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Sample records for splenocyte proliferation index

  1. Inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithwick, L. Ashley; Smith, Andrew; Quensen, John F.; Stack, Allison; London, Lucille; Morris, Pamela J.

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants, and their ubiquitous nature has prompted studies of their potential health hazards. As a result of their lipophilic nature, PCBs accumulate in breast milk and subsequently affect the health of offspring of exposed individuals. Biological effects of PCBs in animals have mostly been attributed to coplanar congeners, although effects of ortho congeners also have been demonstrated. To investigate the relationship of immunotoxicity and chlorine substitution pattern, the effects of PCB congeners and mixtures of ortho and non-ortho-substituted constituents of Aroclor 1242 on splenocytes from C57B1/6 mice were examined. The immunotoxic endpoints investigated included splenocyte viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocyte proliferation, and LPS-induced antibody secretion. Congeners with multiple ortho chlorines preferentially inhibited splenocyte proliferation as compared with non- or mono-ortho-substituted congeners. However, mixtures of non- and mono-ortho-substituted congeners and multi-ortho-substituted congeners inhibited LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation and antibody secretion at similar concentrations. Exposure of splenocytes to these mixtures did not activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signal transduction pathway. These results suggest individual multi-ortho-substituted congeners preferentially inhibit LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation, while congeners not exhibiting an effect individually may have additive effects in a mixture to produce an immunotoxic response through an AhR-independent pathway

  2. Nigella sativa modulates splenocyte proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, macrophage function and NK anti-tumor activity.

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    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Hmaidan, Reem; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-09-15

    Nigella sativa, also known as blackseed, has long been used in traditional medicine for treating various conditions related to the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems as well as different types of cancers. In this study, the potential immunomodulatory effects of Nigella sativa are investigated in light of splenocyte proliferation, macrophage function, and NK anti-tumor activity using BLAB/c and C57/BL6 primary cells. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Griess assay was performed to evaluate NO production by macrophages. ELISA was performed to measure the level of cytokines secreted by splenocytes and macrophages. NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells was examined by JAM assay. We demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances splenocyte proliferation in a dose-responsive manner. In addition, the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa favors the secretion of Th2, versus Th1, cytokines by splenocytes. The secretion of IL-6, TNFalpha, and NO; key pro-inflammatory mediators, by primary macrophages is significantly suppressed by the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, indicating that Nigella sativa exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Finally, experimental evidence indicates that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells, suggesting that the documented anti-tumor effects of Nigella sativa may be, at least in part, attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. Our data present Nigella sativa as a traditionally used herb with potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. We anticipate that Nigella sativa ingredients may be employed as effective therapeutic agents in the regulation of diverse immune reactions implicated in various conditions and diseases such as cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

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    AbstractThe immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  4. Splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activation and cytokines production by extract of Scrophularia variegata; an in vitro study on mice spleen cells

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    A. Azadmehr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae is a medicinal plant, used for various inflammatory diseases in Iranian Traditional Medicine. In the present study, we evaluated the immune modulation and antioxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S.  variegata. Methods: The splenocytes were harvested from the spleen of Balb/c mice and were cultured. The splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, cytokines production and antioxidant effects were evaluated by MTT assay, enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and DPPH assay, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract significantly increased splenocyte proliferation. The results indicated that the extract increased NK cell cytotoxicity of Yac-1 tumor cells and at the concentration of 50-200 µg/mL significantly increased IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines, although the level of IL-4 cytokine was significantly reduced. The antioxidant activity was observed in the extract with IC50 302.34±0.11 μg/mL.Conclusion: The increasing in the splenocyte proliferation, anti-tumor NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion were indicated as potent immunomodulatory effects. These results suggest that S. variegata could be considered in the treatment of immunopathological disorders such as allergy and cancer; however, future studies are necessary.

  5. Rat splenocytes inhibit antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation through a reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI)-dependent mechanism and exhibit increased RNI production in response to IFN-gamma.

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    Stein, C S; Strejan, G H

    1993-09-01

    Rat splenocytes inhibited antigen-specific proliferation of primed lymph node cells in vitro. This inhibition resided in the plastic-adherent splenocyte fraction and was radioresistant, suggesting that the effect was due to macrophages. While this suppression was more evident if spleen cells were derived from immunized rats, spleen cells from normal rats were just as suppressive when added to cocultures at higher numbers. Proliferative responses were greatly enhanced in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a specific inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthetic pathway, and significant levels of nitrite (NO2-), a product of this pathway, were detected in culture supernatants in association with suppressed responses, supporting the notion that suppression was mediated by the L-arginine-dependent production of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). When the splenocytes were physically separated from the responding lymph node cell population, high levels of NO2- were still detected but proliferative responses were no longer inhibited, suggesting that cell proximity or contact is necessary for delivery of the suppressive signal. Adherent splenocytes cultured alone produced low levels of NO2-. Addition of 1 to 50 U/ml IFN-gamma induced a dose-dependent increase in NO2- production, with the maximal level approximating that found in suppressed cocultures; TNF-alpha, IL-2, or LPS did not synergize with IFN-gamma to enhance NO2- production. These findings suggest that by activating macrophages to upregulate RNI synthesis, IFN-gamma-producing T cells may exert a negative influence over their own proliferation.

