus-tumor (GVT effect is often accompanied by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Here, we evaluated minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA-specific T cell responses in two patients with metastatic RCC who were treated with reduced-intensity conditioning SCT followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI. One patient had stable disease and emergence of SMCY.A2-specific CD8+ T cells was observed after DLI with the potential of targeting SMCY-expressing RCC tumor cells. The second patient experienced partial regression of lung metastases from whom we isolated a MiHA-specific CTL clone with the capability of targeting RCC cell lines. Whole genome association scanning revealed that this CTL recognizes a novel HLA-B7-restricted MiHA, designated ZAPHIR, resulting from a polymorphism in the splice donor site of the ZNF419 gene. Tetramer analysis showed that emergence of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood occurred in the absence of GVHD. Furthermore, the expression of ZAPHIR in solid tumor cell lines indicates the involvement of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cell responses in selective GVT immunity. These findings illustrate that the ZNF419-encoded MiHA ZAPHIR is an attractive target for specific immunotherapy after allogeneic SCT.

  14. Discovery of candidate disease genes in ENU-induced mouse mutants by large-scale sequencing, including a splice-site mutation in nucleoredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Boles

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and precisely annotated genome assembly is a fundamental requirement for functional genomic analysis. Here, the complete DNA sequence and gene annotation of mouse Chromosome 11 was used to test the efficacy of large-scale sequencing for mutation identification. We re-sequenced the 14,000 annotated exons and boundaries from over 900 genes in 41 recessive mutant mouse lines that were isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutation screen targeted to mouse Chromosome 11. Fifty-nine sequence variants were identified in 55 genes from 31 mutant lines. 39% of the lesions lie in coding sequences and create primarily missense mutations. The other 61% lie in noncoding regions, many of them in highly conserved sequences. A lesion in the perinatal lethal line l11Jus13 alters a consensus splice site of nucleoredoxin (Nxn, inserting 10 amino acids into the resulting protein. We conclude that point mutations can be accurately and sensitively recovered by large-scale sequencing, and that conserved noncoding regions should be included for disease mutation identification. Only seven of the candidate genes we report have been previously targeted by mutation in mice or rats, showing that despite ongoing efforts to functionally annotate genes in the mammalian genome, an enormous gap remains between phenotype and function. Our data show that the classical positional mapping approach of disease mutation identification can be extended to large target regions using high-throughput sequencing.

  15. Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Fedosova, Natalya U; Berglund, Lars

    2005-01-01

    of the ligand. Each isolated fragment of IF was tested for the binding to the specific receptor cubilin in the presence or absence of Cbl. Neither apo nor holo forms of IF(20) and IF(30) were recognized by the receptor. When two fragments were mixed and incubated with Cbl, they associated into a stable complex......; however, efficient retention of the ligand required the presence of both fragments. Detailed schemes of the interaction of Cbl with IF(50) and with IF(30) and IF(20) are presented, where the sequential attachment of Cbl to the IF(20) and IF(30) domains plays the key role in recognition and retention......, IF(30+20).Cbl, which bound to cubilin as well as the noncleaved IF(50).Cbl complex. We suggest that formation of the cubilin recognition site on IF is caused by assembly of two distant domains, which allows the saturated protein to be recognized by the receptor. The obtained parameters for ligand...

  16. Further details of a hypothesis for the initiation of genetic recombination from recognition sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, P [Queen Elizabeth College, London (G.B.)

    1982-01-01

    Consideration of the initiation of genetic recombination from fixed sites recognised by an initiation complex, has provided more details of the envisaged mechanism and implications of a recent hypothesis. It has been shown that the hypothesis allows for more than one recombinogenic-event to result from a single binding of the recombination initiation complex to a recognition site in a DNA duplex. This capacity can explain data from fungal systems which are apparently inconsistent with the Meselson-Radding model of genetic recombination with respect to the positional relationship between tracts of hybrid DNA and sites of crossing-over. A mechanism for conversion, involving hybrid DNA formation, but without mismatch correction has also been proposed on the basis of this capacity. It is suggested that the hypothesis may apply generally to genetic recombination, in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes.

  17. Targeting Splicing in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Effrosyni Antonopoulou; Michael Ladomery

    2018-01-01

    Over 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced, expressing splice isoforms that often exhibit antagonistic functions. We describe genes whose alternative splicing has been linked to prostate cancer; namely VEGFA, KLF6, BCL2L2, ERG, and AR. We discuss opportunities to develop novel therapies that target specific splice isoforms, or that target the machinery of splicing. Therapeutic approaches include the development of small molecule inhibitors of splice factor kinases, splice isoform speci...

  18. Co-option of the piRNA pathway for germline-specific alternative splicing of C. elegans TOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán-Soler, Sergio; Fontrodona, Laura; Ribó, Anna; Lamm, Ayelet T; Iannone, Camilla; Cerón, Julián; Lehner, Ben; Valcárcel, Juan

    2014-09-25

    Many eukaryotic genes contain embedded antisense transcripts and repetitive sequences of unknown function. We report that male germline-specific expression of an antisense transcript contained in an intron of C. elegans Target of Rapamycin (TOR, let-363) is associated with (1) accumulation of endo-small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against an embedded Helitron transposon and (2) activation of an alternative 3' splice site of TOR. The germline-specific Argonaute proteins PRG-1 and CSR-1, which participate in self/nonself RNA recognition, antagonistically regulate the generation of these endo-siRNAs, TOR mRNA levels, and 3' splice-site selection. Supply of exogenous double-stranded RNA against the region of sense/antisense overlap reverses changes in TOR expression and splicing and suppresses the progressive multigenerational sterility phenotype of prg-1 mutants. We propose that recognition of a "nonself" intronic transposon by endo-siRNAs/the piRNA system provides physiological regulation of expression and alternative splicing of a host gene that, in turn, contributes to the maintenance of germline function across generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F.; Govoni, S.; Rius, R.A.; Spano, P.F.; Trabucchi, M.

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  20. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F; Govoni, S; Rius, R A; Spano, P F; Trabucchi, M

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  1. A novel splice site mutation in the dentin sialophosphoprotein gene in a Chinese family with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haoyang; Hou Yanning; Cui Yingxia; Huang Yufeng; Shi Yichao; Xia Xinyi; Lu Hongyong; Wang Yunhua; Li Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four individuals were investigated that spanned six generations in a Chinese family affected with an apparently autosomal dominant form of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II, OMIM 125490). All affected individuals presented with typical, clinical and radiographic features of DGI-II, but without bilateral progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. To investigate the mutated molecule, a positional candidate approach was used to determine the mutated gene in this family. Genomic DNA was obtained from 24 affected individuals, 18 unaffected relatives of the family and 50 controls. Haplotype analysis was performed using leukocyte DNA for 6 short tandem repeat (STR) markers present in chromosome 4 (D4S1534, GATA62A11, DSPP, DMP1, SPP1 and D4S1563). In the critical region between D4S1534 and DMP1, the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene (OMIM *125485) was considered as the strongest candidate gene. The first four exons and exon/intron boundaries of the gene were analyzed using DNA from 24 affected individuals and 18 unaffected relatives of the same family. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous deletion mutation in intron 2 (at positions -3 to -25), which resulted in a frameshift mutation, that changed the acceptor site sequence from CAG to AAG (IVS2-3C→A) and may also have disrupted the branch point consensus sequence in intron 2. The mutation was found in the 24 affected individuals, but not in the 18 unaffected relatives and 50 controls. The deletion was identified by allele-specific sequencing and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis. We conclude that the heterozygous deletion mutation contributed to the pathogenesis of DGI-II

  2. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  3. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  4. Effect of the bases flanking an abasic site on the recognition of nucleobase by amiloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Arivazhagan; Zhao, Chunxia; Rajendar, Burki; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Sato, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Seiichi; Teramae, Norio

    2010-06-01

    We explain here the various non-covalent interactions which are responsible for the different binding modes of a small ligand with DNA. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods was used. The interaction of amiloride with thymine was found to depend on the bases flanking the AP site and different binding modes were observed for different flanking bases. Molecular modeling, absorption studies and binding constant measurements support for the different binding patterns. The flanking base dependent recognition of AP site phosphates was investigated by (31)P NMR experiments. The thermodynamics of the ligand-nucleotide interaction was demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The emission behavior of amiloride was found to depend on the bases flanking the AP site. Amiloride photophysics in the context of AP-site containing DNA is investigated by time-dependent density functional theory. Flanking bases affect the ground and excited electronic states of amiloride when binding to AP site, which causes flanking base-dependent fluorescence signaling. The various noncovalent interactions have been well characterized for the determination of nucleic acid structure and dynamics, and protein-DNA interactions. However, these are not clear for the DNA-small molecule interactions and we believe that our studies will bring a new insight into such phenomena. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recurrent Hyperparathyroidism Due to a Novel CDC73 Splice Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattangady, Namita Ganesh; Wilson, Tremika Le-Shan; Miller, Barbra Sue; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Giordano, Thomas James; Choksi, Palak; Else, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    The recognition of hereditary causes of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is important because clinical care and surveillance differ significantly between sporadic and hereditary pHPT. In addition, the increasing number of genetic tests poses a challenge to classify mutations as benign or pathogenic. Functional work-up of variants remains a mainstay to provide evidence for pathogenicity. We describe a 52-year-old male patient with recurrent pHPT since age 35 years. Despite several neck surgeries with complete parathyroidectomy, he experienced persistent pHPT, necessitating repeated surgery for a forearm autotransplant, which finally resulted in unmeasurable parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Genetic testing revealed a new CDC73 variant (c.238-8G>A [IVS2-8G>A]), initially classified as a variant of uncertain significance. Parathyroid tissue from the initial surgeries showed loss of heterozygosity. Using an RT-PCR approach, we show that the mutation leads to the use of a cryptic splice site in peripheral mononuclear cells. In addition, a minigene approach confirms the use of the cryptic splice site in a heterologous cell system. The novel c.238-8G>A CDC73 variant activates a cryptic splice site, and the functional data provided justify the classification as a likely pathogenic variant. Our results underscore the importance of functional work-up for variant classification in the absence of other available data, such as presence in disease-specific databases, other syndromic clinical findings, or family history. In addition, the presented case exemplifies the importance to consider a hereditary condition in young patients with pHPT, particularly those with multi-gland involvement. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Evolution of alternative splicing regulation: changes in predicted exonic splicing regulators are not associated with changes in alternative splicing levels in primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Roy, Scott William

    2009-01-01

    and changes in alternative splicing levels. This observation holds across different ESR exon positions, exon lengths, and 5' splice site strengths. We suggest that this lack of association is mainly due to the great importance of context for ESR functionality: many ESR-like motifs in primates may have little...

  7. Human antibody recognition of antigenic site IV on Pneumovirus fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Jarrod J; Binshtein, Elad; Human, Stacey; Fong, Rachel H; Alvarado, Gabriela; Doranz, Benjamin J; Moore, Martin L; Ohi, Melanie D; Crowe, James E

    2018-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of children by two years of age. The RSV fusion (F) protein is a primary target of human antibodies, and it has several antigenic regions capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies. Antigenic site IV is preserved in both the pre-fusion and post-fusion conformations of RSV F. Antibodies to antigenic site IV have been described that bind and neutralize both RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). To explore the diversity of binding modes at antigenic site IV, we generated a panel of four new human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and competition-binding suggested the mAbs bind at antigenic site IV. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that binding and neutralization of two mAbs (3M3 and 6F18) depended on arginine (R) residue R429. We discovered two R429-independent mAbs (17E10 and 2N6) at this site that neutralized an RSV R429A mutant strain, and one of these mAbs (17E10) neutralized both RSV and hMPV. To determine the mechanism of cross-reactivity, we performed competition-binding, recombinant protein mutagenesis, peptide binding, and electron microscopy experiments. It was determined that the human cross-reactive mAb 17E10 binds to RSV F with a binding pose similar to 101F, which may be indicative of cross-reactivity with hMPV F. The data presented provide new concepts in RSV immune recognition and vaccine design, as we describe the novel idea that binding pose may influence mAb cross-reactivity between RSV and hMPV. Characterization of the site IV epitope bound by human antibodies may inform the design of a pan-Pneumovirus vaccine.

  8. Landscape of the spliced leader trans-splicing mechanism in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroni, Mariana; Sammeth, Michael; Gava, Sandra Grossi; Jorge, Natasha Andressa Nogueira; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Machado, Carlos Renato; Mourão, Marina Moraes; Franco, Glória Regina

    2018-03-01

    Spliced leader dependent trans-splicing (SLTS) has been described as an important RNA regulatory process that occurs in different organisms, including the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. We identified more than seven thousand putative SLTS sites in the parasite, comprising genes with a wide spectrum of functional classes, which underlines the SLTS as a ubiquitous mechanism in the parasite. Also, SLTS gene expression levels span several orders of magnitude, showing that SLTS frequency is not determined by the expression level of the target gene, but by the presence of particular gene features facilitating or hindering the trans-splicing mechanism. Our in-depth investigation of SLTS events demonstrates widespread alternative trans-splicing (ATS) acceptor sites occurring in different regions along the entire gene body, highlighting another important role of SLTS generating alternative RNA isoforms in the parasite, besides the polycistron resolution. Particularly for introns where SLTS directly competes for the same acceptor substrate with cis-splicing, we identified for the first time additional and important features that might determine the type of splicing. Our study substantially extends the current knowledge of RNA processing by SLTS in S. mansoni, and provide basis for future studies on the trans-splicing mechanism in other eukaryotes.

  9. Mechanical rebar splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Branko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanical rebar splicing systems are presented, and design situations where mechanical splicing has advantage over reinforcement splicing by overlapping and welding are defined in this paper. New international standards for testing and proof of systems for mechanical rebar splicing quality are considered. Mechanical splicing system for rebar and bolt connection, usable in steel and reinforced concrete structural elements connections, is presented in this paper. There are only few examples of mechanical rebar splicing in our country. The most significant one - the pylon and beam connection at Ada Bridge in Belgrade is presented in the paper. Intensive development of production and use of mechanical rebar splicing systems, research in this area, as well as the publication of international standards prescribing requirements for quality and procedures for proof of quality, represent very good base for development of the corresponding technical norms in Serbia. The legislation in this area would quicken proof of quality procedures, attest and approval issuing for individual products, leading to wider use of this system in all situations where it is in advantage over the classical reinforcement splicing.

  10. spliceR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer; Porse, Bo Torben; Sandelin, Albin

    2014-01-01

    RNA-seq data is currently underutilized, in part because it is difficult to predict the functional impact of alternate transcription events. Recent software improvements in full-length transcript deconvolution prompted us to develop spliceR, an R package for classification of alternative splicing...

  11. Potent neutralization of hepatitis A virus reveals a receptor mimic mechanism and the receptor recognition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxi; Zhu, Ling; Dang, Minghao; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Yuan, Shuai; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo; Ren, Jingshan; Kotecha, Abhay; Walter, Thomas S; Wang, Junzhi; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Rao, Zihe

    2017-01-24

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects ∼1.4 million people annually and, although there is a vaccine, there are no licensed therapeutic drugs. HAV is unusually stable (making disinfection problematic) and little is known of how it enters cells and releases its RNA. Here we report a potent HAV-specific monoclonal antibody, R10, which neutralizes HAV infection by blocking attachment to the host cell. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of HAV full and empty particles and of the complex of HAV with R10 Fab reveal the atomic details of antibody binding and point to a receptor recognition site at the pentamer interface. These results, together with our observation that the R10 Fab destabilizes the capsid, suggest the use of a receptor mimic mechanism to neutralize virus infection, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Recognition of AT-Rich DNA Binding Sites by the MogR Repressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Aimee; Higgins, Darren E.; Panne, Daniel; (Harvard-Med); (EMBL)

    2009-07-22

    The MogR transcriptional repressor of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes recognizes AT-rich binding sites in promoters of flagellar genes to downregulate flagellar gene expression during infection. We describe here the 1.8 A resolution crystal structure of MogR bound to the recognition sequence 5' ATTTTTTAAAAAAAT 3' present within the flaA promoter region. Our structure shows that MogR binds as a dimer. Each half-site is recognized in the major groove by a helix-turn-helix motif and in the minor groove by a loop from the symmetry-related molecule, resulting in a 'crossover' binding mode. This oversampling through minor groove interactions is important for specificity. The MogR binding site has structural features of A-tract DNA and is bent by approximately 52 degrees away from the dimer. The structure explains how MogR achieves binding specificity in the AT-rich genome of L. monocytogenes and explains the evolutionary conservation of A-tract sequence elements within promoter regions of MogR-regulated flagellar genes.

  13. Factor IX[sub Madrid 2]: A deletion/insertion in Facotr IX gene which abolishes the sequence of the donor junction at the exon IV-intron d splice site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solera, J. (Unidades de Genetica Molecular, Madrid (Spain)); Magallon, M.; Martin-Villar, J. (Hemofilia Hospital, Madrid (Spain)); Coloma, A. (Departamento deBioquimica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-02-01

    DNA from a patient with severe hemophilia B was evaluated by RFLP analysis, producing results which suggested the existence of a partial deletion within the factor IX gene. The deletion was further localized and characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing. The altered allele has a 4,442-bp deletion which removes both the donor splice site located at the 5[prime] end of intron d and the two last coding nucleotides located at the 3[prime] end of exon IV in the normal factor IX gene; this fragment has been inserted in inverted orientation. Two homologous sequences have been discovered at the ends of the deleted DNA fragment.

  14. Mutational analysis of Kex2 recognition sites and a disulfide bond in tannase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Takuya; Otsuka, Motohiro; Mizuno, Toshiyuki; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2017-01-22

    Aspergillus oryzae tannase (AoTanA), which contains two Kex2 recognition sites at positions Arg311 and Arg316, consists of two subunits that are generated by the cleavage of tannase gene product by the Kex2 protease. Based on the crystal structure of feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoFaeB), which has been classified as a member of the fungal tannase family, the catalytic triad residues of AoTanA are predicted to be Ser195, Asp455, and His501, with the serine and histidine residues brought together by a disulfide bond of the neighboring cysteines, Cys194 and Cys502. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the Kex2 recognition sites and disulfide bond between the neighboring cysteines in AoTanA. We constructed a double variant (R311A/R316A), a seven amino-acid deletion variant of region Lys310-Arg316 (ΔKR), and two single variants (C194A and C502A). While the R311A/R316A variant exhibited the two bands similar to wild type by SDS-PAGE after treatment with endoglycosidase H, the ΔKR variant exhibited only one band. R311A/R316A variation had no effect on tannase activity and stability. Meanwhile, the ΔKR variant exhibited higher activity compared to the wild-type. The activities of the C194A and C502A variants decreased considerably (<0.24% of the wild-type) toward methyl gallate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The emerging role of alternative splicing in senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Mathieu; Chabot, Benoit

    2017-10-01

    Deregulation of precursor mRNA splicing is associated with many illnesses and has been linked to age-related chronic diseases. Here we review recent progress documenting how defects in the machinery that performs intron removal and controls splice site selection contribute to cellular senescence and organismal aging. We discuss the functional association linking p53, IGF-1, SIRT1, and ING-1 splice variants with senescence and aging, and review a selection of splicing defects occurring in accelerated aging (progeria), vascular aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, it is becoming increasingly clear that changes in the activity of splicing factors and in the production of key splice variants can impact cellular senescence and the aging phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of novel splice site mutation IVS9 + 1(G > A) and novel complex allele G355R/R359X in Type 1 Gaucher patients heterozygous for mutation N370S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitsema, Kourtnee; Amato, Dominick; Khan, Aneal; Sirrs, Sandra; Choy, Francis Y M

    2016-09-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficient glucocerebrosidase activity. More than 350 mutations that cause Gaucher disease have been described to date. Novel mutations can potentially provide insight into the glucocerebrosidase structure-function relationship and biochemical basis of the disease. Here, we report the identification of two novel mutations in two unrelated patients with type I (non-neuronopathic) Gaucher disease: 1) a splice site mutation IVS9 + 1G > A; and (2) a complex allele (cis) G355R/R359X. Both patients have a common N370S mutation in the other allele. The splice site mutation results from an intronic base substitution (G to A, c.1328 + 1, g.5005) at the donor splice site of exon and intron 9. The complex allele results from two point mutations in exon 8 of glucocerebrosidase (G to C at c.1180, g.4396, and T to C at c. 1192, g.4408) substituting glycine by arginine (G355R) and arginine by a premature termination (R359X), respectively. In order to demonstrate that G355R/R359X are in cis arrangement, PCR-amplified glucocerebrosidase exon 8 genomic DNA from the patient was cloned into the vector pJET1.2 in Escherichia coli TOP10® strain. Out of the 15 clones that were sequence analyzed, 10 contained the normal allele sequence and 5 contained the complex allele G355R/R359X sequence showing both mutations in cis arrangement. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Hph1 restriction endonuclease digest was established for the IVS9 + 1G > A mutation for confirmation and efficient identification of this mutation in future patients. Past literature suggests that mutations affecting splicing patterns of the glucocerebrosidase transcript as well as mutations in Gaucher complex alleles are detrimental to enzyme activity. However, compound heterozygosity with N370S, a mild mutation, will lead to a mild phenotype. The cases reported here support these past findings.

  17. Reversion of the Arabidopsis rpn12a-1 exon-trap mutation by an intragenic suppressor that weakens the chimeric 5’ splice site [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/18y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Kurepa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Arabidopsis 26S proteasome mutant rpn12a-1, an exon-trap T-DNA is inserted 531 base pairs downstream of the RPN12a STOP codon. We have previously shown that this insertion activates a STOP codon-associated latent 5' splice site that competes with the polyadenylation signal during processing of the pre-mRNA. As a result of this dual input from splicing and polyadenylation in the rpn12a-1 mutant, two RPN12a transcripts are produced and they encode the wild-type RPN12a and a chimeric RPN12a-NPTII protein. Both proteins form complexes with other proteasome subunits leading to the formation of wild-type and mutant proteasome versions. The net result of this heterogeneity of proteasome particles is a reduction of total cellular proteasome activity. One of the consequences of reduced proteasomal activity is decreased sensitivity to the major plant hormone cytokinin. Methods: We performed ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of rpn12a-1 and isolated revertants with wild-type cytokinin sensitivity. Results: We describe the isolation and analyses of suppressor of rpn12a-1 (sor1. The sor1 mutation is intragenic and located at the fifth position of the chimeric intron. This mutation weakens the activated 5' splice site associated with the STOP codon and tilts the processing of the RPN12a mRNA back towards polyadenylation. Conclusions: These results validate our earlier interpretation of the unusual nature of the rpn12a-1 mutation. Furthermore, the data show that optimal 26S proteasome activity requires RPN12a accumulation beyond a critical threshold. Finally, this finding reinforces our previous conclusion that proteasome function is critical for the cytokinin-dependent regulation of plant growth.

  18. Recognition of anesthetic barbiturates by a protein binding site: a high resolution structural analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oakley

    Full Text Available Barbiturates potentiate GABA actions at the GABA(A receptor and act as central nervous system depressants that can induce effects ranging from sedation to general anesthesia. No structural information has been available about how barbiturates are recognized by their protein targets. For this reason, we tested whether these drugs were able to bind specifically to horse spleen apoferritin, a model protein that has previously been shown to bind many anesthetic agents with affinities that are closely correlated with anesthetic potency. Thiopental, pentobarbital, and phenobarbital were all found to bind to apoferritin with affinities ranging from 10-500 µM, approximately matching the concentrations required to produce anesthetic and GABAergic responses. X-ray crystal structures were determined for the complexes of apoferritin with thiopental and pentobarbital at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures reveal that the barbiturates bind to a cavity in the apoferritin shell that also binds haloalkanes, halogenated ethers, and propofol. Unlike these other general anesthetics, however, which rely entirely upon van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic effect for recognition, the barbiturates are recognized in the apoferritin site using a mixture of both polar and nonpolar interactions. These results suggest that any protein binding site that is able to recognize and respond to the chemically and structurally diverse set of compounds used as general anesthetics is likely to include a versatile mixture of both polar and hydrophobic elements.

  19. Genetic Algorithms for Models Optimization for Recognition of Translation Initiation Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Arturo Magana

    2011-06-01

    This work uses genetic algorithms (GA) to reduce the complexity of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and decision trees (DTs) for the accurate recognition of translation initiation sites (TISs) in Arabidopsis Thaliana. The Arabidopsis data was extracted directly from genomic DNA sequences. Methods derived in this work resulted in both reduced complexity of the predictors, as well as in improvement in prediction accuracy (generalization). Optimization through use of GA is generally a computationally intensive task. One of the approaches to overcome this problem is to use parallelization of code that implements GA, thus allowing computation on multiprocessing infrastructure. However, further improvement in performance GA implementation could be achieved through modification done to GA basic operations such as selection, crossover and mutation. In this work we explored two such improvements, namely evolutive mutation and GA-Simplex crossover operation. In this thesis we studied the benefit of these modifications on the problem of TISs recognition. Compared to the non-modified GA approach, we reduced the number of weights in the resulting model\\'s neural network component by 51% and the number of nodes in the model\\'s DTs component by 97% whilst improving the model\\'s accuracy at the same time. Separately, we developed another methodology for reducing the complexity of prediction models by optimizing the composition of training data subsets in bootstrap aggregation (bagging) methodology. This optimization is achieved by applying a new GA-based bagging methodology in order to optimize the composition of each of the training data subsets. This approach has shown in our test cases to considerably enhance the accuracy of the TIS prediction model compared to the original bagging methodology. Although these methods are applied to the problem of accurate prediction of TISs we believe that these methodologies have a potential for wider scope of application.

  20. Two-step interrogation then recognition of DNA binding site by Integration Host Factor: an architectural DNA-bending protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Vivas, Paula; Connolly, Mitchell; Kuznetsov, Serguei V; Rice, Phoebe A; Ansari, Anjum

    2018-02-28

    The dynamics and mechanism of how site-specific DNA-bending proteins initially interrogate potential binding sites prior to recognition have remained elusive for most systems. Here we present these dynamics for Integration Host factor (IHF), a nucleoid-associated architectural protein, using a μs-resolved T-jump approach. Our studies show two distinct DNA-bending steps during site recognition by IHF. While the faster (∼100 μs) step is unaffected by changes in DNA or protein sequence that alter affinity by >100-fold, the slower (1-10 ms) step is accelerated ∼5-fold when mismatches are introduced at DNA sites that are sharply kinked in the specific complex. The amplitudes of the fast phase increase when the specific complex is destabilized and decrease with increasing [salt], which increases specificity. Taken together, these results indicate that the fast phase is non-specific DNA bending while the slow phase, which responds only to changes in DNA flexibility at the kink sites, is specific DNA kinking during site recognition. Notably, the timescales for the fast phase overlap with one-dimensional diffusion times measured for several proteins on DNA, suggesting that these dynamics reflect partial DNA bending during interrogation of potential binding sites by IHF as it scans DNA.

  1. Blocking of an intronic splicing silencer completely rescues IKBKAP exon 20 splicing in familial dysautonomia patient cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Gitte H; Bang, Jeanne Mv; Christensen, Lise L

    2018-01-01

    designed splice switching oligonucleotides (SSO) that blocks the intronic hnRNP A1 binding site, and demonstrate that this completely rescues splicing of IKBKAP exon 20 in FD patient fibroblasts and increases the amounts of IKAP protein. We propose that this may be developed into a potential new specific...

  2. Interplay between DMD point mutations and splicing signals in Dystrophinopathy phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonàs Juan-Mateu

    Full Text Available DMD nonsense and frameshift mutations lead to severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy while in-frame mutations lead to milder Becker muscular dystrophy. Exceptions are found in 10% of cases and the production of alternatively spliced transcripts is considered a key modifier of disease severity. Several exonic mutations have been shown to induce exon-skipping, while splice site mutations result in exon-skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites. However, factors determining the splicing pathway are still unclear. Point mutations provide valuable information regarding the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and elements defining exon identity in the DMD gene. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of 98 point mutations related to clinical phenotype and their effect on muscle mRNA and dystrophin expression. Aberrant splicing was found in 27 mutations due to alteration of splice sites or splicing regulatory elements. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to test the ability of the available algorithms to predict consequences on mRNA and to investigate the major factors that determine the splicing pathway in mutations affecting splicing signals. Our findings suggest that the splicing pathway is highly dependent on the interplay between splice site strength and density of regulatory elements.

  3. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  4. Using a minigene approach to characterize a novel splice site mutation in human F7 gene causing inherited factor VII deficiency in a Chinese pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Wang, X; Ding, Q; Fu, Q; Dai, J; Lu, Y; Xi, X; Wang, H

    2009-11-01

    Factor VII deficiency which transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder is a rare haemorrhagic condition. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic defect and determine its functional consequences in a Chinese pedigree with FVII deficiency. The proband was diagnosed as inherited coagulation FVII deficiency by reduced plasma levels of FVII activity (4.4%) and antigen (38.5%). All nine exons and their flanking sequence of F7 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the proband and the PCR products were directly sequenced. The compound heterozygous mutations of F7 (NM_000131.3) c.572-1G>A and F7 (NM_000131.3) c.1165T>G; p.Cys389Gly were identified in the proband's F7 gene. To investigate the splicing patterns associated with F7 c.572-1G>A, ectopic transcripts in leucocytes of the proband were analyzed. F7 minigenes, spanning from intron 4 to intron 7 and carrying either an A or a G at position -1 of intron 5, were constructed and transiently transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, followed by RT-PCR analysis. The aberrant transcripts from the F7 c.572-1G>A mutant allele were not detected by ectopic transcription study. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products from the mutant transfectant demonstrated the production of an erroneously spliced mRNA with exon 6 skipping, whereas a normal splicing occurred in the wide type transfectant. The aberrant mRNA produced from the F7 c.572-1G>A mutant allele is responsible for the factor VII deficiency in this pedigree.

  5. ICRPfinder: a fast pattern design algorithm for coding sequences and its application in finding potential restriction enzyme recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Phillip

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction enzymes can produce easily definable segments from DNA sequences by using a variety of cut patterns. There are, however, no software tools that can aid in gene building -- that is, modifying wild-type DNA sequences to express the same wild-type amino acid sequences but with enhanced codons, specific cut sites, unique post-translational modifications, and other engineered-in components for recombinant applications. A fast DNA pattern design algorithm, ICRPfinder, is provided in this paper and applied to find or create potential recognition sites in target coding sequences. Results ICRPfinder is applied to find or create restriction enzyme recognition sites by introducing silent mutations. The algorithm is shown capable of mapping existing cut-sites but importantly it also can generate specified new unique cut-sites within a specified region that are guaranteed not to be present elsewhere in the DNA sequence. Conclusion ICRPfinder is a powerful tool for finding or creating specific DNA patterns in a given target coding sequence. ICRPfinder finds or creates patterns, which can include restriction enzyme recognition sites, without changing the translated protein sequence. ICRPfinder is a browser-based JavaScript application and it can run on any platform, in on-line or off-line mode.

  6. Alternative Splicing as a Target for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Anaya Ruiz, Maricruz; Monjaraz-Guzman, Eduardo; Martinez-Contreras, Rebeca

    2018-02-11

    Alternative splicing is a key mechanism determinant for gene expression in metazoan. During alternative splicing, non-coding sequences are removed to generate different mature messenger RNAs due to a combination of sequence elements and cellular factors that contribute to splicing regulation. A different combination of splicing sites, exonic or intronic sequences, mutually exclusive exons or retained introns could be selected during alternative splicing to generate different mature mRNAs that could in turn produce distinct protein products. Alternative splicing is the main source of protein diversity responsible for 90% of human gene expression, and it has recently become a hallmark for cancer with a full potential as a prognostic and therapeutic tool. Currently, more than 15,000 alternative splicing events have been associated to different aspects of cancer biology, including cell proliferation and invasion, apoptosis resistance and susceptibility to different chemotherapeutic drugs. Here, we present well established and newly discovered splicing events that occur in different cancer-related genes, their modification by several approaches and the current status of key tools developed to target alternative splicing with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  7. Alternative RNA splicing and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) linked to diseases, especially to tumors. Recently, more and more studies focused on the relationship between AS and gastric cancer (GC). This review surveyed the hot topic from four aspects: First, the common types of AS in cancer, including exon skipping, intron retention, mutually exclusive exon, alternative 5 ' or 3' splice site, alternative first or last exon and alternative 3' untranslated regions. Second, basic mechanisms of AS and its relationship with cancer. RNA splicing in eukaryotes follows the GT-AG rule by both cis-elements and trans-acting factors regulatory. Through RNA splicing, different proteins with different forms and functions can be produced and may be associated with carcinogenesis. Third, AS types of GC-related genes and their splicing variants. In this paper, we listed 10 common genes with AS and illustrated its possible molecular mechanisms owing to genetic variation (mutation and /or polymorphism). Fourth, the splicing variants of GC-associated genes and gastric carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Many studies have found that the different splicing variants of the same gene are differentially expressed in GC and its precancerous diseases, suggesting AS has important implications in GC development. Taking together, this review highlighted the role of AS and splicing variants in the process of GC. We hope that this is not only beneficial to advances in the study field of GC, but also can provide valuable information to other similar tumor research.Although we already know some gene splicing and splicing variants play an important role in the development of GC, but many phenomena and mechanisms are still unknown. For example, how the tumor microenvironment and signal transduction pathway effect the forming and function of AS? Unfortunately, this review did not cover the contents because the current study is limited. It is no doubt that clarifying the phenomena and mechanisms of these unknown may help to reveal

  8. [Genetic diagnostics of pathogenic splicing abnormalities in the clinical laboratory--pitfalls and screening approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hideki; Ogawa, Tomomi; Note, Rhougou; Hayashi, Shirou; Ueno, Tomohiro; Harada, Kenu; Uji, Yoshinori; Kitajima, Isao

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, genetic diagnostics of pathogenic splicing abnormalities are increasingly recognized as critically important in the clinical genetic diagnostics. It is reported that approximately 10% of pathogenic mutations causing human inherited diseases are splicing mutations. Nonetheless, it is still difficult to identify splicing abnormalities in routine genetic diagnostic settings. Here, we studied two different kinds of cases with splicing abnormalities. The first case is a protein S deficiency. Nucleotide analyses revealed that the proband had a previously reported G to C substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide at the splicing acceptor site of intronl/exon2, which produces multiple splicing abnormalities resulting in protein S deficiency. The second case is an antithrombin (AT) deficiency. This proband had a previously reported G to A substitution, at nucleotide position 9788 in intron 4, 14 bp in front of exon 5, which created a de novo exon 5 splice site and resulted in AT deficiency. From a practical standpoint, we discussed the pitfalls, attentions, and screening approaches in genetic diagnostics of pathogenic splicing abnormalities. Due to the difficulty with full-length sequence analysis of introns, and the lack of RNA samples, splicing mutations may escape identification. Although current genetic testing remains to be improved, to screen for splicing abnormalities more efficiently, it is significant to use an appropriate combination of various approaches such as DNA and/or RNA samples, splicing mutation databases, bioinformatic tools to detect splice sites and cis-regulatory elements, and in vitro and/or in vivo experimentally methods as needed.

  9. Physical signals for protein–DNA recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Jia; Yan, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper discovers consensus physical signals around eukaryotic splice sites, transcription start sites, and replication origin start and end sites on a genome-wide scale based on their DNA flexibility profiles calculated by three different flexibility models. These salient physical signals are localized highly rigid and flexible DNAs, which may play important roles in protein–DNA recognition by the sliding search mechanism. The found physical signals lead us to a detailed hypothetical view of the search process in which a DNA-binding protein first finds a genomic region close to the target site from an arbitrary starting location by three-dimensional (3D) hopping and intersegment transfer mechanisms for long distances, and subsequently uses the one-dimensional (1D) sliding mechanism facilitated by the localized highly rigid DNAs to accurately locate the target flexible binding site within 30 bp (base pair) short distances. Guided by these physical signals, DNA-binding proteins rapidly search the entire genome to recognize a specific target site from the 3D to 1D pathway. Our findings also show that current promoter prediction programs (PPPs) based on DNA physical properties may suffer from lots of false positives because other functional sites such as splice sites and replication origins have similar physical signals as promoters do

  10. Structure, dynamics and RNA binding of the multi-domain splicing factor TIA-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Iren; Hennig, Janosch; Jagtap, Pravin Kumar Ankush; Sonntag, Miriam; Valcárcel, Juan; Sattler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alternative pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (pre-mRNA) splicing is an essential process in eukaryotic gene regulation. The T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is an apoptosis-promoting factor that modulates alternative splicing of transcripts, including the pre-mRNA encoding the membrane receptor Fas. TIA-1 is a multi-domain ribonucleic acid (RNA) binding protein that recognizes poly-uridine tract RNA sequences to facilitate 5′ splice site recognition by the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). Here, we characterize the RNA interaction and conformational dynamics of TIA-1 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our NMR-derived solution structure of TIA-1 RRM2–RRM3 (RRM2,3) reveals that RRM2 adopts a canonical RNA recognition motif (RRM) fold, while RRM3 is preceded by an non-canonical helix α0. NMR and SAXS data show that all three RRMs are largely independent structural modules in the absence of RNA, while RNA binding induces a compact arrangement. RRM2,3 binds to pyrimidine-rich FAS pre-mRNA or poly-uridine (U9) RNA with nanomolar affinities. RRM1 has little intrinsic RNA binding affinity and does not strongly contribute to RNA binding in the context of RRM1,2,3. Our data unravel the role of binding avidity and the contributions of the TIA-1 RRMs for recognition of pyrimidine-rich RNAs. PMID:24682828

  11. Alternative splicing of mutually exclusive exons--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Martin; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Grützmann, Konrad; Schuster, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNAs in higher eukaryotes and several viruses is one major source of protein diversity. Usually, the following major subtypes of AS are distinguished: exon skipping, intron retention, and alternative 3' and 5' splice sites. Moreover, mutually exclusive exons (MXEs) represent a rare subtype. In the splicing of MXEs, two (or more) splicing events are not independent anymore, but are executed or disabled in a coordinated manner. In this review, several bioinformatics approaches for analyzing MXEs are presented and discussed. In particular, we revisit suitable definitions and nomenclatures, and bioinformatics tools for finding MXEs, adjacent and non-adjacent MXEs, clustered and grouped MXEs. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms for splicing MXEs proposed in the literature are reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variation in antiviral 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5'AS) enzyme activity is controlled by a single-nucleotide polymorphism at a splice-acceptor site in the OAS1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnevie-Nielsen, Vagn; Field, L Leigh; Lu, Shao

    2005-01-01

    It is likely that human genetic differences mediate susceptibility to viral infection and virus-triggered disorders. OAS genes encoding the antiviral enzyme 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5'AS) are critical components of the innate immune response to viruses. This enzyme uses adenosine......=.0044), but not spousal pairs, suggesting strong genetic control of basal activity. We next analyzed association between basal activity and 15 markers across the OAS gene cluster. Significant association was detected at multiple markers, the strongest being at an A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism...... at the exon 7 splice-acceptor site (AG or AA) of the OAS1 gene. At this unusual polymorphism, allele G had a higher gene frequency in persons with high enzyme activity than in those with low enzyme activity (0.44 vs. 0.20; P=3 x 10(-11)). Enzyme activity varied in a dose-dependent manner across the GG, GA...

  13. Genome-wide survey of allele-specific splicing in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Konrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate mRNA splicing depends on multiple regulatory signals encoded in the transcribed RNA sequence. Many examples of mutations within human splice regulatory regions that alter splicing qualitatively or quantitatively have been reported and allelic differences in mRNA splicing are likely to be a common and important source of phenotypic diversity at the molecular level, in addition to their contribution to genetic disease susceptibility. However, because the effect of a mutation on the efficiency of mRNA splicing is often difficult to predict, many mutations that cause disease through an effect on splicing are likely to remain undiscovered. Results We have combined a genome-wide scan for sequence polymorphisms likely to affect mRNA splicing with analysis of publicly available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST and exon array data. The genome-wide scan uses published tools and identified 30,977 SNPs located within donor and acceptor splice sites, branch points and exonic splicing enhancer elements. For 1,185 candidate splicing polymorphisms the difference in splicing between alternative alleles was corroborated by publicly available exon array data from 166 lymphoblastoid cell lines. We developed a novel probabilistic method to infer allele-specific splicing from EST data. The method uses SNPs and alternative mRNA isoforms mapped to EST sequences and models both regulated alternative splicing as well as allele-specific splicing. We have also estimated heritability of splicing and report that a greater proportion of genes show evidence of splicing heritability than show heritability of overall gene expression level. Our results provide an extensive resource that can be used to assess the possible effect on splicing of human polymorphisms in putative splice-regulatory sites. Conclusion We report a set of genes showing evidence of allele-specific splicing from an integrated analysis of genomic polymorphisms, EST data and exon array

  14. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Celine K; Black, Douglas L; Zheng, Sika

    2016-05-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain.

  15. Antitumorigenic potential of STAT3 alternative splicing modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Francesca; de Stanchina, Elisa; Bournazou, Eirini; Supakorndej, Teerawit; Martires, Kathryn; Riedel, Elyn; Corben, Adriana D; Bromberg, Jacqueline F; Cartegni, Luca

    2011-10-25

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a central role in the activation of multiple oncogenic pathways. Splicing variant STAT3β uses an alternative acceptor site within exon 23 that leads to a truncated isoform lacking the C-terminal transactivation domain. Depending on the context, STAT3β can act as a dominant-negative regulator of transcription and promote apoptosis. We show that modified antisense oligonucleotides targeted to a splicing enhancer that regulates STAT3 exon 23 alternative splicing specifically promote a shift of expression from STAT3α to STAT3β. Induction of endogenous STAT3β leads to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in cell lines with persistent STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation compared with total STAT3 knockdown obtained by forced splicing-dependent nonsense-mediated decay (FSD-NMD). Comparison of the molecular effects of splicing redirection to STAT3 knockdown reveals a unique STAT3β signature, with a down-regulation of specific targets (including lens epithelium-derived growth factor, p300/CBP-associated factor, CyclinC, peroxisomal biogenesis factor 1, and STAT1β) distinct from canonical STAT3 targets typically associated with total STAT3 knockdown. Furthermore, similar in vivo redirection of STAT3 alternative splicing leads to tumor regression in a xenograft cancer model, demonstrating how pharmacological manipulation of a single key splicing event can manifest powerful antitumorigenic properties and validating endogenous splicing reprogramming as an effective cancer therapeutic approach.