  6. Purification and characterization of the lectin from taro (Colocasia esculenta) and its effect on mouse splenocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

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    Pereira, Patrícia Ribeiro; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Verícimo, Maurício Afonso; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Silva, Joab Trajano

    2014-02-01

    Lectins are proteins found in a wide range of organisms, with the ability to bind reversibly to specific carbohydrates. They can display important biological activities, such as the activation of the cell cycle in lymphocytes. Storage proteins with lectin activity have been reported in tuberous plant species, such as Colocasia esculenta, popularly known as taro. A simple strategy based on Cibacron Blue chromatography was used to purify a 12 kDa polypeptide 1.3-fold, with a recovery of 30 %. The purified protein was identified as tarin by mass spectrometry, which indicated that it was present in G1a/G1d isoforms. Tarin exhibited both agglutinating activity against hamster erythrocytes and mitogenic activity in vitro and in vivo toward mouse splenocytes. Optimum cellular proliferation in vitro was achieved by 625 ng of the crude extract or 500 ng of the purified tarin. Total mouse splenocyte proliferation measured after 5 days of intraperitoneal inoculation of purified tarin was increased 3.3-fold in comparison to the control group. Half of the proliferating cells were identified as B lymphocytes by flow cytometry. These results show that this is an efficient and simple strategy to purify tarin and aid in establishing this protein as a new therapeutic drug, able to promote cell proliferation in a murine model.

  7. The inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted and microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with a decreased expression of cyclin D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithwick, L. Ashley; Quensen, John F.; Smith, Andrew; Kurtz, David T.; London, Lucille; Morris, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been demonstrated in our laboratories with the preferential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted PCB congeners. An investigation of the mechanism behind this immunotoxicity revealed an interruption in the progression of murine lymphocytes from G 0 /G 1 into S phase by Aroclor 1242 and the di-ortho-substituted congener, 2,2'-chlorobiphenyl (CB), whereas, a non-ortho-substituted congener, 4,4'-CB, did not affect cell cycle progression. This interruption of cell cycle progression by 2,2'-CB and Aroclor 1242 was associated with a decreased expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin D2, while expression was not affected by exposure to the non-ortho-substituted 4,4'-CB. These results suggest the preferential inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted congeners is a result of a decreased expression of cyclin D2, which leads to an interruption in cell cycle progression. In addition, PCB mixtures with an increased percentage of chlorines in the ortho position following an environmentally occurring degradation process inhibited LPS-induced proliferation, interrupted cell cycle progression, and decreased cyclin D2 expression. This study provides evidence for a mechanism of action of the immunological effects of ortho-substituted individual congeners as well as environmentally relevant mixtures enriched in congeners with this substitution pattern

  8. [Effect of sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae on proliferative and cytotoxic activity of mice splenocytes].

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    Makarenkova, I D; Semenova, I B; Akhmatova, N K; Besednova, N N; Zviagintseva, T N; Ermakova, S P

    2012-01-01

    Study effect of fucoidans from brown algae on proliferative and cytotoxic activity of mice splenocytes. Proliferative and cytotoxic activity of mice splenocytes in vitro and ex vivo were studied in lymphocyte blast transformation reaction and in cytotoxic MTT-test on K562 human erythroblast leucosis cell line. Microphotography and microscopy were performed by using Axiocam HS photosystem and computer program AxioVision 4 (Germany). Fucoidans from brown algae Fucus evanescens, Laminaria cichorioides and Laminaria japonica in vitro and ex vivo systems were established to increase proliferative activity of mice splenocytes which is evidenced by an increase of stimulation index. Results of in vitro and ex vivo cytotoxic activity studies demonstrate that fucoidans which are various by chemical structure stimulate activity of NK-cells and facilitate an increase of splenocyte cytotoxic potential level against NK sensitive K562 cell line. The data obtained from the study demonstrate an ability of fucoidans to stimulate splenocyte proliferation and NK-cell killer activity, and studies of relation between structure and functions of sulfated polysaccharides facilitate a more detailed understanding of aspects of their mechanism of action on innate immunity system, thus providing the basis for development of new immunobiologic preparations - modifiers/agonists of innate immunity.