  16. The peculiarities of large intron splicing in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Shepard

    Full Text Available In mammals a considerable 92% of genes contain introns, with hundreds and hundreds of these introns reaching the incredible size of over 50,000 nucleotides. These "large introns" must be spliced out of the pre-mRNA in a timely fashion, which involves bringing together distant 5' and 3' acceptor and donor splice sites. In invertebrates, especially Drosophila, it has been shown that larger introns can be spliced efficiently through a process known as recursive splicing-a consecutive splicing from the 5'-end at a series of combined donor-acceptor splice sites called RP-sites. Using a computational analysis of the genomic sequences, we show that vertebrates lack the proper enrichment of RP-sites in their large introns, and, therefore, require some other method to aid splicing. We analyzed over 15,000 non-redundant, large introns from six mammals, 1,600 from chicken and zebrafish, and 560 non-redundant large introns from five invertebrates. Our bioinformatic investigation demonstrates that, unlike the studied invertebrates, the studied vertebrate genomes contain consistently abundant amounts of direct and complementary strand interspersed repetitive elements (mainly SINEs and LINEs that may form stems with each other in large introns. This examination showed that predicted stems are indeed abundant and stable in the large introns of mammals. We hypothesize that such stems with long loops within large introns allow intron splice sites to find each other more quickly by folding the intronic RNA upon itself at smaller intervals and, thus, reducing the distance between donor and acceptor sites.

  17. SPA: a probabilistic algorithm for spliced alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    -canonical splice site that we also find in the mouse dataset. The SPA software package is available at http://www.biozentrum.unibas.ch/personal/nimwegen/cgi-bin/spa.cgi.

  18. Conditional Toxin Splicing Using a Split Intein System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Spencer C; O'Sullivan, Connor; Howard, Perry L

    2017-01-01

    Protein toxin splicing mediated by split inteins can be used as a strategy for conditional cell ablation. The approach requires artificial fragmentation of a potent protein toxin and tethering each toxin fragment to a split intein fragment. The toxin-intein fragments are, in turn, fused to dimerization domains, such that addition of a dimerizing agent reconstitutes the split intein. These chimeric toxin-intein fusions remain nontoxic until the dimerizer is added, resulting in activation of intein splicing and ligation of toxin fragments to form an active toxin. Considerations for the engineering and implementation of conditional toxin splicing (CTS) systems include: choice of toxin split site, split site (extein) chemistry, and temperature sensitivity. The following method outlines design criteria and implementation notes for CTS using a previously engineered system for splicing a toxin called sarcin, as well as for developing alternative CTS systems.

  19. Intravitreal Injection of Splice-switching Oligonucleotides to Manipulate Splicing in Retinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe hereditary retinal dystrophy responsible for neonatal blindness. The most common disease-causing mutation (c.2991+1655A>G; 10–15% creates a strong splice donor site that leads to insertion of a cryptic exon encoding a premature stop codon. Recently, we reported that splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO allow skipping of the mutant cryptic exon and the restoration of ciliation in fibroblasts of affected patients, supporting the feasibility of a SSO-mediated exon skipping strategy to correct the aberrant splicing. Here, we present data in the wild-type mouse, which demonstrate that intravitreal administration of 2’-OMePS-SSO allows selective alteration of Cep290 splicing in retinal cells, including photoreceptors as shown by successful alteration of Abca4 splicing using the same approach. We show that both SSOs and Cep290 skipped mRNA were detectable for at least 1 month and that intravitreal administration of oligonucleotides did not provoke any serious adverse event. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of SSO should be considered to bypass protein truncation resulting from the c.2991+1655A>G mutation as well as other truncating mutations in genes which like CEP290 or ABCA4 have a mRNA size that exceed cargo capacities of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved adeno-associated virus (AAV-vectors, thus hampering gene augmentation therapy.

  20. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Automatic Recognition of Patient Treatment Site in Portal Images Using Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, X; Yang, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the method to automatically recognize the treatment site in the X-Ray portal images. It could be useful to detect potential treatment errors, and to provide guidance to sequential tasks, e.g. automatically verify the patient daily setup. Methods: The portal images were exported from MOSAIQ as DICOM files, and were 1) processed with a threshold based intensity transformation algorithm to enhance contrast, and 2) where then down-sampled (from 1024×768 to 128×96) by using bi-cubic interpolation algorithm. An appearance-based vector space model (VSM) was used to rearrange the images into vectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to reduce the vector dimensions. A multi-class support vector machine (SVM), with radial basis function kernel, was used to build the treatment site recognition models. These models were then used to recognize the treatment sites in the portal image. Portal images of 120 patients were included in the study. The images were selected to cover six treatment sites: brain, head and neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis. Each site had images of the twenty patients. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance. Results: MATLAB image processing Toolbox and scikit-learn (a machine learning library in python) were used to implement the proposed method. The average accuracies using the AP and RT images separately were 95% and 94% respectively. The average accuracy using AP and RT images together was 98%. Computation time was ∼0.16 seconds per patient with AP or RT image, ∼0.33 seconds per patient with both of AP and RT images. Conclusion: The proposed method of treatment site recognition is efficient and accurate. It is not sensitive to the differences of image intensity, size and positions of patients in the portal images. It could be useful for the patient safety assurance. The work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System

  1. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Automatic Recognition of Patient Treatment Site in Portal Images Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, X; Yang, D [Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the method to automatically recognize the treatment site in the X-Ray portal images. It could be useful to detect potential treatment errors, and to provide guidance to sequential tasks, e.g. automatically verify the patient daily setup. Methods: The portal images were exported from MOSAIQ as DICOM files, and were 1) processed with a threshold based intensity transformation algorithm to enhance contrast, and 2) where then down-sampled (from 1024×768 to 128×96) by using bi-cubic interpolation algorithm. An appearance-based vector space model (VSM) was used to rearrange the images into vectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to reduce the vector dimensions. A multi-class support vector machine (SVM), with radial basis function kernel, was used to build the treatment site recognition models. These models were then used to recognize the treatment sites in the portal image. Portal images of 120 patients were included in the study. The images were selected to cover six treatment sites: brain, head and neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis. Each site had images of the twenty patients. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance. Results: MATLAB image processing Toolbox and scikit-learn (a machine learning library in python) were used to implement the proposed method. The average accuracies using the AP and RT images separately were 95% and 94% respectively. The average accuracy using AP and RT images together was 98%. Computation time was ∼0.16 seconds per patient with AP or RT image, ∼0.33 seconds per patient with both of AP and RT images. Conclusion: The proposed method of treatment site recognition is efficient and accurate. It is not sensitive to the differences of image intensity, size and positions of patients in the portal images. It could be useful for the patient safety assurance. The work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System.

  2. Oviposition site-selection by Bactrocera dorsalis is mediated through an innate recognition template tuned to γ-octalactone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available Innate recognition templates (IRTs in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest.

  3. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  4. Aberrant and alternative splicing in skeletal system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin; Tang, Liling

    2013-10-01

    The main function of skeletal system is to support the body and help movement. A variety of factors can lead to skeletal system disease, including age, exercise, and of course genetic makeup and expression. Pre-mRNA splicing plays a crucial role in gene expression, by creating multiple protein variants with different biological functions. The recent studies show that several skeletal system diseases are related to pre-mRNA splicing. This review focuses on the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease. On the one hand, splice site mutation that leads to aberrant splicing often causes genetic skeletal system disease, like COL1A1, SEDL and LRP5. On the other hand, alternative splicing without genomic mutation may generate some marker protein isoforms, for example, FN, VEGF and CD44. Therefore, understanding the relationship between pre-mRNA splicing and skeletal system disease will aid in uncovering the mechanism of disease and contribute to the future development of gene therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Flexural behavior of concrete beam with mechanical splices of reinforcement subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nab, H. S.; Kim, W. B.

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear power plant structures, the mechanical rebar splices are designated and constructed on the basis of ACI and ASME code. Regardless of good performance on mechanical rebar splices, these splicing methods that did not be registered on ASME code have not restricted to apply to construction site. In this study, the main candidate splice is cold roll formed parallel threaded splice. This was registered newly in ASME Section III division 2 CC 4333 'Mechanical Splices' in 2004. To compare the traditional rebar splice with mechanical rebar splices, concrete beams were made to evaluate the ductility of spliced reinforcing bars. Based on Experimental results, it was identified that the mechanical rebar splices by parallel threaded coupler had better accumulated dissipation energy capacity to resist seismic behavior than the traditional lapping splices. It showed that concrete specimens with D36 reinforcing bar coupler are 1.8 times better performance and that concrete specimens with D22 reinforcing bar coupler are 2.8 times better performance. (authors)

  6. Supramolecular Recognition Allows Remote, Site-Selective C-H Oxidation of Methylenic Sites in Linear Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Farinelli, Giulio; Barbieri, Alessia; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Di Stefano, Stefano; Costas, Miquel

    2017-12-18

    Site-selective C-H functionalization of aliphatic alkyl chains is a longstanding challenge in oxidation catalysis, given the comparable relative reactivity of the different methylenes. A supramolecular, bioinspired approach is described to address this challenge. A Mn complex able to catalyze C(sp 3 )-H hydroxylation with H 2 O 2 is equipped with 18-benzocrown-6 ether receptors that bind ammonium substrates via hydrogen bonding. Reversible pre-association of protonated primary aliphatic amines with the crown ether selectively exposes remote positions (C8 and C9) to the oxidizing unit, resulting in a site-selective oxidation. Remarkably, such control of selectivity retains its efficiency for a whole series of linear amines, overriding the intrinsic reactivity of C-H bonds, no matter the chain length. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Novel compound heterozygous Thyroglobulin mutations c.745+1G>A/c.7036+2T>A associated with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism in a Vietnamese family. Identification of a new cryptic 5' splice site in the exon 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, Cintia E; Morales, Cecilia M; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Machiavelli, Gloria A; Bueno, Elena; Gatelais, Frédérique; Coutant, Regis; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Rivolta, Carina M; Targovnik, Héctor M

    2015-03-15

    Several patients were identified with dyshormonogenesis caused by mutations in the thyroglobulin (TG) gene. These defects are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and affected individuals are either homozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations. The aim of the present study was to identify new TG mutations in a patient of Vietnamese origin affected by congenital hypothyroidism, goiter and low levels of serum TG. DNA sequencing identified the presence of compound heterozygous mutations in the TG gene: the maternal mutation consists of a novel c.745+1G>A (g.IVS6 + 1G>A), whereas the hypothetical paternal mutation consists of a novel c.7036+2T>A (g.IVS40 + 2T>A). The father was not available for segregation analysis. Ex-vivo splicing assays and subsequent RT-PCR analyses were performed on mRNA isolated from the eukaryotic-cells transfected with normal and mutant expression vectors. Minigene analysis of the c.745+1G>A mutant showed that the exon 6 is skipped during pre-mRNA splicing or partially included by use of a cryptic 5' splice site located to 55 nucleotides upstream of the authentic exon 6/intron 6 junction site. The functional analysis of c.7036+2T>A mutation showed a complete skipping of exon 40. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutations, predicted with the bioinformatics tool NNSplice, Fsplice, SPL, SPLM and MaxEntScan programs were investigated and evaluated in relation with the experimental evidence. These analyses predicted that both mutant alleles would result in the abolition of the authentic splice donor sites. The c.745+1G>A mutation originates two putative truncated proteins of 200 and 1142 amino acids, whereas c.7036+2T>A mutation results in a putative truncated protein of 2277 amino acids. In conclusion, we show that the c.745+1G>A mutation promotes the activation of a new cryptic donor splice site in the exon 6 of the TG gene. The functional consequences of these mutations could be structural changes in the protein

  8. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  9. The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hyo-Young

    2017-04-21

    The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms. These proteins also move rapidly and continuously in the nuclei, and their movements are affected by ATP depletion. The U2AF65 proteins are splicing factors that interact with SF1 and U2AF35 proteins to promote U2snRNP for the recognition of the pre-mRNA 3\\' splice site during early spliceosome assembly. We have determined the subcellular localization and movement of these proteins\\' Arabidopsis homologs. It was found that Arabidopsis U2AF65 homologs, AtU2AF65a, and AtU2AF65b proteins interact with AtU2AF35a and AtU2AF35b, which are Arabidopsis U2AF35 homologs. We have examined the mobility of these proteins including AtSF1 using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence loss in photobleaching analyses. These proteins displayed dynamic movements in nuclei and their movements were affected by ATP depletion. We have also demonstrated that these proteins shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms, suggesting that they may also function in cytoplasm. These results indicate that such splicing factors show very similar characteristics to their human counterparts, suggesting evolutionary conservation.

  10. The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hyo-Young; Lee, Keh Chien; Jang, Yun Hee; Kim, SoonKap; Thu, May Phyo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis splicing factors, AtU2AF65, AtU2AF35, and AtSF1 shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms. These proteins also move rapidly and continuously in the nuclei, and their movements are affected by ATP depletion. The U2AF65 proteins are splicing factors that interact with SF1 and U2AF35 proteins to promote U2snRNP for the recognition of the pre-mRNA 3' splice site during early spliceosome assembly. We have determined the subcellular localization and movement of these proteins' Arabidopsis homologs. It was found that Arabidopsis U2AF65 homologs, AtU2AF65a, and AtU2AF65b proteins interact with AtU2AF35a and AtU2AF35b, which are Arabidopsis U2AF35 homologs. We have examined the mobility of these proteins including AtSF1 using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence loss in photobleaching analyses. These proteins displayed dynamic movements in nuclei and their movements were affected by ATP depletion. We have also demonstrated that these proteins shuttle between nuclei and cytoplasms, suggesting that they may also function in cytoplasm. These results indicate that such splicing factors show very similar characteristics to their human counterparts, suggesting evolutionary conservation.

  11. OhioHealth web site wins awards. Draws leadership recognition for outstanding redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    OhioHealth, Columbus, Ohio, has redesigned its web site, making it especially useful and appealing to women. For the collaborative effort, which included the Mayo Clinic and The VIA Group, Portland Maine, it has received numerous awards.

  12. Self-oriented nanoparticles for site-selective immunoglobulin G recognition via epitope imprinting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çorman, Mehmet Emin; Armutcu, Canan; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2014-11-01

    Molecular imprinting is a polymerization technique that provides synthetic analogs for template molecules. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have gained much attention due to their unique properties such as selectivity and specificity for target molecules. In this study, we focused on the development of polymeric materials with molecular recognition ability, so molecular imprinting was combined with miniemulsion polymerization to synthesize self-orienting nanoparticles through the use of an epitope imprinting approach. Thus, L-lysine imprinted nanoparticles (LMIP) were synthesized via miniemulsion polymerization technique. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was then bound to the cavities that specifically formed for L-lysine molecules that are typically found at the C-terminus of the Fc region of antibody molecules. The resulting nanoparticles makes it possible to minimize the nonspecific interaction between monomer and template molecules. In addition, the orientation of the entire IgG molecule was controlled, and random imprinting of the IgG was prevented. The optimum conditions were determined for IgG recognition using the imprinted nanoparticles. The selectivity of the nanoparticles against IgG molecules was also evaluated using albumin and hemoglobin as competitor molecules. In order to show the self-orientation capability of imprinted nanoparticles, human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto both the plain nanoparticles and immobilized nanoparticles by anti-human serum albumin antibody (anti-HSA antibody) was also carried out. Due to anti-HSA antibody immobilization on the imprinted nanoparticles, the adsorption capability of nanoparticles against HSA molecules vigorously enhanced. It is proved that the oriented immobilization of antibodies was appropriately succeeded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Footprints of a trypanosomatid RNA world: pre-small subunit rRNA processing by spliced leader addition trans-splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gustavo Mayer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a capped mini-exon [spliced leader (SL] through trans-splicing is essential for the maturation of RNA polymerase (pol II-transcribed polycistronic pre-mRNAs in all members of the Trypanosomatidae family. This process is an inter-molecular splicing reaction that follows the same basic rules of cis-splicing reactions. In this study, we demonstrated that mini-exons were added to precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA are transcribed by RNA pol I, including the 5' external transcribed spacer (ETS region. Additionally, we detected the SL-5'ETS molecule using three distinct methods and located the acceptor site between two known 5'ETS rRNA processing sites (A' and A1 in four different trypanosomatids. Moreover, we detected a polyadenylated 5'ETS upstream of the trans-splicing acceptor site, which also occurs in pre-mRNA trans-splicing. After treatment with an indirect trans-splicing inhibitor (sinefungin, we observed SL-5'ETS decay. However, treatment with 5-fluorouracil (a precursor of RNA synthesis that inhibits the degradation of pre-rRNA led to the accumulation of SL-5'ETS, suggesting that the molecule may play a role in rRNA degradation. The detection of trans-splicing in these molecules may indicate broad RNA-joining properties, regardless of the polymerase used for transcription.

  14. Genetic variations and alternative splicing. The Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eZaphiropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation.

  15. Reflections on protein splicing: structures, functions and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anraku, Yasuhiro; Satow, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, evidence that one gene produces two enzymes via protein splicing emerged from structural and expression studies of the VMA1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. VMA1 consists of a single open reading frame and contains two independent genetic information for Vma1p (a catalytic 70-kDa subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase) and VDE (a 50-kDa DNA endonuclease) as an in-frame spliced insert in the gene. Protein splicing is a posttranslational cellular process, in which an intervening polypeptide termed as the VMA1 intein is self-catalytically excised out from a nascent 120-kDa VMA1 precursor and two flanking polypeptides of the N- and C-exteins are ligated to produce the mature Vma1p. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that protein splicing is not unique to the VMA1 precursor and there are many operons in nature, which implement genetic information editing at protein level. To elucidate its structure-directed chemical mechanisms, a series of biochemical and crystal structural studies has been carried out with the use of various VMA1 recombinants. This article summarizes a VDE-mediated self-catalytic mechanism for protein splicing that is triggered and terminated solely via thiazolidine intermediates with tetrahedral configurations formed within the splicing sites where proton ingress and egress are driven by balanced protonation and deprotonation. PMID:19907126

  16. Single-stranded γPNAs for in vivo site-specific genome editing via Watson-Crick recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahal, Raman; Quijano, Elias; McNeer, Nicole A; Liu, Yanfeng; Bhunia, Dinesh C; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesco; Fields, Rachel J; Saltzman, William M; Ly, Danith H; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) facilitate gene editing by stimulating recombination of donor DNAs within genomic DNA via site-specific formation of altered helical structures that further stimulate DNA repair. However, PNAs designed for triplex formation are sequence restricted to homopurine sites. Herein we describe a novel strategy where next generation single-stranded gamma PNAs (γPNAs) containing miniPEG substitutions at the gamma position can target genomic DNA in mouse bone marrow at mixed-sequence sites to induce targeted gene editing. In addition to enhanced binding, γPNAs confer increased solubility and improved formulation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery. Single-stranded γPNAs induce targeted gene editing at frequencies of 0.8% in mouse bone marrow cells treated ex vivo and 0.1% in vivo via IV injection, without detectable toxicity. These results suggest that γPNAs may provide a new tool for induced gene editing based on Watson-Crick recognition without sequence restriction.

  17. Structural basis of carbohydrate recognition by lectin II from Ulex europaeus, a protein with a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, R; De Greve, H; Dao-Thi, M H; Messens, J; Imberty, A; Wyns, L

    2000-08-25

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are the language of choice for inter- cellular communication. The legume lectins form a large family of homologous proteins that exhibit a wide variety of carbohydrate specificities. The legume lectin family is therefore highly suitable as a model system to study the structural principles of protein-carbohydrate recognition. Until now, structural data are only available for two specificity families: Man/Glc and Gal/GalNAc. No structural data are available for any of the fucose or chitobiose specific lectins. The crystal structure of Ulex europaeus (UEA-II) is the first of a legume lectin belonging to the chitobiose specificity group. The complexes with N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucosylgalactose show a promiscuous primary binding site capable of accommodating both N-acetylglucos amine or galactose in the primary binding site. The hydrogen bonding network in these complexes can be considered suboptimal, in agreement with the low affinities of these sugars. In the complexes with chitobiose, lactose and fucosyllactose this suboptimal hydrogen bonding network is compensated by extensive hydrophobic interactions in a Glc/GlcNAc binding subsite. UEA-II thus forms the first example of a legume lectin with a promiscuous binding site and illustrates the importance of hydrophobic interactions in protein-carbohydrate complexes. Together with other known legume lectin crystal structures, it shows how different specificities can be grafted upon a conserved structural framework. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Michael [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Stutz, Hanno [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Ebner, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.ebner@jku.at [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)

    2016-08-03

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • SMIL coating allows generation of homogeneous ultra-flat surfaces. • Molecular electrostatic adhesion forces can be determined in the inner wall of CZE capillary with picoNewton accuracy. • Topographical images and simultaneously acquired adhesion maps yield morphological and chemical information at the nanoscale.

  19. Robust remediation strategies at gas-work sites: a case of source recognition and source characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.O. de

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands there have been gasworks at about 260 to 270 locations. Most of these locations are or were heavily polluted with tar, ashes and cyanides and many of them belong to the locations where remediation actions have already been executed. It seems however that many of them also belong to the locations where remediation actions were not quite as successful as was expected. So, for many gas-work sites that were already 'remedied' in the 80's and early 90's of the foregoing century, new programs for site remediation are planned. Of course the mistakes from the past should now be avoided. The current remediation strategy in The Netherlands for gas-work sites can be comprised in four steps: 1 - removing spots in the top soil, 2 - removing spots with mobile components in the shallow subsoil, 3 - controlling spots with mobile components in the deep subsoil, 4 - creating a 'steady endpoint situation' in the plume. At many former gas-work sites real sources, i.e. in a physico-chemical sense, are not very well known. This can easily lead to insufficient removal of some or part of these sources and cause a longer delivery of contaminants to the groundwater plume, with higher endpoint concentrations, higher costs and more restrictions for future use. The higher concentrations and longer deliveries originating from not recognized or not localized sources are often not sufficiently compensated by the proposed plume management in current remediation strategies. Remediation results can be improved by using knowledge about the processes that determine the delivery of contaminants to the groundwater, the materials that cause these delivery and the locations at the site where these are most likely found. When sources are present in the deep subsoil or the exact localization of sources is uncertain, robust remediation strategies should be chosen and wishful thinking about removing sources with in situ techniques should be avoided. Robust strategies are probably less

  20. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.; Rauf, M.; Ahmed, M.; Malik, Z. A.; Habib, I.; Ahmed, Z.; Mahmood, K.; Ali, R.; Masmoudi, K.; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Gehring, Christoph A; Berkowitz, G. A.; Saeed, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably

  1. (125I)LSD labels 5-TCsub(IC) recognition sites in pig choriod plexus membranes. Comparison with (3H)mesulergine and (3H)5-HT binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, D.; Srivatsa, S.; Pazos, A.; Engel, G.; Palacios, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The mammalian choroid plexus is enriched in a newly described serotonin recognition site, the binding characteristics of ( 125 I)LSD, ( 3 H)mesulergine and ( 3 H)serotonin to pig choroid plexus membranes were compared. These ligands labelled with high affinity a similar number of sites. The binding profiles of the sites labelled with these radioligands are indistinguishable as illustrated by highly significant correlation parameters. These sites are very similar to those labelled by Nsub(I)-methyl-2-( 125 I)LSD in pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. The data demonstrate that these ligands label 5-HTsub(IC) recognition sites in the pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. (author)

  2. Eight amino acids form the ATP recognition site of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubala, Martin; Teisinger, Jan; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Kopecký ml., Vladimír; Baumruk, V.; Krumscheid, R.; Plášek, J.; Schoner, W.; Amler, Evžen

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 21 (2003), s. 6446-6452 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0254; GA ČR GA204/01/1001; GA ČR GA309/02/1479 Grant - others:GA-(CZ) CZE00/033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 123100001; CEZ:MSM 113100001; CEZ:MSM 113200001 Keywords : sodium pump * ATP-binding site * TNP-ATP Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.922, year: 2003

  3. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel LMNA Splice-Site Mutation and Multigenic Heterozygosity of Potential Modifiers in a Family with Sick Sinus Syndrome, Dilated Cardiomyopathy, and Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V Zaragoza

    Full Text Available The goals are to understand the primary genetic mechanisms that cause Sick Sinus Syndrome and to identify potential modifiers that may result in intrafamilial variability within a multigenerational family. The proband is a 63-year-old male with a family history of individuals (>10 with sinus node dysfunction, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and sudden death. We used exome sequencing of a single individual to identify a novel LMNA mutation and demonstrated the importance of Sanger validation and family studies when evaluating candidates. After initial single-gene studies were negative, we conducted exome sequencing for the proband which produced 9 gigabases of sequencing data. Bioinformatics analysis showed 94% of the reads mapped to the reference and identified 128,563 unique variants with 108,795 (85% located in 16,319 genes of 19,056 target genes. We discovered multiple variants in known arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, or ion channel associated genes that may serve as potential modifiers in disease expression. To identify candidate mutations, we focused on ~2,000 variants located in 237 genes of 283 known arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, or ion channel associated genes. We filtered the candidates to 41 variants in 33 genes using zygosity, protein impact, database searches, and clinical association. Only 21 of 41 (51% variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We selected nine confirmed variants with minor allele frequencies G, a novel heterozygous splice-site mutation as the primary mutation with rare or novel variants in HCN4, MYBPC3, PKP4, TMPO, TTN, DMPK and KCNJ10 as potential modifiers and a mechanism consistent with haploinsufficiency.

  4. Autosomal recessive deafness 1A (DFNB1A) in Yakut population isolate in Eastern Siberia: extensive accumulation of the splice site mutation IVS1+1G>A in GJB2 gene as a result of founder effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, Nikolay A; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Fedorova, Sardana A; Teryutin, Fedor M; Posukh, Olga L; Fedotova, Elvira E; Lobov, Simeon L; Khusnutdinova, Elza K

    2011-09-01

    Hereditary forms of hearing impairment (HI) caused by GJB2 (Cx26) mutations are the frequent sensory disorders registered among newborns in various human populations. In this study, we present data on the molecular, audiological and population features of autosomal recessive deafness 1A (DFNB1A) associated with the donor splicing site IVS1+1G>A mutation of GJB2 gene in Yakut population isolate of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) located in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation). The Yakut population exhibits high frequency of some Mendelian disorders, which are rare in other populations worldwide. Mutational analysis of GJB2 gene in 86 unrelated Yakut patients with congenital HI without other clinical features has been performed. In this study, we registered a large cohort of Yakut patients homozygous for the IVS1+1G>A mutation (70 unrelated deaf subjects in total). Detailed audiological analysis of 40 deaf subjects with genotype IVS1+1G>A/IVS1+1G>A revealed significant association of this genotype with mostly symmetrical bilateral severe to profound HI (85% severe-to-profound HI versus 15% mild-to-moderate HI, PA mutation (11.7%) has been found in Yakut population. Reconstruction of 140 haplotypes with IVS1+1G>A mutation demonstrates the common origin of all mutant chromosomes found in Yakuts. The age of mutation was estimated to be approximately 800 years. These findings characterize Eastern Siberia as the region with the most extensive accumulation of the IVS1+1G>A mutation in the world as a result of founder effect.

  5. Selective labelling of 5-HT{sub 7} receptor recognition sites in rat brain using [{sup 3}H]5-carboxamidotryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, R.L.; Barnes, N.M. [Department of Pharmacology, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a radioligand binding assay to selectively label the native 5-HT{sub 7} receptor expressed in rat brain. In rat whole brain (minus cerebellum and striatum) homogenate, ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT ([{sup 3}H]5-carboxamidotryptamine; 0.5 nM) specific binding (defined by 5-HT, 10 {mu}M) displayed a pharmacological profile similar to the recombinant 5-HT{sub 7} receptor, although the Hill coefficients for competition curves generated by methiothepin, ritanserin, sumatriptan, clozapine and pimozide were significantly less than unity. In homogenates of rat hypothalamus, ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT recognition sites also resembled, pharmacologically, the 5-HT{sub 7} receptor, although pimozide still generated Hill coefficients significantly less than unity. Subsequent studies were performed in the additional presence of WAY100635 (100 nM) to prevent [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding to residual, possibly, 5-HT{sub 1A} sites. Competition for this [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding indicated the labelling in whole rat brain homogenate of a homogenous population of sites with the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT{sub 7} receptor. Saturation studies also indicated that ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)/WAY 100635 (100 nM)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding to homogenates of whole rat brain was saturable and to an apparently homogenous population of sites which were labelled with nanomolar affinity (B{sub max}=33.2{+-}0.7 fmol mg{sup -1} protein, pK{sub d}=8.78{+-}0.05, mean{+-}S.E.M., n=3). The development of this 5-HT{sub 7} receptor binding assay will aid investigation of the rat native 5-HT{sub 7} receptor. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Selective labelling of 5-HT7 receptor recognition sites in rat brain using [3H]5-carboxamidotryptamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowe, R.L.; Barnes, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a radioligand binding assay to selectively label the native 5-HT 7 receptor expressed in rat brain. In rat whole brain (minus cerebellum and striatum) homogenate, (±)-pindolol (10 μM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT ([ 3 H]5-carboxamidotryptamine; 0.5 nM) specific binding (defined by 5-HT, 10 μM) displayed a pharmacological profile similar to the recombinant 5-HT 7 receptor, although the Hill coefficients for competition curves generated by methiothepin, ritanserin, sumatriptan, clozapine and pimozide were significantly less than unity. In homogenates of rat hypothalamus, (±)-pindolol (10 μM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT recognition sites also resembled, pharmacologically, the 5-HT 7 receptor, although pimozide still generated Hill coefficients significantly less than unity. Subsequent studies were performed in the additional presence of WAY100635 (100 nM) to prevent [ 3 H]5-CT binding to residual, possibly, 5-HT 1A sites. Competition for this [ 3 H]5-CT binding indicated the labelling in whole rat brain homogenate of a homogenous population of sites with the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT 7 receptor. Saturation studies also indicated that (±)-pindolol (10 μM)/WAY 100635 (100 nM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT binding to homogenates of whole rat brain was saturable and to an apparently homogenous population of sites which were labelled with nanomolar affinity (B max =33.2±0.7 fmol mg -1 protein, pK d =8.78±0.05, mean±S.E.M., n=3). The development of this 5-HT 7 receptor binding assay will aid investigation of the rat native 5-HT 7 receptor. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Distinct roles of beta1 metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS), and ligand-associated metal-binding site (LIMBS) cation-binding sites in ligand recognition by integrin alpha2beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdramidou, Dimitra; Humphries, Martin J; Mould, A Paul

    2008-11-21

    Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and previous studies have identified ligand-competent, stimulatory, and inhibitory cation-binding sites. In collagen-binding integrins, such as alpha2beta1, ligand recognition takes place exclusively at the alpha subunit I domain. However, activation of the alphaI domain depends on its interaction with a structurally similar domain in the beta subunit known as the I-like or betaI domain. The top face of the betaI domain contains three cation-binding sites: the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), the ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS), and LIMBS (ligand-associated metal-binding site). The role of these sites in controlling ligand binding to the alphaI domain has yet to be elucidated. Mutation of the MIDAS or LIMBS completely blocked collagen binding to alpha2beta1; in contrast mutation of the ADMIDAS reduced ligand recognition but this effect could be overcome by the activating monoclonal antibody TS2/16. Hence, the MIDAS and LIMBS appear to be essential for the interaction between alphaI and betaI, whereas occupancy of the ADMIDAS has an allosteric effect on the conformation of betaI. An activating mutation in the alpha2 I domain partially restored ligand binding to the MIDAS and LIMBS mutants. Analysis of the effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) on ligand binding to these mutants showed that the MIDAS is a ligand-competent site through which Mn(2+) stimulates ligand binding, whereas the LIMBS is a stimulatory Ca(2+)-binding site, occupancy of which increases the affinity of Mg(2+) for the MIDAS.

  8. Genome-wide data-mining of candidate human splice translational efficiency polymorphisms (STEPs and an online database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Raistrick

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in pre-mRNA splicing is common and in some cases caused by genetic variants in intronic splicing motifs. Recent studies into the insulin gene (INS discovered a polymorphism in a 5' non-coding intron that influences the likelihood of intron retention in the final mRNA, extending the 5' untranslated region and maintaining protein quality. Retention was also associated with increased insulin levels, suggesting that such variants--splice translational efficiency polymorphisms (STEPs--may relate to disease phenotypes through differential protein expression. We set out to explore the prevalence of STEPs in the human genome and validate this new category of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL using publicly available data.Gene transcript and variant data were collected and mined for candidate STEPs in motif regions. Sequences from transcripts containing potential STEPs were analysed for evidence of splice site recognition and an effect in expressed sequence tags (ESTs. 16 publicly released genome-wide association data sets of common diseases were searched for association to candidate polymorphisms with HapMap frequency data. Our study found 3324 candidate STEPs lying in motif sequences of 5' non-coding introns and further mining revealed 170 with transcript evidence of intron retention. 21 potential STEPs had EST evidence of intron retention or exon extension, as well as population frequency data for comparison.Results suggest that the insulin STEP was not a unique example and that many STEPs may occur genome-wide with potentially causal effects in complex disease. An online database of STEPs is freely accessible at http://dbstep.genes.org.uk/.

  9. Identification of a novel splice acceptor in the HIV-1 genome: independent expression of the cytoplasmic tail of the envelope protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; van Wamel, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple splicing sites exist in the RNA genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In a screen for subgenomic forms of the HIV-1 genome that could be transferred to fresh cells by virus infection, we identified a novel spliced variant of HIV-1 RNA that uses a hitherto unknown splice

  10. Deciphering common recognition principles of nucleoside mono/di and tri-phosphates binding in diverse proteins via structural matching of their binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavat, Raghu; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-09-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) ligands are of high biological importance and are essential for all life forms. A pre-requisite for them to participate in diverse biochemical processes is their recognition by diverse proteins. It is thus of great interest to understand the basis for such recognition in different proteins. Towards this, we have used a structural bioinformatics approach and analyze structures of 4677 NTP complexes available in Protein Data Bank (PDB). Binding sites were extracted and compared exhaustively using PocketMatch, a sensitive in-house site comparison algorithm, which resulted in grouping the entire dataset into 27 site-types. Each of these site-types represent a structural motif comprised of two or more residue conservations, derived using another in-house tool for superposing binding sites, PocketAlign. The 27 site-types could be grouped further into 9 super-types by considering partial similarities in the sites, which indicated that the individual site-types comprise different combinations of one or more site features. A scan across PDB using the 27 structural motifs determined the motifs to be specific to NTP binding sites, and a computational alanine mutagenesis indicated that residues identified to be highly conserved in the motifs are also most contributing to binding. Alternate orientations of the ligand in several site-types were observed and rationalized, indicating the possibility of some residues serving as anchors for NTP recognition. The presence of multiple site-types and the grouping of multiple folds into each site-type is strongly suggestive of convergent evolution. Knowledge of determinants obtained from this study will be useful for detecting function in unknown proteins. Proteins 2017; 85:1699-1712. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Handbook of knotting and splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Hasluck, Paul N

    2005-01-01

    Clearly written and amply illustrated with 208 figures, this classic guide ranges from simple and useful knots to complex varieties. Additional topics include rope splicing, working cordage, hammock making, more.

  12. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Ju; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-05-19

    The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5' splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock and environmental stress

  13. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. Results We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5′ splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Conclusion Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock

  14. Active Site Sharing and Subterminal Hairpin Recognition in a New Class of DNA Transposases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Donald R.; Guynet, Catherine; Ton-Hoang, Bao; Perez, Zhanita N.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Chandler, Michael; Dyda, Fred (Centre Nat); (NIH)

    2010-07-20

    Many bacteria harbor simple transposable elements termed insertion sequences (IS). In Helicobacter pylori, the chimeric IS605 family elements are particularly interesting due to their proximity to genes encoding gastric epithelial invasion factors. Protein sequences of IS605 transposases do not bear the hallmarks of other well-characterized transposases. We have solved the crystal structure of full-length transposase (TnpA) of a representative member, ISHp608. Structurally, TnpA does not resemble any characterized transposase; rather, it is related to rolling circle replication (RCR) proteins. Consistent with RCR, Mg{sup 2+} and a conserved tyrosine, Tyr127, are essential for DNA nicking and the formation of a covalent intermediate between TnpA and DNA. TnpA is dimeric, contains two shared active sites, and binds two DNA stem loops representing the conserved inverted repeats near each end of ISHp608. The cocrystal structure with stem-loop DNA illustrates how this family of transposases specifically recognizes and pairs ends, necessary steps during transposition.

  15. Structural analysis of substrate recognition by glucose isomerase in Mn2+ binding mode at M2 site in S. rubiginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Eun; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Nam, Ki Hyun

    2018-06-16

    Glucose isomerase (GI) catalyzes the reversible enzymatic isomerization of d-glucose and d-xylose to d-fructose and d-xylulose, respectively. This is one of the most important enzymes in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and biofuel. We recently determined the crystal structure of GI from S. rubiginosus (SruGI) complexed with a xylitol inhibitor in one metal binding mode. Although we assessed inhibitor binding at the M1 site, the metal binding at the M2 site and the substrate recognition mechanism for SruGI remains the unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the two metal binding modes of SruGI and its complex with glucose. This study provides a snapshot of metal binding at the SruGI M2 site in the presence of Mn 2+ , but not in the presence of Mg 2+ . Metal binding at the M2 site elicits a configuration change at the M1 site. Glucose molecule can only bind to the M1 site in presence of Mn 2+ at the M2 site. Glucose and Mn 2+ at the M2 site were bridged by water molecules using a hydrogen bonding network. The metal binding geometry of the M2 site indicates a distorted octahedral coordination with an angle of 55-110°, whereas the M1 site has a relatively stable octahedral coordination with an angle of 85-95°. We suggest a two-step sequential process for SruGI substrate recognition, in Mn 2+ binding mode, at the M2 site. Our results provide a better understanding of the molecular role of the M2 site in GI substrate recognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Structural basis of sterol recognition and nonvesicular transport by lipid transfer proteins anchored at membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junsen; Manik, Mohammad Kawsar; Im, Young Jun

    2018-01-30

    Membrane contact sites (MCSs) in eukaryotic cells are hotspots for lipid exchange, which is essential for many biological functions, including regulation of membrane properties and protein trafficking. Lipid transfer proteins anchored at membrane contact sites (LAMs) contain sterol-specific lipid transfer domains [StARkin domain (SD)] and multiple targeting modules to specific membrane organelles. Elucidating the structural mechanisms of targeting and ligand recognition by LAMs is important for understanding the interorganelle communication and exchange at MCSs. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the yeast Lam6 pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain and the SDs of Lam2 and Lam4 in the apo form and in complex with ergosterol. The Lam6 PH-like domain displays a unique PH domain fold with a conserved N-terminal α-helix. The Lam6 PH-like domain lacks the basic surface for phosphoinositide binding, but contains hydrophobic patches on its surface, which are critical for targeting to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial contacts. Structures of the LAM SDs display a helix-grip fold with a hydrophobic cavity and a flexible Ω1-loop as a lid. Ergosterol is bound to the pocket in a head-down orientation, with its hydrophobic acyl group located in the tunnel entrance. The Ω1-loop in an open conformation is essential for ergosterol binding by direct hydrophobic interaction. Structural comparison suggested that the sterol binding mode of the Lam2 SD2 is likely conserved among the sterol transfer proteins of the StARkin superfamily. Structural models of full-length Lam2 correlated with the sterol transport function at the membrane contact sites.

  17. The role of polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins and other hnRNP proteins in plant splicing regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eWachter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative precursor mRNA splicing is a widespread phenomenon in multicellular eukaryotes and represents a major means for functional expansion of the transcriptome. While several recent studies have revealed an important link between splicing regulation and fundamental biological processes in plants, many important aspects, such as the underlying splicing regulatory mechanisms, are so far not well understood. Splicing decisions are in general based on a splicing code that is determined by the dynamic interplay of splicing-controlling factors and cis-regulatory elements. Several members of the group of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP proteins are well-known regulators of splicing in animals and the comparatively few reports on some of their plant homologues revealed similar functions. This also applies to polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins (PTBs, a thoroughly investigated class of hnRNP proteins with splicing regulatory functions in both animals and plants. Further examples from plants are auto- and cross-regulatory splicing circuits of glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GRPs and splicing enhancement by oligouridylatebinding proteins. Besides their role in defining splice site choice, hnRNP proteins are also involved in multiple other steps of nucleic acid metabolism, highlighting the functional versatility of this group of proteins in higher eukaryotes.

  18. A method of predicting changes in human gene splicing induced by genetic variants in context of cis-acting elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Chindo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic variants and mutations disrupting canonical splicing isoforms are among the leading causes of human hereditary disorders. While there is a substantial evidence of aberrant splicing causing Mendelian diseases, the implication of such events in multi-genic disorders is yet to be well understood. We have developed a new tool (SpliceScan II for predicting the effects of genetic variants on splicing and cis-regulatory elements. The novel Bayesian non-canonical 5'GC splice site (SS sensor used in our tool allows inference on non-canonical exons. Results Our tool performed favorably when compared with the existing methods in the context of genes linked to the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. SpliceScan II was able to predict more aberrant splicing isoforms triggered by the mutations, as documented in DBASS5 and DBASS3 aberrant splicing databases, than other existing methods. Detrimental effects behind some of the polymorphic variations previously associated with Alzheimer's and breast cancer could be explained by changes in predicted splicing patterns. Conclusions We have developed SpliceScan II, an effective and sensitive tool for predicting the detrimental effects of genomic variants on splicing leading to Mendelian and complex hereditary disorders. The method could potentially be used to screen resequenced patient DNA to identify de novo mutations and polymorphic variants that could contribute to a genetic disorder.

  19. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  20. Importance of the Sequence-Directed DNA Shape for Specific Binding Site Recognition by the Estrogen-Related Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Mohideen-Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nuclear receptors (NRs bind DNA as dimers, either as hetero- or as homodimers on DNA sequences organized as two half-sites with specific orientation and spacing. The dimerization of NRs on their cognate response elements (REs involves specific protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions. The estrogen-related receptor (ERR belongs to the steroid hormone nuclear receptor (SHR family and shares strong similarity in its DNA-binding domain (DBD with that of the estrogen receptor (ER. In vitro, ERR binds with high affinity inverted repeat REs with a 3-bps spacing (IR3, but in vivo, it preferentially binds to single half-site REs extended at the 5′-end by 3 bp [estrogen-related response element (ERREs], thus explaining why ERR was often inferred as a purely monomeric receptor. Since its C-terminal ligand-binding domain is known to homodimerize with a strong dimer interface, we investigated the binding behavior of the isolated DBDs to different REs using electrophoretic migration, multi-angle static laser light scattering (MALLS, non-denaturing mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance. In contrast to ER DBD, ERR DBD binds as a monomer to EREs (IR3, such as the tff1 ERE-IR3, but we identified a DNA sequence composed of an extended half-site embedded within an IR3 element (embedded ERRE/IR3, where stable dimer binding is observed. Using a series of chimera and mutant DNA sequences of ERREs and IR3 REs, we have found the key determinants for the binding of ERR DBD as a dimer. Our results suggest that the sequence-directed DNA shape is more important than the exact nucleotide sequence for the binding of ERR DBD to DNA as a dimer. Our work underlines the importance of the shape-driven DNA readout mechanisms based on minor groove recognition and electrostatic potential. These conclusions may apply not only to ERR but also to other members of the SHR family, such as androgen or glucocorticoid, for which a strong well-conserved half-site

  1. RNA splicing in a new rhabdovirus from Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Tsuda, Yoshio; Yanase, Tohru; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2011-07-01

    Among members of the order Mononegavirales, RNA splicing events have been found only in the family Bornaviridae. Here, we report that a new rhabdovirus isolated from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus replicates in the nuclei of infected cells and requires RNA splicing for viral mRNA maturation. The virus, designated Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus (CTRV), shares a similar genome organization with other rhabdoviruses, except for the presence of a putative intron in the coding region for the L protein. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicated that CTRV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, but it is yet to be assigned a genus. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the CTRV virion is extremely elongated, unlike virions of rhabdoviruses, which are generally bullet shaped. Northern hybridization confirmed that a large transcript (approximately 6,500 nucleotides [nt]) from the CTRV L gene was present in the infected cells. Strand-specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses identified the intron-exon boundaries and the 76-nt intron sequence, which contains the typical motif for eukaryotic spliceosomal intron-splice donor/acceptor sites (GU-AG), a predicted branch point, and a polypyrimidine tract. In situ hybridization exhibited that viral RNAs are primarily localized in the nucleus of infected cells, indicating that CTRV replicates in the nucleus and is allowed to utilize the host's nuclear splicing machinery. This is the first report of RNA splicing among the members of the family Rhabdoviridae.

  2. Splicing Analysis of Exonic OCRL Mutations Causing Lowe Syndrome or Dent-2 Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Suarez-Artiles

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the OCRL gene are associated with both Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. Patients with Lowe syndrome present congenital cataracts, mental disabilities and a renal proximal tubulopathy, whereas patients with Dent-2 disease exhibit similar proximal tubule dysfunction but only mild, or no additional clinical defects. It is not yet understood why some OCRL mutations cause the phenotype of Lowe syndrome, while others develop the milder phenotype of Dent-2 disease. Our goal was to gain new insights into the consequences of OCRL exonic mutations on pre-mRNA splicing. Using predictive bioinformatics tools, we selected thirteen missense mutations and one synonymous mutation based on their potential effects on splicing regulatory elements or splice sites. These mutations were analyzed in a minigene splicing assay. Results of the RNA analysis showed that three presumed missense mutations caused alterations in pre-mRNA splicing. Mutation c.741G>T; p.(Trp247Cys generated splicing silencer sequences and disrupted splicing enhancer motifs that resulted in skipping of exon 9, while mutations c.2581G>A; p.(Ala861Thr and c.2581G>C; p.(Ala861Pro abolished a 5′ splice site leading to skipping of exon 23. Mutation c.741G>T represents the first OCRL exonic variant outside the conserved splice site dinucleotides that results in alteration of pre-mRNA splicing. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effects of OCRL exonic mutations at the mRNA level.

  3. The group II intron maturase: a reverse transcriptase and splicing factor go hand in hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2017-12-01

    The splicing of group II introns in vivo requires the assistance of a multifunctional intron encoded protein (IEP, or maturase). Each IEP is also a reverse-transcriptase enzyme that enables group II introns to behave as mobile genetic elements. During splicing or retro-transposition, each group II intron forms a tight, specific complex with its own encoded IEP, resulting in a highly reactive holoenzyme. This review focuses on the structural basis for IEP function, as revealed by recent crystal structures of an IEP reverse transcriptase domain and cryo-EM structures of an IEP-intron complex. These structures explain how the same IEP scaffold is utilized for intron recognition, splicing and reverse transcription, while providing a physical basis for understanding the evolutionary transformation of the IEP into the eukaryotic splicing factor Prp8. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SOAPsplice: genome-wide ab initio detection of splice junctions from RNA-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbo eHuang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq, a method using next generation sequencing technologies to sequence the transcriptome, facilitates genome-wide analysis of splice junction sites. In this paper, we introduce SOAPsplice, a robust tool to detect splice junctions using RNA-Seq data without using any information of known splice junctions. SOAPsplice uses a novel two-step approach consisting of first identifying as many reasonable splice junction candidates as possible, and then, filtering the false positives with two effective filtering strategies. In both simulated and real datasets, SOAPsplice is able to detect many reliable splice junctions with low false positive rate. The improvement gained by SOAPsplice, when compared to other existing tools, becomes more obvious when the depth of sequencing is low. SOAPsplice is freely available at http://soap.genomics.org.cn/soapsplice.html.

  5. Role of IUCN WCPA Geoheritage Specialist Group for geoheritage conservation and recognition of World Heritage Sites, Global Geoparks and other protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung Sik

    2017-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service values. IUCN Resolutions at Barcelona (2008), at Jeju (2012) and at Hawaii (2016) clearly recognised that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised 'IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories'. All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories are applicable to the protection of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity. Recognising the wider values of geodiversity therefore provides opportunities to integrate geoheritage much more closely in protected area networks, as the approach advocated by the Geoheritage Specialist Group (GSG) of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such and only includes some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage values as UNESCO World Heritage sites has provided. GSG will pursue significant roles for geoheritage recognition and conservation as follows: 1) Establish the Best Practice Guideline of geoheritage sites for protected areas in the world, 2) Revise the Thematic Study on volcanic sites of Outstanding Universal Values and International Significance, 3) Revise Criterion (viii) for WH recognition, and 4) Initiate 'Key Geoheritage Site' concept in the future.

  6. Functional characterization of the spf/ash splicing variation in OTC deficiency of mice and man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rivera-Barahona

    Full Text Available The spf/ash mouse model of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC deficiency, a severe urea cycle disorder, is caused by a mutation (c.386G>A; p.R129H in the last nucleotide of exon 4 of the Otc gene, affecting the 5' splice site and resulting in partial use of a cryptic splice site 48 bp into the adjacent intron. The equivalent nucleotide change and predicted amino acid change is found in OTC deficient patients. Here we have used liver tissue and minigene assays to dissect the transcriptional profile resulting from the "spf/ash" mutation in mice and man. For the mutant mouse, we confirmed liver transcripts corresponding to partial intron 4 retention by the use of the c.386+48 cryptic site and to normally spliced transcripts, with exon 4 always containing the c.386G>A (p.R129H variant. In contrast, the OTC patient exhibited exon 4 skipping or c.386G>A (p.R129H-variant exon 4 retention by using the natural or a cryptic splice site at nucleotide position c.386+4. The corresponding OTC tissue enzyme activities were between 3-6% of normal control in mouse and human liver. The use of the cryptic splice sites was reproduced in minigenes carrying murine or human mutant sequences. Some normally spliced transcripts could be detected in minigenes in both cases. Antisense oligonucleotides designed to block the murine cryptic +48 site were used in minigenes in an attempt to redirect splicing to the natural site. The results highlight the relevance of in depth investigations of the molecular mechanisms of splicing mutations and potential therapeutic approaches. Notably, they emphasize the fact that findings in animal models may not be applicable for human patients due to the different genomic context of the mutations.

  7. Pyrazolone as a recognition site: Rhodamine 6G-based fluorescent probe for the selective recognition of Fe3+ in acetonitrile-aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Sanjay; Boricha, Vinod P; Jadeja, R N

    2015-03-01

    Two novel Rhodamine-pyrazolone-based colorimetric off-on fluorescent chemosensors for Fe(3+) ions were designed and synthesized using pyrazolone as the recognition moiety and Rhodamine 6G as the signalling moiety. The photophysical properties and Fe(3+) -binding properties of sensors L(1) and L(2) in acetonitrile-aqueous solution were also investigated. Both sensors successfully exhibit a remarkably 'turn-on' response, toward Fe(3+) , which was attributed to 1: 2 complex formation between Fe(3+) and L(1) /L(2) . The fluorescent and colorimetric response to Fe(3+) can be detected by the naked eye, which provides a facile method for the visual detection of Fe(3+) . Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Modulation of splicing of the preceding intron by antisense oligonucleotide complementary to intra-exon sequence deleted in dystrophin Kobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshima, Y.; Matuso, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, H. [Kobe Univ. School of Medicine and Science (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    Molecular analysis of dystrophin Kobe showed that exon 19 of the dystrophin gene bearing a 52 bp deletion was skipped during splicing, although the known consensus sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} splice site of exon 19 were maintained. These data suggest that the deleted sequence of exon 19 may function as a cis-acting factor for exact splicing for the upstream intron. To investigate this potential role, an in vitro splicing system using dystrophin precursors was established. A two-exon precursor containing exon 18, truncated intron 18, and exon 19 was accurately spliced. However, splicing of intron 18 was dramatically inhibited when wild exon 19 was replaced with mutated exon 19. Even though the length of exon 19 was restored to normal by replacing the deleted sequence with other sequence, splicing of intron 18 was not fully reactivated. Characteristically, splicing of intron 18 was inactivated more markedly when the replaced sequence contained less polypurine stretches. These data suggested that modification of the exon sequence would result in a splicing abnormality. Antisense 31 mer 2`-O-methyl ribonucleotide was targeted against 5{prime} end of deleted region of exon 19 to modulate splicing of the mRNA precursor. Splicing of intron 18 was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is the first in vitro evidence to show splicing of dystrophin pre-mRNA can be managed by antisense oligonucleotides. These experiments represent an approach in which antisense oligonucleotides are used to restore the function of a defective dystrophin gene in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by inducing skipping of certain exons during splicing.

  9. Fine-scale variation and genetic determinants of alternative splicing across individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thanks to the increasing throughput of new technologies, we have begun to explore the full extent of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in the human transcriptome. This is unveiling a vast layer of complexity in isoform-level expression differences between individuals. We used previously published splicing sensitive microarray data from lymphoblastoid cell lines to conduct an in-depth analysis on splicing efficiency of known and predicted exons. By combining publicly available AS annotation with a novel algorithm designed to search for AS, we show that many real AS events can be detected within the usually unexploited, speculative majority of the array and at significance levels much below standard multiple-testing thresholds, demonstrating that the extent of cis-regulated differential splicing between individuals is potentially far greater than previously reported. Specifically, many genes show subtle but significant genetically controlled differences in splice-site usage. PCR validation shows that 42 out of 58 (72% candidate gene regions undergo detectable AS, amounting to the largest scale validation of isoform eQTLs to date. Targeted sequencing revealed a likely causative SNP in most validated cases. In all 17 incidences where a SNP affected a splice-site region, in silico splice-site strength modeling correctly predicted the direction of the micro-array and PCR results. In 13 other cases, we identified likely causative SNPs disrupting predicted splicing enhancers. Using Fst and REHH analysis, we uncovered significant evidence that 2 putative causative SNPs have undergone recent positive selection. We verified the effect of five SNPs using in vivo minigene assays. This study shows that splicing differences between individuals, including quantitative differences in isoform ratios, are frequent in human populations and that causative SNPs can be identified using in silico predictions. Several cases affected disease-relevant genes and

  10. Three RNA recognition motifs participate in RNA recognition and structural organization by the pro-apoptotic factor TIA-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, William J.; Heath, Jason; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2012-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) regulates developmental and stress-responsive pathways through distinct activities at the levels of alternative pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The TIA-1 polypeptide contains three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs). The central RRM2 and C-terminal RRM3 associate with cellular mRNAs. The N-terminal RRM1 enhances interactions of a C-terminal Q-rich domain of TIA-1 with the U1-C splicing factor, despite linear separation of the domains in the TIA-1 sequence. Given the expanded functional repertoire of the RRM family, it was unknown whether TIA-1 RRM1 contributes to RNA binding as well as documented protein interactions. To address this question, we used isothermal titration calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to dissect the roles of the TIA-1 RRMs in RNA recognition. Notably, the fas RNA exhibited two binding sites with indistinguishable affinities for TIA-1. Analyses of TIA-1 variants established that RRM1 was dispensable for binding AU-rich fas sites, yet all three RRMs were required to bind a polyU RNA with high affinity. SAXS analyses demonstrated a `V' shape for a TIA-1 construct comprising the three RRMs, and revealed that its dimensions became more compact in the RNA-bound state. The sequence-selective involvement of TIA-1 RRM1 in RNA recognition suggests a possible role for RNA sequences in regulating the distinct functions of TIA-1. Further implications for U1-C recruitment by the adjacent TIA-1 binding sites of the fas pre-mRNA and the bent TIA-1 shape, which organizes the N- and C-termini on the same side of the protein, are discussed. PMID:22154808

  11. Spliced RNA of woodchuck hepatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, C W; Razman, D G

    1992-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate RNA splicing in liver of woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV). Two spliced species were detected, and the splice junctions were sequenced. The larger spliced RNA has an intron of 1300 nucleotides, and the smaller spliced sequence shows an additional downstream intron of 1104 nucleotides. We did not detect singly spliced sequences from which the smaller intron alone was removed. Control experiments showed that spliced sequences are present in both RNA and DNA in infected liver, showing that the viral reverse transcriptase can use spliced RNA as template. Spliced sequences were detected also in virion DNA prepared from serum. The upstream intron produces a reading frame that fuses the core to the polymerase polypeptide, while the downstream intron causes an inframe deletion in the polymerase open reading frame. Whereas the splicing patterns in WHV are superficially similar to those reported recently in hepatitis B virus, we detected no obvious homology in the coding capacity of spliced RNAs from these two viruses.

  12. Simultaneous fluorescence light-up and selective multicolor nucleobase recognition based on sequence-dependent strong binding of berberine to DNA abasic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Shao, Yong; Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Xu, Shujuan

    2012-04-28

    Label-free DNA nucleobase recognition by fluorescent small molecules has received much attention due to its simplicity in mutation identification and drug screening. However, sequence-dependent fluorescence light-up nucleobase recognition and multicolor emission with individual emission energy for individual nucleobases have been seldom realized. Herein, an abasic site (AP site) in a DNA duplex was employed as a binding field for berberine, one of isoquinoline alkaloids. Unlike weak binding of berberine to the fully matched DNAs without the AP site, strong binding of berberine to the AP site occurs and the berberine's fluorescence light-up behaviors are highly dependent on the target nucleobases opposite the AP site in which the targets thymine and cytosine produce dual emission bands, while the targets guanine and adenine only give a single emission band. Furthermore, more intense emissions are observed for the target pyrimidines than purines. The flanking bases of the AP site also produce some modifications of the berberine's emission behavior. The binding selectivity of berberine at the AP site is also confirmed by measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, excited-state lifetime, DNA melting and fluorescence quenching by ferrocyanide and sodium chloride. It is expected that the target pyrimidines cause berberine to be stacked well within DNA base pairs near the AP site, which results in a strong resonance coupling of the electronic transitions to the particular vibration mode to produce the dual emissions. The fluorescent signal-on and emission energy-modulated sensing for nucleobases based on this fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously used fluorophores. We expect that this approach will be developed as a practical device for differentiating pyrimidines from purines by positioning an AP site toward a target that is available for readout by this alkaloid probe. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. cis-Acting and trans-acting modulation of equine infectious anemia virus alternative RNA splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Huey-Jane; Baker, Carl C.; Princler, Gerald L.; Derse, David

    2004-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus distantly related to HIV-1, encodes regulatory proteins, EIAV Tat (ETat) and Rev (ERev), from a four-exon mRNA. Exon 3 of the tat/rev mRNA contains a 30-nucleotide purine-rich element (PRE) which binds both ERev and SF2/ASF, a member of the SR family of RNA splicing factors. To better understand the role of this element in the regulation of EIAV pre-mRNA splicing, we quantified the effects of mutation or deletion of the PRE on exon 3 splicing in vitro and on alternative splicing in vivo. We also determined the branch point elements upstream of exons 3 and 4. In vitro splicing of exon 3 to exon 4 was not affected by mutation of the PRE, and addition of purified SR proteins enhanced splicing independently of the PRE. In vitro splicing of exon 2 to exon 3 was dependent on the PRE; under conditions of excess SR proteins, either the PRE or the 5' splice site of exon 3 was sufficient to activate splicing. We applied isoform-specific primers in real-time RT-PCR reactions to quantitatively analyze alternative splicing in cells transfected with rev-minus EIAV provirus constructs. In the context of provirus with wild-type exon 3, greater than 80% of the viral mRNAs were multiply spliced, and of these, less than 1% excluded exon 3. Deletion of the PRE resulted in a decrease in the relative amount of multiply spliced mRNA to about 40% of the total and approximately 39% of the viral mRNA excluded exon 3. Ectopic expression of ERev caused a decrease in the relative amount of multiply spliced mRNA to approximately 50% of the total and increased mRNAs that excluded exon 3 to about 4%. Over-expression of SF2/ASF in cells transfected with wild-type provirus constructs inhibited splicing but did not significantly alter exon 3 skipping

  14. QSAR, docking, dynamic simulation and quantum mechanics studies to explore the recognition properties of cholinesterase binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Basurto, J; Bello, M; Rosales-Hernández, M C; Hernández-Rodríguez, M; Nicolás-Vázquez, I; Rojo-Domínguez, A; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Miranda, René; Flores-Sandoval, C A

    2014-02-25

    despite the multiple conformations obtained through MD simulations on both ChEs, the ligand recognition properties were conserved. In fact, the complex formed between ChEs and the best N-aryl compound reproduced the binding mode experimentally reported, where the ligand was coupled into the choline-binding site and stabilized through π-π interactions with Trp82 or Trp86 for BChE and AChE, respectively, suggesting that this compound could be an efficient inhibitor and supporting our model. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Aberrant alternative splicing is another hallmark of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

  16. Aberrant Alternative Splicing Is Another Hallmark of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

  17. Characterization of intronic uridine-rich sequence elements acting as possible targets for nuclear proteins during pre-mRNA splicing in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniadkowski, M; Hemmings-Mieszczak, M; Klahre, U; Liu, H X; Filipowicz, W

    1996-02-15

    Introns of nuclear pre-mRNAs in dicotyledonous plants, unlike introns in vertebrates or yeast, are distinctly rich in A+U nucleotides and this feature is essential for their processing. In order to define more precisely sequence elements important for intron recognition in plants, we investigated the effects of short insertions, either U-rich or A-rich, on splicing of synthetic introns in transfected protoplast of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. It was found that insertions of U-rich (sequence UUUUUAU) but not A-rich (AUAAAAA) segments can activate splicing of a GC-rich synthetic infron, and that U-rich segments, or multimers thereof, can function irrespective of the site of insertion within the intron. Insertions of multiple U-rich segments, either at the same or different locations, generally had an additive, stimulatory effect on splicing. Mutational analysis showed that replacement of one or two U residues in the UUUUUAU sequence with A or C residues had only a small effect on splicing, but replacement with G residues was strongly inhibitory. Proteins that interact with fragments of natural and synthetic pre-mRNAs in vitro were identified in nuclear extracts of N.plumbaginifolia by UV cross- linking. The profile of cross-linked plant proteins was considerably less complex than that obtained with a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Two major cross-linkable plant proteins had apparent molecular mass of 50 and 54 kDa and showed affinity for oligouridilates present in synGC introns or for poly(U).

  18. Spliceosomal protein U1A is involved in alternative splicing and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Jinbao

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinity is a significant threat to sustainable agricultural production worldwide. Plants must adjust their developmental and physiological processes to cope with salt stress. Although the capacity for adaptation ultimately depends on the genome, the exceptional versatility in gene regulation provided by the spliceosome-mediated alternative splicing (AS) is essential in these adaptive processes. However, the functions of the spliceosome in plant stress responses are poorly understood. Here, we report the in-depth characterization of a U1 spliceosomal protein, AtU1A, in controlling AS of pre-mRNAs under salt stress and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The atu1a mutant was hypersensitive to salt stress and accumulated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type under salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed that AtU1A regulates AS of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition of 5′ splice sites. We showed that AtU1A is associated with the pre-mRNA of the ROS detoxification-related gene ACO1 and is necessary for the regulation of ACO1 AS. ACO1 is important for salt tolerance because ectopic expression of ACO1 in the atu1a mutant can partially rescue its salt hypersensitive phenotype. Our findings highlight the critical role of AtU1A as a regulator of pre-mRNA processing and salt tolerance in plants.

  19. DISTINCT ROLES OF β1 MIDAS, ADMIDAS AND LIMBS CATION-BINDING SITES IN LIGAND RECOGNITION BY INTEGRIN α2β1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdramidou, Dimitra; Humphries, Martin J.; Mould, A. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and previous studies have identified ligand-competent, stimulatory, and inhibitory cation-binding sites. In collagen-binding integrins, such as α2β1, ligand recognition takes place exclusively at the α subunit I domain. However, activation of the αI domain depends on its interaction with a structurally similar domain in the β subunit known as the I-like or βI domain. The top face of the βI domain contains three cation-binding sites: the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), the ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS) and LIMBS (ligand-associated metal binding site). The role of these sites in controlling ligand binding to the αI domain has yet to be elucidated. Mutation of the MIDAS or LIMBS completely blocked collagen binding to α2β1; in contrast mutation of the ADMIDAS reduced ligand recognition but this effect could be overcome by the activating mAb TS2/16. Hence, the MIDAS and LIMBS appear to be essential for the interaction between αI and βI whereas occupancy of the ADMIDAS has an allosteric effect on the conformation of βI. An activating mutation in the α2 I domain partially restored ligand binding to the MIDAS and LIMBS mutants. Analysis of the effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ on ligand binding to these mutants showed that the MIDAS is a ligand-competent site through which Mn2+ stimulates ligand binding, whereas the LIMBS is a stimulatory Ca2+-binding site, occupancy of which increases the affinity of Mg2+ for the MIDAS. PMID:18820259

  20. The heparin-binding site in tetranectin is located in the N-terminal region and binding does not involve the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentsen, R H; Graversen, J H; Caterer, N R; Thogersen, H C; Etzerodt, M

    2000-04-01

    Tetranectin is a homotrimeric plasma and extracellular-matrix protein that binds plasminogen and complex sulphated polysaccharides including heparin. In terms of primary and tertiary structure, tetranectin is related to the collectin family of Ca(2+)-binding C-type lectins. Tetranectin is encoded in three exons. Exon 3 encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain, which binds to kringle 4 in plasminogen at low levels of Ca(2+). Exon 2 encodes an alpha-helix, which is necessary and sufficient to govern the trimerization of tetranectin by assembling into a triple-helical coiled-coil structural element. Here we show that the heparin-binding site in tetranectin resides not in the carbohydrate recognition domain but within the N-terminal region, comprising the 16 amino acid residues encoded by exon 1. In particular, the lysine residues in the decapeptide segment KPKKIVNAKK (tetranectin residues 6-15) are shown to be of primary importance in heparin binding.

  1. A Systems-Level Analysis Reveals Circadian Regulation of Splicing in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Athman, Rukeia; Fuhr, Luise; Relógio, Angela

    2018-06-20

    Accumulating evidence points to a significant role of the circadian clock in the regulation of splicing in various organisms, including mammals. Both dysregulated circadian rhythms and aberrant pre-mRNA splicing are frequently implicated in human disease, in particular in cancer. To investigate the role of the circadian clock in the regulation of splicing in a cancer progression context at the systems-level, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and compared the rhythmic transcriptional profiles of colon carcinoma cell lines SW480 and SW620, derived from primary and metastatic sites of the same patient, respectively. We identified spliceosome components and splicing factors with cell-specific circadian expression patterns including SRSF1, HNRNPLL, ESRP1, and RBM 8A, as well as altered alternative splicing events and circadian alternative splicing patterns of output genes (e.g., VEGFA, NCAM1, FGFR2, CD44) in our cellular model. Our data reveals a remarkable interplay between the circadian clock and pre-mRNA splicing with putative consequences in tumor progression and metastasis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Postnatal Expression of V2 Vasopressin Receptor Splice Variants in the Rat Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Karina J.; Sarmiento, José M.; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Añazco, Carolina C.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Carmona, Pamela L.; Brenet, Marianne; Navarro, Javier; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2010-01-01

    The V2 vasopressin receptor gene contains an alternative splice site in exon-3, which leads to the generation of two splice variants (V2a and V2b) first identified in the kidney. The open reading frame of the alternatively spliced V2b transcripten codes a truncated receptor, showing the same amino acid sequence as the canonical V2a receptor up to the 6th transmembrane segment, but displaying a distinct sequence to the corresponding 7th transmembrane segment and C-terminal domain relative to the V2a receptor. Here, we demonstrate the postnatal expression of V2a and V2b variants in the rat cerebellum. Most importantly, we showed by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry that both V2 splice variants were preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells, from early to late postnatal development. In addition, both variants were transiently expressed in the neuroblastic external granule cells and Bergmann fibers. These results indicate that the cellular distributions of both splice variants are developmentally regulated, and suggest that the transient expression of the V2 receptor is involved in the mechanisms of cerebellar cytodifferentiation by AVP. Finally, transfected CHO-K1 .expressing similar amounts of both V2 splice variants, as that found in the cerebellum, showed a significant reduction in the surface expression of V2a receptors, suggesting that the differential expression of the V2 splice variants regulate the vasopressin signaling in the cerebellum. PMID:19281786

  3. SplicePlot: a utility for visualizing splicing quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric; Nance, Tracy; Montgomery, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    RNA sequencing has provided unprecedented resolution of alternative splicing and splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL). However, there are few tools available for visualizing the genotype-dependent effects of splicing at a population level. SplicePlot is a simple command line utility that produces intuitive visualization of sQTLs and their effects. SplicePlot takes mapped RNA sequencing reads in BAM format and genotype data in VCF format as input and outputs publication-quality Sashimi plots, hive plots and structure plots, enabling better investigation and understanding of the role of genetics on alternative splicing and transcript structure. Source code and detailed documentation are available at http://montgomerylab.stanford.edu/spliceplot/index.html under Resources and at Github. SplicePlot is implemented in Python and is supported on Linux and Mac OS. A VirtualBox virtual machine running Ubuntu with SplicePlot already installed is also available.

  4. Capacity of columns with splice imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, E.P.; Stephen, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    To study the behavior of spliced columns subjected to tensile forces simulating situations which may develop in an earthquake, all of the spliced specimens were tested to failure in tension after first having been subjected to large compressive loads. The results of these tests indicate that the lack of perfect contact at compression splices of columns may not be important, provided that the gaps are shimmed and welding is used to maintain the sections in alignment

  5. The connection between splicing and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrow, Anabella; Kornblihtt, Alberto Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a crucial mechanism for generating protein diversity. Different splice variants of a given protein can display different and even antagonistic biological functions. Therefore, appropriate control of their synthesis is required to assure the complex orchestration of cellular processes within multicellular organisms. Mutations in cisacting splicing elements or changes in the activity of regulatory proteins that compromise the accuracy of either constitutive or alternativ...

  6. NMR studies of two spliced leader RNAs using isotope labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapham, J.; Crothers, D.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Spliced leader RNAs are a class of RNA molecules (<200 nts) involved in the trans splicing of messenger RNA found in trypanosomes, nematodes, and other lower eukaryotes. The spliced leader RNA from the trypanosome Leptomonas Collosoma exists in two alternate structural forms with similar thermal stabilities. The 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the SL molecule is structurally independent from the 3{prime} half of the RNA, and displays the two structural forms. Furthermore, the favored of the two structures was shown to contain anomalous nuclease sensitivity and thermal stability features, which suggests that there may be tertiary interactions between the splice site and other nucleotides in the 5{prime} end. Multidimensional NMR studies are underway to elucidate the structural elements present in the SL RNAs that give rise to their physical properties. Two spliced leader sequences have been studied. The first, the 54 nucleotides on the 5{prime} end of the L. Collosoma sequence, was selected because of earlier studies in our laboratory. The second sequence is the 5{prime} end of the trypanosome Crithidia Fasciculata, which was chosen because of its greater sequence homology to other SL sequences. Given the complexity of the NMR spectra for RNA molecules of this size, we have incorporated {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled nucleotides into the RNA. One of the techniques we have developed to simplify the spectra of these RNA molecules is isotope labeling of specific regions of the RNA. This has been especially helpful in assigning the secondary structure of molecules that may be able to adopt multiple conformations. Using this technique one can examine a part of the molecule without spectral interference from the unlabeled portion. We hope this approach will promote an avenue for studying the structure of larger RNAs in their native surroundings.

  7. Characterization of a novel splicing variant in the RAPTOR gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chang; Southard, Catherine; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an essential role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Raptor, the regulatory associated protein of mTOR, is an important member in this signaling pathway. In the present report, we identified and characterized a novel splicing variant of this gene, RAPTOR v 2, in which exons 14-17, 474 bp in total, are omitted from the mRNA. This deletion does not change the open reading frame, but causes a nearly complete absence of HEAT repeats, which were shown to be involved in the binding of mTOR substrates. Real time PCR performed on 48 different human tissues demonstrated the ubiquitous presence of this splice variant. Quantification of mRNA levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from 56 unrelated HapMap individuals revealed that the expression of this splicing form is quite variable. One synonymous SNP, rs2289759 in exon 14, was predicted by ESEfinder to cause a significant gain/loss of SRp55 and/or SF2/ASF binding sites, and thus potentially influence splicing. This prediction was confirmed by linear regression analysis between the ratio of RAPTOR v 2 to total RAPTOR mRNA levels and the SNP genotype in the above 56 individuals (r = 0.281 and P = 0.036). Moreover, the functional evaluation indicated that this splicing isoform is expected to retain the ability to bind mTOR, but is unlikely to bind mTOR substrates, hence affecting signal transduction and further cell proliferation

  8. Molecular Evolution of the CYP2D Subfamily in Primates: Purifying Selection on Substrate Recognition Sites without the Frequent or Long-Tract Gene Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene is a member of the CYP2D gene subfamily, along with the CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P pseudogenes. Although the CYP2D6 enzyme has been studied extensively because of its clinical importance, the evolution of the CYP2D subfamily has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to reveal the evolutionary process of the human drug metabolic system. Here, we investigate molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in primates by comparing 14 CYP2D sequences from humans to New World monkey genomes. Window analysis and statistical tests revealed that entire genomic sequences of paralogous genes were extensively homogenized by gene conversion during molecular evolution of CYP2D genes in primates. A neighbor-joining tree based on genomic sequences at the nonsubstrate recognition sites showed that CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes were clustered together due to gene conversion. In contrast, a phylogenetic tree using amino acid sequences at substrate recognition sites did not cluster the CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes, suggesting that the functional constraint on substrate specificity is one of the causes for purifying selection at the substrate recognition sites. Our results suggest that the CYP2D gene subfamily in primates has evolved to maintain the regioselectivity for a substrate hydroxylation activity between individual enzymes, even though extensive gene conversion has occurred across CYP2D coding sequences. PMID:25808902

  9. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Hao; D, Dhananjaya; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  10. Alternative Splicing in Neurogenesis and Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an important mechanism that increases transcriptomic and proteomic diversity and also post-transcriptionally regulates mRNA levels. Alternative splicing occurs at high frequency in brain tissues and contributes to every step of nervous system development, including cell-fate decisions, neuronal migration, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. Genetic manipulation and RNA sequencing have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of alternative splicing in stem cell self-renewal and neuronal fate specification. Timely expression and perhaps post-translational modification of neuron-specific splicing regulators play important roles in neuronal development. Alternative splicing of many key transcription regulators or epigenetic factors reprograms the transcriptome and hence contributes to stem cell fate determination. During neuronal differentiation, alternative splicing also modulates signaling activity, centriolar dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, alternative splicing impacts cortical lamination and neuronal development and function. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the contributions of alternative splicing to neurogenesis and brain development, which has shed light on how splicing defects may cause brain disorders and diseases.

  11. The 0.3-kb fragment containing the R-U5-5'leader sequence of Friend murine leukemia virus influences the level of protein expression from spliced mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yeng Cheng; Seki, Yohei; Machinaga, Akihito; Ogita, Nobuo; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2013-04-19

    A neuropathogenic variant of Friend murine leukemia virus (Fr-MLV) clone A8 induces spongiform neurodegeneration when infected into neonatal rats. Studies with chimeras constructed from the A8 virus and the non-neuropathogenic Fr-MLV clone 57 identified a 0.3-kb KpnI-AatII fragment containing a R-U5-5'leader sequence as an important determinant for inducing spongiosis, in addition to the env gene of A8 as the primary determinant. This 0.3-kb fragment contains a 17-nucleotide difference between the A8 and 57 sequences. We previously showed that the 0.3-kb fragment influences expression levels of Env protein in both cultured cells and rat brain, but the corresponding molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Studies with expression vectors constructed from the full-length proviral genome of Fr-MLV that incorporated the luciferase (luc) gene instead of the env gene found that the vector containing the A8-0.3-kb fragment yielded a larger amount of spliced luc-mRNA and showed higher expression of luciferase when compared to the vector containing the 57-0.3-kb fragment. The amount of total transcripts from the vectors, the poly (A) tail length of their mRNAs, and the nuclear-cytoplasm distribution of luc-mRNA in transfected cells were also evaluated. The 0.3-kb fragment did not influence transcription efficiency, mRNA polyadenylation or nuclear export of luc-mRNA. Mutational analyses were carried out to determine the importance of nucleotides that differ between the A8 and 57 sequences within the 0.3-kb fragment. In particular, seven nucleotides upstream of the 5'splice site (5'ss) were found to be important in regulating the level of protein expression from spliced messages. Interestingly, these nucleotides reside within the stem-loop structure that has been speculated to limit the recognition of 5'ss. The 0.3-kb fragment containing the R-U5-5'leader sequence of Fr-MLV influences the level of protein expression from the spliced-mRNA by regulating the splicing

  12. Phosphoproteomics reveals that glycogen synthase kinase-3 phosphorylates multiple splicing factors and is associated with alternative splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Mansi Y.; Sidoli, Simone; Kulej, Katarzyna; Mallory, Michael J.; Radens, Caleb M.; Reicherter, Amanda L.; Myers, Rebecca L.; Barash, Yoseph; Lynch, Kristen W.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Klein, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that regulates multiple signaling pathways. In vitro kinase assays and genetic and pharmacological manipulations of GSK-3 have identified more than 100 putative GSK-3 substrates in diverse cell types. Many more have been predicted on the basis of a recurrent GSK-3 consensus motif ((pS/pT)XXX(S/T)), but this prediction has not been tested by analyzing the GSK-3 phosphoproteome. Using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) and MS techniques to analyze the repertoire of GSK-3–dependent phosphorylation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we found that ∼2.4% of (pS/pT)XXX(S/T) sites are phosphorylated in a GSK-3–dependent manner. A comparison of WT and Gsk3a;Gsk3b knock-out (Gsk3 DKO) ESCs revealed prominent GSK-3–dependent phosphorylation of multiple splicing factors and regulators of RNA biosynthesis as well as proteins that regulate transcription, translation, and cell division. Gsk3 DKO reduced phosphorylation of the splicing factors RBM8A, SRSF9, and PSF as well as the nucleolar proteins NPM1 and PHF6, and recombinant GSK-3β phosphorylated these proteins in vitro. RNA-Seq of WT and Gsk3 DKO ESCs identified ∼190 genes that are alternatively spliced in a GSK-3–dependent manner, supporting a broad role for GSK-3 in regulating alternative splicing. The MS data also identified posttranscriptional regulation of protein abundance by GSK-3, with ∼47 proteins (1.4%) whose levels increased and ∼78 (2.4%) whose levels decreased in the absence of GSK-3. This study provides the first unbiased analysis of the GSK-3 phosphoproteome and strong evidence that GSK-3 broadly regulates alternative splicing. PMID:28916722

  13. Naturally occurring BRCA2 alternative mRNA splicing events in clinically relevant samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fackenthal, James D; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Zhang, Bifeng

    2016-01-01

    patterns and thereby disrupt gene function. mRNA analyses are therefore among the tests used to interpret the clinical significance of some genetic variants. However, these could be confounded by the appearance of naturally occurring alternative transcripts unrelated to germline sequence variation...... to characterise the spectrum of naturally occurring BRCA2 mRNA alternate-splicing events. METHODS: mRNA was prepared from several blood and breast tissue-derived cells and cell lines by contributing ENIGMA laboratories. cDNA representing BRCA2 alternate splice sites was amplified and visualised using capillary...... or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing. RESULTS: We demonstrate the existence of 24 different BRCA2 mRNA alternate-splicing events in lymphoblastoid cell lines and both breast cancer and non-cancerous breast cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: These naturally occurring alternate-splicing events...

  14. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  15. Specific CLK inhibitors from a novel chemotype for regulation of alternative splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, Oleg; Huber, Kilian; Eisenreich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of protein kinases in the control of alternative splicing. To define the underlying regulatory mechanisms, highly selective inhibitors are needed. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of the dichloroindolyl enaminonitrile KH-CB19......, a potent and highly specific inhibitor of the CDC2-like kinase isoforms 1 and 4 (CLK1/CLK4). Cocrystal structures of KH-CB19 with CLK1 and CLK3 revealed a non-ATP mimetic binding mode, conformational changes in helix aC and the phosphate binding loop and halogen bonding to the kinase hinge region. KH-CB19...... effectively suppressed phosphorylation of SR (serine/arginine) proteins in cells, consistent with its expected mechanism of action. Chemical inhibition of CLK1/CLK4 generated a unique pattern of splicing factor dephosphorylation and had at low nM concentration a profound effect on splicing of the two tissue...

  16. Spliceman2: a computational web server that predicts defects in pre-mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygan, Kamil Jan; Sanford, Clayton Hendrick; Fairbrother, William Guy

    2017-09-15

    Most pre-mRNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells must undergo splicing to remove introns and join exons, and splicing elements present a large mutational target for disease-causing mutations. Splicing elements are strongly position dependent with respect to the transcript annotations. In 2012, we presented Spliceman, an online tool that used positional dependence to predict how likely distant mutations around annotated splice sites were to disrupt splicing. Here, we present an improved version of the previous tool that will be more useful for predicting the likelihood of splicing mutations. We have added industry-standard input options (i.e. Spliceman now accepts variant call format files), which allow much larger inputs than previously available. The tool also can visualize the locations-within exons and introns-of sequence variants to be analyzed and the predicted effects on splicing of the pre-mRNA transcript. In addition, Spliceman2 integrates with RNAcompete motif libraries to provide a prediction of which trans -acting factors binding sites are disrupted/created and links out to the UCSC genome browser. In summary, the new features in Spliceman2 will allow scientists and physicians to better understand the effects of single nucleotide variations on splicing. Freely available on the web at http://fairbrother.biomed.brown.edu/spliceman2 . Website implemented in PHP framework-Laravel 5, PostgreSQL, Apache, and Perl, with all major browsers supported. william_fairbrother@brown.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Control of HIV-1 env RNA splicing and transport: investigating the role of hnRNP A1 in exon splicing silencer (ESS3a) function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kengo; Platt, Craig; Cochrane, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The control of HIV-1 viral RNA splicing and transport plays an important role in the successful replication of the virus. Previous studies have identified both an exon splicing enhancer (ESE) and a bipartite exon splicing silencer (ESS3a and ESS3b) within the terminal exon of HIV-1 that are involved in modulating both splicing and Rev-mediated export of viral RNA. To define the mechanism of ESS3a function, experiments were carried out to better define the cis and trans components required for ESS3a activity. Mutations throughout the 30-nt element resulted in partial loss of ESS function. Combining mutations was found to have an additive effect, suggesting the presence of multiple binding sites. Analysis of interacting factors identified hnRNP A1 as one component of the complex that modulates ESS3a activity. However, subsequent binding analyses determined that hnRNP A1 interacts with only one portion of ESS3a, suggesting the involvement of another host factor. Parallel analysis of the effect of the mutations on Rev-mediated export determined that there is not a direct correlation between the effect of the mutations on splicing and RNA transport. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacement of ESS3a with consensus hnRNP A1 binding sites was found to be insufficient to block Rev-mediated RNA export

  18. Alternative Splicing Control of Abiotic Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloum, Tom; Martín, Guiomar; Duque, Paula

    2018-02-01

    Alternative splicing, which generates multiple transcripts from the same gene, is an important modulator of gene expression that can increase proteome diversity and regulate mRNA levels. In plants, this post-transcriptional mechanism is markedly induced in response to environmental stress, and recent studies have identified alternative splicing events that allow rapid adjustment of the abundance and function of key stress-response components. In agreement, plant mutants defective in splicing factors are severely impaired in their response to abiotic stress. Notably, mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing regulates stress responses largely by targeting the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. We review here current understanding of post-transcriptional control of plant stress tolerance via alternative splicing and discuss research challenges for the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LEMONS - A Tool for the Identification of Splice Junctions in Transcriptomes of Organisms Lacking Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Levin

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is becoming a preferred tool for genomics studies of model and non-model organisms. However, DNA-based analysis of organisms lacking sequenced genomes cannot rely on RNA-seq data alone to isolate most genes of interest, as DNA codes both exons and introns. With this in mind, we designed a novel tool, LEMONS, that exploits the evolutionary conservation of both exon/intron boundary positions and splice junction recognition signals to produce high throughput splice-junction predictions in the absence of a reference genome. When tested on multiple annotated vertebrate mRNA data, LEMONS accurately identified 87% (average of the splice-junctions. LEMONS was then applied to our updated Mediterranean chameleon transcriptome, which lacks a reference genome, and predicted a total of 90,820 exon-exon junctions. We experimentally verified these splice-junction predictions by amplifying and sequencing twenty randomly selected genes from chameleon DNA templates. Exons and introns were detected in 19 of 20 of the positions predicted by LEMONS. To the best of our knowledge, LEMONS is currently the only experimentally verified tool that can accurately predict splice-junctions in organisms that lack a reference genome.