  9. Actual proliferating index in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia.

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    Chandak, Abhay R; Gadbail, Amol Ramchandra; Chaudhary, Minal S; Chandak, Shweta A; Wadhwani, Ritesh

    2011-08-01

      To examine the possible association between epithelial proliferation and disease progression in the oral mucosa using the actual proliferation index.   The actual proliferation index was measured by the Ki-67 labeling index and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count per nucleus. Immunohistochemistry was carried out for Ki-67 by using the molecular immunology borstel-1 clone in 20 leukoplakias, 20 oral squamous cell carcinomas, and 10 normal oral mucosae.   The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count per nucleus, Ki-67 labeling index, and actual proliferation index were significantly higher in oral squamous cell carcinoma, followed by leukoplakia and normal oral mucosa. Leukoplakia with dysplasia showed a significantly higher Ki-67 labeling index and actual proliferation index, compared to leukoplakia without dysphasia. There was a significant correlation of Bryne's histological malignancy grading with the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count and the Ki-67 labeling index. There was a significant positive correlation between the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count and the Ki-67 labeling index among all groups.   Leukoplakia or suspected epithelial dysplasia should be stained for argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions and Ki-67. The actual proliferation index is not only useful as a prognostic factor, but could also be a promising treatment determining modality for patients with premalignant and malignant lesions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Ki-67 protein: a proliferation index in breast cancer

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    Shervin Kheirandish

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various clinicopathological factors are evaluated in different studies on carcinomas to demonstrate their prognostic and predictive significance during the diagnosis and therapeutic procedures of the malignancy. Ki-67 is a biomarker that was proposed as a cell proliferation related nuclear antigen, and it only expresses in growing and proliferating cells. This unique feature of Ki-67 makes it a subject of interest in different investigations. Evaluating the Ki-67 expression has been demonstrated to be beneficial in determining the tumor behavior including tumor size, stage, grading and patient survival. Moreover, it might be helpful in selecting the preferred subsequent treatment strategy. Due to the importance of Ki-67 index, we aim to briefly review its properties and the importance of its expression during various types of malignancies. At last, the prognostic and predictive value of Ki-67 would be overviewed regarding the efficacy of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in breast cancer patients.

  11. Correlation of thyroid cancer Doppler hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes

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    Li Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the correlation of thyroid cancer Doppler hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes. Methods: A total of 108 cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed by B-ultrasound and pathology and then included in the observation group of the research, 107 cases of non-cancer patients who received excision of thyroid adenoma in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group, thyroid hemodynamic indexes, tumor proliferation-related indexes and serum angiogenesis-related indexes of two groups were detected, and the correlation of thyroid cancer hemodynamic indexes with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis indexes was further analyzed. Results: S and D values of observation group were higher than those of control group (P0.05; p53, PCNA and Ki-67 expression levels in thyroid tumor of observation group were higher than those of control group while TIPE2 protein expression level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05; serum VEGF, Ang-2, HIF-1毩, IGF-栻 and endostatin values of observation group were higher than those of control group while MBP value was lower than that of control group (P<0.05; thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (S and end diastolic velocity (D were directly proportional to p53, PCNA, Ki-67, VEGF, Ang-2, HIF-1毩, IGF-栻 and endostatin values, and inversely proportional to TIPE2 and MBP values (P<0.05. Conclusions: Artery blood flow velocity in patients with thyroid cancer is directly correlated with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, and can be used as the reliable index to judge tumor condition and curative effect.

  12. Proliferation index of different Gleason pattern 4 histomorphologies and associated pattern 3 adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

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    Fu, Liying; Hwang, Michael; Adeniran, Adebowale J; Humphrey, Peter A

    2017-12-01

    Gleason grade is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A higher proliferation index of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been demonstrated in numerous studies to be significantly associated with more aggressive behavior. To date, the proliferation index of the different Gleason pattern 4 histomorphologies, including cribriform, fused glands, and poorly formed glands, has not been determined. The aim of this investigation was to quantitate and compare the proliferation index, as assessed by Ki67 labeling index, of different Gleason pattern 4 histomorphologies. We also analyzed the Ki67 labeling index of Gleason pattern 3 adenocarcinoma associated with and without cribriform adenocarcinoma. Among Gleason pattern 4 morphologies, cribriform adenocarcinoma exhibited a higher mean proliferation index at 5.3% compared to fused gland adenocarcinoma at 3.9% (P = .03) and poorly formed glands at 3.6% (P pattern 3 associated with cribriform adenocarcinoma was higher at 4.1% compared to pure Gleason pattern 3 at 2.2% (P pattern 3 associated with non-cribriform pattern 4 adenocarcinoma at 2.9% (P = .02). This higher proliferation index of Gleason pattern 3 adenocarcinoma associated with cribriform pattern 4 adenocarcinoma indicates that not all Gleason pattern 3 cells are identical and that cribriform adenocarcinoma may influence or be related to associated Gleason pattern 3. Gleason pattern 4 adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cribriform growth has a higher proliferation index than other grade 4 histomorphologies, consistent with the more clinically aggressive nature of cribriform adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on rat splenocytes.

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    Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Three different concentrations of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) ethanolic extract, thymoquinone (TQ), dexamethasone, and saline were examined to see whether they had any effects on cell viability, proliferation, and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in non-stimulated, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concavaline A (Con A)-stimulated splenocytes. In PHA and Con A-stimulated splenocytes, cell viability and proliferation were increased and Con A shifted cytokine profile towards Th2 balance. Dexamethasone treatment showed a suppression in viability, IFNγ and IL-4 secretion in non-stimulated and stimulated splenocytes. Extract and TQ reduced the viability and inhibited the proliferation of stimulated and non-stimulated splenocytes concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of N. sativa (1000 mg/ml) and TQ (5 and 10 mg/ml) reduced the secretion of IL-4 in stimulated cells. Two higher concentrations of N. sativa had decreased IFNγ secretion in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells. In non-stimulated cells, only the highest and in Con A-stimulated cells, all TQ concentrations had inhibited IFNγ secretion. The highest concentration of N. sativa increased IFNγ/IL-4 ratio in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells while higher concentrations of TQ only had the same effect on stimulated cells. N. sativa and TQ showed cytotoxic inhibitory effect on rat splenocytes and on Th1/Th2 cytokines concentration-dependently. Higher concentrations of extract and TQ increased cytokines balance in Th1/Th2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell proliferation index predicts relapse of brain metastases in non-irradiated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peev, N A; Tonchev, A B; Penkowa, M

    2008-01-01

    within 2 months of the excision in patients with uncontrolled systemic disease and not subjected to adjuvant whole brain radio-therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue biopsies derived from 25 patients with brain metastases specifically selected to be a single totally resected lesion and not treated...... to the patients with lesions which had not relapsed or which had relapsed more than 2 months after first craniotomy (n = 12). The synchronous brain metastasis (that is, those occurring before or within 2 months of the primary cancer diagnosis) had a significantly higher proliferation index than the metachronous...... lesions (those occurring more than 2 months after primary cancer diagnosis). CONCLUSIONS: The synchronous brain metastasis relapses within 2 months of primary resection and have a significantly higher proliferation index than the metachronous lesions which did not recur within 2 months. These results...

  15. Daily and seasonal rhythms in immune responses of splenocytes in the freshwater snake, Natrix piscator.

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    Tripathi, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ramesh; Pati, Atanu Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Present study was designed to examine daily and seasonal variability in the innate immune responses of splenocytes in the fresh water snake, Natrix piscator. Animals were mildly anesthetized and spleen was aseptically isolated and processed for macrophage phagocytosis, NBT reduction, nitrite production, splenocyte proliferation and serum lysozyme activity. Samples were collected at seven time points, viz., 0000, 0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 0000 h during three different seasons, namely summer, winter and spring. Cosinor analysis revealed that percent phagocytosis had a significant 24-h rhythm during summer and spring seasons. The peaks of rhythms in NBT reduction and nitrite release occurred in the morning hours at 10.88 h and 8.31 h, respectively, in winter. A significant 24-h rhythm was also observed in lysozyme concentration and splenocyte proliferation (both Basal and Concanavalin A stimulated) in all three seasons. A significant phase shift in splenocyte proliferation was obtained with a trend of delayed phase shift from winter to spring and from spring to summer. Of the nine variables, significant annual (seasonal) rhythms were detected in almost all variables, excluding phagocytic and splenosomatic indices. All rhythmic variables, except spleen cellularity, exhibited tightly synchronized peaks coinciding with the progressive and recrudescence phases of annual reproductive cycle. It is concluded that the snake synchronizes its daily and seasonal immune activity with the corresponding external time cues. The enhancement of immune function coinciding with one of its crucial reproductive phases might be helping it to cope with the seasonal stressors, including abundance of pathogens, which would otherwise jeopardize the successful reproduction and eventual survival of the species.