  20. In-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-RGD receptor recognition sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) uses a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Previous sequence analyses of the 1D-encoding region of an FMDV field isolate (Asia1/JS/CHA/05) and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) or an Arg-Ser-Asp (RSD) triplet instead of the RGD integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution of field isolate in different biological environments. To examine the influence of single amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding site of the RDD-containing FMD viral genome on virus viability and the ability of non-RGD FMDVs to cause disease in susceptible animals, we constructed an RDD-containing FMDV full-length cDNA clone and derived mutant molecules with RGD or RSD receptor recognition motifs. Following transfection of BSR cells with the full-length genome plasmids, the genetically engineered viruses were examined for their infectious potential in cell culture and susceptible animals. Results Amino acid sequence analysis of the 1D-coding region of different derivatives derived from the Asia1/JS/CHA/05 field isolate revealed that the RDD mutants became dominant or achieved population equilibrium with coexistence of the RGD and RSD subpopulations at an early phase of type Asia1 FMDV quasispecies evolution. Furthermore, the RDD and RSD sequences remained genetically stable for at least 20 passages. Using reverse genetics, the RDD-, RSD-, and RGD-containing FMD viruses were rescued from full-length cDNA clones, and single amino acid substitution in RDD-containing FMD viral genome did not affect virus viability. The genetically engineered viruses replicated stably in BHK-21 cells and had similar growth properties to the parental virus. The RDD parental virus and two non-RGD recombinant viruses were virulent to pigs and bovines that developed typical

  1. In-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-RGD receptor recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV uses a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Previous sequence analyses of the 1D-encoding region of an FMDV field isolate (Asia1/JS/CHA/05 and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD or an Arg-Ser-Asp (RSD triplet instead of the RGD integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution of field isolate in different biological environments. To examine the influence of single amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding site of the RDD-containing FMD viral genome on virus viability and the ability of non-RGD FMDVs to cause disease in susceptible animals, we constructed an RDD-containing FMDV full-length cDNA clone and derived mutant molecules with RGD or RSD receptor recognition motifs. Following transfection of BSR cells with the full-length genome plasmids, the genetically engineered viruses were examined for their infectious potential in cell culture and susceptible animals. Results Amino acid sequence analysis of the 1D-coding region of different derivatives derived from the Asia1/JS/CHA/05 field isolate revealed that the RDD mutants became dominant or achieved population equilibrium with coexistence of the RGD and RSD subpopulations at an early phase of type Asia1 FMDV quasispecies evolution. Furthermore, the RDD and RSD sequences remained genetically stable for at least 20 passages. Using reverse genetics, the RDD-, RSD-, and RGD-containing FMD viruses were rescued from full-length cDNA clones, and single amino acid substitution in RDD-containing FMD viral genome did not affect virus viability. The genetically engineered viruses replicated stably in BHK-21 cells and had similar growth properties to the parental virus. The RDD parental virus and two non-RGD recombinant viruses were virulent to pigs and bovines that

  2. Spliced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Courtney Page

    2017-01-01

    Human gene therapy (HGT) aims to cure disease by inserting or editing the DNA of patients with genetic conditions. Since foundational genetic techniques came into use in the 1970s, the field has developed to the point that now three therapies have market approval, and over 1800 clinical trials have...

  3. Communication between the Zinc and Nickel Sites in Dimeric HypA: Metal Recognition and pH Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.; Perovic, I.; Martin-Diaconescu, V.; O'Brien, K.; Chivers, P.; Sondej Pochapsky, S.; Pochapsky, T.; Maroney, M.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys) 4 site to a Zn(His) 2 (Cys) 2 site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the β-CH 2 protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys) 4 ) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model wherein HypA controls the

  4. Communication between the Zinc and Nickel Sites in Dimeric HypA: Metal Recognition and pH Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, R.; Perovic, I; Martin-Diaconescu, V; O’Brien, K; Chivers, P; Sondej Pochapsky, S; Pochapsky, T; Maroney, M

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys){sub 4} site to a Zn(His){sub 2}(Cys){sub 2} site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the {beta}-CH{sub 2} protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys){sub 4}) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model

  5. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias N E Forsell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3. Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4 rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  6. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Mattias N E; Dey, Barna; Mörner, Andreas; Svehla, Krisha; O'dell, Sijy; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Voss, Gerald; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Shaw, George M; Mascola, John R; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2008-10-03

    The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3). Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4) rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT) rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity) primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  7. Expanding the action of duplex RNAs into the nucleus: redirecting alternative splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hu, Jiaxin; Corey, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Double-stranded RNAs are powerful agents for silencing gene expression in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. The potential for duplex RNAs to control expression in the nucleus has received less attention. Here, we investigate the ability of small RNAs to redirect splicing. We identify RNAs targeting an aberrant splice site that restore splicing and production of functional protein. RNAs can target sequences within exons or introns and affect the inclusion of exons within SMN2 and dystrophin, genes responsible for spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, respectively. Duplex RNAs recruit argonaute 2 (AGO2) to pre-mRNA transcripts and altered splicing requires AGO2 expression. AGO2 promotes transcript cleavage in the cytoplasm, but recruitment of AGO2 to pre-mRNAs does not reduce transcript levels, exposing a difference between cytoplasmic and nuclear pathways. Involvement of AGO2 in splicing, a classical nuclear process, reinforces the conclusion from studies of RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing that RNAi pathways can be adapted to function in the mammalian nucleus. These data provide a new strategy for controlling splicing and expand the reach of small RNAs within the nucleus of mammalian cells. PMID:21948593

  8. Characterization of an apparently synonymous F5 mutation causing aberrant splicing and factor V deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, F; Bulato, C; Nielsen, B I; Lee, K; Wielders, S J; Simioni, P; Key, N S; Castoldi, E

    2015-03-01

    Coagulation factor V (FV) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder. We investigated a patient with severe FV deficiency (FV:C mutation in exon 4 (c.578G>C, p.Cys193Ser), predicting the abolition of a conserved disulphide bridge, and an apparently synonymous variant in exon 8 (c.1281C>G). The observation that half of the patient's F5 mRNA lacked the last 18 nucleotides of exon 8 prompted us to re-evaluate the c.1281C>G variant for its possible effects on splicing. Bioinformatics sequence analysis predicted that this transversion would activate a cryptic donor splice site and abolish an exonic splicing enhancer. Characterization in a F5 minigene model confirmed that the c.1281C>G variant was responsible for the patient's splicing defect, which could be partially corrected by a mutation-specific morpholino antisense oligonucleotide. The aberrantly spliced F5 mRNA, whose stability was similar to that of the normal mRNA, encoded a putative FV mutant lacking amino acids 427-432. Expression in COS-1 cells indicated that the mutant protein is poorly secreted and not functional. In conclusion, the c.1281C>G mutation, which was predicted to be translationally silent and hence neutral, causes FV deficiency by impairing pre-mRNA splicing. This finding underscores the importance of cDNA analysis for the correct assessment of exonic mutations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Modulation of mdm2 pre-mRNA splicing by 9-aminoacridine-PNA (peptide nucleic acid conjugates targeting intron-exon junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Peter E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of pre-mRNA splicing by antisense molecules is a promising mechanism of action for gene therapeutic drugs. In this study, we have examined the potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA 9-aminoacridine conjugates to modulate the pre-mRNA splicing of the mdm2 human cancer gene in JAR cells. Methods We screened 10 different 15 mer PNAs targeting intron2 at both the 5' - and the 3'-splice site for their effects on the splicing of mdm2 using RT-PCR analysis. We also tested a PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 with a complementarity of 4 bases to intron3 and 11 bases to exon4 for its splicing modulation effect. This PNA2512 was further tested for the effects on the mdm2 protein level as well as for inhibition of cell growth in combination with the DNA damaging agent camptothecin (CPT. Results We show that several of these PNAs effectively inhibit the splicing thereby producing a larger mRNA still containing intron2, while skipping of exon3 was not observed by any of these PNAs. The most effective PNA (PNA2406 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron2 had a complementarity of 4 bases to intron2 and 11 bases to exon3. PNA (2512 targeting the 3'-splice site of intron3 induced both splicing inhibition (intron3 skipping and skipping of exon4. Furthermore, treatment of JAR cells with this PNA resulted in a reduction in the level of MDM2 protein and a concomitant increase in the level of tumor suppressor p53. In addition, a combination of this PNA with CPT inhibited cell growth more than CPT alone. Conclusion We have identified several PNAs targeting the 5'- or 3'-splice sites in intron2 or the 3'-splice site of intron3 of mdm2 pre-mRNA which can inhibit splicing. Antisense targeting of splice junctions of mdm2 pre-mRNA may be a powerful method to evaluate the cellular function of MDM2 splice variants as well as a promising approach for discovery of mdm2 targeted anticancer drugs.

  10. Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Mammals and Teleost Fish: A Effective Strategy for the Regulation of Immune Responses Against Pathogen Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming Xian; Zhang, Jie

    2017-07-15

    Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function. As lower vertebrates, teleost fish mainly rely on a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various invading pathogens. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of alternative splicing of piscine PRRs including peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and their downstream signaling molecules, compared to splicing in mammals. We also discuss what is known and unknown about the function of splicing isoforms in the innate immune responses against pathogens infection in mammals and teleost fish. Finally, we highlight the consequences of alternative splicing in the innate immune system and give our view of important directions for future studies.

  11. Depolarization-mediated regulation of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok eSharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

  12. Deleted in malignant brain tumors-1 protein (DMBT1): a pattern recognition receptor with multiple binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Veerman, Enno C I

    2010-01-01

    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1(SAG)), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1(GP340)) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to SRCR domains, all DMBT1s contain two CUB domains and one zona pellucida domain. The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic streptococci, Helicobacter pylori and HIV. Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW). Adjacent to each individual SRCR domain are glycosylation domains, where the attached carbohydrate chains play a role in the binding of influenza A virus and Helicobacter pylori. The composition of the carbohydrate chains is not only donor specific, but also varies between different organs. These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding motifs.

  13. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 Protein (DMBT1: A Pattern Recognition Receptor with Multiple Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno C. I. Veerman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1, salivary agglutinin (DMBT1SAG, and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1GP340 are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to SRCR domains, all DMBT1s contain two CUB domains and one zona pellucida domain. The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic streptococci, Helicobacter pylori and HIV. Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW. Adjacent to each individual SRCR domain are glycosylation domains, where the attached carbohydrate chains play a role in the binding of influenza A virus and Helicobacter pylori. The composition of the carbohydrate chains is not only donor specific, but also varies between different organs. These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding motifs.

  14. RAGE splicing variants in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterenczak, Katharina Anna; Nolte, Ingo; Murua Escobar, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of environmental stressors which plays key roles in pathophysiological processes, including immune/inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetic arteriosclerosis, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Besides the full-length RAGE protein in humans nearly 20 natural occurring RAGE splicing variants were described on mRNA and protein level. These naturally occurring isoforms are characterized by either N-terminally or C-terminally truncations and are discussed as possible regulators of the full-length RAGE receptor either by competitive ligand binding or by displacing the full-length protein in the membrane. Accordingly, expression deregulations of the naturally occurring isoforms were supposed to have significant effect on RAGE-mediated disorders. Thereby the soluble C-truncated RAGE isoforms present in plasma and tissues are the mostly focused isoforms in research and clinics. Deregulations of the circulating levels of soluble RAGE forms were reported in several RAGE-associated pathological disorders including for example atherosclerosis, diabetes, renal failure, Alzheimer's disease, and several cancer types. Regarding other mammalian species, the canine RAGE gene showed high similarities to the corresponding human structures indicating RAGE to be evolutionary highly conserved between both species. Similar to humans the canine RAGE showed a complex and extensive splicing activity leading to a manifold pattern of RAGE isoforms. Due to the similarities seen in several canine and human diseases-including cancer-comparative structural and functional analyses allow the development of RAGE and ligand-specific therapeutic approaches beneficial for human and veterinary medicine.

  15. Splicing pattern - ASTRA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us ASTRA Splicing pattern Data detail Data name Splicing pattern DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00371-0...04 Description of data contents The patterns of alternative splicing/transcriptional initiation Data file Fi...le name: astra_splicing_pattern.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/astra/LATEST/astra_splicing_patt...ogodb/view/astra_splicing_pattern#en Data acquisition method For the five organisms (H. sapiens, M. musculus...apping data into bit arrays, detection of splicing patterns and distribution to t

  16. Intergenic mRNA molecules resulting from trans-splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finta, Csaba; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2002-02-22

    Accumulated recent evidence is indicating that alternative splicing represents a generalized process that increases the complexity of human gene expression. Here we show that mRNA production may not necessarily be limited to single genes, as human liver also has the potential to produce a variety of hybrid cytochrome P450 3A mRNA molecules. The four known cytochrome P450 3A genes in humans, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, and CYP3A43, share a high degree of similarity, consist of 13 exons with conserved exon-intron boundaries, and form a cluster on chromosome 7. The chimeric CYP3A mRNA molecules described herein are characterized by CYP3A43 exon 1 joined at canonical splice sites to distinct sets of CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 exons. Because the CYP3A43 gene is in a head-to-head orientation with the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes, bypassing transcriptional termination can not account for the formation of hybrid CYP3A mRNAs. Thus, the mechanism generating these molecules has to be an RNA processing event that joins exons of independent pre-mRNA molecules, i.e. trans-splicing. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the ratio of one CYP3A43/3A4 intergenic combination was estimated to be approximately 0.15% that of the CYP3A43 mRNAs. Moreover, trans-splicing has been found not to interfere with polyadenylation. Heterologous expression of the chimeric species composed of CYP3A43 exon 1 joined to exons 2-13 of CYP3A4 revealed catalytic activity toward testosterone.

  17. A synonymous polymorphic variation in ACADM exon 11 affects splicing efficiency and may affect fatty acid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann; Doktor, Thomas Koed; Andresen, Brage Storstein

    2013-01-01

    beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. We examined the functional basis for this association and identified linkage between rs211718 and the intragenic synonymous polymorphic variant c.1161A>G in ACADM exon 11 (rs1061337). Employing minigene studies we show that the c.1161A allele is associated......, perhaps due to improved splicing. This study is a proof of principle that synonymous SNPs are not neutral. By changing the binding sites for splicing regulatory proteins they can have significant effects on pre-mRNA splicing and thus protein function. In addition, this study shows that for a sequence...

  18. Exploring the role of water in molecular recognition: predicting protein ligandability using a combinatorial search of surface hydration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Sinisa; Brennan, Paul E.; Huggins, David J.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between any two biological molecules must compete with their interaction with water molecules. This makes water the most important molecule in medicine, as it controls the interactions of every therapeutic with its target. A small molecule binding to a protein is able to recognize a unique binding site on a protein by displacing bound water molecules from specific hydration sites. Quantifying the interactions of these water molecules allows us to estimate the potential of the protein to bind a small molecule. This is referred to as ligandability. In the study, we describe a method to predict ligandability by performing a search of all possible combinations of hydration sites on protein surfaces. We predict ligandability as the summed binding free energy for each of the constituent hydration sites, computed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory. We compared the predicted ligandability with the maximum observed binding affinity for 20 proteins in the human bromodomain family. Based on this comparison, it was determined that effective inhibitors have been developed for the majority of bromodomains, in the range from 10 to 100 nM. However, we predict that more potent inhibitors can be developed for the bromodomains BPTF and BRD7 with relative ease, but that further efforts to develop inhibitors for ATAD2 will be extremely challenging. We have also made predictions for the 14 bromodomains with no reported small molecule K d values by isothermal titration calorimetry. The calculations predict that PBRM1(1) will be a challenging target, while others such as TAF1L(2), PBRM1(4) and TAF1(2), should be highly ligandable. As an outcome of this work, we assembled a database of experimental maximal K d that can serve as a community resource assisting medicinal chemistry efforts focused on BRDs. Effective prediction of ligandability would be a very useful tool in the drug discovery process.

  19. Exploring the role of water in molecular recognition: predicting protein ligandability using a combinatorial search of surface hydration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Sinisa; Brennan, Paul E; Huggins, David J

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between any two biological molecules must compete with their interaction with water molecules. This makes water the most important molecule in medicine, as it controls the interactions of every therapeutic with its target. A small molecule binding to a protein is able to recognize a unique binding site on a protein by displacing bound water molecules from specific hydration sites. Quantifying the interactions of these water molecules allows us to estimate the potential of the protein to bind a small molecule. This is referred to as ligandability. In the study, we describe a method to predict ligandability by performing a search of all possible combinations of hydration sites on protein surfaces. We predict ligandability as the summed binding free energy for each of the constituent hydration sites, computed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory. We compared the predicted ligandability with the maximum observed binding affinity for 20 proteins in the human bromodomain family. Based on this comparison, it was determined that effective inhibitors have been developed for the majority of bromodomains, in the range from 10 to 100 nM. However, we predict that more potent inhibitors can be developed for the bromodomains BPTF and BRD7 with relative ease, but that further efforts to develop inhibitors for ATAD2 will be extremely challenging. We have also made predictions for the 14 bromodomains with no reported small molecule K d values by isothermal titration calorimetry. The calculations predict that PBRM1(1) will be a challenging target, while others such as TAF1L(2), PBRM1(4) and TAF1(2), should be highly ligandable. As an outcome of this work, we assembled a database of experimental maximal K d that can serve as a community resource assisting medicinal chemistry efforts focused on BRDs. Effective prediction of ligandability would be a very useful tool in the drug discovery process.

  20. An Alternate Splicing Variant of the Human Telomerase Catalytic Subunit Inhibits Telomerase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Yi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a cellular reverse transcriptase, adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends. In normal human somatic cells, telomerase is repressed and telomeres progressively shorten, leading to proliferative senescence. Introduction of the telomerase (hTERT cDNA is sufficient to produce telomerase activity and immortalize normal human cells, suggesting that the repression of telomerase activity is transcriptional. The telomerase transcript has been shown to have at least six alternate splicing sites (four insertion sites and two deletion sites, and variants containing both or either of the deletion sites are present during development and in a panel of cancer cell lines we surveyed. One deletion (β site and all four insertions cause premature translation terminations, whereas the other deletion (α site is 36 by and lies within reverse transcriptase (RT motif A, suggesting that this deletion variant may be a candidate as a dominant-negative inhibitor of telomerase. We have cloned three alternately spliced hTERT variants that contain the α,β or both α and,β deletion sites. These alternate splicing variants along with empty vector and wild-type hTERT were introduced into normal human fibroblasts and several telomerase-positive immortal and tumor cell lines. Expression of the α site deletion variant (hTERT α− construct was confirmed by Western blotting. We found that none of the three alternate splicing variants reconstitutes telomerase activity in fibroblasts. However, hTERT α− inhibits telomerase activities in telomerase-positive cells, causes telomere shortening and eventually cell death. This alternately spliced dominant-negative variant may be important in understanding telomerase regulation during development, differentiation and in cancer progression.

  1. Protein splicing and its evolution in eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starokadomskyy P. L.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Inteins, or protein introns, are parts of protein sequences that are post-translationally excised, their flanking regions (exteins being spliced together. This process was called protein splicing. Originally inteins were found in prokaryotic or unicellular eukaryotic organisms. But the general principles of post-translation protein rearrangement are evolving yielding different post-translation modification of proteins in multicellular organisms. For clarity, these non-intein mediated events call either protein rearrangements or protein editing. The most intriguing example of protein editing is proteasome-mediated splicing of antigens in vertebrates that may play important role in antigen presentation. Other examples of protein rearrangements are maturation of Hg-proteins (critical receptors in embryogenesis as well as maturation of several metabolic enzymes. Despite a lack of experimental data we try to analyze some intriguing examples of protein splicing evolution.

  2. Stereospecific recognition sites for [3H]inositol(1,4,5)-triphosphate in particulate preparations of rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcocks, A.L.; Cooke, A.M.; Potter, B.V.; Nahorski, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A very high density of stereospecific binding sites for inositol-(1,4,5)P3 have been identified in rat cerebellar membranes using [ 3 H]inositol-(1,4,5)P3 and a rapid centrifugation step to separate free and bound ligand. Binding was shown to be rapid and reversible and of relatively high affinity (KD 23 nM). Incubations were carried out at 4 degrees and under these conditions HPLC analysis demonstrated that there was no significant metabolism of [ 3 H]-(1,4,5)P3 in the presence or absence of ATP over 15 min. The specificity of the site has been carefully evaluated using both natural and novel synthetic inositol phosphates. The stereospecificity is very marked with the D-, DL- and L-isomers of Ins(1,4,5)P3 showing a 1:4:2000 ratio of affinity for the binding site. D-Ins(2,4,5)P3 was the only other phosphate to show relatively high affinity (KD 1500 nM). HPLC-pure Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 were substantially weaker and Ins(1,4)P2, Ins-2-P1, Ins-1-P1, Ins(1,2)-cyclic P1 and inositol were totally inactive at concentrations less than 50 microM. These data are discussed in relation to a putative receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum by which Ins(1,4,5)P3 can initiate the release of bound Ca 2+

  3. Variation in alternative splicing across human tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Gene; Holste, Dirk; Kreiman, Gabriel; Burge, Christopher B

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) is widely used by higher eukaryotes to generate different protein isoforms in specific cell or tissue types. To compare AS events across human tissues, we analyzed the splicing patterns of genomically aligned expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from libraries of cDNAs from different tissues. Results: Controlling for differences in EST coverage among tissues, we found that the brain and testis had the highest levels of exon skipping. The most p...

  4. Characterization of a splicing mutation in group A xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satokata, Ichiro; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Miura, Naoyuki; Miyamoto, Iwai; Okada, Yoshio; Satoh, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Seiji

    1990-01-01

    The molecular basis of group A xeroderma pigmentosum (WP) was investigated by comparison of the nucleotide sequences of multiple clones of the XP group A complementing gene (XPAC) from a patient with group A XP with that of a normal gene. The clones showed a G → C substitution at the 3' splice acceptor site of intron 3, which altered the obligatory AG acceptor dinucleotide to AC. Nucleotide sequencing of cDNAs amplified by the polymerase chain reaction revealed that this single base substitution abolishes the canonical 3' splice site, thus creating two abnormally spliced mRNA forms. The larger form is identical with normal mRNA except for a dinucleotide deletion at the 5' end of exon 4. This deletion results in a frameshift with premature translation termination in exon 4. The smaller form has a deletion of the entire exon 3 and the dinucleotide at the 5' end of exon 4. The result of a transfection study provided additional evidence that this single base substitution is the disease-causing mutation. This single base substitution creates a new cleavage site for the restriction nuclease AlwNI. Analysis of AlwNI restriction fragment length polymorphism showed a high frequency of this mutation in Japanese patients with group A XP: 16 of 21 unrelated Japanese patients were homozygous and 4 were heterozygous for this mutation. However, 11 Caucasians and 2 Blacks with group A XP did not have this mutant allele. The polymorphic AlwNI restriction fragments are concluded to be useful for diagnosis of group A XP in Japanese subjects, including prenatal cases and carriers

  5. Regulation of Neurexin 1[beta] Tertiary Structure and Ligand Binding through Alternative Splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Kaiser C.; Kuczynska, Dorota A.; Wu, Irene J.; Murray, Beverly H.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2008-08-04

    Neurexins and neuroligins play an essential role in synapse function, and their alterations are linked to autistic spectrum disorder. Interactions between neurexins and neuroligins regulate inhibitory and excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro through a splice-insert signaling code. In particular, neurexin 1{beta} carrying an alternative splice insert at site SS{number_sign}4 interacts with neuroligin 2 (found predominantly at inhibitory synapses) but much less so with other neuroligins (those carrying an insert at site B and prevalent at excitatory synapses). The structure of neurexin 1{beta}+SS{number_sign}4 reveals dramatic rearrangements to the 'hypervariable surface', the binding site for neuroligins. The splice insert protrudes as a long helix into space, triggers conversion of loop {beta}10-{beta}11 into a helix rearranging the binding site for neuroligins, and rearranges the Ca{sup 2+}-binding site required for ligand binding, increasing its affinity. Our structures reveal the mechanism by which neurexin 1{beta} isoforms acquire neuroligin splice isoform selectivity.

  6. Thermopriming Triggers Splicing Memory in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2018-02-20

    Abiotic and biotic stresses limit crop productivity. Exposure to a non-lethal stress, referred to as priming, can allow plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal conditions; the priming effect persists even after a prolonged stress-free period. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying priming are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of heat shock memory and the role of priming in Arabidopsisthaliana. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression and alternative splicing in primed and non-primed plants revealed that alternative splicing functions as a novel component of heat shock memory. We show that priming of plants with a non-lethal heat stress results in de-repression of splicing after a second exposure to heat stress. By contrast, non-primed plants showed significant repression of splicing. These observations link ‘splicing memory’ to the ability of plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal heat stress. This newly discovered priming-induced splicing memory may represent a general feature of heat stress responses in plants and other organisms as many of the key components of heat shock responses are conserved among eukaryotes. Furthermore, this finding could facilitate the development of novel approaches to improve plant survival under extreme heat stress.

  7. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  8. PASSion: a pattern growth algorithm-based pipeline for splice junction detection in paired-end RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanju; Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Ning, Zemin; Slagboom, P Eline; Ye, Kai

    2012-02-15

    RNA-seq is a powerful technology for the study of transcriptome profiles that uses deep-sequencing technologies. Moreover, it may be used for cellular phenotyping and help establishing the etiology of diseases characterized by abnormal splicing patterns. In RNA-Seq, the exact nature of splicing events is buried in the reads that span exon-exon boundaries. The accurate and efficient mapping of these reads to the reference genome is a major challenge. We developed PASSion, a pattern growth algorithm-based pipeline for splice site detection in paired-end RNA-Seq reads. Comparing the performance of PASSion to three existing RNA-Seq analysis pipelines, TopHat, MapSplice and HMMSplicer, revealed that PASSion is competitive with these packages. Moreover, the performance of PASSion is not affected by read length and coverage. It performs better than the other three approaches when detecting junctions in highly abundant transcripts. PASSion has the ability to detect junctions that do not have known splicing motifs, which cannot be found by the other tools. Of the two public RNA-Seq datasets, PASSion predicted ≈ 137,000 and 173,000 splicing events, of which on average 82 are known junctions annotated in the Ensembl transcript database and 18% are novel. In addition, our package can discover differential and shared splicing patterns among multiple samples. The code and utilities can be freely downloaded from https://trac.nbic.nl/passion and ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/zn1/passion.

  9. Differential Recognition of Old World and New World Arenavirus Envelope Glycoproteins by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/Site 1 Protease (S1P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Ramos da Palma, Joel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses that includes several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans that represent serious public health problems. A crucial step of the arenavirus life cycle is maturation of the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P). Comparison of the currently known sequences of arenavirus GPCs revealed the presence of a highly conserved aromatic residue at position P7 relative to the SKI-1/S1P cleavage side in Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses but not in New World viruses of clades A and B or cellular substrates of SKI-1/S1P. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis, we found that residueY285 of SKI-1/S1P, distal from the catalytic triad, is implicated in the molecular recognition of the aromatic “signature residue” at P7 in the GPC of Old World Lassa virus. Using a quantitative biochemical approach, we show that Y285 of SKI-1/S1P is crucial for the efficient processing of peptides derived from Old World and clade C New World arenavirus GPCs but not of those from clade A and B New World arenavirus GPCs. The data suggest that during coevolution with their mammalian hosts, GPCs of Old World and clade C New World viruses expanded the molecular contacts with SKI-1/S1P beyond the classical four-amino-acid recognition sequences and currently occupy an extended binding pocket. PMID:23536681

  10. Genetics of alternative splicing evolution during sunflower domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris C R; Tittes, Silas; Mendieta, J Paul; Collier-Zans, Erin; Rowe, Heather C; Rieseberg, Loren H; Kane, Nolan C

    2018-06-11

    Alternative splicing enables organisms to produce the diversity of proteins necessary for multicellular life by using relatively few protein-coding genes. Although differences in splicing have been identified among divergent taxa, the shorter-term evolution of splicing is understudied. The origins of novel splice forms, and the contributions of alternative splicing to major evolutionary transitions, are largely unknown. This study used transcriptomes of wild and domesticated sunflowers to examine splice differentiation and regulation during domestication. We identified substantial splicing divergence between wild and domesticated sunflowers, mainly in the form of intron retention. Transcripts with divergent splicing were enriched for seed-development functions, suggesting that artificial selection impacted splicing patterns. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with 144 differential splicing cases revealed primarily trans -acting variation affecting splicing patterns. A large proportion of identified QTLs contain known spliceosome proteins and are associated with splicing variation in multiple genes. Examining a broader set of wild and domesticated sunflower genotypes revealed that most differential splicing patterns in domesticated sunflowers likely arose from standing variation in wild Helianthus annuus and gained frequency during the domestication process. However, several domesticate-associated splicing patterns appear to be introgressed from other Helianthus species. These results suggest that sunflower domestication involved selection on pleiotropic regulatory alleles. More generally, our findings indicate that substantial differences in isoform abundances arose rapidly during a recent evolutionary transition and appear to contribute to adaptation and population divergence.

  11. CIR, a corepressor of CBF1, binds to PAP-1 and effects alternative splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maita, Hiroshi; Kitaura, Hirotake; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have reported that PAP-1, a product of a causative gene for autosomal retinitis pigmentosa, plays a role in splicing. In this study, CIR, a protein originally identified as a CBF1-interacting protein and reported to act as a transcriptional corepressor, was identified as a PAP-1 binding protein and its function as a splicing factor was investigated. In addition to a basic lysine and acidic serine-rich (BA) domain and a zinc knuckle-like motif, CIR has an arginine/serine dipeptide repeat (RS) domain in its C terminal region. The RS domain has been reported to be present in the superfamily of SR proteins, which are involved in splicing reactions. We generated CIR mutants with deletions of each BA and RS domain and studied their subcellular localizations and interactions with PAP-1 and other SR proteins, including SC35, SF2/ASF, and U2AF 35 . CIR was found to interact with U2AF 35 through the BA domain, with SC35 and SF2/ASF through the RS domain, and with PAP-1 outside the BA domain in vivo and in vitro. CIR was found to be colocalized with SC35 and PAP-1 in nuclear speckles. Then the effect of CIR on splicing was investigated using the E1a minigene as a reporter in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of CIR with the E1a minigene changed the ratio of spliced isoforms of E1a that were produced by alternative selection of 5'-splice sites. These results indicate that CIR is a member of the family of SR-related proteins and that CIR plays a role in splicing regulation

  12. CDKL5 influences RNA splicing activity by its association to the nuclear speckle molecular machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Sara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Bienvenu, Thierry; Jacquette, Aurélia; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Broccoli, Vania

    2009-12-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders including infantile spasms, encephalopathy, West-syndrome and an early-onset variant of Rett syndrome. CDKL5 is a serine/threonine kinase whose involvement in Rett syndrome can be inferred by its ability to directly bind and mediate phosphorylation of MeCP2. However, it remains to be elucidated how CDKL5 exerts its function. Here, we report that CDKL5 localizes to specific nuclear foci referred to as nuclear speckles in both cell lines and tissues. These sub-nuclear structures are traditionally considered as storage/modification sites of pre-mRNA splicing factors. Interestingly, we provide evidence that CDKL5 regulates the dynamic behaviour of nuclear speckles. Indeed, CDKL5 overexpression leads to nuclear speckle disassembly, and this event is strictly dependent on its kinase activity. Conversely, its down-regulation affects nuclear speckle morphology leading to abnormally large and uneven speckles. Similar results were obtained for primary adult fibroblasts isolated from CDKL5-mutated patients. Altogether, these findings indicate that CDKL5 controls nuclear speckle morphology probably by regulating the phosphorylation state of splicing regulatory proteins. Nuclear speckles are dynamic sites that can continuously supply splicing factors to active transcription sites, where splicing occurs. Notably, we proved that CDKL5 influences alternative splicing, at least as proved in heterologous minigene assays. In conclusion, we provide evidence that CDKL5 is involved indirectly in pre-mRNA processing, by controlling splicing factor dynamics. These findings identify a biological process whose disregulation might affect neuronal maturation and activity in CDKL5-related disorders.

  13. Vitamin D and alternative splicing of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) exerts its genomic effects via binding to a nuclear high-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent deep sequencing analysis of VDR binding locations across the complete genome has significantly expanded our understanding of the actions of vitamin D and VDR on gene transcription. However, these studies have also promoted appreciation of the extra-transcriptional impact of vitamin D on gene expression. It is now clear that vitamin D interacts with the epigenome via effects on DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA generation to maintain normal biological functions. There is also increasing evidence that vitamin D can influence pre-mRNA constitutive splicing and alternative splicing, although the mechanism for this remains unclear. Pre-mRNA splicing has long been thought to be a post-transcription RNA processing event, but current data indicate that this occurs co-transcriptionally. Several steroid hormones have been recognized to coordinately control gene transcription and pre-mRNA splicing through the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-regulators that can both control gene transcription and splicing. The current review will discuss this concept with specific reference to vitamin D, and the potential role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC), a nuclear factor with an established function in RNA splicing. hnRNPC, has been shown to be involved in the VDR transcriptional complex as a vitamin D-response element-binding protein (VDRE-BP), and may act as a coupling factor linking VDR-directed gene transcription with RNA splicing. In this way hnRNPC may provide an additional mechanism for the fine-tuning of vitamin D-regulated target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting human splicing branchpoints by combining sequence-derived features and multi-label learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Fu, Yu; Tsuji, Junko; Weng, Zhiping

    2017-12-01

    Alternative splicing is the critical process in a single gene coding, which removes introns and joins exons, and splicing branchpoints are indicators for the alternative splicing. Wet experiments have identified a great number of human splicing branchpoints, but many branchpoints are still unknown. In order to guide wet experiments, we develop computational methods to predict human splicing branchpoints. Considering the fact that an intron may have multiple branchpoints, we transform the branchpoint prediction as the multi-label learning problem, and attempt to predict branchpoint sites from intron sequences. First, we investigate a variety of intron sequence-derived features, such as sparse profile, dinucleotide profile, position weight matrix profile, Markov motif profile and polypyrimidine tract profile. Second, we consider several multi-label learning methods: partial least squares regression, canonical correlation analysis and regularized canonical correlation analysis, and use them as the basic classification engines. Third, we propose two ensemble learning schemes which integrate different features and different classifiers to build ensemble learning systems for the branchpoint prediction. One is the genetic algorithm-based weighted average ensemble method; the other is the logistic regression-based ensemble method. In the computational experiments, two ensemble learning methods outperform benchmark branchpoint prediction methods, and can produce high-accuracy results on the benchmark dataset.

  15. RNA Splicing in a New Rhabdovirus from Culex Mosquitoes▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Tsuda, Yoshio; Yanase, Tohru; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Among members of the order Mononegavirales, RNA splicing events have been found only in the family Bornaviridae. Here, we report that a new rhabdovirus isolated from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus replicates in the nuclei of infected cells and requires RNA splicing for viral mRNA maturation. The virus, designated Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus (CTRV), shares a similar genome organization with other rhabdoviruses, except for the presence of a putative intron in the coding region for the L protein. Molecular phylogenetic studies indicated that CTRV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, but it is yet to be assigned a genus. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the CTRV virion is extremely elongated, unlike virions of rhabdoviruses, which are generally bullet shaped. Northern hybridization confirmed that a large transcript (approximately 6,500 nucleotides [nt]) from the CTRV L gene was present in the infected cells. Strand-specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses identified the intron-exon boundaries and the 76-nt intron sequence, which contains the typical motif for eukaryotic spliceosomal intron-splice donor/acceptor sites (GU-AG), a predicted branch point, and a polypyrimidine tract. In situ hybridization exhibited that viral RNAs are primarily localized in the nucleus of infected cells, indicating that CTRV replicates in the nucleus and is allowed to utilize the host's nuclear splicing machinery. This is the first report of RNA splicing among the members of the family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:21507977

  16. Single Molecule Cluster Analysis Identifies Signature Dynamic Conformations along the Splicing Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mario R.; Martin, Joshua S.; Kahlscheuer, Matthew L.; Krishnan, Ramya; Abelson, John; Laederach, Alain; Walter, Nils G.

    2016-01-01

    The spliceosome is the dynamic RNA-protein machine responsible for faithfully splicing introns from precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs). Many of the dynamic processes required for the proper assembly, catalytic activation, and disassembly of the spliceosome as it acts on its pre-mRNA substrate remain poorly understood, a challenge that persists for many biomolecular machines. Here, we developed a fluorescence-based Single Molecule Cluster Analysis (SiMCAn) tool to dissect the manifold conformational dynamics of a pre-mRNA through the splicing cycle. By clustering common dynamic behaviors derived from selectively blocked splicing reactions, SiMCAn was able to identify signature conformations and dynamic behaviors of multiple ATP-dependent intermediates. In addition, it identified a conformation adopted late in splicing by a 3′ splice site mutant, invoking a mechanism for substrate proofreading. SiMCAn presents a novel framework for interpreting complex single molecule behaviors that should prove widely useful for the comprehensive analysis of a plethora of dynamic cellular machines. PMID:26414013

  17. Splicing of a C. elegans myosin pre-mRNA in a human nuclear extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogg, S C; Anderson, P; Wickens, M P [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)

    1990-01-11

    Splicing of mammalian introns requires that the intron possess at least 80 nucleotides. This length requirement presumably reflects the constraints of accommodating multiple snRNPs simultaneously in the same intro. In the free-living nematode, C. elegans, introns typically are 45 to 55 nucleotides in length. In this report, the authors determine whether C. elegans introns can obviate the mammalian length requirement by virtue of their structure or sequence. They demonstrate that a 53 nucleotide intron from the unc-54 gene of C. elegans does not undergo splicing in a mammalian (HeLa) nuclear extract. However, insertion of 31 nucleotides of foreign, prokaryotic sequence into the same intron results in efficient splicing. The observed splicing proceeds by the same two-step mechanism observed with mammalian introns, and exploits the same 3{prime} and 5{prime} sites as are used in C. elegans. The branch point used lies in the inserted sequences. They conclude that C. elegans splicing components are either fewer in number or smaller than their mammalian counterparts.

  18. Identification of new alternative splice events in the TCIRG1 gene in different human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, Anna S.; Morgun, Andrey; Shulzhenko, Natalia; Silva, Ismael D.C.G.; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Two transcript variants (TV) of the T cell immune regulator gene 1 (TCIRG1) have already been characterized. TV1 encodes a subunit of the osteoclast vacuolar proton pump and TV2 encodes a T cell inhibitory receptor. Based on the search in dbEST, we validated by RT-PCR six new alternative splice events in TCIRG1 in most of the 28 human tissues studied. In addition, we observed that transcripts using the TV1 transcription start site and two splice forms previously described in a patient with infantile malignant osteopetrosis are also expressed in various tissues of healthy individuals. Studies of these nine splice forms in cytoplasmic RNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that at least six of them could be efficiently exported from the nucleus. Since various products with nearly ubiquitous tissue distribution are generated from TCIRG1, this gene may be involved in other processes besides immune response and bone resorption

  19. Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) exon 11 is vulnerable - Molecular pathology of mutations in PAH exon 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    as a vulnerable exon and used patient derived lymphoblast cell lines and PAH minigenes to study the molecular defect that impacted pre-mRNA processing. We showed that the c.1144T>C and c.1066-3C>T mutations cause exon 11 skipping, while the c.1139C>T mutation is neutral or slightly beneficial. The c.1144T......In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation...... molecular pathology is important. Mutations that disturb the splicing of exons (e.g. interplay between splice site strength and regulatory sequences like exon splicing enhancers (ESEs)/exon splicing silencers (ESSs)) may cause different severity of PKU. In this study, we identified PAH exon 11...

  20. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  1. Modelling reveals kinetic advantages of co-transcriptional splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Messenger RNA splicing is an essential and complex process for the removal of intron sequences. Whereas the composition of the splicing machinery is mostly known, the kinetics of splicing, the catalytic activity of splicing factors and the interdependency of transcription, splicing and mRNA 3' end formation are less well understood. We propose a stochastic model of splicing kinetics that explains data obtained from high-resolution kinetic analyses of transcription, splicing and 3' end formation during induction of an intron-containing reporter gene in budding yeast. Modelling reveals co-transcriptional splicing to be the most probable and most efficient splicing pathway for the reporter transcripts, due in part to a positive feedback mechanism for co-transcriptional second step splicing. Model comparison is used to assess the alternative representations of reactions. Modelling also indicates the functional coupling of transcription and splicing, because both the rate of initiation of transcription and the probability that step one of splicing occurs co-transcriptionally are reduced, when the second step of splicing is abolished in a mutant reporter.

  2. Modelling reveals kinetic advantages of co-transcriptional splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Stuart; Alexander, Ross D; Beggs, Jean D

    2011-10-01

    Messenger RNA splicing is an essential and complex process for the removal of intron sequences. Whereas the composition of the splicing machinery is mostly known, the kinetics of splicing, the catalytic activity of splicing factors and the interdependency of transcription, splicing and mRNA 3' end formation are less well understood. We propose a stochastic model of splicing kinetics that explains data obtained from high-resolution kinetic analyses of transcription, splicing and 3' end formation during induction of an intron-containing reporter gene in budding yeast. Modelling reveals co-transcriptional splicing to be the most probable and most efficient splicing pathway for the reporter transcripts, due in part to a positive feedback mechanism for co-transcriptional second step splicing. Model comparison is used to assess the alternative representations of reactions. Modelling also indicates the functional coupling of transcription and splicing, because both the rate of initiation of transcription and the probability that step one of splicing occurs co-transcriptionally are reduced, when the second step of splicing is abolished in a mutant reporter.