  16. Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Hirose, Yuko; Sakudo, Akikazu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kang, Chung-Boo; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Onodera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp +/+ ) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp -/- ) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA + Io or LPS in Prnp +/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp -/- splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations than Prnp +/+ or Zrch I Prnp -/- splenocytes after LPS stimulation and showed sporadic nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and deeper structure. Around the degenerated nerve cells, mild vacuolation in the neuropil was observed. This neural alteration correlated well to the suppressed response of B cells in the spleen. The finding that discrete lesions within the central nervous systems induced marked modulation of immune function probably indicates the existence of a delicately balanced neural-endocrine network by PrP C and PrPLP/Doppel

  17. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

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    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on the Immunomodulation Effect of Isodon japonicus Extract via Splenocyte Function and NK Anti-Tumor Activity

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    Kyung-A Hwang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigated the potential immune-enhancing activity of Isodon japonicus on murine splenocyte and natural-killer (NK cells in vitro. The ethanol extract of I. japonicus significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocyte and induced the significant enhancement of NK cells’ activity against tumor cells (YAC-1. In addition, I. japonicus increased the production of interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. Taken together, I. japonicus extract inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 by 74%. Our observation indicated that the anti-tumor effects of I. japonicus may be attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. In addition, our results support the development of functional food studies on I. japonicus.

  19. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

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    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

  20. [Neuroendocrine tumors of digestive system: morphologic spectrum and cell proliferation (Ki67 index)].

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    Delektorskaia, V V; Kushliskiĭ, N E

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the analysis of up-to-date concepts ofdiferent types of human neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. It summarizes the information on the specifics of recent histological classifications and criteria of morphological diagnosis accounting histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical parameters. Current issues of the nomenclature as well as various systems of grading and staging are discussed. In the light of these criteria the results of the own research clinical value of the determination of cell proliferation in primary and metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms on the basis of evaluation of the Ki67 antigen expression are also presented.

  1. Prognostic significance of Ki67 proliferation index, HIF1 alpha index and microvascular density in patients with non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases

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    Berghoff, A.S. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Ilhan-Mutlu, A.; Preusser, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Woehrer, A.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Hackl, M. [Austrian National Cancer Registry, Statistics Austria, Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, K. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiotherapy, Vienna (Austria); Melchardt, T. [Paracelsus Medical University Hospital Salzburg, Third Medical Department, Salzburg (Austria); Dome, B. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Heinzl, H. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Center for Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Intelligent Systems, Vienna (Austria); Birner, P. [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center CNS Tumors Unit, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Clinical Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-15

    Survival upon diagnosis of brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly variable and established prognostic scores do not include tissue-based parameters. Patients who underwent neurosurgical resection as first-line therapy for newly diagnosed NSCLC BM were included. Microvascular density (MVD), Ki67 tumor cell proliferation index and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) index were determined by immunohistochemistry. NSCLC BM specimens from 230 patients (151 male, 79 female; median age 56 years; 199 nonsquamous histology) and 53/230 (23.0 %) matched primary tumor samples were available. Adjuvant whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was given to 153/230 (66.5 %) patients after neurosurgical resection. MVD and HIF-1 alpha indices were significantly higher in BM than in matched primary tumors. In patients treated with adjuvant WBRT, low BM HIF-1 alpha expression was associated with favorable overall survival (OS), while among patients not treated with adjuvant WBRT, BM HIF-1 alpha expression did not correlate with OS. Low diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment score (DS-GPA), low Ki67 index, high MVD, low HIF-1 alpha index and administration of adjuvant WBRT were independently associated with favorable OS. Incorporation of tissue-based parameters into the commonly used DS-GPA allowed refined discrimination of prognostic subgroups. Ki67 index, MVD and HIF-1 alpha index have promising prognostic value in BM and should be validated in further studies. (orig.) [German] Die Ueberlebensprognose von Patienten mit zerebralen Metastasen eines nicht-kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinoms (NSCLC) ist sehr variabel. Bisher werden gewebsbasierte Parameter nicht in die prognostische Beurteilung inkludiert. Neurochirurgische Resektate zerebraler NSCLC-Metastasen wurden in dieser Studie untersucht. Die Gefaessdichte (''microvascular density'', MVD), der Ki67-Proliferationsindex sowie der HIF-1α-Index wurden mittels