  3. Coding potential of the products of alternative splicing in human.

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido

    2011-01-20

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of the human genome has revealed that as much as an order of magnitude more of the genomic sequence is transcribed than accounted for by the predicted and characterized genes. A number of these transcripts are alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes; however, it is becoming clear that many of them do not necessarily correspond to a functional protein. RESULTS: In this study we analyze alternative splicing isoforms of human gene products that are unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry and compare their properties with those of isoforms of the same genes for which no peptide was found in publicly available mass spectrometry datasets. We analyze them in detail for the presence of uninterrupted functional domains, active sites as well as the plausibility of their predicted structure. We report how well each of these strategies and their combination can correctly identify translated isoforms and derive a lower limit for their specificity, that is, their ability to correctly identify non-translated products. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective strategy for correctly identifying translated products relies on the conservation of active sites, but it can only be applied to a small fraction of isoforms, while a reasonably high coverage, sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by analyzing the presence of non-truncated functional domains. Combining the latter with an assessment of the plausibility of the modeled structure of the isoform increases both coverage and specificity with a moderate cost in terms of sensitivity.

  4. Coding potential of the products of alternative splicing in human.

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido; Le Pera, Loredana; Ferrè , Fabrizio; Raimondo, Domenico; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of the human genome has revealed that as much as an order of magnitude more of the genomic sequence is transcribed than accounted for by the predicted and characterized genes. A number of these transcripts are alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes; however, it is becoming clear that many of them do not necessarily correspond to a functional protein. RESULTS: In this study we analyze alternative splicing isoforms of human gene products that are unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry and compare their properties with those of isoforms of the same genes for which no peptide was found in publicly available mass spectrometry datasets. We analyze them in detail for the presence of uninterrupted functional domains, active sites as well as the plausibility of their predicted structure. We report how well each of these strategies and their combination can correctly identify translated isoforms and derive a lower limit for their specificity, that is, their ability to correctly identify non-translated products. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective strategy for correctly identifying translated products relies on the conservation of active sites, but it can only be applied to a small fraction of isoforms, while a reasonably high coverage, sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by analyzing the presence of non-truncated functional domains. Combining the latter with an assessment of the plausibility of the modeled structure of the isoform increases both coverage and specificity with a moderate cost in terms of sensitivity.

  5. A conserved motif in the linker domain of STAT1 transcription factor is required for both recognition and release from high-affinity DNA-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntelmann, Bettina; Staab, Julia; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Binding to specific palindromic sequences termed gamma-activated sites (GAS) is a hallmark of gene activation by members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of cytokine-inducible transcription factors. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the signal-dependent finding of target genes by STAT dimers have not yet been very well studied. In this study, we have characterized a sequence motif in the STAT1 linker domain which is highly conserved among the seven human STAT proteins and includes surface-exposed residues in close proximity to the bound DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that a lysine residue in position 567 of the full-length molecule is required for GAS recognition. The substitution of alanine for this residue completely abolished both binding to high-affinity GAS elements and transcriptional activation of endogenous target genes in cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ), while the time course of transient nuclear accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation were virtually unchanged. In contrast, two glutamic acid residues (E559 and E563) on each monomer are important for the dissociation of dimeric STAT1 from DNA and, when mutated to alanine, result in elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as well as prolonged IFNγ-stimulated nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that the kinetics of signal-dependent GAS binding is determined by an array of glutamic acid residues located at the interior surface of the STAT1 dimer. These negatively charged residues appear to align the long axis of the STAT1 dimer in a position perpendicular to the DNA, thereby facilitating the interaction between lysine 567 and the phosphodiester backbone of a bound GAS element, which is a prerequisite for transient gene induction.

  6. The 20S proteasome splicing activity discovered by SpliceMet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Liepe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of proteasome-generated spliced peptides (PSP revealed a new unpredicted activity of the major cellular protease. However, so far characterization of PSP was entirely dependent on the availability of patient-derived cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL thus preventing a systematic investigation of proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing (PCPS. For an unrestricted PSP identification we here developed SpliceMet, combining the computer-based algorithm ProteaJ with in vitro proteasomal degradation assays and mass spectrometry. By applying SpliceMet for the analysis of proteasomal processing products of four different substrate polypeptides, derived from human tumor as well as viral antigens, we identified fifteen new spliced peptides generated by PCPS either by cis or from two separate substrate molecules, i.e., by trans splicing. Our data suggest that 20S proteasomes represent a molecular machine that, due to its catalytic and structural properties, facilitates the generation of spliced peptides, thereby providing a pool of qualitatively new peptides from which functionally relevant products may be selected.

  7. Loss of Pnn expression attenuates expression levels of SR family splicing factors and modulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu Yali; Ouyang Pin

    2006-01-01

    SR and SR-related proteins have been implicated as trans-acting factors that play an important role in splice selection and are involved at specific stages of spliceosome formation. A well-established property of SR protein splicing factors is their ability to influence selection of alternative splice sites in a concentration-dependent manner. Identification of molecules that regulate SR family protein expression is therefore of vital importance in RNA biology. Here we report that depletion of Pnn expression, a SR-related protein with functions involved in pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA export, induces reduced expression of a subset of cellular proteins, especially that of SR family proteins, including SC35, SRm300, SRp55, and SRp40, but not that of other nuclear proteins, such as p53, Mdm2, and ki67. Knocking down Pnn expression was achieved in vitro by siRNA transfection. Expression levels of SR and SR-related proteins in Pnn-depleted cells as compared to those in control cells were evaluated by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot with specific antibodies. In addition, we also demonstrate that loss of Pnn expression could modulate splice site selection of model reporter gene in vivo. Our finding is significant in terms of regulation of SR protein cellular concentration because it reveals that Pnn may play a general role in the control of the cellular amount of family SR proteins through down-regulation of its own expression, thereby providing us with a better understanding of the cellular mechanism by which Pnn fulfills its biological function

  8. Splicing analysis for exonic and intronic mismatch repair gene variants associated with Lynch syndrome confirms high concordance between minigene assays and patient RNA analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klift, Heleen M; Jansen, Anne M L; van der Steenstraten, Niki; Bik, Elsa C; Tops, Carli M J; Devilee, Peter; Wijnen, Juul T

    2015-01-01

    A subset of DNA variants causes genetic disease through aberrant splicing. Experimental splicing assays, either RT-PCR analyses of patient RNA or functional splicing reporter minigene assays, are required to evaluate the molecular nature of the splice defect. Here, we present minigene assays performed for 17 variants in the consensus splice site regions, 14 exonic variants outside these regions, and two deep intronic variants, all in the DNA mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, associated with Lynch syndrome. We also included two deep intronic variants in APC and PKD2. For one variant (MLH1 c.122A>G), our minigene assay and patient RNA analysis could not confirm the previously reported aberrant splicing. The aim of our study was to further investigate the concordance between minigene splicing assays and patient RNA analyses. For 30 variants results from patient RNA analyses were available, either performed by our laboratory or presented in literature. Some variants were deliberately included in this study because they resulted in multiple aberrant transcripts in patient RNA analysis, or caused a splice effect other than the prevalent exon skip. While both methods were completely concordant in the assessment of splice effects, four variants exhibited major differences in aberrant splice patterns. Based on the present and earlier studies, together showing an almost 100% concordance of minigene assays with patient RNA analyses, we discuss the weight given to minigene splicing assays in the current criteria proposed by InSiGHT for clinical classification of MMR variants. PMID:26247049

  9. Functional and evolutionary analysis of alternatively spliced genes is consistent with an early eukaryotic origin of alternative splicing

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    Penny David

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing has been reported in various eukaryotic groups including plants, apicomplexans, diatoms, amoebae, animals and fungi. However, whether widespread alternative splicing has evolved independently in the different eukaryotic groups or was inherited from their last common ancestor, and may therefore predate multicellularity, is still unknown. To better understand the origin and evolution of alternative splicing and its usage in diverse organisms, we studied alternative splicing in 12 eukaryotic species, comparing rates of alternative splicing across genes of different functional classes, cellular locations, intron/exon structures and evolutionary origins. Results For each species, we find that genes from most functional categories are alternatively spliced. Ancient genes (shared between animals, fungi and plants show high levels of alternative splicing. Genes with products expressed in the nucleus or plasma membrane are generally more alternatively spliced while those expressed in extracellular location show less alternative splicing. We find a clear correspondence between incidence of alternative splicing and intron number per gene both within and between genomes. In general, we find several similarities in patterns of alternative splicing across these diverse eukaryotes. Conclusion Along with previous studies indicating intron-rich genes with weak intron boundary consensus and complex spliceosomes in ancestral organisms, our results suggest that at least a simple form of alternative splicing may already have been present in the unicellular ancestor of plants, fungi and animals. A role for alternative splicing in the evolution of multicellularity then would largely have arisen by co-opting the preexisting process.

  10. Alternative splicing in cancers: From aberrant regulation to new therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Zeng, Zhenyu; Wei, Huanhuan; Wang, Zefeng

    2018-03-01

    Alternative splicing is one of the most common mechanisms for gene regulation in humans, and plays a vital role to increase the complexity of functional proteins. In this article, we seek to provide a general review on the relationships between alternative splicing and tumorigenesis. We briefly introduce the basic rules for regulation of alternative splicing, and discuss recent advances on dynamic regulation of alternative splicing in cancers by highlighting the roles of a variety of RNA splicing factors in tumorigenesis. We further discuss several important questions regarding the splicing of long noncoding RNAs and back-splicing of circular RNAs in cancers. Finally, we discuss the current technologies that can be used to manipulate alternative splicing and serve as potential cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional characterization of two novel splicing mutations in the OCA2 gene associated with oculocutaneous albinism type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Valeria; Straniero, Letizia; Asselta, Rosanna; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Soldà, Giulia; Primignani, Paola

    2014-03-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type II (OCA2) is one of the four commonly-recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the OCA2 gene. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis of OCA2 in two siblings and one unrelated patient. The mutational screening of the OCA2 gene identified two hitherto-unknown putative splicing mutations. The first one (c.1503+5G>A), identified in an Italian proband and her affected sibling, lies in the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of OCA2 intron 14 (IVS14+5G>A), in compound heterozygosity with a frameshift mutation, c.1450_1451insCTGCCCTGACA, which is predicted to determine the premature termination of the polypeptide chain (p.I484Tfs*19). In-silico prediction of the effect of the IVS14+5G>A mutation on splicing showed a score reduction for the mutant splice site and indicated the possible activation of a newly-created deep-intronic acceptor splice site. The second mutation is a synonymous transition (c.2139G>A, p.K713K) involving the last nucleotide of exon 20. This mutation was found in a young African albino patient in compound heterozygosity with a previously-reported OCA2 missense mutation (p.T404M). In-silico analysis predicted that the mutant c.2139G>A allele would result in the abolition of the splice donor site. The effects on splicing of these two novel mutations were investigated using an in-vitro hybrid-minigene approach that led to the demonstration of the causal role of the two mutations and to the identification of aberrant transcript variants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fox-2 Splicing Factor Binds to a Conserved Intron Motif to PromoteInclusion of Protein 4.1R Alternative Exon 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponthier, Julie L.; Schluepen, Christina; Chen, Weiguo; Lersch,Robert A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Hou, Victor C.; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Chasis, Joel A.; Winkelmann, John C.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-03-01

    Activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 (E16) inclusion during erythropoiesis represents a physiologically important splicing switch that increases 4.1R affinity for spectrin and actin. Previous studies showed that negative regulation of E16 splicing is mediated by the binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to silencer elements in the exon and that downregulation of hnRNP A/B proteins in erythroblasts leads to activation of E16 inclusion. This paper demonstrates that positive regulation of E16 splicing can be mediated by Fox-2 or Fox-1, two closely related splicing factors that possess identical RNA recognition motifs. SELEX experiments with human Fox-1 revealed highly selective binding to the hexamer UGCAUG. Both Fox-1 and Fox-2 were able to bind the conserved UGCAUG elements in the proximal intron downstream of E16, and both could activate E16 splicing in HeLa cell co-transfection assays in a UGCAUG-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of Fox-2 expression, achieved with two different siRNA sequences resulted in decreased E16 splicing. Moreover, immunoblot experiments demonstrate mouse erythroblasts express Fox-2, but not Fox-1. These findings suggest that Fox-2 is a physiological activator of E16 splicing in differentiating erythroid cells in vivo. Recent experiments show that UGCAUG is present in the proximal intron sequence of many tissue-specific alternative exons, and we propose that the Fox family of splicing enhancers plays an important role in alternative splicing switches during differentiation in metazoan organisms.

  13. An in vivo genetic screen for genes involved in spliced leader trans-splicing indicates a crucial role for continuous de novo spliced leader RNP assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Lucas; Pandarakalam, George C; Fasimoye, Rotimi; Harrison, Neale; Connolly, Bernadette; Pettitt, Jonathan; Müller, Berndt

    2017-08-21

    Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a critical element of gene expression in a number of eukaryotic groups. This process is arguably best understood in nematodes, where biochemical and molecular studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum have identified key steps and factors involved. Despite this, the precise details of SL trans-splicing have yet to be elucidated. In part, this is because the systematic identification of the molecules involved has not previously been possible due to the lack of a specific phenotype associated with defects in this process. We present here a novel GFP-based reporter assay that can monitor SL1 trans-splicing in living C. elegans. Using this assay, we have identified mutants in sna-1 that are defective in SL trans-splicing, and demonstrate that reducing function of SNA-1, SNA-2 and SUT-1, proteins that associate with SL1 RNA and related SmY RNAs, impairs SL trans-splicing. We further demonstrate that the Sm proteins and pICln, SMN and Gemin5, which are involved in small nuclear ribonucleoprotein assembly, have an important role in SL trans-splicing. Taken together these results provide the first in vivo evidence for proteins involved in SL trans-splicing, and indicate that continuous replacement of SL ribonucleoproteins consumed during trans-splicing reactions is essential for effective trans-splicing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. The hnRNP 2H9 gene, which is involved in the splicing reaction, is a multiply spliced gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B

    2000-01-01

    The hnRNP 2H9 gene products are involved in the splicing process and participate in early heat shock-induced splicing arrest. By combining low/high stringency hybridisation, database search, Northern and Western blotting it is shown that the gene is alternatively spliced into at least six...

  15. Discovery of a Splicing Regulator Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Croken, Matthew; Kratzer, Stella; Ting, Li-Min; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Balu, Bharath; Markillie, Lye Meng; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami; White, Michael W.

    2013-02-01

    In the G1 phase of the cell division cycle, eukaryotic cells prepare many of the resources necessary for a new round of growth including renewal of the transcriptional and protein synthetic capacities and building the machinery for chromosome replication. The function of G1 has an early evolutionary origin and is preserved in single and multicellular organisms, although the regulatory mechanisms conducting G1 specific functions are only understood in a few model eukaryotes. Here we describe a new G1 mutant from an ancient family of apicomplexan protozoans. Toxoplasma gondii temperature-sensitive mutant 12-109C6 conditionally arrests in the G1 phase due to a single point mutation in a novel protein containing a single RNA-recognition-motif (TgRRM1). The resulting tyrosine to asparagine amino acid change in TgRRM1 causes severe temperature instability that generates an effective null phenotype for this protein when the mutant is shifted to the restrictive temperature. Orthologs of TgRRM1 are widely conserved in diverse eukaryote lineages, and the human counterpart (RBM42) can functionally replace the missing Toxoplasma factor. Transcriptome studies demonstrate that gene expression is downregulated in the mutant at the restrictive temperature due to a severe defect in splicing that affects both cell cycle and constitutively expressed mRNAs. The interaction of TgRRM1 with factors of the tri-SNP complex (U4/U6 & U5 snRNPs) indicate this factor may be required to assemble an active spliceosome. Thus, the TgRRM1 family of proteins is an unrecognized and evolutionarily conserved class of splicing regulators. This study demonstrates investigations into diverse unicellular eukaryotes, like the Apicomplexa, have the potential to yield new insights into important mechanisms conserved across modern eukaryotic kingdoms.

  16. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer.

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    Anne-Mette Hartung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Costello syndrome (CS may be caused by activating mutations in codon 12/13 of the HRAS proto-oncogene. HRAS p.Gly12Val mutations have the highest transforming activity, are very frequent in cancers, but very rare in CS, where they are reported to cause a severe, early lethal, phenotype. We identified an unusual, new germline p.Gly12Val mutation, c.35_36GC>TG, in a 12-year-old boy with attenuated CS. Analysis of his HRAS cDNA showed high levels of exon 2 skipping. Using wild type and mutant HRAS minigenes, we confirmed that c.35_36GC>TG results in exon 2 skipping by simultaneously disrupting the function of a critical Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE and creation of an Exonic Splicing Silencer (ESS. We show that this vulnerability of HRAS exon 2 is caused by a weak 3' splice site, which makes exon 2 inclusion dependent on binding of splicing stimulatory proteins, like SRSF2, to the critical ESE. Because the majority of cancer- and CS- causing mutations are located here, they affect splicing differently. Therefore, our results also demonstrate that the phenotype in CS and somatic cancers is not only determined by the different transforming potentials of mutant HRAS proteins, but also by the efficiency of exon 2 inclusion resulting from the different HRAS mutations. Finally, we show that a splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO that blocks access to the critical ESE causes exon 2 skipping and halts proliferation of cancer cells. This unravels a potential for development of new anti-cancer therapies based on SSO-mediated HRAS exon 2 skipping.

  17. Protein trans-splicing of multiple atypical split inteins engineered from natural inteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Protein trans-splicing by split inteins has many uses in protein production and research. Splicing proteins with synthetic peptides, which employs atypical split inteins, is particularly useful for site-specific protein modifications and labeling, because the synthetic peptide can be made to contain a variety of unnatural amino acids and chemical modifications. For this purpose, atypical split inteins need to be engineered to have a small N-intein or C-intein fragment that can be more easily included in a synthetic peptide that also contains a small extein to be trans-spliced onto target proteins. Here we have successfully engineered multiple atypical split inteins capable of protein trans-splicing, by modifying and testing more than a dozen natural inteins. These included both S1 split inteins having a very small (11-12 aa N-intein fragment and S11 split inteins having a very small (6 aa C-intein fragment. Four of the new S1 and S11 split inteins showed high efficiencies (85-100% of protein trans-splicing both in E. coli cells and in vitro. Under in vitro conditions, they exhibited reaction rate constants ranging from ~1.7 × 10(-4 s(-1 to ~3.8 × 10(-4 s(-1, which are comparable to or higher than those of previously reported atypical split inteins. These findings should facilitate a more general use of trans-splicing between proteins and synthetic peptides, by expanding the availability of different atypical split inteins. They also have implications on understanding the structure-function relationship of atypical split inteins, particularly in terms of intein fragment complementation.

  18. Primate-specific spliced PMCHL RNAs are non-protein coding in human and macaque tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delerue-Audegond Audrey

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-expressed genes that were created in primate lineage represent obvious candidates to investigate molecular mechanisms that contributed to neural reorganization and emergence of new behavioural functions in Homo sapiens. PMCHL1 arose from retroposition of a pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (PMCH antisense mRNA on the ancestral human chromosome 5p14 when platyrrhines and catarrhines diverged. Mutations before divergence of hylobatidae led to creation of new exons and finally PMCHL1 duplicated in an ancestor of hominids to generate PMCHL2 at the human chromosome 5q13. A complex pattern of spliced and unspliced PMCHL RNAs were found in human brain and testis. Results Several novel spliced PMCHL transcripts have been characterized in human testis and fetal brain, identifying an additional exon and novel splice sites. Sequencing of PMCHL genes in several non-human primates allowed to carry out phylogenetic analyses revealing that the initial retroposition event took place within an intron of the brain cadherin (CDH12 gene, soon after platyrrhine/catarrhine divergence, i.e. 30–35 Mya, and was concomitant with the insertion of an AluSg element. Sequence analysis of the spliced PMCHL transcripts identified only short ORFs of less than 300 bp, with low (VMCH-p8 and protein variants or no evolutionary conservation. Western blot analyses of human and macaque tissues expressing PMCHL RNA failed to reveal any protein corresponding to VMCH-p8 and protein variants encoded by spliced transcripts. Conclusion Our present results improve our knowledge of the gene structure and the evolutionary history of the primate-specific chimeric PMCHL genes. These genes produce multiple spliced transcripts, bearing short, non-conserved and apparently non-translated ORFs that may function as mRNA-like non-coding RNAs.

  19. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J., E-mail: pinteld@missouri.edu

    2012-04-25

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  20. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  1. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E Modulates Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Huh-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Chin; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Chang, Ya-Sian; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Chia; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-08-04

    Alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing protein diversity from a limited number of genes. Studies have demonstrated that aberrant regulation in the alternative splicing of apoptotic gene transcripts may contribute to the development of cancer. In this study, we isolated 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E (4bHWE) from the traditional herb Physalis peruviana and investigated its biological effect in cancer cells. The results demonstrated that 4bHWE modulates the alternative splicing of various apoptotic genes, including HIPK3, SMAC/DIABLO, and SURVIVIN. We also discovered that the levels of SRSF1 phospho-isoform were decreased and the levels of H3K36me3 were increased in 4bHWE treatment. Knockdown experiments revealed that the splicing site selection of SMAC/DIABLO could be mediated by changes in the level of H3K36me3 in 4bHWE-treated cells. Furthermore, we extended our study to apoptosis-associated molecules, and detected increased levels of poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and the active form of CASPASE-3 in 4bHWE-induced apoptosis. In vivo experiments indicated that the treatment of tumor-bearing mice with 4bHWE resulted in a marked decrease in tumor size. This study is the first to demonstrate that 4bHWE affects alternative splicing by modulating splicing factors and histone modifications, and provides a novel view of the antitumor mechanism of 4bHWE.

  2. The fitness cost of mis-splicing is the main determinant of alternative splicing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudemont, Baptiste; Popa, Alexandra; Parmley, Joanna L; Rocher, Vincent; Blugeon, Corinne; Necsulea, Anamaria; Meyer, Eric; Duret, Laurent

    2017-10-30

    Most eukaryotic genes are subject to alternative splicing (AS), which may contribute to the production of protein variants or to the regulation of gene expression via nonsense-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) decay (NMD). However, a fraction of splice variants might correspond to spurious transcripts and the question of the relative proportion of splicing errors to functional splice variants remains highly debated. We propose a test to quantify the fraction of AS events corresponding to errors. This test is based on the fact that the fitness cost of splicing errors increases with the number of introns in a gene and with expression level. We analyzed the transcriptome of the intron-rich eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia. We show that in both normal and in NMD-deficient cells, AS rates strongly decrease with increasing expression level and with increasing number of introns. This relationship is observed for AS events that are detectable by NMD as well as for those that are not, which invalidates the hypothesis of a link with the regulation of gene expression. Our results show that in genes with a median expression level, 92-98% of observed splice variants correspond to errors. We observed the same patterns in human transcriptomes and we further show that AS rates correlate with the fitness cost of splicing errors. These observations indicate that genes under weaker selective pressure accumulate more maladaptive substitutions and are more prone to splicing errors. Thus, to a large extent, patterns of gene expression variants simply reflect the balance between selection, mutation, and drift.

  3. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukarieh, Omar; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Hamieh, Mohamad; Drouet, Aurélie; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient’s RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants), including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs). We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases. PMID:26761715

  4. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Soukarieh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient's RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants, including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs. We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases.

  5. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  6. A Novel Splice-Site Mutation in Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene, c.3691+1G>A (IVS25+1G>A), Causes a Dramatic Increase in Circulating ACE through Deletion of the Transmembrane Anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persu, Alexandre; Lambert, Michel; Deinum, Jaap; Cossu, Marta; de Visscher, Nathalie; Irenge, Leonid; Ambroise, Jerôme; Minon, Jean-Marc; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Churbanov, Alexander; Popova, Isolda A.; Danilov, Sergei M.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 4.15.1) metabolizes many biologically active peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels are associated with different cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Methods and Results Two Belgian families with a 8-16-fold increase in blood ACE level were incidentally identified. A novel heterozygous splice site mutation of intron 25 - IVS25+1G>A (c.3691+1G>A) - cosegregating with elevated plasma ACE was identified in both pedigrees. Messenger RNA analysis revealed that the mutation led to the retention of intron 25 and Premature Termination Codon generation. Subjects harboring the mutation were mostly normotensive, had no left ventricular hypertrophy or cardiovascular disease. The levels of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components in the mutated cases and wild-type controls were similar, both at baseline and after 50 mg captopril. Compared with non-affected members, quantification of ACE surface expression and shedding using flow cytometry assay of dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes of affected members, demonstrated a 50% decrease and 3-fold increase, respectively. Together with a dramatic increase in circulating ACE levels, these findings argue in favor of deletion of transmembrane anchor, leading to direct secretion of ACE out of cells. Conclusions We describe a novel mutation of the ACE gene associated with a major familial elevation of circulating ACE, without evidence of activation of the renin-angiotensin system, target organ damage or cardiovascular complications. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that membrane-bound ACE, rather than circulating ACE, is responsible for Angiotensin II generation and its cardiovascular consequences. PMID:23560051

  7. Language study on Spliced Semigraph using Folding techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, K.; Padmashree, J.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed algorithm to identify cut vertices and cut edges for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph and splicing the n-Cut Spliced Semigraph using cut vertices else cut edges or combination of cut vertex and cut edge and applying sequence of folding to the spliced semigraph to obtain the semigraph quadruple η(S)=(2, 1, 1, 1). We observed that the splicing and folding using both cut vertices and cut edges is applicable only for n-Cut Spliced Semigraph where n > 2. Also, we transformed the spliced semigraph into tree structure and studied the language for the semigraph with n+2 vertices and n+1 semivertices using Depth First Edge Sequence algorithm and obtain the language structure with sequence of alphabet ‘a’ and ‘b’.

  8. Identification and characterization of NAGNAG alternative splicing in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte Kathrin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS involving tandem acceptors that are separated by three nucleotides (NAGNAG is an evolutionarily widespread class of AS, which is well studied in Homo sapiens (human and Mus musculus (mouse. It has also been shown to be common in the model seed plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice. In one of the first studies involving sequence-based prediction of AS in plants, we performed a genome-wide identification and characterization of NAGNAG AS in the model plant Physcomitrella patens, a moss. Results Using Sanger data, we found 295 alternatively used NAGNAG acceptors in P. patens. Using 31 features and training and test datasets of constitutive and alternative NAGNAGs, we trained a classifier to predict the splicing outcome at NAGNAG tandem splice sites (alternative splicing, constitutive at the first acceptor, or constitutive at the second acceptor. Our classifier achieved a balanced specificity and sensitivity of ≥ 89%. Subsequently, a classifier trained exclusively on data well supported by transcript evidence was used to make genome-wide predictions of NAGNAG splicing outcomes. By generation of more transcript evidence from a next-generation sequencing platform (Roche 454, we found additional evidence for NAGNAG AS, with altogether 664 alternative NAGNAGs being detected in P. patens using all currently available transcript evidence. The 454 data also enabled us to validate the predictions of the classifier, with 64% (80/125 of the well-supported cases of AS being predicted correctly. Conclusion NAGNAG AS is just as common in the moss P. patens as it is in the seed plants A. thaliana and O. sativa (but not conserved on the level of orthologous introns, and can be predicted with high accuracy. The most informative features are the nucleotides in the NAGNAG and in its immediate vicinity, along with the splice sites scores, as found earlier for NAGNAG AS in animals. Our results suggest that the

  9. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  10. A five' splice-region G → C mutation in exon 1 of the human β-globin gene inhibits pre-mRNA splicing: A mechanism for β+-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidaud, M.; Vidaud, D.; Amselem, S.; Rosa, J.; Goossens, M.; Gattoni, R.; Stevenin, J.; Chibani, J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have characterized a Mediterranean β-thalassemia allele containing a sequence change at codon 30 that alters both β-globin pre-mRNA splicing and the structure of the homoglobin product. Presumably, this G → C transversion at position -1 of intron 1 reduces severely the utilization of the normal 5' splice site since the level of the Arg → Thr mutant hemoglobin (designated hemoglobin Kairouan) found in the erythrocytes of the patient is very low (2% of total hemoglobin). Since no natural mutations of the guanine located at position -1 of the CAG/GTAAGT consensus sequence had been isolated previously. They investigated the role of this nucleotide in the constitution of an active 5' splice site by studying the splicing of the pre-mRNA in cell-free extracts. They demonstrate that correct splicing of the mutant pre-mRNA is 98% inhibited. Their results provide further insights into the mechanisms of pre-mRNA maturation by revealing that the last residue of the exon plays a role at least equivalent to that of the intron residue at position +5

  11. Investigations into the binding affinities of different human 5-HT4 receptor splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Helen R; Tochon-Danguy, Nathalie; Chinkwo, Kenneth A; Li, Jian G; Grabbe, Carmen; Shapiro, Marina; Pouton, Colin W; Coupar, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the drug-receptor-binding sites of 5 selected human 5-HT(4) receptor splice variants [h5-HT4(a), h5-HT4(b), h5-HT4(c), h5-HT4(d) and h5-HT4(g)] display preferential affinities towards agonists. The agonists selected on the basis of chemical diversity and clinical relevance were: 5-HT4 benzamides, renzapride, zacopride and prucalopride; the benzimidazolones, DAU 6236 and BIMU 1; the aromatic ketone, RS67333, and the indole carbazimidamide tegaserod. The rank order of affinities ranging across the splice variants was: tegaserod (pKi: 7.38-7.91) > or = Y-36912 (pKi: 7.03-7.85) = BIMU 1 (pKi: 6.92-7.78) > or = DAU 6236 (pKi: 6.79-7.99) > or = 5-HT (pKi: 5.82-7.29) > or = 5-MeOT (pKi: 5.64-6.83) > or = renzapride (pKi: 4.85-5.56). We obtained affinity values for the 5-HT4(b), (d) and (g) variants for RS67333 (pKi: 7:48-8.29), prucalopride (pKi: 6.86-7.37) and zacopride (pKi: 5.88-7.0). These results indicate that the ligands interact with the same conserved site in each splice variant. Some splice variants have a higher affinity for certain agonists and the direction of selectivity followed a common trend of lowest affinity at the (d) variant. However, this trend was not evident in functional experiments. Our findings suggest that it may be possible to design splice variant selective ligands, which may be of relevance for experimental drugs but may be difficult to develop clinically. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase/Ganciclovir by RNA Trans-Splicing Induces Selective Killing of HIV-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin K. Ingemarsdotter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral strategies targeting hijacked cellular processes are less easily evaded by the virus than viral targets. If selective for viral functions, they can have a high therapeutic index. We used RNA trans-splicing to deliver the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV cell suicide system into HIV-producing cells. Using an extensive in silico bioinformatics and RNA structural analysis approach, ten HIV RNA trans-splicing constructs were designed targeting eight different HIV splice donor or acceptor sites and were tested in cells expressing HIV. Trans-spliced mRNAs were identified in HIV-expressing cells using qRT-PCR with successful detection of fusion RNA transcripts between HIV RNA and the HSV-tk RNA transcripts from six of ten candidate RNA trans-splicing constructs. Conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing confirmed RNA trans-splicing junctions. Measuring cell viability in the presence or absence of GCV expression of HSV-tk by RNA trans-splicing led to selective killing of HIV-producing cells using either 3′ exon replacement or 5′ exon replacement in the presence of GCV. Five constructs targeting four HIV splice donor and acceptor sites, D4, A5, A7, and A8, involved in regulating the generation of multiple HIV RNA transcripts proved to be effective for trans-splicing mediated selective killing of HIV-infected cells, within which individual constructs targeting D4 and A8 were the most efficient.

  13. Dynamic ASXL1 Exon Skipping and Alternative Circular Splicing in Single Human Cells.

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    Winston Koh

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs comprise a poorly understood new class of noncoding RNA. In this study, we used a combination of targeted deletion, high-resolution splicing detection, and single-cell sequencing to deeply probe ASXL1 circular splicing. We found that efficient circular splicing required the canonical transcriptional start site and inverted AluSx elements. Sequencing-based interrogation of isoforms after ASXL1 overexpression identified promiscuous linear splicing between all exons, with the two most abundant non-canonical linear products skipping the exons that produced the circular isoforms. Single-cell sequencing revealed a strong preference for either the linear or circular ASXL1 isoforms in each cell, and found the predominant exon skipping product is frequently co-expressed with its reciprocal circular isoform. Finally, absolute quantification of ASXL1 isoforms confirmed our findings and suggests that standard methods overestimate circRNA abundance. Taken together, these data reveal a dynamic new view of circRNA genesis, providing additional framework for studying their roles in cellular biology.

  14. Transcript specificity in yeast pre-mRNA splicing revealed by mutations in core spliceosomal components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Pleiss

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate expression of most eukaryotic genes requires the removal of introns from their pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs, a process catalyzed by the spliceosome. In higher eukaryotes a large family of auxiliary factors known as SR proteins can improve the splicing efficiency of transcripts containing suboptimal splice sites by interacting with distinct sequences present in those pre-mRNAs. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks functional equivalents of most of these factors; thus, it has been unclear whether the spliceosome could effectively distinguish among transcripts. To address this question, we have used a microarray-based approach to examine the effects of mutations in 18 highly conserved core components of the spliceosomal machinery. The kinetic profiles reveal clear differences in the splicing defects of particular pre-mRNA substrates. Most notably, the behaviors of ribosomal protein gene transcripts are generally distinct from other intron-containing transcripts in response to several spliceosomal mutations. However, dramatically different behaviors can be seen for some pairs of transcripts encoding ribosomal protein gene paralogs, suggesting that the spliceosome can readily distinguish between otherwise highly similar pre-mRNAs. The ability of the spliceosome to distinguish among its different substrates may therefore offer an important opportunity for yeast to regulate gene expression in a transcript-dependent fashion. Given the high level of conservation of core spliceosomal components across eukaryotes, we expect that these results will significantly impact our understanding of how regulated splicing is controlled in higher eukaryotes as well.

  15. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  16. Conservation and Sex-Specific Splicing of the transformer Gene in the Calliphorids Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Lucilia sericata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Vensko, Steven P.; Belikoff, Esther J.; Scott, Maxwell J.

    2013-01-01

    Transformer (TRA) promotes female development in several dipteran species including the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, the Mediterranean fruit fly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced such that only the female form encodes full length functional protein. The presence of six predicted TRA/TRA2 binding sites in the sex-specific female intron of the L. cuprina gene suggested that tra splicing is auto-regulated as in medfly and housefly. With the aim of identifying conserved motifs that may play a role in tra sex-specific splicing, here we have isolated and characterized the tra gene from three additional blowfly species, L. sericata, Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria. The blowfly adult male and female transcripts differ in the choice of splice donor site in the first intron, with males using a site downstream of the site used in females. The tra genes all contain a single TRA/TRA2 site in the male exon and a cluster of four to five sites in the male intron. However, overall the sex-specific intron sequences are poorly conserved in closely related blowflies. The most conserved regions are around the exon/intron junctions, the 3′ end of the intron and near the cluster of TRA/TRA2 sites. We propose a model for sex specific regulation of tra splicing that incorporates the conserved features identified in this study. In L. sericata embryos, the male tra transcript was first detected at around the time of cellular blastoderm formation. RNAi experiments showed that tra is required for female development in L. sericata and C. macellaria. The isolation of the tra gene from the New World screwworm fly C. hominivorax, a major livestock pest, will facilitate the development of a “male-only” strain for genetic control programs. PMID:23409170

  17. A study of alternative splicing in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Claus B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since at least half of the genes in mammalian genomes are subjected to alternative splicing, alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays an important contribution to the complexity of the mammalian proteome. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide evidence of a great number of possible alternative isoforms. With the EST resource for the domestic pig now containing more than one million porcine ESTs, it is possible to identify alternative splice forms of the individual transcripts in this species from the EST data with some confidence. Results The pig EST data generated by the Sino-Danish Pig Genome project has been assembled with publicly available ESTs and made available in the PigEST database. Using the Distiller package 2,515 EST clusters with candidate alternative isoforms were identified in the EST data with high confidence. In agreement with general observations in human and mouse, we find putative splice variants in about 30% of the contigs with more than 50 ESTs. Based on the criteria that a minimum of two EST sequences confirmed each splice event, a list of 100 genes with the most distinct tissue-specific alternative splice events was generated from the list of candidates. To confirm the tissue specificity of the splice events, 10 genes with functional annotation were randomly selected from which 16 individual splice events were chosen for experimental verification by quantitative PCR (qPCR. Six genes were shown to have tissue specific alternatively spliced transcripts with expression patterns matching those of the EST data. The remaining four genes had tissue-restricted expression of alternative spliced transcripts. Five out of the 16 splice events that were experimentally verified were found to be putative pig specific. Conclusions In accordance with human and rodent studies we estimate that approximately 30% of the porcine genes undergo alternative splicing. We found a good correlation between EST predicted tissue

  18. Splicing modulation therapy in the treatment of genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arechavala-Gomeza V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Arechavala-Gomeza,1 Bernard Khoo,2 Annemieke Aartsma-Rus3 1Neuromuscular Disorders Group, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain; 2Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: Antisense-mediated splicing modulation is a tool that can be exploited in several ways to provide a potential therapy for rare genetic diseases. This approach is currently being tested in clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. The present review outlines the versatility of the approach to correct cryptic splicing, modulate alternative splicing, restore the open reading frame, and induce protein knockdown, providing examples of each. Finally, we outline a possible path forward toward the clinical application of this approach for a wide variety of inherited rare diseases. Keywords: splicing, therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, cryptic splicing, alternative splicing

  19. A novel splice variant in the N-propeptide of COL5A1 causes an EDS phenotype with severe kyphoscoliosis and eye involvement.

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    Sofie Symoens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS is a heritable connective tissue disorder characterized by hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility and soft tissue fragility. The classic subtype of EDS is caused by mutations in one of the type V collagen genes (COL5A1 and COL5A2. Most mutations affect the type V collagen helical domain and lead to a diminished or structurally abnormal type V collagen protein. Remarkably, only two mutations were reported to affect the extended, highly conserved N-propeptide domain, which plays an important role in the regulation of the heterotypic collagen fibril diameter. We identified a novel COL5A1 N-propeptide mutation, resulting in an unusual but severe classic EDS phenotype and a remarkable splicing outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a novel COL5A1 N-propeptide acceptor-splice site mutation (IVS6-2A>G, NM_000093.3_c.925-2A>G in a patient with cutaneous features of EDS, severe progressive scoliosis and eye involvement. Two mutant transcripts were identified, one with an exon 7 skip and one in which exon 7 and the upstream exon 6 are deleted. Both transcripts are expressed and secreted into the extracellular matrix, where they can participate in and perturb collagen fibrillogenesis, as illustrated by the presence of dermal collagen cauliflowers. Determination of the order of intron removal and computational analysis showed that simultaneous skipping of exons 6 and 7 is due to the combined effect of delayed splicing of intron 7, altered pre-mRNA secondary structure, low splice site strength and possibly disturbed binding of splicing factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report a novel COL5A1 N-propeptide acceptor-splice site mutation in intron 6, which not only affects splicing of the adjacent exon 7, but also causes a splicing error of the upstream exon 6. Our findings add further insights into the COL5A1 splicing order and show for the first time that a single COL5A1 acceptor-splice site

  20. Clinical and Genetic Characterization of Patients with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Plakophilin-2 Splice Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Smagt, Jasper J.; van der Zwaag, Paul A.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Cox, Moniek G. P. J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; van Langen, Irene M.; Ummels, Amber; Hennekam, F. A. M.; Dooijes, Dennis; Gerbens, Frans; Bikker, Hennie; Hauer, Richard N. W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is characterized by fibrofatty replacement of cardiomyocytes. In around 50% of index patients, a genetic predisposition is demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to examine a plakophilin-2 (PKP2) splice site

  1. A novel splice mutation in the TP53 gene associated with Leydig cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Grønbaek, Kirsten; Hasle, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A 20-month-old boy presented with precocious puberty due to a Leydig cell tumor, and at the age of 6 years with a primitive neuroectodermal brain-tumor (PNET). A novel splice site mutation of the TP53-gene, likely to be associated with a nonfunctional protein, was found in the proband, his father...

  2. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J

    2016-08-01

    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species.

  3. Functional and evolutionary analysis of alternatively spliced genes is consistent with an early eukaryotic origin of alternative splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    , and may therefore predate multicellularity, is still unknown. To better understand the origin and evolution of alternative splicing and its usage in diverse organisms, we studied alternative splicing in 12 eukaryotic species, comparing rates of alternative splicing across genes of different functional......, we find several similarities in patterns of alternative splicing across these diverse eukaryotes. CONCLUSION: Along with previous studies indicating intron-rich genes with weak intron boundary consensus and complex spliceosomes in ancestral organisms, our results suggest that at least a simple form...... of alternative splicing may already have been present in the unicellular ancestor of plants, fungi and animals. A role for alternative splicing in the evolution of multicellularity then would largely have arisen by co-opting the preexisting process....

  4. Pre-mRNA Splicing in Plants: In Vivo Functions of RNA-Binding Proteins Implicated in the Splicing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher plants emerges as an important layer of regulation upon exposure to exogenous and endogenous cues. Accordingly, mutants defective in RNA-binding proteins predicted to function in the splicing process show severe phenotypic alterations. Among those are developmental defects, impaired responses to pathogen threat or abiotic stress factors, and misregulation of the circadian timing system. A suite of splicing factors has been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we summarize recent insights on how defects in these splicing factors impair plant performance.

  5. Synthesis of a specific monolithic column with artificial recognition sites for L-glutamic acid via cryo-crosslinking of imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktürk, Ilgım; Üzek, Recep; Uzun, Lokman; Denizli, Adil

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new molecular imprinting (MIP)-based monolithic cryogel column was prepared using chemically crosslinked molecularly imprinted nanoparticles, to achieve a simplified chromatographic separation (SPE) for a model compound, L-glutamic acid (L-Glu). Cryogelation through crosslinking of imprinted nanoparticles forms stable monolithic cryogel columns. This technique reduces the leakage of nanoparticles and increases the surface area, while protecting the structural features of the cryogel for stable and efficient recognition of the template molecule. A non-imprinted monolithic cryogel column (NIP) was also prepared, using non-imprinted nanoparticles produced without the addition of L-Glu during polymerization. The molecularly imprinted monolithic cryogel column (MIP) indicates apparent recognition selectivity and a good adsorption capacity compared to the NIP. Also, we have achieved a significant increase in the adsorption capacity, using the advantage of high surface area of the nanoparticles.