  2. DNA synthesis, cell proliferation index in normal and abnormal gallbladder epithelium.

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    Lamote, J; Willems, G

    1997-09-15

    The observation of mitotic figures in the epithelium of the normal gallbladder is exceptional because cell renewal is occurring at a very slow rate. It is only after using 3H-thymidine and autoradiography to observe the cells in DNA synthesis that evidence of a significant epithelial cell replication has been provided. Because numerous mitotic figures and increased 3H-thymidine uptake have been observed after intraluminal introduction of foreign bodies or after ligation of the common bile duct in animals, mechanical distension has been supposed to represent an important trigger factor of cell proliferation in this hollow organ. An increased epithelial cell renewal was also observed in human gallbladders of patients with a complete obstruction of the common bile duct causing the distension. However, the absence of correlation between the degree of gallbladder distension and the proliferative response was suggesting that factors other than distension could be involved. In studies on experimental lithiasis cell proliferation appeared to be enhanced in the gallbladder epithelium of mice fed on a cholesterol-cholic acid-rich lithogenic diet. The fact that the increase in proliferative activity was preceding the formation of gallstones was another indication that factors other than mechanical stimulation by stretching or by the stones may stimulate cell renewal in this organ. Factors in the bile of animals receiving a lithogenic diet could be involved which might cause cellular death and, hence, a regenerative reaction. Direct mitogenic effect of an unknown factor in the bile of these animals is an alternative possibility. On the other hand the stimulating effect of postprandial hormones on gallbladder cell renewal suggested by the observation of a DNA synthesis peak after feeding has been established. Synthetic cholecystokinin analogues have been shown to increase the proliferative activity and to induce epithelial hyperplasia in this organ. In one recent study using

  3. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Martin, E-mail: martin.steinmetz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Bonn, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Mallat, Ziad [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-14

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10{sup 7} OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  4. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, Martin; Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10 7 OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  5. Cell Proliferation Activity and Prognostic Index in Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alvarez-Riesgo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow Cytometry (FC has been incorporated into cancer research in relation to its prognostic value together with histological parameters and TNM stages. We have studied by means of FC the cell cycle of 132 samples from male patients with Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma (SQCLC. All of the patients received curative surgery and the clinical follow-up was 60 months. The clinical and cytometric parameters were evaluated in order to predict the patients’ outcome. The presence of tumoural recurrence and the tumoural stage showed statistical significance associated with survival. The multivariant analysis reveals radiotherapy (p = 0.004 as protective variable and the high S-phase fraction (SPF (p = 0.001 and stage IIIA (p = 0.012 as risk factors. The SPF appears as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival time. We can build a prognostic index representative of different prognostic groups, which allows us to improve the individual monitoring of these patients.

  6. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  7. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-01-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  8. Proliferation Index Predicts Survival after Second Craniotomy within 6 Months of Adjuvant Radiotherapy for High-grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gzell, C; Wheeler, H; Huang, D; Gaur, P; Chen, J; Kastelan, M; Back, M

    2016-03-01

    To determine pathological features that predict survival in patients having repeat craniotomy within 6 months of radiotherapy for high-grade glioma (HGG). HGG patients (World Health Organization grade 3/4) managed with repeat craniotomy within 6 months of completing radiotherapy between 2008 and 2012 were included. Based on the presence of residual tumour cells, the pathology was reported as pathological progression or pathological pseudoprogression. The proliferation index (Ki67) was reported and compared with initial pathology as a percentage change. Tumour necrosis was estimated as a percentage of the specimen. Overall survival was calculated in months. Of 327 patients managed with HGG, 27 patients underwent repeat craniotomy within 6 months of radiotherapy. The median survival after reoperation was 11 months (95% confidence interval 1-22). Ki67 at reoperation of 0%, 1-9% and >10% was associated with survival with a median survival of 13, 13 and 3 months, respectively (P = 0.007). Change in Ki67 was also associated with median survival, with 80% reduction median survival 13 months, P = 0.02. Widespread treatment-related necrosis improved outcome, with >80% necrosis having a median survival of 13 months versus 3 months in those with craniotomy within 6 months of radiotherapy is not an independent indicator of prognosis. Patients with residual tumour that had a low Ki67 had a similar median survival as those with only treatment necrosis. Reduced proliferation of residual tumour cells and widespread necrosis may be more important indicators for future outcome. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proliferation index: a continuous model to predict prognosis in patients with tumours of the Ewing's sarcoma family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Brownhill

    Full Text Available The prognostic value of proliferation index (PI and apoptotic index (AI, caspase-8, -9 and -10 expression have been investigated in primary Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT. Proliferating cells, detected by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, were identified in 91% (91/100 of tumours with a median PI of 14 (range 0-87. Apoptotic cells, identified using the TUNEL assay, were detected in 96% (76/79 of ESFT; the median AI was 3 (range 0-33. Caspase-8 protein expression was negative (0 in 14% (11/79, low (1 in 33% (26/79, medium (2 in 38% (30/79 and high (3 in 15% (12/79 of tumours, caspase-9 expression was low (1 in 66% (39/59 and high (3 in 34% (20/59, and caspase-10 protein was low (1 in 37% (23/62 and negative (0 in 63% (39/62 of primary ESFT. There was no apparent relationship between caspase-8, -9 and -10 expression, PI and AI. PI was predictive of relapse-free survival (RFS; p = 0.011 and overall survival (OS; p = <0.001 in a continuous model, whereas AI did not predict outcome. Patients with tumours expressing low levels of caspase-9 protein had a trend towards a worse RFS than patients with tumours expressing higher levels of caspase-9 protein (p = 0.054, log rank test, although expression of caspases-8, -9 and/or -10 did not significantly predict RFS or OS. In a multivariate analysis model that included tumour site, tumour volume, the presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis, PI and AI, PI independently predicts OS (p = 0.003. Consistent with previous publications, patients with pelvic tumours had a significantly worse OS than patients with tumours at other sites (p = 0.028; patients with a pelvic tumour and a PI≥20 had a 6 fold-increased risk of death. These studies advocate the evaluation of PI in a risk model of outcome for patients with ESFT.

  10. Role of Ki-67 proliferation index in the assessment of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasias regarding the stage of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H C; Drymousis, P; Flora, R; Goldin, R; Spalding, D; Frilling, A

    2014-06-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasias (NEN) of the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system frequently present with metastatic deposits. The proliferation marker Ki-67 is used for diagnosis and to assess the prognosis of disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of Ki-67 % in the assessment of NEN patients with regard to their disease stage in clinical practice. Additionally, a comparative analysis of Ki-67 levels among different sites of disease was performed. This retrospective study included patients with GEP NEN referred to our center from 2010 to 2012. The NEN diagnosis was confirmed by standard histopathology. Ki-67 immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin-embedded sections using an automated Leica immunohistochemistry machine. NEN grading was carried out according to European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society recommendations (low grade [G1] to intermediate grade [G2], well to moderately differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms; high-grade [G3], moderately to poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms). Results of tumor staging and grading were correlated. In a subgroup of cases, comparative analysis of Ki-67 levels in different sites of disease was carried out. One hundred sixty-one GEP NEN patients were included in the study. Metastatic disease was seen in 46.1 % (53/115) of G1 tumors, 77.8 % (28/36) of G2 tumors, and 100 % of (10/10) G3 tumors (p = 0.0002). When stratified according to primary tumor site, metastatic disease was documented in 42.9 % (36/84) of patients with pancreatic NEN and in 91.9 % (34/37) of those with small intestinal primary. Stage IV metastatic disease was present in 27.8 % (32/115) and 72.2 % (26/36) of the G1 and G2 tumors, respectively, and in 90 % (9/10) of the G3 tumors. Assessment of the Ki-67 index for a subset of cases at metastatic sites as well as the primary tumor site showed discrepancies in 35.3 % cases. In 7/9 (77.8 %) patients with liver metastases, Ki-67 % was higher in the liver lesions than in the primary tumor

  11. INHIBITION OF LPS-INDUCED SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION BY ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS. (R826687)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Digital image analysis of Ki67 proliferation index in breast cancer using virtual dual staining on whole tissue sections: clinical validation and inter-platform agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Timco; Buikema, Henk J; Hollema, Harry; de Bock, Geertruida H; van der Vegt, Bert

    2018-01-18

    The Ki67 proliferation index is a prognostic and predictive marker in breast cancer. Manual scoring is prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. The aims of this study were to clinically validate digital image analysis (DIA) of Ki67 using virtual dual staining (VDS) on whole tissue sections and to assess inter-platform agreement between two independent DIA platforms. Serial whole tissue sections of 154 consecutive invasive breast carcinomas were stained for Ki67 and cytokeratin 8/18 with immunohistochemistry in a clinical setting. Ki67 proliferation index was determined using two independent DIA platforms, implementing VDS to identify tumor tissue. Manual Ki67 score was determined using a standardized manual counting protocol. Inter-observer agreement between manual and DIA scores and inter-platform agreement between both DIA platforms were determined and calculated using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Correlations and agreement were assessed with scatterplots and Bland-Altman plots. Spearman's correlation coefficients were 0.94 (p Ki67 proliferation index in breast cancer, as an alternative to manual scoring of whole sections in clinical practice. Inter-platform agreement between two different DIA platforms was excellent, suggesting vendor-independent clinical implementability.