  6. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript

  7. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing of pre-mRNA under salt stress in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Feng

    2014-06-04

    Background: Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an important gene regulation process that potentially regulates many physiological processes in plants, including the response to abiotic stresses such as salt stress.Results: To analyze global changes in AS under salt stress, we obtained high-coverage (~200 times) RNA sequencing data from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings that were treated with different concentrations of NaCl. We detected that ~49% of all intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced under salt stress, 10% of which experienced significant differential alternative splicing (DAS). Furthermore, AS increased significantly under salt stress compared with under unstressed conditions. We demonstrated that most DAS genes were not differentially regulated by salt stress, suggesting that AS may represent an independent layer of gene regulation in response to stress. Our analysis of functional categories suggested that DAS genes were associated with specific functional pathways, such as the pathways for the responses to stresses and RNA splicing. We revealed that serine/arginine-rich (SR) splicing factors were frequently and specifically regulated in AS under salt stresses, suggesting a complex loop in AS regulation for stress adaptation. We also showed that alternative splicing site selection (SS) occurred most frequently at 4 nucleotides upstream or downstream of the dominant sites and that exon skipping tended to link with alternative SS.Conclusions: Our study provided a comprehensive view of AS under salt stress and revealed novel insights into the potential roles of AS in plant response to salt stress. 2014 Ding et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. CELF1 preferentially binds to exon-intron boundary and regulates alternative splicing in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Heng; Chen, Dong; Wu, Qijia; Wu, Gang; Zhou, Yanhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Libin

    2017-09-01

    The current RIP-seq approach has been developed for the identification of genome-wide interaction between RNA binding protein (RBP) and the bound RNA transcripts, but still rarely for identifying its binding sites. In this study, we performed RIP-seq experiments in HeLa cells using a monoclonal antibody against CELF1. Mapping of the RIP-seq reads showed a biased distribution at the 3'UTR and intronic regions. A total of 15,285 and 1384 CELF1-specific sense and antisense peaks were identified using the ABLIRC software tool. Our bioinformatics analyses revealed that 5' and 3' splice site motifs and GU-rich motifs were highly enriched in the CELF1-bound peaks. Furthermore, transcriptome analyses revealed that alternative splicing was globally regulated by CELF1 in HeLa cells. For example, the inclusion of exon 16 of LMO7 gene, a marker gene of breast cancer, is positively regulated by CELF1. Taken together, we have shown that RIP-seq data can be used to decipher RBP binding sites and reveal an unexpected landscape of the genome-wide CELF1-RNA interactions in HeLa cells. In addition, we found that CELF1 globally regulates the alternative splicing by binding the exon-intron boundary in HeLa cells, which will deepen our understanding of the regulatory roles of CELF1 in the pre-mRNA splicing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in Alternative Splicing in Apis Mellifera Bees Fed Apis Cerana Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuan Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ. Alternative splicing (AS is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

  10. Novel splice mutation in microthalmia-associated transcription factor in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Laura; Burke, Kelly; Leduc, Charles A; Guha, Saurav; Guo, Jiancheng; Chung, Wendy K

    2011-01-01

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is a syndromic form of hearing loss associated with mutations in six different genes. We identified a large family with WS that had previously undergone clinical testing, with no reported pathogenic mutation. Using linkage analysis, a region on 3p14.1 with an LOD score of 6.6 was identified. Microthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor, a gene known to cause WS, is located within this region of linkage. Sequencing of Microthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor demonstrated a c.1212 G>A synonymous variant that segregated with the WS in the family and was predicted to cause a novel splicing site that was confirmed with expression analysis of the mRNA. This case illustrates the need to computationally analyze novel synonymous sequence variants for possible effects on splicing to maximize the clinical sensitivity of sequence-based genetic testing.

  11. Characterization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 splicing variants: a collaborative report by ENIGMA consortium members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Blanco, Ana; Montagna, Marco

    2012-01-01

    , including co-occurrence with a deleterious mutation, segregation and/or report of family history. Abnormal splicing patterns expected to lead to a non-functional protein were observed for 7 variants (BRCA1 c.441+2T>A, c.4184_4185+2del, c.4357+1G>A, c.4987-2A>G, c.5074G>C, BRCA2 c.316+5G>A, and c.8754+3G...... dinucleotides to routinely include all variants located within the donor and acceptor consensus splicing sites. Importantly, this study demonstrates the added value of collaboration between laboratories, and across disciplines, to collate and interpret information from clinical testing laboratories...

  12. A splice acceptor mutation in C. elegans daf-19/Rfx disrupts functional specialization of male-specific ciliated neurons but does not affect ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen L; Rowneki, Mazhgan; Killian, Darrell J

    2015-04-01

    RFX transcription factors are master regulators of ciliogenesis in diverse animal species. The sole Caenorhabditis elegans RFX homolog, DAF-19, plays at least two roles in the formation of functional cilia. The DAF-19(C) isoform is required for ciliogenesis and the DAF-19(M) isoform is required for the functional specialization of a subset of male-specific ciliated neurons called PKD neurons. Here we report the identification of a novel mutation, daf-19(sm129), which disrupts the functional specification of PKD neurons and thus suggests that daf-19m activity is compromised. However, ciliogenesis is not disrupted in daf-19(sm129) mutants suggesting that daf-19c activity is retained. The sm129 mutation disrupts a splice acceptor site adjacent to an exon common to the daf-19c and daf-19m isoforms resulting in aberrant splicing in a proportion of transcripts. While aberrant splicing of daf-19c to upstream cryptic sites results in in-frame and functional products, a large proportion of daf-19m mRNAs include the entire upstream intron, which introduces a frameshift and stop codons. At least 15% of disease-causing mutations affect splicing of the gene bearing the mutation, thus it is important to understand the consequences of splice site mutations on gene function. However, predicting the effects of a splice site mutation remains difficult and experimental determination is still required. Using daf-19(sm129) as a model, our results suggest that this problem is exacerbated when a splice acceptor mutation is used by multiple isoforms of the same gene because the effects on each isoform can be dramatically different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Splicing aberrations caused by constitutional RB1 gene mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in this family revealed skipping of exon 22 in three members of this family. In one proband, a ... This study reveals novel effects of RB1 mutations on splicing and suggests the utility of RNA analysis as an ... of life) and presence of multiple tumors (multifocal). The ..... spliced RNA have been linked to parent of origin as well as.

  14. Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Resistance to Taxane Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    resistant prostate cancer ; docetaxel; cabazitaxel; chemotherapy; androgen receptor splice variants; microtubule; ligand-binding domain; microtubule... receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) are associated with resistance to taxane chemotherapy in castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, this...androgen receptor inhibitors in prostate cancer . Nat Rev Cancer . 2015;15:701–11.

  15. Revealing the Determinants of Widespread Alternative Splicing Perturbation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact. Strikingly, tumors with splicing perturbations show reduced expression of immune system-related genes and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Tumors harboring different mutations in the same gene often exhibit distinct splicing perturbations. Further stratification of 10,000 patients based on their mutation-splicing relationships identifies subtypes with distinct clinical features, including survival rates. Our work reveals how single-nucleotide changes can alter the repertoires of splicing isoforms, providing insights into oncogenic mechanisms for precision medicine.

  16. Quantitative regulation of alternative splicing in evolution and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Roy, Scott W

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism with an important role in increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity by generating multiple different products from the same gene. Evolutionary studies of AS have focused primarily on the conservation of alternatively spliced sequences or o...

  17. Connecting the dots: chromatin and alternative splicing in EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warns, Jessica A; Davie, James R; Dhasarathy, Archana

    2016-02-01

    Nature has devised sophisticated cellular machinery to process mRNA transcripts produced by RNA Polymerase II, removing intronic regions and connecting exons together, to produce mature RNAs. This process, known as splicing, is very closely linked to transcription. Alternative splicing, or the ability to produce different combinations of exons that are spliced together from the same genomic template, is a fundamental means of regulating protein complexity. Similar to transcription, both constitutive and alternative splicing can be regulated by chromatin and its associated factors in response to various signal transduction pathways activated by external stimuli. This regulation can vary between different cell types, and interference with these pathways can lead to changes in splicing, often resulting in aberrant cellular states and disease. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to cancer metastasis, is influenced by alternative splicing events of chromatin remodelers and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs. In this review, we will discuss the role of epigenetic factors including chromatin, chromatin remodelers, DNA methyltransferases, and microRNAs in the context of alternative splicing, and discuss their potential involvement in alternative splicing during the EMT process.

  18. Conservation and sex-specific splicing of the doublesex gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic control of sex determination in insects has been best characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, where the master gene Sxl codes for RNA that is sex specifically spliced to produce a functional protein only in females. SXL regulates the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) RNA which, in turn, regulates the ...

  19. The implications of alternative splicing in the ENCODE protein complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tress, Michael L.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Frankish, Adam

    2007-01-01

    suggested as one explanation for the discrepancy between the number of human genes and functional complexity. Here, we carry out a detailed study of the alternatively spliced gene products annotated in the ENCODE pilot project. We find that alternative splicing in human genes is more frequent than has...

  20. Differential recognition of syk-binding sites by each of the two phosphotyrosine-binding pockets of the Vav SH2 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hong; Piraner, Dan; Gorenstein, Nina M; Geahlen, Robert L; Beth Post, Carol

    2013-11-01

    The association of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a central tyrosine kinase in B cell signaling, with Vav SH2 domain is controlled by phosphorylation of two closely spaced tyrosines in Syk linker B: Y342 and Y346. Previous studies established both singly phosphorylated and doubly phosphorylated forms play a role in signaling. The structure of the doubly phosphorylated form identified a new recognition of phosphotyrosine whereby two phosphotyrosines bind simultaneously to the Vav SH2 domain, one in the canonical pTyr pocket and one in the specificity pocket on the opposite side of the central β-sheet. It is unknown if the specificity pocket can bind phosphotyrosine independent of phosphotyrosine binding the pTyr pocket. To address this gap in knowledge, we determined the structure of the complex between Vav1 SH2 and a peptide (SykLB-YpY) modeling the singly phosphorylated-Y346 form of Syk with unphosphorylated Y342. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data conclusively establish that recognition of phosphotyrosine is swapped between the two pockets; phosphorylated pY346 binds the specificity pocket of Vav1 SH2, and unphosphorylated Y342 occupies what is normally the pTyr binding pocket. Nearly identical changes in chemical shifts occurred upon binding all three forms of singly and doubly phosphorylated peptides; however, somewhat smaller shift perturbations for SykLB-YpY from residues in regions of high internal mobility suggest that internal motions are coupled to binding affinity. The differential recognition that includes this swapped binding of phosphotyrosine to the specificity pocket of Vav SH2 increases the repertoire of possible phosphotyrosine binding by SH2 domains in regulating protein-protein interactions in cellular signaling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An Intron 9 CYP19 Gene Variant (IVS9+5G>A), Present in an Aromatase-Deficient Girl, Affects Normal Splicing and Is Also Present in Normal Human Steroidogenic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraco, Nora; Nesi-Franca, Suzana; Sainz, Romina; Marino, Roxana; Marques-Pereira, Rosana; La Pastina, Julia; Perez Garrido, Natalia; Sandrini, Romolo; Rivarola, Marco Aurelio; de Lacerda, Luiz; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Splicing CYP19 gene variants causing aromatase deficiency in 46,XX disorder of sexual development (DSD) patients have been reported in a few cases. A misbalance between normal and aberrant splicing variants was proposed to explain spontaneous pubertal breast development but an incomplete sex maturation progress. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize a novel CYP19A1 intronic homozygote mutation (IVS9+5G>A) in a 46,XX DSD girl presenting spontaneous breast development and primary amenorrhea, and to evaluate similar splicing variant expression in normal steroidogenic tissues. Genomic DNA analysis, splicing prediction programs, splicing assays, and in vitro protein expression and enzyme activity analyses were carried out. CYP19A1 mRNA expression in human steroidogenic tissues was also studied. A novel IVS9+5G>A homozygote mutation was found. In silico analysis predicts the disappearance of the splicing donor site in intron 9, confirmed by patient peripheral leukocyte cP450arom and in vitro studies. Protein analysis showed a shorter and inactive protein. The intron 9 transcript variant was also found in human steroidogenic tissues. The mutation IVS9+5G>A generates a splicing variant that includes intron 9 which is also present in normal human steroidogenic tissues, suggesting that a misbalance between normal and aberrant splicing variants might occur in target tissues, explaining the clinical phenotype in the affected patient. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Pattern recognition model to estimate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at crevices and pit sites of 304 SS in BWR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna [Penn State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Science Building, University Park, PA 16801 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Many publications have shown that crack growth rates (CGR) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of metals is dependent on many parameters related to the manufacturing process of the steel and the environment to which the steel is exposed. Those parameters include, but are not restricted to, the concentration of chloride, fluoride, nitrates, and sulfates, pH, fluid velocity, electrochemical potential (ECP), electrolyte conductivity, stress and sensitization applied to the steel during its production and use. It is not well established how combinations of each of these parameters impact the CGR. Many different models and beliefs have been published, resulting in predictions that sometimes disagree with experimental observations. To some extent, the models are the closest to the nature of IGSCC, however, there is not a model that fully describes the entire range of observations, due to the difficulty of the problem. Among the models, the Fracture Environment Model, developed by Macdonald et al., is the most physico-chemical model, accounting for experimental observations in a wide range of environments or ECPs. In this work, we collected experimental data on BWR environments and designed a data mining pattern recognition model to learn from that data. The model was used to generate CGR estimations as a function of ECP on a BWR environment. The results of the predictive model were compared to the Fracture Environment Model predictions. The results from those two models are very close to the experimental observations of the area corresponding to creep and IGSCC controlled by diffusion. At more negative ECPs than the potential corresponding to creep, the pattern recognition predicts an increase of CGR with decreasing ECP, while the Fracture Environment Model predicts the opposite. The results of this comparison confirm that the pattern recognition model covers 3 phenomena: hydrogen embrittlement at very negative ECP, creep at intermediate ECP, and IGSCC

  3. Pattern recognition model to estimate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at crevices and pit sites of 304 SS in BWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    2004-01-01

    Many publications have shown that crack growth rates (CGR) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of metals is dependent on many parameters related to the manufacturing process of the steel and the environment to which the steel is exposed. Those parameters include, but are not restricted to, the concentration of chloride, fluoride, nitrates, and sulfates, pH, fluid velocity, electrochemical potential (ECP), electrolyte conductivity, stress and sensitization applied to the steel during its production and use. It is not well established how combinations of each of these parameters impact the CGR. Many different models and beliefs have been published, resulting in predictions that sometimes disagree with experimental observations. To some extent, the models are the closest to the nature of IGSCC, however, there is not a model that fully describes the entire range of observations, due to the difficulty of the problem. Among the models, the Fracture Environment Model, developed by Macdonald et al., is the most physico-chemical model, accounting for experimental observations in a wide range of environments or ECPs. In this work, we collected experimental data on BWR environments and designed a data mining pattern recognition model to learn from that data. The model was used to generate CGR estimations as a function of ECP on a BWR environment. The results of the predictive model were compared to the Fracture Environment Model predictions. The results from those two models are very close to the experimental observations of the area corresponding to creep and IGSCC controlled by diffusion. At more negative ECPs than the potential corresponding to creep, the pattern recognition predicts an increase of CGR with decreasing ECP, while the Fracture Environment Model predicts the opposite. The results of this comparison confirm that the pattern recognition model covers 3 phenomena: hydrogen embrittlement at very negative ECP, creep at intermediate ECP, and IGSCC

  4. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  5. Ire1 mediated mRNA splicing in a C-terminus deletion mutant of Drosophila Xbp1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina S Coelho

    Full Text Available The Unfolded Protein Response is a homeostatic mechanism that permits eukaryotic cells to cope with Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER stress caused by excessive accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. The more conserved branch of the UPR relies on an ER transmembrane enzyme, Ire1, which, upon ER stress, promotes the unconventional splicing of a small intron from the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Xbp1. In mammals, two specific regions (the hydrophobic region 2--HR2--and the C-terminal translational pausing site present in the Xbp1unspliced protein mediate the recruitment of the Xbp1 mRNA-ribosome-nascent chain complex to the ER membrane, so that Xbp1 mRNA can be spliced by Ire1. Here, we generated a Drosophila Xbp1 deletion mutant (Excision101 lacking both HR2 and C-terminal region, but not the Ire1 splicing site. We show that Ire1-dependent splicing of Xbp1 mRNA is reduced, but not abolished in Excision101. Our results suggest the existence of additional mechanisms for ER membrane targeting of Xbp1 mRNA that are independent of the C-terminal domain of Drosophila Xbp1unspliced.

  6. Role of Bmznf-2, a Bombyx mori CCCH zinc finger gene, in masculinisation and differential splicing of Bmtra-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Gajula; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering the regulatory factors involved in Bombyx mori sex determination has been a puzzle, challenging researchers for nearly a century now. The pre-mRNA of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a master regulator gene of sexual differentiation, is differentially spliced, producing Bmdsxm and Bmdsxf transcripts in males and females respectively. The putative proteins encoded by these differential transcripts orchestrate antagonistic functions, which lead to sexual differentiation. A recent study in B. mori illustrated the role of a W-derived fem piRNA in conferring femaleness. In females, the fem piRNA was shown to suppress the activity of a Z-linked CCCH type zinc finger (znf) gene, Masculiniser (masc), which indirectly promotes the Bmdsxm type of splicing. In this study, we report a novel autosomal (Chr 25) CCCH type znf motif encoding gene Bmznf-2 as one of the potential factors in the Bmdsx sex specific differential splicing, and we also provide insights into its role in the alternative splicing of Bmtra2 by using ovary derived BmN cells. Over-expression of Bmznf-2 induced Bmdsxm type of splicing (masculinisation) with a correspondingly reduced expression of Bmdsxf type isoform in BmN cells. Further, the site-directed mutational studies targeting the tandem CCCH znf motifs revealed their indispensability in the observed phenotype of masculinisation. Additionally, the dual luciferase assays in BmN cells using 5' UTR region of the Bmznf-2 strongly implied the existence of a translational repression over this gene. From these findings, we propose Bmznf-2 to be one of the potential factors of masculinisation similar to Masc. From the growing number of Bmdsx splicing regulators, we assume that the sex determination cascade of B. mori is quite intricate in nature; hence, it has to be further investigated for its comprehensive understanding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconciling newborn screening and a novel splice variant in BTD associated with partial biotinidase deficiency: A BabySeq Project case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Jaclyn B; Machini, Kalotina; Ceyhan-Birsoy, Ozge; Kritzer, Amy; Krier, Joel B; Lebo, Matthew S; Fayer, Shawn; Genetti, Casie A; Vannoy, Grace E; Yu, Timothy W; Agrawal, Pankaj B; Parad, Richard B; Holm, Ingrid A; McGuire, Amy L; Green, Robert C; Beggs, Alan H; Rehm, Heidi L; Project, The BabySeq

    2018-05-04

    Here, we report a newborn female infant from the well-baby cohort of the BabySeq Project who was identified with compound heterozygous BTD gene variants. The two identified variants included a well-established pathogenic variant (c.1612C>T, p.Arg538Cys) that causes profound biotinidase deficiency (BTD) in homozygosity. In addition, a novel splice variant (c.44+1G>A, p.?) was identified in the invariant splice donor region of intron 1, potentially predictive of loss of function. The novel variant was predicted to impact splicing of exon 1; however, given the absence of any reported pathogenic variants in exon 1 and the presence of alternative splicing with exon 1 absent in most tissues in the GTEx database, we assigned an initial classification of uncertain significance. Follow-up medical record review of state mandated newborn screen (NBS) results revealed an initial out-of-range biotinidase activity level. Levels from a repeat NBS sample barely passed cut-off into the normal range. To determine whether the infant was biotinidase deficient, subsequent diagnostic enzyme activity testing was performed, confirming partial BTD, and resulted in a change of management for this patient. This led to reclassification of the novel splice variant based on these results. In conclusion, combining the genetic and NBS results together prompted clinical follow-up that confirmed partial biotinidase deficiency, and informed this novel splice site's reclassification emphasizing the importance of combining iterative genetic and phenotypic evaluations. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. A Contracted DNA Repeat in LHX3 Intron 5 Is Associated with Aberrant Splicing and Pituitary Dwarfism in German Shepherd Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M. W. Y.; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Vos-Loohuis, Manon; Martens, Ellen E. C. P.; Hanson-Nilsson, Jeanette M.; van Oost, Bernard A.; Kooistra, Hans S.; Leegwater, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Dwarfism in German shepherd dogs is due to combined pituitary hormone deficiency of unknown genetic cause. We localized the recessively inherited defect by a genome wide approach to a region on chromosome 9 with a lod score of 9.8. The region contains LHX3, which codes for a transcription factor essential for pituitary development. Dwarfs have a deletion of one of six 7 bp repeats in intron 5 of LHX3, reducing the intron size to 68 bp. One dwarf was compound heterozygous for the deletion and an insertion of an asparagine residue in the DNA-binding homeodomain of LHX3, suggesting involvement of the gene in the disorder. An exon trapping assay indicated that the shortened intron is not spliced efficiently, probably because it is too small. We applied bisulfite conversion of cytosine to uracil in RNA followed by RT-PCR to analyze the splicing products. The aberrantly spliced RNA molecules resulted from either skipping of exon 5 or retention of intron 5. The same splicing defects were observed in cDNA derived from the pituitary of dwarfs. A survey of similarly mutated introns suggests that there is a minimal distance requirement between the splice donor and branch site of 50 nucleotides. In conclusion, a contraction of a DNA repeat in intron 5 of canine LHX3 leads to deficient splicing and is associated with pituitary dwarfism. PMID:22132174

  9. A contracted DNA repeat in LHX3 intron 5 is associated with aberrant splicing and pituitary dwarfism in German shepherd dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie M W Y Voorbij

    Full Text Available Dwarfism in German shepherd dogs is due to combined pituitary hormone deficiency of unknown genetic cause. We localized the recessively inherited defect by a genome wide approach to a region on chromosome 9 with a lod score of 9.8. The region contains LHX3, which codes for a transcription factor essential for pituitary development. Dwarfs have a deletion of one of six 7 bp repeats in intron 5 of LHX3, reducing the intron size to 68 bp. One dwarf was compound heterozygous for the deletion and an insertion of an asparagine residue in the DNA-binding homeodomain of LHX3, suggesting involvement of the gene in the disorder. An exon trapping assay indicated that the shortened intron is not spliced efficiently, probably because it is too small. We applied bisulfite conversion of cytosine to uracil in RNA followed by RT-PCR to analyze the splicing products. The aberrantly spliced RNA molecules resulted from either skipping of exon 5 or retention of intron 5. The same splicing defects were observed in cDNA derived from the pituitary of dwarfs. A survey of similarly mutated introns suggests that there is a minimal distance requirement between the splice donor and branch site of 50 nucleotides. In conclusion, a contraction of a DNA repeat in intron 5 of canine LHX3 leads to deficient splicing and is associated with pituitary dwarfism.

  10. Two-year-olds' sensitivity to subphonemic mismatch during online spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Fecher, Natalie; Johnson, Elizabeth K

    2016-11-01

    Sensitivity to noncontrastive subphonemic detail plays an important role in adult speech processing, but little is known about children's use of this information during online word recognition. In two eye-tracking experiments, we investigate 2-year-olds' sensitivity to a specific type of subphonemic detail: coarticulatory mismatch. In Experiment 1, toddlers viewed images of familiar objects (e.g., a boat and a book) while hearing labels containing appropriate or inappropriate coarticulation. Inappropriate coarticulation was created by cross-splicing the coda of the target word onto the onset of another word that shared the same onset and nucleus (e.g., to create boat, the final consonant of boat was cross-spliced onto the initial CV of bone). We tested 24-month-olds and 29-month-olds in this paradigm. Both age groups behaved similarly, readily detecting the inappropriate coarticulation (i.e., showing better recognition of identity-spliced than cross-spliced items). In Experiment 2, we asked how children's sensitivity to subphonemic mismatch compared to their sensitivity to phonemic mismatch. Twenty-nine-month-olds were presented with targets that contained either a phonemic (e.g., the final consonant of boat was spliced onto the initial CV of bait) or a subphonemic mismatch (e.g., the final consonant of boat was spliced onto the initial CV of bone). Here, the subphonemic (coarticulatory) mismatch was not nearly as disruptive to children's word recognition as a phonemic mismatch. Taken together, our findings support the view that 2-year-olds, like adults, use subphonemic information to optimize online word recognition.

  11. Investigation of the Causes of Breast Cancer at the Cellular Level: Isolation of In Vivo Binding Sites of the Human Origin Recognition Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendez, Juan

    2000-01-01

    ... of cellular life tipically lost in cancer. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms of human DNA replication in normal and cancer cells, we have started a search for human DNA sequences that serve as replicators", this is, binding sites...

  12. Low resistance splices for HTS devices and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the preparation methodology and performance evaluation of low resistance splices made of the second generation (2G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS). These splices are required in a broad spectrum of HTS devices including a large aperture, high-field solenoid built in the laboratory to demonstrate a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. Several pancake coils are assembled in the form of a nested solenoid, and each coil requires a hundred meters or more of 2G (RE)BCO tape. However, commercial availability of this superconductor with a very uniform physical properties is currently limited to shorter piece lengths. This necessitates us having splices to inter-connect the tape pieces within a pancake coil, between adjacent pancake coils, and to attach HTS current leads to the magnet assembly. As a part of the optimization and qualification of splicing process, a systematic study was undertaken to analyze the electrical performance of splices in two different configurations suitable for this magnet assembly: lap joint and spiral joint. The electrical performance is quantified in terms of the resistance of splices estimated from the current-voltage characteristics. It has been demonstrated that a careful application of this splicing technique can generate lap joints with resistance less than 1 nΩ at 77 K.

  13. Herboxidiene triggers splicing repression and abiotic stress responses in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Sahar

    2017-03-27

    Background Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Results Here, we show that herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing. Moreover, GEX1A activates genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. GEX1A treatment -activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, GEX1A and pladienolide B (PB) elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. Conclusions Our study establishes GEX1A as a potent splicing inhibitor in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  14. Alternative splicing of a single transcription factor drives selfish reproductive behavior in honeybee workers (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Antje; Stolle, Eckart; Crewe, Robin M; Moritz, Robin F A

    2011-09-13

    In eusocial insects the production of daughters is generally restricted to mated queens, and unmated workers are functionally sterile. The evolution of this worker sterility has been plausibly explained by kin selection theory [Hamilton W (1964) J Theor Biol 7:1-52], and many traits have evolved to prevent conflict over reproduction among the females in an insect colony. In honeybees (Apis mellifera), worker reproduction is regulated by the queen, brood pheromones, and worker policing. However, workers of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, can evade this control and establish themselves as social parasites by activating their ovaries, parthenogenetically producing diploid female offspring (thelytoky) and producing queen-like amounts of queen pheromones. All these traits have been shown to be strongly influenced by a single locus on chromosome 13 [Lattorff HMG, et al. (2007) Biol Lett 3:292-295]. We screened this region for candidate genes and found that alternative splicing of a gene homologous to the gemini transcription factor of Drosophila controls worker sterility. Knocking out the critical exon in a series of RNAi experiments resulted in rapid worker ovary activation-one of the traits characteristic of the social parasites. This genetic switch may be controlled by a short intronic splice enhancer motif of nine nucleotides attached to the alternative splice site. The lack of this motif in parasitic Cape honeybee clones suggests that the removal of nine nucleotides from the altruistic worker genome may be sufficient to turn a honeybee from an altruistic worker into a parasite.

  15. LOX-1 and Its Splice Variants: A New Challenge for Atherosclerosis and Cancer-Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzacasa, Barbara; Morini, Elena; Pucci, Sabina; Murdocca, Michela; Novelli, Giuseppe; Amati, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a process in which precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing sites are differentially selected to diversify the protein isoform population. Changes in AS patterns have an essential role in normal development, differentiation and response to physiological stimuli. It is documented that AS can generate both “risk” and “protective” splice variants that can contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases including atherosclerosis. The main endothelial receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDLs) is LOX-1 receptor protein encoded by the OLR1 gene. When OLR1 undergoes AS events, it generates three variants: OLR1, OLR1D4 and LOXIN. The latter lacks exon 5 and two-thirds of the functional domain. Literature data demonstrate a protective role of LOXIN in pathologies correlated with LOX-1 overexpression such as atherosclerosis and tumors. In this review, we summarize recent developments in understanding of OLR1 AS while also highlighting data warranting further investigation of this process as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:28146073

  16. Diversification of the muscle proteome through alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakka, Kiran; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide; Dilworth, F Jeffrey

    2018-03-06

    Skeletal muscles express a highly specialized proteome that allows the metabolism of energy sources to mediate myofiber contraction. This muscle-specific proteome is partially derived through the muscle-specific transcription of a subset of genes. Surprisingly, RNA sequencing technologies have also revealed a significant role for muscle-specific alternative splicing in generating protein isoforms that give specialized function to the muscle proteome. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge with respect to the mechanisms that allow pre-mRNA transcripts to undergo muscle-specific alternative splicing while identifying some of the key trans-acting splicing factors essential to the process. The importance of specific splicing events to specialized muscle function is presented along with examples in which dysregulated splicing contributes to myopathies. Though there is now an appreciation that alternative splicing is a major contributor to proteome diversification, the emergence of improved "targeted" proteomic methodologies for detection of specific protein isoforms will soon allow us to better appreciate the extent to which alternative splicing modifies the activity of proteins (and their ability to interact with other proteins) in the skeletal muscle. In addition, we highlight a continued need to better explore the signaling pathways that contribute to the temporal control of trans-acting splicing factor activity to ensure specific protein isoforms are expressed in the proper cellular context. An understanding of the signal-dependent and signal-independent events driving muscle-specific alternative splicing has the potential to provide us with novel therapeutic strategies to treat different myopathies.

  17. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.

  18. Structure and novel functional mechanism of Drosophila SNF in sex-lethal splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Hu

    Full Text Available Sans-fille (SNF is the Drosophila homologue of mammalian general splicing factors U1A and U2B'', and it is essential in Drosophila sex determination. We found that, besides its ability to bind U1 snRNA, SNF can also bind polyuridine RNA tracts flanking the male-specific exon of the master switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl pre-mRNA specifically, similar to Sex-lethal protein (SXL. The polyuridine RNA binding enables SNF directly inhibit Sxl exon 3 splicing, as the dominant negative mutant SNF(1621 binds U1 snRNA but not polyuridine RNA. Unlike U1A, both RNA recognition motifs (RRMs of SNF can recognize polyuridine RNA tracts independently, even though SNF and U1A share very high sequence identity and overall structure similarity. As SNF RRM1 tends to self-associate on the opposite side of the RNA binding surface, it is possible for SNF to bridge the formation of super-complexes between two introns flanking Sxl exon 3 or between a intron and U1 snRNP, which serves the molecular basis for SNF to directly regulate Sxl splicing. Taken together, a new functional model for SNF in Drosophila sex determination is proposed. The key of the new model is that SXL and SNF function similarly in promoting Sxl male-specific exon skipping with SNF being an auxiliary or backup to SXL, and it is the combined dose of SXL and SNF governs Drosophila sex determination.

  19. Isotope method for the recognition of groundwater formation in China's preselected high level radioactive waste disposal repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Ju; Liu Shufen; Su Rui; Lu Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Yemaquan region in Beishan area. Gansu province, is one of the preselected sites of disposal repository for high level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Hydrogeological condition is an important aspect for site evaluation and the groundwater formation is a key factor to reflect the hydrogeological conditions for a certain area. Isotopic method is the one of the important means to determine the groundwater formation. Through the sampling and analysis of shallow groundwater isotopes of Yemaquan region, combined with geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics, the issue of groundwater formation in the study region was discussed. The main cognition is that the groundwater in the region was formed from the infiltration of modern rainfall and the strong evaporation was happened for the shallow groundwater, which indicates the circulation conditions were relatively good for the shallow groundwater. This cognition provides very important hydrogeological information and basis for the evaluation of Yemaquan preselected site. (authors)

  20. Novel Splicing Mutation in B3GAT3 Associated with Short Stature, GH Deficiency, Hypoglycaemia, Developmental Delay, and Multiple Congenital Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bloor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available B3GAT3, encoding β-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3, has an important role in proteoglycan biosynthesis. Homozygous B3GAT3 mutations have been associated with short stature, skeletal deformities, and congenital heart defects. We describe for the first time a novel heterozygous splice site mutation in B3GAT3 contributing to severe short stature, growth hormone (GH deficiency, recurrent ketotic hypoglycaemia, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. A female infant, born at 34 weeks’ gestation to nonconsanguineous Caucasian parents with a birth weight of 1.9 kg, was noted to have cloacal abnormality, ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, and congenital sensorineural deafness. At 4 years of age, she was diagnosed with GH deficiency due to her short stature (height G in the invariant “GT” splice donor site was identified. This variant is considered to be pathogenic as it decreases the splicing efficiency in the mRNA.

  1. 50/50 Expressional Odds of Retention Signifies the Distinction between Retained Introns and Constitutively Spliced Introns in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intron retention, one of the most prevalent alternative splicing events in plants, can lead to introns retained in mature mRNAs. However, in comparison with constitutively spliced introns (CSIs, the relevantly distinguishable features for retained introns (RIs are still poorly understood. This work proposes a computational pipeline to discover novel RIs from multiple next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq datasets of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this pipeline, we detected 3,472 novel RIs from 18 RNA-Seq datasets and re-confirmed 1,384 RIs which are currently annotated in the TAIR10 database. We also use the expression of intron-containing isoforms as a new feature in addition to the conventional features. Based on these features, RIs are highly distinguishable from CSIs by machine learning methods, especially when the expressional odds of retention (i.e., the expression ratio of the RI-containing isoforms relative to the isoforms without RIs for the same gene reaches to or larger than 50/50. In this case, the RIs and CSIs can be clearly separated by the Random Forest with an outstanding performance of 0.95 on AUC (the area under a receiver operating characteristics curve. The closely related characteristics to the RIs include the low strength of splice sites, high similarity with the flanking exon sequences, low occurrence percentage of YTRAY near the acceptor site, existence of putative intronic splicing silencers (ISSs, i.e., AG/GA-rich motifs and intronic splicing enhancers (ISEs, i.e., TTTT-containing motifs, and enrichment of Serine/Arginine-Rich (SR proteins and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle proteins (hnRNPs.

  2. Read-Split-Run: an improved bioinformatics pipeline for identification of genome-wide non-canonical spliced regions using RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongsheng; Kinne, Jeff; Donham, Brandon; Jiang, Feng; Ding, Lizhong; Hassler, Justin R; Kaufman, Randal J

    2016-08-22

    Most existing tools for detecting next-generation sequencing-based splicing events focus on generic splicing events. Consequently, special types of non-canonical splicing events of short mRNA regions (IRE1α targeted) have not yet been thoroughly addressed at a genome-wide level using bioinformatics approaches in conjunction with next-generation technologies. During endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the gene encoding the RNase Ire1α is known to splice out a short 26 nt region from the mRNA of the transcription factor Xbp1 non-canonically within the cytosol. This causes an open reading frame-shift that induces expression of many downstream genes in reaction to ER stress as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We previously published an algorithm termed "Read-Split-Walk" (RSW) to identify non-canonical splicing regions using RNA-Seq data and applied it to ER stress-induced Ire1α heterozygote and knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines. In this study, we have developed an improved algorithm "Read-Split-Run" (RSR) for detecting genome-wide Ire1α-targeted genes with non-canonical spliced regions at a faster speed. We applied the RSR algorithm using different combinations of several parameters to the previously RSW tested mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF) and the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) RNA-Seq data. We also compared the performance of RSR with two other alternative splicing events identification tools (TopHat (Trapnell et al., Bioinformatics 25:1105-1111, 2009) and Alt Event Finder (Zhou et al., BMC Genomics 13:S10, 2012)) utilizing the context of the spliced Xbp1 mRNA as a positive control in the data sets we identified it to be the top cleavage target present in Ire1α (+/-) but absent in Ire1α (-/-) MEF samples and this comparison was also extended to human ENCODE RNA-Seq data. Proof of principle came in our results by the fact that the 26 nt non-conventional splice site in Xbp1 was detected as the top hit by our new RSR

  3. Discovery of a novel site of opioid action at the innate immune pattern-recognition receptor TLR4 and its role in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Watkins, Linda R; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Opioids have historically, and continue to be, an integral component of pain management. However, despite pharmacokinetic and dynamic optimization over the past 100 years, opioids continue to produce many undesirable side effects such as tolerance, reward, and dependence. As such, opioids are liable for addiction. Traditionally, opioid addiction was viewed as a solely neuronal process, and while substantial headway has been made into understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this process, research has however, been relatively ambivalent to how the rest of the central nervous system (CNS) responds to opioids. Evidence over the past 20 years has clearly demonstrated the importance of the immunocompetent cells of the CNS (glia) in many aspects of opioid pharmacology. Particular focus has been placed on microglia and astrocytes, who in response to opioids, become activated and release inflammatory mediators. Importantly, the mechanism underlying immune activation is beginning to be elucidated. Evidence suggests an innate immune pattern-recognition receptor (toll-like receptor 4) as an integral component underlying opioid-induced glial activation. The subsequent proinflammatory response may be viewed akin to neurotransmission creating a process termed central immune signaling. Translationally, we are beginning to appreciate the importance of central immune signaling as it contributes to many behavioral actions of addiction including reward, withdrawal, and craving. As such, the aim of this chapter is to review and integrate the neuronal and central immune signaling perspective of addiction. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SpliceSeq: a resource for analysis and visualization of RNA-Seq data on alternative splicing and its functional impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael C; Cleland, James; Kim, RyangGuk; Wong, Wing Chung; Weinstein, John N

    2012-09-15

    SpliceSeq is a resource for RNA-Seq data that provides a clear view of alternative splicing and identifies potential functional changes that result from splice variation. It displays intuitive visualizations and prioritized lists of results that highlight splicing events and their biological consequences. SpliceSeq unambiguously aligns reads to gene splice graphs, facilitating accurate analysis of large, complex transcript variants that cannot be adequately represented in other formats. SpliceSeq is freely available at http://bioinformatics.mdanderson.org/main/SpliceSeq:Overview. The application is a Java program that can be launched via a browser or installed locally. Local installation requires MySQL and Bowtie. mryan@insilico.us.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Research on Splicing Method of Digital Relic Fragment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Hu, Y.; Hou, M.

    2018-04-01

    In the course of archaeological excavation, a large number of pieces of cultural relics were unearthed, and the restoration of these fragments was done manually by traditional arts and crafts experts. In this process, cultural relics experts often try to splice the existing cultural relics, and then use adhesive to stick together the fragments of correct location, which will cause irreversible secondary damage to cultural relics. In order to minimize such damage, the surveyors combine 3D laser scanning with computer technology, and use the method of establishing digital cultural relics fragments model to make virtual splicing of cultural relics. The 3D software on the common market can basically achieve the model translation and rotation, using this two functions can be achieved manually splicing between models, mosaic records after the completion of the specific location of each piece of fragments, so as to effectively reduce the damage to the relics had tried splicing process.

  6. Seismic retrofit of spliced sleeve connections for precast bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Grouted Splice Sleeve (GSS) connectors are being considered for connecting bridge columns, footings, and pier caps in Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC). A repair technique for precast reinforced concrete bridge column-to-footing and column-to-pie...

  7. Herboxidiene triggers splicing repression and abiotic stress responses in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Sahar; Ling, Yu; Butt, Haroon; Mariappan, Kiruthiga G.; Benhamed, Moussa; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small

  8. The fission yeast RNA binding protein Mmi1 regulates meiotic genes by controlling intron specific splicing and polyadenylation coupled RNA turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available The polyA tails of mRNAs are monitored by the exosome as a quality control mechanism. We find that fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, adopts this RNA quality control mechanism to regulate a group of 30 or more meiotic genes at the level of both splicing and RNA turnover. In vegetative cells the RNA binding protein Mmi1 binds to the primary transcripts of these genes. We find the novel motif U(U/C/GAAAC highly over-represented in targets of Mmi1. Mmi1 can specifically regulate the splicing of particular introns in a transcript: it inhibits the splicing of introns that are in the vicinity of putative Mmi1 binding sites, while allowing the splicing of other introns that are far from such sites. In addition, binding of Mmi1, particularly near the 3' end, alters 3' processing to promote extremely long polyA tails of up to a kilobase. The hyperadenylated transcripts are then targeted for degradation by the nuclear exonuclease Rrp6. The nuclear polyA binding protein Pab2 assists this hyperadenylation-mediated RNA decay. Rrp6 also targets other hyperadenylated transcripts, which become hyperadenylated in an unknown, but Mmi1-independent way. Thus, hyperadenylation may be a general signal for RNA degradation. In addition, binding of Mmi1 can affect the efficiency of 3' cleavage. Inactivation of Mmi1 in meiosis allows meiotic expression, through splicing and RNA stabilization, of at least 29 target genes, which are apparently constitutively transcribed.

  9. Determination of the recognition site for adenine-specific methylase of Shigella sonnei 47 by hydazinolysis of DNA, followed by separation of the purine oligonucleotides by thin-layer chromatography on DEAE-cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatina, N.G.; Kirnos, M.D.; Suchkov, S.V.; Vanyushin, B.F.; Nikol'skaya, I.I.; Debov, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for the separation of oligopurine units according to length and composition by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on plates with DEAE-cellulose, permitting a comparative analysis of the content of various purine isopliths in DNA of different origin. In the case of the analysis of methylated DNA, the method permits a comparison of the substrate specificity of various enzymes of methylation of the adenine residues in DNA. In conjunction with enzymatic treatment of labeled methylated isopliths, the method permits determination of the methylatable sequence and in a number of cases an ascertainment of the recognition site for adenine-specific methylase as a whole. The proposed method was used to establish the fact that the methylase Ssol recognizes the sequence 5'...G-A-A-T-T-C...3' and methylates the adenine residue closest to its 5'-end

  10. TUMOR-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION AND ALTERNATIVE SPLICING OF THE COL6A3 GENE IN PANCREATIC CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hwyda; Lazar, Melissa; Salem, Khalifa; Chipitsyna, Galina; Gong, Qiaoke; Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Yeo, Charles J.; Chu, Mon-Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal disease in which a prominent desmoplastic reaction is a defining characteristic. Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen I and to a lesser extent, collagen III and V comprise the majority of this stromal fibrosis. Type VI collagen (COL6) forms a microfibrillar network associated with type I collagen fibrils. The expression of COL6 has been linked to inflammation and survival. Importantly, tumor-specific alternative splicing in COL6A3 has been identified in several cancers by genome exon arrays. We evaluated the expression and localization of COL6A3 in PDA and premalignant lesions and explored the presence of alternative splicing events. Methods We analyzed paired PDA-normal (n=18), IPMN (n=5), pancreatic cystadenoma (n=5), and eight PDA cell lines with RT-PCR, using unique primers that identify total COL6A3 gene and alternative splicing sites in several of its exons. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression levels and localization of COL6A3 protein in the different lesions, and in two animal models of PDA. Results COL6A3 protein levels were significantly upregulated in 77% of the paired PDA-adjacent tissue examined. COL6A3 was mainly present in the desmoplastic stroma of PDA, with high deposition around the malignant ducts and in between the sites of stromal fatty infiltration. Analysis of the COL6A3 splice variants showed tumor-specific consistent inclusion of exons 3 and 6 in 17 of the 18 (94%) paired PDA-adjacent tissues. Inclusion of exon 4 was exclusively tumor-specific, with barely detectable expression in the adjacent tissues. IPMN and pancreatic cystadenomas showed no expression of any of the examined exons. Total COL6A3 mRNA and exon 6 were identified in six PDA cell lines, but only two cell lines (MIA PACA-2 and ASPC-1) expressed exons 3 and 4. In both the xenograft and transgenic models of PDA, COL6A3 immunoreactivity was present in the stroma

  11. Proteogenomic analysis reveals alternative splicing and translation as part of the abscisic acid response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Ye, Neng-Hui; Shi, Lu; Ma, Kai-Long; Yang, Jing-Fang; Cao, Yun-Ying; Zhang, Youjun; Yoshida, Takuya; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fan, Guang-Yi; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Ruo; Liu, Tie-Yuan; Fan, Tao; Gao, Bei; Zhang, Di; Hao, Ge-Fei; Xiao, Shi; Liu, Ying-Gao; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-08-01

    In eukaryotes, mechanisms such as alternative splicing (AS) and alternative translation initiation (ATI) contribute to organismal protein diversity. Specifically, splicing factors play crucial roles in responses to environment and development cues; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well investigated in plants. Here, we report the parallel employment of short-read RNA sequencing, single molecule long-read sequencing and proteomic identification to unravel AS isoforms and previously unannotated proteins in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Combining the data from the two sequencing methods, approximately 83.4% of intron-containing genes were alternatively spliced. Two AS types, which are referred to as alternative first exon (AFE) and alternative last exon (ALE), were more abundant than intron retention (IR); however, by contrast to AS events detected under normal conditions, differentially expressed AS isoforms were more likely to be translated. ABA extensively affects the AS pattern, indicated by the increasing number of non-conventional splicing sites. This work also identified thousands of unannotated peptides and proteins by ATI based on mass spectrometry and a virtual peptide library deduced from both strands of coding regions within the Arabidopsis genome. The results enhance our understanding of AS and alternative translation mechanisms under normal conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. PGC1α −1 Nucleosome Position and Splice Variant Expression and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Henagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PGC1α, a transcriptional coactivator, interacts with PPARs and others to regulate skeletal muscle metabolism. PGC1α undergoes splicing to produce several mRNA variants, with the NTPGC1α variant having a similar biological function to the full length PGC1α (FLPGC1α. CVD is associated with obesity and T2D and a lower percentage of type 1 oxidative fibers and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, characteristics determined by PGC1α expression. PGC1α expression is epigenetically regulated in skeletal muscle to determine mitochondrial adaptations, and epigenetic modifications may regulate mRNA splicing. We report in this paper that skeletal muscle PGC1α  −1 nucleosome (−1N position is associated with splice variant NTPGC1α but not FLPGC1α expression. Division of participants based on the −1N position revealed that those individuals with a −1N phased further upstream from the transcriptional start site (UP expressed lower levels of NTPGC1α than those with the −1N more proximal to TSS (DN. UP showed an increase in body fat percentage and serum total and LDL cholesterol. These findings suggest that the −1N may be a potential epigenetic regulator of NTPGC1α splice variant expression, and −1N position and NTPGC1α variant expression in skeletal muscle are linked to CVD risk. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT00458133.

  13. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  14. Splicing regulatory factors, ageing and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Eva; Harries, Lorna W

    2017-07-01

    Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases. Isoform choice is controlled by a battery of splicing regulatory proteins, which include the serine arginine rich (SRSF) proteins and the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) classes of genes. These important splicing regulators have been implicated in age-related disease, and in the ageing process itself. This review will outline the important contribution of splicing regulator proteins to ageing and age-related disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell-Type-Specific Splicing of Piezo2 Regulates Mechanotransduction

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    Marcin Szczot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Piezo2 is a mechanically activated ion channel required for touch discrimination, vibration detection, and proprioception. Here, we discovered that Piezo2 is extensively spliced, producing different Piezo2 isoforms with distinct properties. Sensory neurons from both mice and humans express a large repertoire of Piezo2 variants, whereas non-neuronal tissues express predominantly a single isoform. Notably, even within sensory ganglia, we demonstrate the splicing of Piezo2 to be cell type specific. Biophysical characterization revealed substantial differences in ion permeability, sensitivity to calcium modulation, and inactivation kinetics among Piezo2 splice variants. Together, our results describe, at the molecular level, a potential mechanism by which transduction is tuned, permitting the detection of a variety of mechanosensory stimuli. : Szczot et al. find that the mechanoreceptor Piezo2 is extensively alternatively spliced, generating multiple distinct isoforms. Their findings indicate that these splice products have specific tissue and cell type expression patterns and exhibit differences in receptor properties. Keywords: Piezo, touch, sensation, ion-channel, splicing

  16. The Functional Impact of Alternative Splicing in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climente-González, Héctor; Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Godzik, Adam; Eyras, Eduardo

    2017-08-29

    Alternative splicing changes are frequently observed in cancer and are starting to be recognized as important signatures for tumor progression and therapy. However, their functional impact and relevance to tumorigenesis remain mostly unknown. We carried out a systematic analysis to characterize the potential functional consequences of alternative splicing changes in thousands of tumor samples. This analysis revealed that a subset of alternative splicing changes affect protein domain families that are frequently mutated in tumors and potentially disrupt protein-protein interactions in cancer-related pathways. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the number of these alternative splicing changes in a sample and the number of somatic mutations in drivers. We propose that a subset of the alternative splicing changes observed in tumors may represent independent oncogenic processes that could be relevant to explain the functional transformations in cancer, and some of them could potentially be considered alternative splicing drivers (AS drivers). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  18. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Shiqin [College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319 (China); Chen, Xiangmei, E-mail: xm_chen6176@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Fengmin [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  19. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing; Sun, Shiqin; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  20. The Spliced Leader Trans-Splicing Mechanism in Different Organisms: Molecular Details and Possible Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainá eBitar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The spliced leader (SL is a gene that generates a functional ncRNA that is composed of two regions: an intronic region of unknown function (SLi and an exonic region (SLe, which is transferred to the 5’ end of independent transcripts yielding mature mRNAs, in a process known as spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS. The best described function for SLTS is to solve polycistronic transcripts into monocistronic units, specifically in Trypanosomatids. In other metazoans, it is speculated that the SLe addition could lead to increased mRNA stability, differential recruitment of the translational machinery, modification of the 5' region or a combination of these effects. Although important aspects of this mechanism have been revealed, several features remain to be elucidated. We have analyzed 157 SLe sequences from 148 species from 7 phyla and found a high degree of conservation among the sequences of species from the same phylum, although no considerable similarity seems to exist between sequences of species from different phyla. When analyzing case studies, we found evidence that a given SLe will always be related to a given set of transcripts in different species from the same phylum, and therefore, different SLe sequences from the same species would regulate different sets of transcripts. In addition, we have observed distinct transcript categories to be preferential targets for the SLe addition in different phyla. This work sheds light into crucial and controversial aspects of the SLTS mechanism. It represents a comprehensive study concerning various species and different characteristics of this important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism.

  1. Differential upregulation in DRG neurons of an α2δ-1 splice variant with a lower affinity for gabapentin after peripheral sensory nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Beatrice; Schlick, Bettina; Martin, Stuart; Pratt, Wendy S; Page, Karen M; Goncalves, Leonor; Rahman, Wahida; Dickenson, Anthony H; Bauer, Claudia S; Dolphin, Annette C

    2014-03-01

    The α2δ-1 protein is an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, critical for neurotransmitter release. It is upregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following sensory nerve injury, and is also the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are efficacious in both experimental and human neuropathic pain conditions. α2δ-1 has 3 spliced regions: A, B, and C. A and C are cassette exons, whereas B is introduced via an alternative 3' splice acceptor site. Here we have examined the presence of α2δ-1 splice variants in DRG neurons, and have found that although the main α2δ-1 splice variant in DRG is the same as that in brain (α2δ-1 ΔA+B+C), there is also another α2δ-1 splice variant (ΔA+BΔC), which is expressed in DRG neurons and is differentially upregulated compared to the main DRG splice variant α2δ-1 ΔA+B+C following spinal nerve ligation. Furthermore, this differential upregulation occurs preferentially in a small nonmyelinated DRG neuron fraction, obtained by density gradient separation. The α2δ-1 ΔA+BΔC splice variant supports CaV2 calcium currents with unaltered properties compared to α2δ-1 ΔA+B+C, but shows a significantly reduced affinity for gabapentin. This variant could therefore play a role in determining the efficacy of gabapentin in neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rare Drosha Splice Variants Are Deficient in MicroRNA Processing but Do Not Affect General MicroRNA Expression in Cancer Cells

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    Stefanie E. Grund

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosha is a key enzyme in microRNA biogenesis, generating the precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA by excising the stem-loop embedded in the primary transcripts (pri-miRNA. The specificity for the pri-miRNAs and determination of the cleavage site are provided by its binding partner DGCR8, which is necessary for efficient processing. The crucial Drosha domains for pri-miRNA cleavage are the middle part, the two enzymatic RNase III domains (RIIID, and the dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD in the C-terminus. Here, we identify alternatively spliced transcripts in human melanoma and NT2 cell lines, encoding C-terminally truncated Drosha proteins lacking part of the RIIIDb and the entire dsRBD. Proteins generated from these alternative splice variants fail to bind to DGCR8 but still interact with Ewing sarcoma protein (EWS. In vitro as well as in vivo, the Drosha splice variants are deficient in pri-miRNA processing. However, the aberrant transcripts in melanoma cells do not consistently reduce mature miRNA levels compared with melanoma cell lines lacking those splice variants, possibly owing to their limited abundance. Our findings show that alternative processing-deficient Drosha splice variants exist in melanoma cells. In elevated amounts, these alternatively spliced transcripts could provide one potential mechanism accounting for the deregulation of miRNAs in cancer cells. On the basis of our results, the search for alternative inactive splice variants might be fruitful in different tumor entities to unravel the molecular basis of the previously observed decreased microRNA processing efficiency in cancer.

  3. Antisense Oligonucleotide-based Splice Correction for USH2A-associated Retinal Degeneration Caused by a Frequent Deep-intronic Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulfus WN Slijkerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is the most common cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. The hearing loss can be partly compensated by providing patients with hearing aids or cochlear implants, but the loss of vision is currently untreatable. In general, mutations in the USH2A gene are the most frequent cause of USH explaining up to 50% of all patients worldwide. The first deep-intronic mutation in the USH2A gene (c.7595-2144A>G was reported in 2012, leading to the insertion of a pseudoexon (PE40 into the mature USH2A transcript. When translated, this PE40-containing transcript is predicted to result in a truncated non-functional USH2A protein. In this study, we explored the potential of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs to prevent aberrant splicing of USH2A pre-mRNA as a consequence of the c.7595-2144A>G mutation. Engineered 2'-O-methylphosphorothioate AONs targeting the PE40 splice acceptor site and/or exonic splice enhancer regions displayed significant splice correction potential in both patient derived fibroblasts and a minigene splice assay for USH2A c.7595-2144A>G, whereas a non-binding sense oligonucleotide had no effect on splicing. Altogether, AON-based splice correction could be a promising approach for the development of a future treatment for USH2A-associated retinitis pigmentosa caused by the deep-intronic c.7595-2144A>G mutation.

  4. Thousands of exon skipping events differentiate among splicing patterns in sixteen human tissues [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1p0

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    Liliana Florea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. However, despite many efforts, the repertoire of gene splicing variation is still incompletely characterized, even in humans. Here we describe a new computational system, ASprofile, and its application to RNA-seq data from Illumina’s Human Body Map project (>2.5 billion reads.  Using the system, we identified putative alternative splicing events in 16 different human tissues, which provide a dynamic picture of splicing variation across the tissues. We detected 26,989 potential exon skipping events representing differences in splicing patterns among the tissues. A large proportion of the events (>60% were novel, involving new exons (~3000, new introns (~16000, or both. When tracing these events across the sixteen tissues, only a small number (4-7% appeared to be differentially expressed (‘switched’ between two tissues, while 30-45% showed little variation, and the remaining 50-65% were not present in one or both tissues compared.  Novel exon skipping events appeared to be slightly less variable than known events, but were more tissue-specific. Our study represents the first effort to build a comprehensive catalog of alternative splicing in normal human tissues from RNA-seq data, while providing insights into the role of alternative splicing in shaping tissue transcriptome differences. The catalog of events and the ASprofile software are freely available from the Zenodo repository (http://zenodo.org/record/7068; doi:10.5281/zenodo.7068 and from our web site http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/ASprofile.

  5. Thousands of exon skipping events differentiate among splicing patterns in sixteen human tissues [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2dl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. However, despite many efforts, the repertoire of gene splicing variation is still incompletely characterized, even in humans. Here we describe a new computational system, ASprofile, and its application to RNA-seq data from Illumina’s Human Body Map project (>2.5 billion reads.  Using the system, we identified putative alternative splicing events in 16 different human tissues, which provide a dynamic picture of splicing variation across the tissues. We detected 26,989 potential exon skipping events representing differences in splicing patterns among the tissues. A large proportion of the events (>60% were novel, involving new exons (~3000, new introns (~16000, or both. When tracing these events across the sixteen tissues, only a small number (4-7% appeared to be differentially expressed (‘switched’ between two tissues, while 30-45% showed little variation, and the remaining 50-65% were not present in one or both tissues compared.  Novel exon skipping events appeared to be slightly less variable than known events, but were more tissue-specific. Our study represents the first effort to build a comprehensive catalog of alternative splicing in normal human tissues from RNA-seq data, while providing insights into the role of alternative splicing in shaping tissue transcriptome differences. The catalog of events and the ASprofile software are freely available from the Zenodo repository (http://zenodo.org/record/7068; doi:10.5281/zenodo.7068 and from our web site http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/ASprofile.

  6. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J

    2011-07-01

    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/IntFOLD/.

  7. Alteration of introns in a hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 minigene convert Pre-mRNA [corrected] splicing to the aberrant pattern in multiple myeloma (MM: MM patients harbor similar changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitra Kriangkum

    Full Text Available Aberrant pre-mRNA splice variants of hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1 have been identified in malignant cells from cancer patients. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that intronic sequence changes can underlie aberrant splicing. Deletions and mutations were introduced into HAS1 minigene constructs to identify regions that can influence aberrant intronic splicing, comparing the splicing pattern in transfectants with that in multiple myeloma (MM patients. Introduced genetic variations in introns 3 and 4 of HAS1 as shown here can promote aberrant splicing of the type detected in malignant cells from MM patients. HAS1Vd is a novel intronic splice variant first identified here. HAS1Vb, an intronic splice variant previously identified in patients, skips exon 4 and utilizes the same intron 4 alternative 3'splice site as HAS1Vd. For transfected constructs with unaltered introns 3 and 4, HAS1Vd transcripts are readily detectable, frequently to the exclusion of HAS1Vb. In contrast, in MM patients, HAS1Vb is more frequent than HAS1Vd. In the HAS1 minigene, combining deletion in intron 4 with mutations in intron 3 leads to a shift from HAS1Vd expression to HAS1Vb expression. The upregulation of aberrant splicing, exemplified here by the expression of HAS1Vb, is shown here to be influenced by multiple genetic changes in intronic sequences. For HAS1Vb, this includes enhanced exon 4 skipping and increased usage of alternative 3' splice sites. Thus, the combination of introduced mutations in HAS1 intron3 with introduced deletions in HAS1 intron 4 promoted a shift to an aberrant splicing pattern previously shown to be clinically significant. Most MM patients harbor genetic variations in intron 4, and as shown here, nearly half harbor recurrent mutations in HAS1 intron 3. Our work suggests that aberrant intronic HAS1 splicing in MM patients may rely on intronic HAS1 deletions and mutations that are frequent in MM patients but absent from healthy donors.

  8. HPV-18 E2circumflexE4 chimera: 2 new spliced transcripts and proteins induced by keratinocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Chye Ling [Papillomavirus Regulation and Cancer, Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Biopolis, 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos, Singapore 138648 (Singapore); Gunaratne, Jayantha [Mass Spectrometry and Systems Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A-STAR, Biopolis, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); Lai, Deborah [Papillomavirus Regulation and Cancer, Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Biopolis, 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos, Singapore 138648 (Singapore); Carthagena, Laetitia [UMR-S996, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 32 rue des Carnets, 92140 Clamart (France); Wang, Qian [MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London N10 3UE (United Kingdom); Xue, Yue Zhen; Quek, Ling Shih [Papillomavirus Regulation and Cancer, Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Biopolis, 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos, Singapore 138648 (Singapore); Doorbar, John [MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London N10 3UE (United Kingdom); Bachelerie, Francoise [UMR-S996, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 32 rue des Carnets, 92140 Clamart (France); Thierry, Francoise, E-mail: francoise.thierry@imb.a-star.edu.sg [Papillomavirus Regulation and Cancer, Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Biopolis, 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos, Singapore 138648 (Singapore); Bellanger, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.bellanger@imb.a-star.edu.sg [Papillomavirus Regulation and Cancer, Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Biopolis, 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos, Singapore 138648 (Singapore)

    2012-07-20

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E4 is known to be synthesized as an E1circumflexE4 fusion resulting from splice donor and acceptor sites conserved across HPV types. Here we demonstrate the existence of 2 HPV-18 E2circumflexE4 transcripts resulting from 2 splice donor sites in the 5 Prime part of E2, while the splice acceptor site is the one used for E1circumflexE4. Both E2circumflexE4 transcripts are up-regulated by keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and can be detected in clinical samples containing low-grade HPV-18-positive cells from Pap smears. They give rise to two fusion proteins in vitro, E2circumflexE4-S and E2circumflexE4-L. Whereas we could not differentiate E2circumflexE4-S from E1circumflexE4 in vivo, E2circumflexE4-L could be formally identified as a 23 kDa protein in raft cultures in which the corresponding transcript was also found, and in a biopsy from a patient with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage I-II (CINI-II) associated with HPV-18, demonstrating the physiological relevance of E2circumflexE4 products.

  9. Identification of evolutionarily conserved exons as regulated targets for the splicing activator tra2β in development.

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    Sushma Grellscheid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing amplifies the information content of the genome, creating multiple mRNA isoforms from single genes. The evolutionarily conserved splicing activator Tra2β (Sfrs10 is essential for mouse embryogenesis and implicated in spermatogenesis. Here we find that Tra2β is up-regulated as the mitotic stem cell containing population of male germ cells differentiate into meiotic and post-meiotic cells. Using CLIP coupled to deep sequencing, we found that Tra2β binds a high frequency of exons and identified specific G/A rich motifs as frequent targets. Significantly, for the first time we have analysed the splicing effect of Sfrs10 depletion in vivo by generating a conditional neuronal-specific Sfrs10 knock-out mouse (Sfrs10(fl/fl; Nestin-Cre(tg/+. This mouse has defects in brain development and allowed correlation of genuine physiologically Tra2β regulated exons. These belonged to a novel class which were longer than average size and importantly needed multiple cooperative Tra2β binding sites for efficient splicing activation, thus explaining the observed splicing defects in the knockout mice. Regulated exons included a cassette exon which produces a meiotic isoform of the Nasp histone chaperone that helps monitor DNA double-strand breaks. We also found a previously uncharacterised poison exon identifying a new pathway of feedback control between vertebrate Tra2 proteins. Both Nasp-T and the Tra2a poison exon are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting they might control fundamental developmental processes. Tra2β protein isoforms lacking the RRM were able to activate specific target exons indicating an additional functional role as a splicing co-activator. Significantly the N-terminal RS1 domain conserved between flies and humans was essential for the splicing activator function of Tra2β. Versions of Tra2β lacking this N-terminal RS1 domain potently repressed the same target exons activated by full-length Tra2β protein.

  10. Statistical analysis of LHC main interconnection splices room temperature resistance (R-8) results

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S

    2012-01-01

    During the 2008/2009 shutdown the so-called R-8/R-16 room temperature resistance test has been introduced for the quality control of the LHC main interconnection splices. It has been found that at present two groups of LHC main interconnection splices can be distinguished, so-called “old” splices produced during LHC installation, and so-called “new” splices produced during 2009. 2009 production splices are considered as the state-of-the art, which is reflected by a much smaller R-8 distribution as compared to that of splices produced during first LHC installation.

  11. Transcriptomic insights into the alternative splicing-mediated adaptation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to host niches: autophagy-related gene 8 as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Gao, Yang; Peng, Yue-Jin; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) regulates various biological processes in fungi by extending the cellular proteome. However, comprehensive studies investigating AS in entomopathogenic fungi are lacking. Based on transcriptome data obtained via dual RNA-seq, the first overview of AS events was developed for Beauveria bassiana growing in an insect haemocoel. The AS was demonstrated for 556 of 8840 expressed genes, accounting for 5.4% of the total genes in B. bassiana. Intron retention was the most abundant type of AS, accounting for 87.1% of all splicing events and exon skipping events were rare, only accounting for 2.0% of all events. Functional distribution analysis indicated an association between alternatively spliced genes and several physiological processes. Notably, B. bassiana autophagy-related gene 8 (BbATG8), an indispensable gene for autophagy, was spliced at an alternative 5' splice site to generate two transcripts (BbATG8-α and BbATG8-β). The BbATG8-α transcript was necessary for fungal autophagy and oxidation tolerance, while the BbATG8-β transcript was not. These two transcripts differentially contributed to the formation of conidia or blastospores as well as fungal virulence. Thus, AS acts as a powerful post-transcriptional regulatory strategy in insect mycopathogens and significantly mediates fungal transcriptional adaption to host niches. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Structural basis for ligand recognition at the benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA alpha 3 receptor, and pharmacophore-based virtual screening approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, R S K; Ghoshal, Nanda

    2008-10-01

    Given the heterogeneity of GABA(A) receptor, the pharmacological significance of identifying subtype selective modulators is increasingly being recognized. Thus, drugs selective for GABA(A) alpha(3) receptors are expected to display fewer side effects than the drugs presently in clinical use. Hence we carried out 3D QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship) studies on a series of novel GABA(A) alpha(3) subtype selective modulators to gain more insight into subtype affinity. To identify the 3D functional attributes required for subtype selectivity, a chemical feature-based pharmacophore, primarily based on selective ligands representing diverse structural classes was generated. The obtained pseudo receptor model of the benzodiazepine binding site revealed a binding mode akin to "Message-Address" concept. Scaffold hopping was carried out across multi-conformational May Bridge database for the identification of novel chemotypes. Further a focused data reduction approach was employed to choose a subset of enriched compounds based on "Drug likeness" and "Similarity-based" methods. These results taken together could provide impetus for rational design and optimization of more selective and high affinity leads with a potential to have decreased adverse effects.

  13. A Challenging Pie to Splice: Drugging the Spliceosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Brian; Kashyap, Manoj K; Chan, Warren C; Krug, Kelsey A; Castro, Januario E; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D

    2017-09-25

    Since its discovery in 1977, the study of alternative RNA splicing has revealed a plethora of mechanisms that had never before been documented in nature. Understanding these transitions and their outcome at the level of the cell and organism has become one of the great frontiers of modern chemical biology. Until 2007, this field remained in the hands of RNA biologists. However, the recent identification of natural product and synthetic modulators of RNA splicing has opened new access to this field, allowing for the first time a chemical-based interrogation of RNA splicing processes. Simultaneously, we have begun to understand the vital importance of splicing in disease, which offers a new platform for molecular discovery and therapy. As with many natural systems, gaining clear mechanistic detail at the molecular level is key towards understanding the operation of any biological machine. This minireview presents recent lessons learned in this emerging field of RNA splicing chemistry and chemical biology. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Two new splice variants in porcine PPARGC1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peelman Luc J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A is a coactivator with a vital and central role in fat and energy metabolism. It is considered to be a candidate gene for meat quality in pigs and is involved in the development of obesity and diabetes in humans. How its many functions are regulated, is however still largely unclear. Therefore a transcription profile of PPARGC1A in 32 tissues and 4 embryonic developmental stages in the pig was constructed by screening its cDNA for possible splice variants with exon-spanning primers. Findings This led to the discovery of 2 new splice variants in the pig, which were subsequently also detected in human tissues. In these variants, exon 8 was either completely or partly (the last 66 bp were conserved spliced out, potentially coding for a much shorter protein of respectively 337 and 359 amino acids (aa, of which the first 291 aa would be the same compared to the complete protein (796 aa. Conclusion Considering the functional domains of the PPARGC1A protein, it is very likely these splice variants considerably affect the function of the protein and alternative splicing could be one of the mechanisms by which the diverse functions of PPARGC1A are regulated.

  15. The determinants of alternative RNA splicing in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanouskaya, Tatsiana V; Grinev, Vasily V

    2017-12-01

    Alternative splicing represents an important level of the regulation of gene function in eukaryotic organisms. It plays a critical role in virtually every biological process within an organism, including regulation of cell division and cell death, differentiation of tissues in the embryo and the adult organism, as well as in cellular response to diverse environmental factors. In turn, studies of the last decade have shown that alternative splicing itself is controlled by different mechanisms. Unfortunately, there is no clear understanding of how these diverse mechanisms, or determinants, regulate and constrain the set of alternative RNA species produced from any particular gene in every cell of the human body. Here, we provide a consolidated overview of alternative splicing determinants including RNA-protein interactions, epigenetic regulation via chromatin remodeling, coupling of transcription-to-alternative splicing, effect of secondary structures in pre-RNA, and function of the RNA quality control systems. We also extensively and critically discuss some mechanistic insights on coordinated inclusion/exclusion of exons during the formation of mature RNA molecules. We conclude that the final structure of RNA is pre-determined by a complex interplay between cis- and trans-acting factors. Altogether, currently available empirical data significantly expand our understanding of the functioning of the alternative splicing machinery of cells in normal and pathological conditions. On the other hand, there are still many blind spots that require further deep investigations.

  16. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  17. Pre-mRNA mis-splicing of sarcomeric genes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is an important biological process that allows production of multiple proteins from a single gene in the genome, and mainly contributes to protein diversity in eukaryotic organisms. Alternative splicing is commonly governed by RNA binding proteins to meet the ever-changing demands of the cell. However, the mis-splicing may lead to human diseases. In the heart of human, mis-regulation of alternative splicing has been associated with heart failure. In this short review, we focus on alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes and review mis-splicing related heart failure with relatively well studied Sarcomeric genes and splicing mechanisms with identified regulatory factors. The perspective of alternative splicing based therapeutic strategies in heart failure has also been discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative splicing: the pledge, the turn, and the prestige : The key role of alternative splicing in human biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Paez, L M; Bordone, M C; Leote, A C; Saraiva-Agostinho, N; Ascensão-Ferreira, M; Barbosa-Morais, N L

    2017-09-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a tightly controlled process conducted by the spliceosome, with the assistance of several regulators, resulting in the expression of different transcript isoforms from the same gene and increasing both transcriptome and proteome complexity. The differences between alternative isoforms may be subtle but enough to change the function or localization of the translated proteins. A fine control of the isoform balance is, therefore, needed throughout developmental stages and adult tissues or physiological conditions and it does not come as a surprise that several diseases are caused by its deregulation. In this review, we aim to bring the splicing machinery on stage and raise the curtain on its mechanisms and regulation throughout several systems and tissues of the human body, from neurodevelopment to the interactions with the human microbiome. We discuss, on one hand, the essential role of alternative splicing in assuring tissue function, diversity, and swiftness of response in these systems or tissues, and on the other hand, what goes wrong when its regulatory mechanisms fail. We also focus on the possibilities that splicing modulation therapies open for the future of personalized medicine, along with the leading techniques in this field. The final act of the spliceosome, however, is yet to be fully revealed, as more knowledge is needed regarding the complex regulatory network that coordinates alternative splicing and how its dysfunction leads to disease.

  19. Widespread evolutionary conservation of alternatively spliced exons in caenorhabditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to increased transcriptome and proteome diversity in various eukaryotic lineages. Previous studies showed low levels of conservation of alternatively spliced (cassette) exons within mammals and within dipterans. We report a strikingly different pattern...... in Caenorhabditis nematodes-more than 92% of cassette exons from Caenorhabditis elegans are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae and/or Caenorhabditis remanei. High levels of conservation extend to minor-form exons (present in a minority of transcripts) and are particularly pronounced for exons showing complex...... patterns of splicing. The functionality of the vast majority of cassette exons is underscored by various other features. We suggest that differences in conservation between lineages reflect differences in levels of functionality and further suggest that these differences are due to differences in intron...

  20. Body Temperature Cycles Control Rhythmic Alternative Splicing in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußner, Marco; Goldammer, Gesine; Neumann, Alexander; Haltenhof, Tom; Rautenstrauch, Pia; Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Heyd, Florian

    2017-08-03

    The core body temperature of all mammals oscillates with the time of the day. However, direct molecular consequences of small, physiological changes in body temperature remain largely elusive. Here we show that body temperature cycles drive rhythmic SR protein phosphorylation to control an alternative splicing (AS) program. A temperature change of 1°C is sufficient to induce a concerted splicing switch in a large group of functionally related genes, rendering this splicing-based thermometer much more sensitive than previously described temperature-sensing mechanisms. AS of two exons in the 5' UTR of the TATA-box binding protein (Tbp) highlights the general impact of this mechanism, as it results in rhythmic TBP protein levels with implications for global gene expression in vivo. Together our data establish body temperature-driven AS as a core clock-independent oscillator in mammalian peripheral clocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis for Behavior of Reinforcement Lap Splices in Deep Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Yaser Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study includes an experimental and theoretical investigation of reinforced concrete deep beams containing tensile reinforcement lap splices at constant moment zone under static load. The study included two stages: in the first one, an experimental work included testing of eight simply supported RC deep beams having a total length (L = 2000 mm, overall depth (h= 600 mm and width (b = 150 mm. The tested specimens were divided into three groups to study the effect of main variables: lap length, location of splice, internal confinement (stirrups and external confinement (strengthening by CFRP laminates. The experimental results showed that the use of CFRP as external strengthening in deep beam with lap spliced gives best behavior such as increase in stiffness, decrease in deflection, delaying the cracks appearance and reducing the crack width. The reduction in deflection about (14-21 % than the unstrengthened beam and about (5-14 % than the beam with continuous bars near ultimate load. Also, it was observed that the beams with unstrengthened tensile reinforcement lap splices had three types of cracks: flexural, flexural-shear and splitting cracks while the beams with strengthened tensile reinforcement lap splices or continuous bars don’t observe splitting cracks. In the second stage, a numerical analysis of three dimensional finite element analysis was utilized to explore the behavior of the RC deep beams with tensile reinforcement lap splices, in addition to parametric study of many variables. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical results showed reasonable agreement. The average difference of the deflection at service load was less than 5%.

  2. Genomic organization and the tissue distribution of alternatively spliced isoforms of the mouse Spatial gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattei Marie-Geneviève

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stromal component of the thymic microenvironment is critical for T lymphocyte generation. Thymocyte differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated stromal genes controlling thymocyte survival, lineage commitment and selection. The "Stromal Protein Associated with Thymii And Lymph-node" (Spatial gene encodes a putative transcription factor which may be involved in T-cell development. In the testis, the Spatial gene is also expressed by round spermatids during spermatogenesis. Results The Spatial gene maps to the B3-B4 region of murine chromosome 10 corresponding to the human syntenic region 10q22.1. The mouse Spatial genomic DNA is organised into 10 exons and is alternatively spliced to generate two short isoforms (Spatial-α and -γ and two other long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε comprising 5 additional exons on the 3' site. Here, we report the cloning of a new short isoform, Spatial-β, which differs from other isoforms by an additional alternative exon of 69 bases. This new exon encodes an interesting proline-rich signature that could confer to the 34 kDa Spatial-β protein a particular function. By quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR, we have shown that the short isoforms are highly expressed in the thymus while the long isoforms are highly expressed in the testis. We further examined the inter-species conservation of Spatial between several mammals and identified that the protein which is rich in proline and positive amino acids, is highly conserved. Conclusions The Spatial gene generates at least five alternative spliced variants: three short isoforms (Spatial-α, -β and -γ highly expressed in the thymus and two long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε highly expressed in the testis. These alternative spliced variants could have a tissue specific function.

  3. Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner William

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL. The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT, and two minor transcripts. Results We report that transcriptional expression of the human SHBG gene is far more complex than previously described. PL and PT direct the expression of at least six independent transcripts each, resulting from alternative splicing of exons 4, 5, 6, and/or 7. We mapped two transcriptional start sites downstream of PL and PT, and present evidence for a third SHBG gene promoter (PN within the neighboring FXR2 gene; PN regulates the expression of at least seven independent SHBG gene transcripts, each possessing a novel, 164-nt first exon (1N. Transcriptional expression patterns were generated for human prostate, breast, testis, liver, and brain, and the LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. Each expresses the SHBG transcript, albeit in varying abundance. Alternative splicing was more pronounced in the cancer cell lines. PL- PT- and PN-derived transcripts were most abundant in liver, testis, and prostate, respectively. Initial findings reveal the existence of a smaller immunoreactive SHBG species in LNCaP, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells. Conclusion These results extend our understanding of human SHBG gene transcription, and raise new and important questions regarding the role of novel alternatively spliced transcripts, their function in hormonally responsive tissues including the breast and prostate, and the role that aberrant SHBG gene expression may play in cancer.

  4. A novel splicing mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Siggaard, C; Herlin, Troels

    2000-01-01

    as clinical investigations comprising a fluid deprivation test and a 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (dDAVP) infusion test in the study subject and his mother. We found a highly unusual, novel, de novo 1447A-->C point mutation (gDNA), involving the invariable splice acceptor of the second intron...... of the gene in both the affected male (hemizygous) and his mother (heterozygous). This mutation is likely to cause aberrant splicing of the terminal intron of the gene, leading to a non-functional AVP receptor. The clinical studies were consistent with such a hypothesis, as the affected subject had a severe...

  5. Functional Characterization of MC1R-TUBB3 Intergenic Splice Variants of the Human Melanocortin 1 Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Herraiz

    Full Text Available The melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R expressed in melanocytes is a major determinant of skin pigmentation. It encodes a Gs protein-coupled receptor activated by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. Human MC1R has an inefficient poly(A site allowing intergenic splicing with its downstream neighbour Tubulin-β-III (TUBB3. Intergenic splicing produces two MC1R isoforms, designated Iso1 and Iso2, bearing the complete seven transmembrane helices from MC1R fused to TUBB3-derived C-terminal extensions, in-frame for Iso1 and out-of-frame for Iso2. It has been reported that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR might promote an isoform switch from canonical MC1R (MC1R-001 to the MC1R-TUBB3 chimeras, which might lead to novel phenotypes required for tanning. We expressed the Flag epitope-tagged intergenic isoforms in heterologous HEK293T cells and human melanoma cells, for functional characterization. Iso1 was expressed with the expected size. Iso2 yielded a doublet of Mr significantly lower than predicted, and impaired intracellular stability. Although Iso1- and Iso2 bound radiolabelled agonist with the same affinity as MC1R-001, their plasma membrane expression was strongly reduced. Decreased surface expression mostly resulted from aberrant forward trafficking, rather than high rates of endocytosis. Functional coupling of both isoforms to cAMP was lower than wild-type, but ERK activation upon binding of αMSH was unimpaired, suggesting imbalanced signaling from the splice variants. Heterodimerization of differentially labelled MC1R-001 with the splicing isoforms analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation was efficient and caused decreased surface expression of binding sites. Thus, UVR-induced MC1R isoforms might contribute to fine-tune the tanning response by modulating MC1R-001 availability and functional parameters.

  6. DEDB: a database of Drosophila melanogaster exons in splicing graph form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Tin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wealth of quality genomic and mRNA/EST sequences in recent years has provided the data required for large-scale genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing. We have capitalized on this by constructing a database that contains alternative splicing information organized as splicing graphs, where all transcripts arising from a single gene are collected, organized and classified. The splicing graph then serves as the basis for the classification of the various types of alternative splicing events. Description DEDB http://proline.bic.nus.edu.sg/dedb/index.html is a database of Drosophila melanogaster exons obtained from FlyBase arranged in a splicing graph form that permits the creation of simple rules allowing for the classification of alternative splicing events. Pfam domains were also mapped onto the protein sequences allowing users to access the impact of alternative splicing events on domain organization. Conclusions DEDB's catalogue of splicing graphs facilitates genome-wide classification of alternative splicing events for genome analysis. The splicing graph viewer brings together genome, transcript, protein and domain information to facilitate biologists in understanding the implications of alternative splicing.

  7. Systematic profiling of alternative splicing signature reveals prognostic predictor for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyong; Chen, Zuhua; Yong, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The majority of genes are alternatively spliced and growing evidence suggests that alternative splicing is modified in cancer and is associated with cancer progression. Systematic analysis of alternative splicing signature in ovarian cancer is lacking and greatly needed. We profiled genome-wide alternative splicing events in 408 ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) patients in TCGA. Seven types of alternative splicing events were curated and prognostic analyses were performed with predictive models and splicing network built for OV patients. Among 48,049 mRNA splicing events in 10,582 genes, we detected 2,611 alternative splicing events in 2,036 genes which were significant associated with overall survival of OV patients. Exon skip events were the most powerful prognostic factors among the seven types. The area under the curve of the receiver-operator characteristic curve for prognostic predictor, which was built with top significant alternative splicing events, was 0.937 at 2,000 days of overall survival, indicating powerful efficiency in distinguishing patient outcome. Interestingly, splicing correlation network suggested obvious trends in the role of splicing factors in OV. In summary, we built powerful prognostic predictors for OV patients and uncovered interesting splicing networks which could be underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  9. Diversification of the Histone Acetyltransferase GCN5 through Alternative Splicing in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic modulatory SAGA complex is involved in various developmental and stress responsive pathways in plants. Alternative transcripts of the SAGA complex's enzymatic subunit GCN5 have been identified in Brachypodium distachyon. These splice variants differ based on the presence and integrity of their conserved domain sequences: the histone acetyltransferase domain, responsible for catalytic activity, and the bromodomain, involved in acetyl-lysine binding and genomic loci targeting. GCN5 is the wild-type transcript, while alternative splice sites result in the following transcriptional variants: L-GCN5, which is missing the bromodomain and S-GCN5, which lacks the bromodomain as well as certain motifs of the histone acetyltransferase domain. Absolute mRNA quantification revealed that, across eight B. distachyon accessions, GCN5 was the dominant transcript isoform, accounting for up to 90% of the entire transcript pool, followed by L-GCN5 and S-GCN5. A cycloheximide treatment further revealed that the S-GCN5 splice variant was degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. All alternative BdGCN5 transcripts displayed similar transcript profiles, being induced during early exposure to heat and displaying higher levels of accumulation in the crown, compared to aerial tissues. All predicted protein isoforms localize to the nucleus, which lends weight to their purported epigenetic functions. S-GCN5 was incapable of forming an in vivo protein interaction with ADA2, the transcriptional adaptor that links the histone acetyltransferase subunit to the SAGA complex, while both GCN5 and L-GCN5 interacted with ADA2, which suggests that a complete histone acetyltransferase domain is required for BdGCN5-BdADA2 interaction in vivo. Thus, there has been a diversification in BdGCN5 through alternative splicing that has resulted in differences in conserved domain composition, transcript fate and in vivo protein interaction partners. Furthermore, our

  10. Traceless splicing enabled by substrate-induced activation of the Nostoc punctiforme Npu DnaE intein after mutation of a catalytic cysteine to serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Manoj; Chan, Siu-Hong; Perler, Francine

    2014-12-12

    Inteins self-catalytically cleave out of precursor proteins while ligating the surrounding extein fragments with a native peptide bond. Much attention has been lavished on these molecular marvels with the hope of understanding and harnessing their chemistry for novel biochemical transformations including coupling peptides from synthetic or biological origins and controlling protein function. Despite an abundance of powerful applications, the use of inteins is still hampered by limitations in our understanding of their specificity (defined as flanking sequences that permit splicing) and the challenge of inserting inteins into target proteins. We examined the frequently used Nostoc punctiforme Npu DnaE intein after the C-extein cysteine nucleophile (Cys+1) was mutated to serine or threonine. Previous studies demonstrated reduced rates and/or splicing yields with the Npu DnaE intein after mutation of Cys+1 to Ser+1. In this study, genetic selection identified extein sequences with Ser+1 that enabled the Npu DnaE intein to splice with only a 5-fold reduction in rate compared to the wild-type Cys+1 intein and without mutation of the intein itself to activate Ser+1 as a nucleophile. Three different proteins spliced efficiently after insertion of the intein flanked by the selected sequences. We then used this selected specificity to achieve traceless splicing in a targeted enzyme at a location predicted by primary sequence similarity to only the selected C-extein sequence. This study highlights the latent catalytic potential of the Npu DnaE intein to splice with an alternative nucleophile and enables broader intein utility by increasing insertion site choices. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Altered Pre-mRNA Splicing Caused by a Novel Intronic Mutation c.1443+5G>A in the Dihydropyrimidinase (DPYS) Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yoko; Meijer, Judith; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Xu; Kondo, Tomomi; Ito, Tetsuya; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Van Kuilenburg, André B P

    2016-01-12

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the DPYS gene. Patients present with highly elevated levels of dihydrouracil and dihydrothymine in their urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The analysis of the effect of mutations in DPYS on pre-mRNA splicing is hampered by the fact that DHP is primarily expressed in liver and kidney cells. The minigene approach can detect mRNA splicing aberrations using cells that do not express the endogenous mRNA. We have used a minigene-based approach to analyze the effects of a presumptive pre-mRNA splicing mutation in two newly identified Chinese pediatric patients with DHP deficiency. Mutation analysis of DPYS showed that both patients were compound heterozygous for a novel intronic mutation c.1443+5G>A in intron 8 and a previously described missense mutation c.1001A>G (p.Q334R) in exon 6. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing exons 7, 8 and 9 of DPYS, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.1443+5G>A mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the DPYS minigene construct with full skipping of exon 8. Analysis of the DHP crystal structure showed that the deletion of exon 8 severely affects folding, stability and homooligomerization of the enzyme as well as disruption of the catalytic site. Thus, the analysis suggests that the c.1443+5G>A mutation results in aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding DHP, underlying the DHP deficiency in two unrelated Chinese patients.

  12. Altered Pre-mRNA Splicing Caused by a Novel Intronic Mutation c.1443+5G>A in the Dihydropyrimidinase (DPYS Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Nakajima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the DPYS gene. Patients present with highly elevated levels of dihydrouracil and dihydrothymine in their urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The analysis of the effect of mutations in DPYS on pre-mRNA splicing is hampered by the fact that DHP is primarily expressed in liver and kidney cells. The minigene approach can detect mRNA splicing aberrations using cells that do not express the endogenous mRNA. We have used a minigene-based approach to analyze the effects of a presumptive pre-mRNA splicing mutation in two newly identified Chinese pediatric patients with DHP deficiency. Mutation analysis of DPYS showed that both patients were compound heterozygous for a novel intronic mutation c.1443+5G>A in intron 8 and a previously described missense mutation c.1001A>G (p.Q334R in exon 6. Wild-type and the mutated minigene constructs, containing exons 7, 8 and 9 of DPYS, yielded different splicing products after expression in HEK293 cells. The c.1443+5G>A mutation resulted in altered pre-mRNA splicing of the DPYS minigene construct with full skipping of exon 8. Analysis of the DHP crystal structure showed that the deletion of exon 8 severely affects folding, stability and homooligomerization of the enzyme as well as disruption of the catalytic site. Thus, the analysis suggests that the c.1443+5G>A mutation results in aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding DHP, underlying the DHP deficiency in two unrelated Chinese patients.

  13. Insights into alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes in the heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeland, Cornelis J.; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M.; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Creemers, Esther E.

    2015-01-01

    Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial layer in gene expression, greatly expanding protein diversity and governing complex biological processes in the cardiomyocyte. At the core of cardiac contraction, the physical

  14. Minor class splicing shapes the zebrafish transcriptome during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markmiller, Sebastian; Cloonan, Nicole; Lardelli, Rea M

    2014-01-01

    known as Taybi-Linder syndrome or microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism 1, and a hereditary intestinal polyposis condition, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although a key mechanism for regulating gene expression, the impact of impaired U12-type splicing on the transcriptome is unknown. Here, we...

  15. The Database Management Module of the Splice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    standardization is the only wise chocs . E. FUNCTIONS OF THE EATABASE MkNAGEMENT MODULE As a result of onqoing research in thmc impl1msntaticn of SPLICE, thns...u an e-v Offset by one or mc--l orders of ma#-inuIs inorcvesnnt --L tue execution time cf user transacdrioas. Purthermore, ’is s-toraqe requlrement

  16. A novel CDX2 isoform regulates alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Witek

    Full Text Available Gene expression is a dynamic and coordinated process coupling transcription with pre-mRNA processing. This regulation enables tissue-specific transcription factors to induce expression of specific transcripts that are subsequently amplified by alternative splicing allowing for increased proteome complexity and functional diversity. The intestine-specific transcription factor CDX2 regulates development and maintenance of the intestinal epithelium by inducing expression of genes characteristic of the mature enterocyte phenotype. Here, sequence analysis of CDX2 mRNA from colonic mucosa-derived tissues revealed an alternatively spliced transcript (CDX2/AS that encodes a protein with a truncated homeodomain and a novel carboxy-terminal domain enriched in serine and arginine residues (RS domain. CDX2 and CDX2/AS exhibited distinct nuclear expression patterns with minimal areas of co-localization. CDX2/AS did not activate the CDX2-dependent promoter of guanylyl cyclase C nor inhibit transcriptional activity of CDX2. Unlike CDX2, CDX2/AS co-localized with the putative splicing factors ASF/SF2 and SC35. CDX2/AS altered splicing patterns of CD44v5 and Tra2-β1 minigenes in Lovo colon cancer cells independent of CDX2 expression. These data demonstrate unique dual functions of the CDX2 gene enabling it to regulate gene expression through both transcription (CDX2 and pre-mRNA processing (CDX2/AS.

  17. Stiff, Strong Splice For A Composite Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, D.

    1991-01-01

    New type of splice for composite sandwich structure reduces peak shear stress in structure. Layers of alternating fiber orientation interposed between thin ears in adhesive joint. Developed for structural joint in spar of helicopter rotor blade, increases precision of control over thickness of adhesive at joint. Joint easy to make, requires no additional pieces, and adds little weight.

  18. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2014-12-16

    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated-fully or partially-from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. fruitless alternative splicing and sex behaviour in insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Drosophila melanogaster, male courtship requires proteins encoded by the fruitless (fru) gene that are produced in different sex-specific isoforms via alternative splicing. Drosophila mutant flies with loss-of-function alleles of the fru gene exhibit blocked male courtship behaviour. However, various individual steps in the ...

  20. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen M.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Coti, Karla K.; Bení tez, Diego S.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmieli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William Andrew III; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, Fraser Fraser Raser

    2009-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Becker muscular dystrophy due to an intronic splicing mutation inducing a dual dystrophin transcript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todeschini, Alice; Gualandi, Francesca; Trabanelli, Cecilia; Armaroli, Annarita; Ravani, Anna; Fanin, Marina; Rota, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Elena; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano

    2016-10-01

    We describe a 29-year-old patient who complained of left thigh muscle weakness since he was 23 and of moderate proximal weakness of both lower limbs with difficulty in climbing stairs and running since he was 27. Mild weakness of iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles and muscle atrophy of both the distal forearm and thigh were observed upon clinical examination. He harboured a novel c.1150-3C>G substitution in the DMD gene, affecting the intron 10 acceptor splice site and causing exon 11 skipping and an out-of-frame transcript. However, protein of normal molecular weight but in reduced amounts was observed on Western Blot analysis. Reverse transcription analysis on muscle RNA showed production, via alternative splicing, of a transcript missing exon 11 as well as a low abundant full-length transcript which is enough to avoid the severe Duchenne phenotype. Our study showed that a reduced amount of full length dystrophin leads to a mild form of Becker muscular dystrophy. These results confirm earlier findings that low amounts of dystrophin can be associated with a milder phenotype, which is promising for therapies aiming at dystrophin restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a glucagon receptor splice mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Larger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3′ mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene. Loss of the splice site acceptor consensus sequence results in the deletion of 70 nucleotides encoded by exon 9, which introduces a frame shift and an early termination signal in the receptor mRNA sequence. The mutated receptor neither bound 125I-labeled glucagon nor induced cAMP production upon stimulation with up to 1 μM glucagon. Despite the mutation, the only obvious pathophysiological trait was hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia and massive hyperplasia of the pancreatic α-cells assessed by histology. Our case supports the notion of a hepato–pancreatic feedback system, which upon disruption leads to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells.

  4. Congenital analbuminemia caused by a novel aberrant splicing in the albumin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Gianluca; Dagnino, Monica; Erdeve, Omer; Di Duca, Marco; Yildiz, Duran; Alan, Serdar; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet; Campagnoli, Monica; Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Congenital analbuminemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the presence of a very low amount of circulating serum albumin. It is an allelic heterogeneous defect, caused by variety of mutations within the albumin gene in homozygous or compound heterozygous state. Herein we report the clinical and molecular characterization of a new case of congenital analbuminemia diagnosed in a female newborn of consanguineous (first degree cousins) parents from Ankara, Turkey, who presented with a low albumin concentration (A transition at position c.1652+1, the first base of intron 12, which inactivates the strongly conserved GT dinucleotide at the 5' splice site consensus sequence of this intron. The splicing defect results in the complete skipping of the preceding exon (exon 12) and in a frame-shift within exon 13 with a premature stop codon after the translation of three mutant amino acid residues. Our results confirm the clinical diagnosis of congenital analbuminemia in the proband and the inheritance of the trait and contribute to shed light on the molecular genetics of analbuminemia.

  5. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Grmai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx. Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir and Female lethal (2d (Fl(2d. traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of Alternative Splicing in Paleopolyploid Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Mei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing (AS enables our understanding of the biological role of transcript isoform diversity. This study describes the use of publicly available RNA-Seq data to identify and characterize the global diversity of AS isoforms in maize using the inbred lines B73 and Mo17, and a related species, sorghum. Identification and characterization of AS within maize tissues revealed that genes expressed in seed exhibit the largest differential AS relative to other tissues examined. Additionally, differences in AS between the two genotypes B73 and Mo17 are greatest within genes expressed in seed. We demonstrate that changes in the level of alternatively spliced transcripts (intron retention and exon skipping do not solely reflect differences in total transcript abundance, and we present evidence that intron retention may act to fine-tune gene expression across seed development stages. Furthermore, we have identified temperature sensitive AS in maize and demonstrate that drought-induced changes in AS involve distinct sets of genes in reproductive and vegetative tissues. Examining our identified AS isoforms within B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred lines (RILs identified splicing QTL (sQTL. The 43.3% of cis-sQTL regulated junctions are actually identified as alternatively spliced junctions in our analysis, while 10 Mb windows on each side of 48.2% of trans-sQTLs overlap with splicing related genes. Using sorghum as an out-group enabled direct examination of loss or conservation of AS between homeologous genes representing the two subgenomes of maize. We identify several instances where AS isoforms that are conserved between one maize homeolog and its sorghum ortholog are absent from the second maize homeolog, suggesting that these AS isoforms may have been lost after the maize whole genome duplication event. This comprehensive analysis provides new insights into the complexity of AS in maize.

  7. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmai, Lydia; Hudry, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Bach, Erika A

    2018-02-01

    Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir) and Female lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d). traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2)d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2)d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  8. The somatic FAH C.1061C>A change counteracts the frequent FAH c.1062+5G>A mutation and permits U1snRNA-based splicing correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalet, Daniela; Sacchetto, Claudia; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Balestra, Dario

    2018-05-01

    In tyrosinaemia type 1(HT1), a mosaic pattern of fumarylacetoacetase (FAH) immunopositive or immunonegative nodules in liver tissue has been reported in many patients. This aspect is generally explained by a spontaneous reversion of the mutation into a normal genotype. In one HT1 patient carrying the frequent FAH c.1062+5G>A mutation, a second somatic change (c.1061C>A) has been reported in the same allele, and found in immunopositive nodules. Here, we demonstrated that the c.1062+5G>A prevents usage of the exon 12 5' splice site (ss), even when forced by an engineered U1snRNA specifically designed on the FAH 5'ss to strengthen its recognition. Noticeably the new somatic c.1061C>A change, in linkage with the c.1062+5G>A mutation, partially rescues the defective 5'ss and is associated to trace level (~5%) of correct transcripts. Interestingly, this combined genetic condition strongly favored the rescue by the engineered U1snRNA, with correct transcripts reaching up to 60%. Altogether, these findings elucidate the molecular basis of HT1 caused by the frequent FAH c.1062+5G>A mutation, and demonstrate the compensatory effect of the c.1061C>A change in promoting exon definition, thus unraveling a rare mechanism leading to FAH immune-reactive mosaicism.

  9. High prevalence of mutations affecting the splicing process in a Spanish cohort with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerra-Inchausti, Maitane; Barandika, Olatz; Anasagasti, Ander; Irigoyen, Cristina; López de Munain, Adolfo; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is the most frequent group of inherited retinal dystrophies. It is highly heterogeneous, with more than 80 disease-causing genes 27 of which are known to cause autosomal dominant RP (adRP), having been identified. In this study a total of 29 index cases were ascertained based on a family tree compatible with adRP. A custom panel of 31 adRP genes was analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing using the Ion PGM platform in combination with Sanger sequencing. This allowed us to detect putative disease-causing mutations in 14 out of the 29 (48.28%) families analysed. Remarkably, around 38% of all adRP cases analysed showed mutations affecting the splicing process, mainly due to mutations in genes coding for spliceosome factors (SNRNP200 and PRPF8) but also due to splice-site mutations in RHO. Twelve of the 14 mutations found had been reported previously and two were novel mutations found in PRPF8 in two unrelated patients. In conclusion, our results will lead to more accurate genetic counselling and will contribute to a better characterisation of the disease. In addition, they may have a therapeutic impact in the future given the large number of studies currently underway based on targeted RNA splicing for therapeutic purposes. PMID:28045043

  10. Statistically based splicing detection reveals neural enrichment and tissue-specific induction of circular RNA during human fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Linda; Morey, Robert; Palpant, Nathan J; Wang, Peter L; Afari, Nastaran; Jiang, Chuan; Parast, Mana M; Murry, Charles E; Laurent, Louise C; Salzman, Julia

    2015-06-16

    The pervasive expression of circular RNA is a recently discovered feature of gene expression in highly diverged eukaryotes, but the functions of most circular RNAs are still unknown. Computational methods to discover and quantify circular RNA are essential. Moreover, discovering biological contexts where circular RNAs are regulated will shed light on potential functional roles they may play. We present a new algorithm that increases the sensitivity and specificity of circular RNA detection by discovering and quantifying circular and linear RNA splicing events at both annotated and un-annotated exon boundaries, including intergenic regions of the genome, with high statistical confidence. Unlike approaches that rely on read count and exon homology to determine confidence in prediction of circular RNA expression, our algorithm uses a statistical approach. Using our algorithm, we unveiled striking induction of general and tissue-specific circular RNAs, including in the heart and lung, during human fetal development. We discover regions of the human fetal brain, such as the frontal cortex, with marked enrichment for genes where circular RNA isoforms are dominant. The vast majority of circular RNA production occurs at major spliceosome splice sites; however, we find the first examples of developmentally induced circular RNAs processed by the minor spliceosome, and an enriched propensity of minor spliceosome donors to splice into circular RNA at un-annotated, rather than annotated, exons. Together, these results suggest a potentially significant role for circular RNA in human development.

  11. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Schober

    Full Text Available Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S. Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  12. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Douglas A; Croy, Carrie H; Ruble, Cara L; Tao, Ran; Felder, Christian C

    2017-01-01

    Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon) that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S). Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine) demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  13. Mammalian tissues defective in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay display highly aberrant splicing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Waage, Johannes Eichler; Tian, Geng

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) affects the outcome of alternative splicing by degrading mRNA isoforms with premature termination codons. Splicing regulators constitute important NMD targets; however, the extent to which loss of NMD causes extensive deregulation...... of alternative splicing has not previously been assayed in a global, unbiased manner. Here, we combine mouse genetics and RNA-seq to provide the first in vivo analysis of the global impact of NMD on splicing patterns in two primary mouse tissues ablated for the NMD factor UPF2. RESULTS: We developed...... importance, the latter events are associated with high intronic conservation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that NMD regulates alternative splicing outcomes through an intricate web of splicing regulators and that its loss leads to the deregulation of a panoply of splicing events, providing novel...

  14. Muscle-Specific Mis-Splicing and Heart Disease Exemplified by RBM20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexiati, Maimaiti; Sun, Mingming; Guo, Wei

    2018-01-05

    Alternative splicing is an essential post-transcriptional process to generate multiple functional RNAs or proteins from a single transcript. Progress in RNA biology has led to a better understanding of muscle-specific RNA splicing in heart disease. The recent discovery of the muscle-specific splicing factor RNA-binding motif 20 (RBM20) not only provided great insights into the general alternative splicing mechanism but also demonstrated molecular mechanism of how this splicing factor is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we review our current knowledge of muscle-specific splicing factors and heart disease, with an emphasis on RBM20 and its targets, RBM20-dependent alternative splicing mechanism, RBM20 disease origin in induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), and RBM20 mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy. In the end, we will discuss the multifunctional role of RBM20 and manipulation of RBM20 as a potential therapeutic target for heart disease.

  15. PathwaySplice: An R package for unbiased pathway analysis of alternative splicing in RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Ban, Yuguang; Gao, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Wang, Lily

    2018-04-24

    Pathway analysis of alternative splicing would be biased without accounting for the different number of exons or junctions associated with each gene, because genes with higher number of exons or junctions are more likely to be included in the "significant" gene list in alternative splicing. We present PathwaySplice, an R package that (1) Performs pathway analysis that explicitly adjusts for the number of exons or junctions associated with each gene; (2) Visualizes selection bias due to different number of exons or junctions for each gene and formally tests for presence of bias using logistic regression; (3) Supports gene sets based on the Gene Ontology terms, as well as more broadly defined gene sets (e.g. MSigDB) or user defined gene sets; (4) Identifies the significant genes driving pathway significance and (5) Organizes significant pathways with an enrichment map, where pathways with large number of overlapping genes are grouped together in a network graph. https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/PathwaySplice.html. lily.wangg@gmail.com, xi.steven.chen@gmail.com.

  16. AR Alternative Splicing and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    and Pestell , R. G. (2000) p300 and p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-associated factor acety- late the androgen receptor at sites governing...Hopp, T., Fuqua, S. A., Jaffray, E., Hay, R. T., Palvimo, J. J., Jänne, O. A., and Pestell , R. G. (2002) Androgen receptor acetylation governs transac

  17. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  18. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  19. Interplay between estrogen receptor and AKT in estradiol-induced alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Song, Eun-Kyung; Collins, Nikail R; Uversky, Vladimir N; Dunker, A Keith; O'Malley, Bert W; Geistlinger, Tim R; Carroll, Jason S; Brown, Myles; Nakshatri, Harikrishna

    2013-06-11

    Alternative splicing is critical for generating complex proteomes in response to extracellular signals. Nuclear receptors including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and their ligands promote alternative splicing. The endogenous targets of ERα:estradiol (E2)-mediated alternative splicing and the influence of extracellular kinases that phosphorylate ERα on E2-induced splicing are unknown. MCF-7 and its anti-estrogen derivatives were used for the majority of the assays. CD44 mini gene was used to measure the effect of E2 and AKT on alternative splicing. ExonHit array analysis was performed to identify E2 and AKT-regulated endogenous alternatively spliced apoptosis-related genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to verify alternative splicing. ERα binding to alternatively spliced genes was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation-ELISA and Annexin V labeling assays were done to measure cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. We identified the targets of E2-induced alternative splicing and deconstructed some of the mechanisms surrounding E2-induced splicing by combining splice array with ERα cistrome and gene expression array. E2-induced alternatively spliced genes fall into at least two subgroups: coupled to E2-regulated transcription and ERα binding to the gene without an effect on rate of transcription. Further, AKT, which phosphorylates both ERα and splicing factors, influenced ERα:E2 dependent splicing in a gene-specific manner. Genes that are alternatively spliced include FAS/CD95, FGFR2, and AXIN-1. E2 increased the expression of FGFR2 C1 isoform but reduced C3 isoform at mRNA level. E2-induced alternative splicing of FAS and FGFR2 in MCF-7 cells correlated with resistance to FAS activation-induced apoptosis and response to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), respectively. Resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen was associated with ER

  20. Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein Homologs from Arabidopsis Are Key Regulators of Alternative Splicing with Implications in Fundamental Developmental Processes[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5′ splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid–dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

  1. Splicing defect in FKBP10 gene causes autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Fatemeh; Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Moravej, Hossein; Dastsooz, Hassan; Modarresi, Farzaneh; Silawi, Mohammad; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-05-25

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of connective tissue disorder caused by mutations of genes involved in the production of collagen and its supporting proteins. Although the majority of reported OI variants are in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, recent reports have shown problems in other non-collagenous genes involved in the post translational modifications, folding and transport, transcription and proliferation of osteoblasts, bone mineralization, and cell signaling. Up to now, 17 types of OI have been reported in which types I to IV are the most frequent cases with autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Here we report an 8- year- old boy with OI who has had multiple fractures since birth and now he is wheelchair-dependent. To identify genetic cause of OI in our patient, whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out and it revealed a novel deleterious homozygote splice acceptor site mutation (c.1257-2A > G, IVS7-2A > G) in FKBP10 gene in the patient. Then, the identified mutation was confirmed using Sanger sequencing in the proband as homozygous and in his parents as heterozygous, indicating its autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. In addition, we performed RT-PCR on RNA transcripts originated from skin fibroblast of the proband to analyze the functional effect of the mutation on splicing pattern of FKBP10 gene and it showed skipping of the exon 8 of this gene. Moreover, Real-Time PCR was carried out to quantify the expression level of FKBP10 in the proband and his family members in which it revealed nearly the full decrease in the level of FKBP10 expression in the proband and around 75% decrease in its level in the carriers of the mutation, strongly suggesting the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified, for the first time, a private pathogenic splice site mutation in FKBP10 gene and further prove the involvement of this gene in the rare cases of autosomal recessive OI type XI with distinguished clinical manifestations.

  2. Drosophila muscleblind is involved in troponin T alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vicente-Crespo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL have been involved in a developmental switch in the use of defined cassette exons. Such transition fails in the CTG repeat expansion disease myotonic dystrophy due, in part, to sequestration of MBNL proteins by CUG repeat RNA. Four protein isoforms (MblA-D are coded by the unique Drosophila muscleblind gene.We used evolutionary, genetic and cell culture approaches to study muscleblind (mbl function in flies. The evolutionary study showed that the MblC protein isoform was readily conserved from nematods to Drosophila, which suggests that it performs the most ancestral muscleblind functions. Overexpression of MblC in the fly eye precursors led to an externally rough eye morphology. This phenotype was used in a genetic screen to identify five dominant suppressors and 13 dominant enhancers including Drosophila CUG-BP1 homolog aret, exon junction complex components tsunagi and Aly, and pro-apoptotic genes Traf1 and reaper. We further investigated Muscleblind implication in apoptosis and splicing regulation. We found missplicing of troponin T in muscleblind mutant pupae and confirmed Muscleblind ability to regulate mouse fast skeletal muscle Troponin T (TnnT3 minigene splicing in human HEK cells. MblC overexpression in the wing imaginal disc activated apoptosis in a spatially restricted manner. Bioinformatics analysis identified a conserved FKRP motif, weakly resembling a sumoylation target site, in the MblC-specific sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis of the motif revealed no change in activity of mutant MblC on TnnT3 minigene splicing or aberrant binding to CUG repeat RNA, but altered the ability of the protein to form perinuclear aggregates and enhanced cell death-inducing activity of MblC overexpression.Taken together our genetic approach identify cellular processes influenced by Muscleblind function, whereas in vivo and cell culture experiments define Drosophila troponin T as a new Muscleblind target, reveal a

  3. Histone and RNA-binding protein interaction creates crosstalk network for regulation of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Eun; Park, Chungoo; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Kim, Kee K

    2018-04-30

    Alternative splicing is an essential process in eukaryotes, as it increases the complexity of gene expression by generating multiple proteins from a single pre-mRNA. However, information on the regulatory mechanisms for alternative splicing is lacking, because splicing occurs over a short period via the transient interactions of proteins within functional complexes of the spliceosome. Here, we investigated in detail the molecular mechanisms connecting alternative splicing with epigenetic mechanisms. We identified interactions between histone proteins and splicing factors such as Rbfox2, Rbfox3, and splicing factor proline and glutamine rich protein (SFPQ) by in vivo crosslinking and immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we confirmed that splicing factors were bound to specific modified residues of histone proteins. Additionally, changes in histone methylation due to histone methyltransferase inhibitor treatment notably affected alternative splicing in selected genes. Therefore, we suggested that there may be crosstalk mechanisms connecting histone modifications and RNA-binding proteins that increase the local concentration of RNA-binding proteins in alternative exon loci of nucleosomes by binding specific modified histone proteins, leading to alternative splicing. This crosstalk mechanism may play a major role in epigenetic processes such as histone modification and the regulation of alternative splicing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RRM domain of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 is important for pre-mRNA splicing of a specific set of genes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Keh Chien; Jang, Yun Hee; Kim, SoonKap; Park, Hyo-Young; Thu, May Phyo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2017-01-01

    , but not the abscisic acid sensitivity response during seed germination. The alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) pre-mRNA is involved in flowering time control. We found that the RRM domain of AtSF1 protein alters the production of alternatively spliced FLM

  5. Mutations in the human adenosine deaminase gene that affect protein structure and RNA splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, A.L.; Wiginton, D.A.; States, C.J.; Perme, C.M.; Dusing, M.R.; Hutton, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency is one cause of the genetic disease severe combined immunodeficiency. To identify mutations responsible for ADA deficiency, the authors synthesized cDNAs to ADA mRNAs from two cell lines, GM2756 and GM2825A, derived from ADA-deficient immunodeficient patients. Sequence analysis of GM2756 cDNA clones revealed a different point mutation in each allele that causes amino acid changes of alanine to valine and arginine to histidine. One allele of GM2825A also has a point mutation that causes an alanine to valine substitution. The other allele of GM2825A was found to produce an mRNA in which exon 4 had been spliced out but had no other detrimental mutations. S1 nuclease mapping of GM2825A mRNA showed equal abundance of the full-length ADA mRNA and the ADA mRNA that was missing exon 4. Several of the ADA cDNA clones extended 5' of the major initiation start site, indicating multiple start sites for ADA transcription. The point mutations in GM2756 and GM2825A and the absence of exon 4 in GM2825A appear to be directly responsible for the ADA deficiency. Comparison of a number of normal and mutant ADA cDNA sequences showed a number of changes in the third base of codons. These change do not affect the amino acid sequence. Analyses of ADA cDNAs from different cell lines detected aberrant RNA species that either included intron 7 or excluded exon 7. Their presence is a result of aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs and is not related to mutations that cause ADA deficiency

  6. Optical fabrication of large area photonic microstructures by spliced lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wentao; Song, Meng; Zhang, Xuehua; Yin, Li; Li, Hong; Li, Lin

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a convenient approach to fabricate large area photorefractive photonic microstructures by a spliced lens device. Large area two-dimensional photonic microstructures are optically induced inside an iron-doped lithium niobate crystal. The experimental setups of our method are relatively compact and stable without complex alignment devices. It can be operated in almost any optical laboratories. We analyze the induced triangular lattice microstructures by plane wave guiding, far-field diffraction pattern imaging and Brillouin-zone spectroscopy. By designing the spliced lens appropriately, the method can be easily extended to fabricate other complex large area photonic microstructures, such as quasicrystal microstructures. Induced photonic microstructures can be fixed or erased and re-recorded in the photorefractive crystal.

  7. Severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity due to novel and rare DPYD missense mutations, deletion and genomic amplification affecting DPD activity and mRNA splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuilenburg, André B P; Meijer, Judith; Maurer, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Genetic variations in DPD have emerged as predictive risk factors for severe fluoropyrimidine toxicity. Here, we report novel and rare genetic variants underlying DPD deficiency...... in 9 cancer patients presenting with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. All patients possessed a strongly reduced DPD activity, ranging from 9 to 53% of controls. Analysis of the DPD gene (DPYD) showed the presence of 21 variable sites including 4 novel and 4 very rare aberrations: 3 missense...... of exon 4 immediately upstream of the mutated splice-donor site in the process of DPD pre-mRNA splicing. A lethal toxicity in two DPD patients suggests that fluoropyrimidines combined with other therapies such as radiotherapy might be particularly toxic for DPD deficient patients. Our study advocates...

  8. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  9. An Engineered Split Intein for Photoactivated Protein Trans-Splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Wong

    Full Text Available Protein splicing is mediated by inteins that auto-catalytically join two separated protein fragments with a peptide bond. Here we engineered a genetically encoded synthetic photoactivatable intein (named LOVInC, by using the light-sensitive LOV2 domain from Avena sativa as a switch to modulate the splicing activity of the split DnaE intein from Nostoc punctiforme. Periodic blue light illumination of LOVInC induced protein splicing activity in mammalian cells. To demonstrate the broad applicability of LOVInC, synthetic protein systems were engineered for the light-induced reassembly of several target proteins such as fluorescent protein markers, a dominant positive mutant of RhoA, caspase-7, and the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator GCaMP2. Spatial precision of LOVInC was demonstrated by targeting activity to specific mammalian cells. Thus, LOVInC can serve as a general platform for engineering light-based control for modulating the activity of many different proteins.

  10. Alternative Splicing of G9a Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fiszbein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications are critical for the establishment and maintenance of differentiation programs. G9a, the enzyme responsible for histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in mammalian euchromatin, exists as two isoforms with differential inclusion of exon 10 (E10 through alternative splicing. We find that the G9a methyltransferase is required for differentiation of the mouse neuronal cell line N2a and that E10 inclusion increases during neuronal differentiation of cultured cells, as well as in the developing mouse brain. Although E10 inclusion greatly stimulates overall H3K9me2 levels, it does not affect G9a catalytic activity. Instead, E10 increases G9a nuclear localization. We show that the G9a E10+ isoform is necessary for neuron differentiation and regulates the alternative splicing pattern of its own pre-mRNA, enhancing E10 inclusion. Overall, our findings indicate that by regulating its own alternative splicing, G9a promotes neuron differentiation and creates a positive feedback loop that reinforces cellular commitment to differentiation.

  11. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delasa Aghamirzaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  12. Dynamic changes in neurexins' alternative splicing: role of Rho-associated protein kinases and relevance to memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rozic

    Full Text Available The three neurexins genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode polymorphic synaptic membrane proteins that are involved in cognitive functioning. Neurexins' selectivity of function is presumably conferred through differential use of 2 promoters and 5 alternative splicing sites (SS#1/2/3/4/5. In day-old rat brain neurons grown in culture, activation (depolarization induces reversible, calcium dependent, repression of NRXN2α SS#3 insert. The effects of depolarization on NRXN1/2/3α splicing and biochemical pathways mediating them were further studied in these neurons. NRXN1/2/3α splicing in the course of memory formation in vivo was also explored, using fear conditioning paradigm in rats in which the animals were trained to associate an aversive stimulus (electrical shock with a neutral context (a tone, resulting in the expression of fear responses to the neutral context.In the cultured neurons depolarization induced, beside NRXN2α SS#3, repression of SS#3 and SS#4 exons in NRXN3α but not NRXN1α. The repressions were mediated by the calcium/protein kinase C/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway. Fear conditioning induced significant and transient repressions of the NRXN1/2/3α SS#4 exons in the rat hippocampus. ROCK inhibition prior to training attenuated the behavioral fear response, the NRXN1/2/3α splicing repressions and subsequent recovery and the levels of excitatory (PSD95 and inhibitory (gephyrin synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. No such effects were observed in the prefrontal cortex. Significant correlations existed between the fear response and hippocampal NRXN3α and NRXN2α SS#4 inserts as well as PSD95 protein levels. Hippocampal NRXN1α SS#4 insert and gephyrin levels did not correlate with the behavioral response but were negatively correlated with each other.These results show for the first time dynamic, experience related changes in NRXN1/2/3α alternative splicing in the rat brain and a role for ROCK in them. Specific neurexins

  13. Genome-wide analysis of SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing by deep sequencing of chicken transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator that is capable of regulating alternative splicing both in vitro and in vivo. We recently used an RNA-seq approach coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Functionally, many of the SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of response to external stimulus. Here we describe in detail the experimental design, bioinformatics analysis and GO/pathway enrichment analysis of SRSF10-regulated genes to correspond with our data in the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE53354. Our data thus provide a resource for studying regulation of alternative splicing in vivo that underlines biological functions of splicing regulatory proteins in cells.

  14. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  15. Characterization of TTN Novex Splicing Variants across Species and the Role of RBM20 in Novex-Specific Exon Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Titin (TTN is a major disease-causing gene in cardiac muscle. Titin (TTN contains 363 exons in human encoding various sizes of TTN protein due to alternative splicing regulated mainly by RNA binding motif 20 (RBM20. Three isoforms of TTN protein are produced by mutually exclusive exons 45 (Novex 1, 46 (Novex 2, and 48 (Novex 3. Alternatively splicing in Novex isoforms across species and whether Novex isoforms are associated with heart disease remains completely unknown. Cross-species exon comparison with the mVISTA online tool revealed that exon 45 is more highly conserved across all species than exons 46 and 48. Importantly, a conserved region between exons 47 and 48 across species was revealed for the first time. Reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and DNA sequencing confirmed a new exon named as 48′ in Novex 3. In addition, with primer pairs for Novex 1, a new truncated form preserving introns 44 and 45 was discovered. We discovered that Novex 2 is not expressed in the pig, mouse, and rat with Novex 2 primer pairs. Unexpectedly, three truncated forms were identified. One TTN variant with intron 46 retention is mainly expressed in the human and frog heart, another variant with co-expression of exons 45 and 46 exists predominantly in chicken and frog heart, and a third with retention of introns 45 and 46 is mainly expressed in pig, mouse, rat, and chicken. Using Rbm20 knockout rat heart, we revealed that RBM20 is not a splicing regulator of Novex variants. Furthermore, the expression levels of Novex variants in human hearts with cardiomyopathies suggested that Novexes 2 and 3 could be associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM and/or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC. Taken together, our study reveals that splicing diversity of Novex exons across species and Novex variants might play a role in cardiomyopathy.

  16. Identification of genome-wide non-canonical spliced regions and analysis of biological functions for spliced sequences using Read-Split-Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yongsheng; Kinne, Jeff; Ding, Lizhong; Rath, Ethan C; Cox, Aaron; Naidu, Siva Dharman

    2017-10-03

    It is generally thought that most canonical or non-canonical splicing events involving U2- and U12 spliceosomes occur within nuclear pre-mRNAs. However, the question of whether at least some U12-type splicing occurs in the cytoplasm is still unclear. In recent years next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field. The "Read-Split-Walk" (RSW) and "Read-Split-Run" (RSR) methods were developed to identify genome-wide non-canonical spliced regions including special events occurring in cytoplasm. As the significant amount of genome/transcriptome data such as, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, have been generated, we have advanced a newer more memory-efficient version of the algorithm, "Read-Split-Fly" (RSF), which can detect non-canonical spliced regions with higher sensitivity and improved speed. The RSF algorithm also outputs the spliced sequences for further downstream biological function analysis. We used open access ENCODE project RNA-Seq data to search spliced intron sequences against the U12-type spliced intron sequence database to examine whether some events could occur as potential signatures of U12-type splicing. The check was performed by searching spliced sequences against 5'ss and 3'ss sequences from the well-known orthologous U12-type spliceosomal intron database U12DB. Preliminary results of searching 70 ENCODE samples indicated that the presence of 5'ss with U12-type signature is more frequent than U2-type and prevalent in non-canonical junctions reported by RSF. The selected spliced sequences have also been further studied using miRBase to elucidate their functionality. Preliminary results from 70 samples of ENCODE datasets show that several miRNAs are prevalent in studied ENCODE samples. Two of these are associated with many diseases as suggested in the literature. Specifically, hsa-miR-1273 and hsa-miR-548 are associated with many diseases and cancers. Our RSF pipeline is able to detect many possible junctions

  17. Investigation of tissue-specific human orthologous alternative splice events in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Salicio, Susanna Cirera

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA can contribute to differences between tissues or cells either by regulating gene expression or creating proteins with various functions encoded by one gene. The number of investigated alternative splice events in pig has so far been limited. In this study we have ...... in preservation of open reading frame are indicative of a functional significance of the splice variants of the gene....

  18. Quantifying alternative splicing from paired-end RNA-sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Rossell, David; Stephan-Otto Attolini, Camille; Kroiss, Manuel; Stöcker, Almond

    2014-01-01

    RNA-sequencing has revolutionized biomedical research and, in particular, our ability to study gene alternative splicing. The problem has important implications for human health, as alternative splicing may be involved in malfunctions at the cellular level and multiple diseases. However, the high-dimensional nature of the data and the existence of experimental biases pose serious data analysis challenges. We find that the standard data summaries used to study alternative splicing are severely...

  19. Vectorization of morpholino oligomers by the (R-Ahx-R)4 peptide allows efficient splicing correction in the absence of endosomolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abes, Saïd; Moulton, Hong M; Clair, Philippe; Prevot, Paul; Youngblood, Derek S; Wu, Rebecca P; Iversen, Patrick L; Lebleu, Bernard

    2006-12-01

    The efficient and non-toxic nuclear delivery of steric-block oligonucleotides (ON) is a prerequisite for therapeutic strategies involving splice correction or exon skipping. Cationic cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have given rise to much interest for the intracellular delivery of biomolecules, but their efficiency in promoting cytoplasmic or nuclear delivery of oligonucleotides has been hampered by endocytic sequestration and subsequent degradation of most internalized material in endocytic compartments. In the present study, we compared the splice correction activity of three different CPPs conjugated to PMO(705), a steric-block ON targeted against the mutated splicing site of human beta-globin pre-mRNA in the HeLa pLuc705 splice correction model. In contrast to Tat48-60 (Tat) and oligoarginine (R(9)F(2)) PMO(705) conjugates, the 6-aminohexanoic-spaced oligoarginine (R-Ahx-R)(4)-PMO(705) conjugate was able to promote an efficient splice correction in the absence of endosomolytic agents. Our mechanistic investigations about its uptake mechanisms lead to the conclusion that these three vectors are internalized using the same endocytic route involving proteoglycans, but that the (R-Ahx-R)(4)-PMO(705) conjugate has the unique ability to escape from lysosomial fate and to access to the nuclear compartment. This vector, which has displays an extremely low cytotoxicity, the ability to function without chloroquine adjunction and in the presence of serum proteins. It thus offers a promising lead for the development of vectors able to enhance the delivery of therapeutic steric-block ON in clinically relevant models.

  20. An intronic mutation c.6430-3C>G in the F8 gene causes splicing efficiency and premature termination in hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zunjing; Lin, Jie; Lu, Lingping; Kim, Chol; Yu, Ping; Qi, Ming

    2018-06-01

    : Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder caused by coagulation factor VIII protein deficiency or dysfunction, which is classified into severe, moderate, and mild according to factor clotting activity. An overwhelming majority of missense and nonsense mutations occur in exons of F8 gene, whereas mutations in introns can also be pathogenic. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an intronic mutation, c.6430-3C>G (IVS22-3C>G), on pre-mRNA splicing of the F8 gene. We applied DNA and cDNA sequencing in a Chinese boy with hemophilia A to search if any pathogenic mutation in the F8 gene. Functional analysis was performed to investigate the effect of an intronic mutation at the transcriptional level. Human Splicing Finder and PyMol were also used to predict its effect. We found the mutation c.6430-3C>G (IVS22-3C>G) in the F8 gene in the affected boy, with his mother being a carrier. cDNA from the mother and pSPL3 splicing assay showed that the mutation IVS22-3C>G results in a two-nucleotide AG inclusion at the 3' end of intron 22 and leads to a truncated coagulation factor VIII protein, with partial loss of the C1 domain and complete loss of the C2 domain. The in-silico tool predicted that the mutation induces altered pre-mRNA splicing by using a cryptic acceptor site in intron 22. The IVS22-3C>G mutation was confirmed to affect pre-mRNA splicing and produce a truncated protein, which reduces the stability of binding between the F8 protein and von Willebrand factor carrier protein due to the loss of an interaction domain.

  1. Alternative splicing studies of the reactive oxygen species gene network in Populus reveal two isoforms of high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar; Chibani, Kamel; Nilsson, Robert; Rouhier, Nicolas; Melzer, Michael; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    Recent evidence has shown that alternative splicing (AS) is widely involved in the regulation of gene expression, substantially extending the diversity of numerous proteins. In this study, a subset of expressed sequence tags representing members of the reactive oxygen species gene network was selected from the PopulusDB database to investigate AS mechanisms in Populus. Examples of all known types of AS were detected, but intron retention was the most common. Interestingly, the closest Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of half of the AS genes identified in Populus are not reportedly alternatively spliced. Two genes encoding the protein of most interest in our study (high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase [hipI-SOD]) have been found in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), designated PthipI-SODC1 and PthipI-SODC2. Analysis of the expressed sequence tag libraries has indicated the presence of two transcripts of PthipI-SODC1 (hipI-SODC1b and hipI-SODC1s). Alignment of these sequences with the PthipI-SODC1 gene showed that hipI-SODC1b was 69 bp longer than hipI-SODC1s due to an AS event involving the use of an alternative donor splice site in the sixth intron. Transcript analysis showed that the splice variant hipI-SODC1b was differentially expressed, being clearly expressed in cambial and xylem, but not phloem, regions. In addition, immunolocalization and mass spectrometric data confirmed the presence of hipI-SOD proteins in vascular tissue. The functionalities of the spliced gene products were assessed by expressing recombinant hipI-SOD proteins and in vitro SOD activity assays.

  2. Alternative Splicing Studies of the Reactive Oxygen Species Gene Network in Populus Reveal Two Isoforms of High-Isoelectric-Point Superoxide Dismutase1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar; Chibani, Kamel; Nilsson, Robert; Rouhier, Nicolas; Melzer, Michael; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that alternative splicing (AS) is widely involved in the regulation of gene expression, substantially extending the diversity of numerous proteins. In this study, a subset of expressed sequence tags representing members of the reactive oxygen species gene network was selected from the PopulusDB database to investigate AS mechanisms in Populus. Examples of all known types of AS were detected, but intron retention was the most common. Interestingly, the closest Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of half of the AS genes identified in Populus are not reportedly alternatively spliced. Two genes encoding the protein of most interest in our study (high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase [hipI-SOD]) have been found in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), designated PthipI-SODC1 and PthipI-SODC2. Analysis of the expressed sequence tag libraries has indicated the presence of two transcripts of PthipI-SODC1 (hipI-SODC1b and hipI-SODC1s). Alignment of these sequences with the PthipI-SODC1 gene showed that hipI-SODC1b was 69 bp longer than hipI-SODC1s due to an AS event involving the use of an alternative donor splice site in the sixth intron. Transcript analysis showed that the splice variant hipI-SODC1b was differentially expressed, being clearly expressed in cambial and xylem, but not phloem, regions. In addition, immunolocalization and mass spectrometric data confirmed the presence of hipI-SOD proteins in vascular tissue. The functionalities of the spliced gene products were assessed by expressing recombinant hipI-SOD proteins and in vitro SOD activity assays. PMID:19176719

  3. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  4. Somatic Mutational Landscape of Splicing Factor Genes and Their Functional Consequences across 33 Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seiler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hotspot mutations in splicing factor genes have been recently reported at high frequency in hematological malignanci