  13. Estimation of the distribution of low-intensity ultrasound mechanical index as a parameter affecting the proliferation of spermatogonia stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Zeinab Hormozi; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Ravari, Mohammad Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Considering the use of physical and mechanical stimulation, such as low-intensity ultrasound for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, it is essential to understand the physical and acoustical mechanisms of acoustic waves in vitro. Mechanical index is used for quantifying acoustic cavitation and the relationship between acoustic pressure and the frequency. In this study, modeling of the mechanical index was applied to provide treatment protocol and to understand the effective physical processes on reproducibility of stem cells. Due to low intensity of ultrasound, Rayleigh integral model has been used for acoustic pressure computation. The acoustic pressure and mechanical index equations are modeled and solved to estimate optimal mechanical index for 28, 40, 150kHz and 1MHz frequencies. This model are solved in different intensities and distances from transducer in cylindrical coordinates. Based on the results of the mechanical index, regions with threshold mechanical index of 0.7 were identified for extracting of radiation arrangement to cell medium. Acoustic pressure distribution along the axial and radial was extracted. In order to validate the results of the modeling, the acoustic pressure in the water and near field depth was measured by a piston hydrophone. Results of modeling and experiments show that the model is consistent well to experimental results with 0.91 and 0.90 correlation of coefficient (pmechanical index is more effective on enhancing the proliferation rate of the spermatogonia stem cells during the seven days of culture. In contrast, higher mechanical index has a harmful effect on the spermatogonial stem cells. Thus, considering cavitation threshold of different materials is necessary to find effective mechanical index ranges on proliferation for the used frequencies. This acoustic propagation model and ultrasound mechanical index assessments can be used with acceptable accuracy, for the extraction special arrangement of acoustic

  14. Image-Guided Analyses Reveal that Non-CD4 Splenocytes Contribute to CD4+ T Cell–Mediated Inflammation Leading to Islet Destruction by Altering Their Local Function and Not Systemic Trafficking Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Heon Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of CD4+ T cells into islets is a critical component of islet inflammation (insulitis leading to type 1 diabetes; therefore, determining if conditions used to treat diabetes change their trafficking patterns is relevant to the outcome. Cotransfer of CD4+BDC2.5 (BDC cells with non-CD4 splenocytes obtained from newly diabetic NOD mice, but not when they are transferred alone, induces accelerated diabetes. It is unclear whether these splenocytes affect diabetes development by altering the systemic and/or local trafficking and proliferation patterns of BDC cells in target and nontarget tissues. To address these questions, we developed an animal model to visualize BDC cell trafficking and proliferation using whole-body in vivo bioluminescence imaging and used the images to direct tissue sampling for further analyses of the cell distribution within tissues. The whole-body, or macroscopic, trafficking patterns were not dramatically altered in both groups of recipient mice. However, the local patterns of cell distribution were distinct, which led to invasive insulitis only in cotransferred mice with an increased number of islet-infiltrating CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells. Taken together, the non-CD4 splenocytes act locally by promoting invasive insulitis without altering the systemic trafficking patterns or proliferation of BDC cells and thus contributing to diabetes by altering the localization within the tissue.

  15. The influence of Ki-67 proliferation index on Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with carcinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajković Marina; Rajić Milena; Ilić Slobodan; Stević Miloš; Kojić Marko; Živković Vesna; Karanikolić Aleksandar; Matović Milovan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of Ki-67 proliferation index on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SSRS) with Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC (Tc-99m-Tektrotyd) somatostatin analogue in patients with carcinoid tumors. Sixty-one patients (31 female, 30 male; age range: 33-76 years) were examined: 13 patients highly suspected of having a carcinoid, and 48 patients who had undergone the surgical removal of the tumor. Whole body SSRS at 4 h postinjection, spot scintigrams and SPECT of ...

  16. Changes of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA synthesis in rats infected with Paragonimus westermani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun Kyong; Kwon, Hye Soo; Joo, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Joon Sang

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the expression level of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats infected with Paragonimus westermani were analyzed by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by southern blot. The template RNA was extracted from the splenocytes of rats infected with 20 metacercariae of P. westermani. The products of competitive RT-PCR were subjected to southern blot and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL), and analyzed with a densitometer. In comparison with that of uninfected control rat splenocytes (value of 1), the levels of mRNA expression of IFN-γ had changed to 0.747 at 1 week post infection (PI), 0.00175 at 2 week PI, 0.0217 at 3 week PI, 0.194 at 4 week PI and then to 0.537 at 5 week PI. The level at 7 week PI had returned to 1.25, comparable with that of uninfected rats. These results show that, when infected with P. westermani, the levels of IFN-γ mRNA of SD rat splenocytes were remarkably reduced by more than 500 times at 2 week PI and restored to normal level at 7 week PI. PMID:10634046

  17. Altered Innate and Lymphocytic Immunity in Murine Splenocytes Following Short-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Quiriarte, Heather; Sams, Clarence F.

    2011-01-01

    Immune dysregulation has been demonstrated following spaceflight of varying durations and limited in-flight studies indicate this phenomenon may persist during spaceflight. Causes may include microgravity, physiological stress, isolation, confinement and disrupted circadian rhythms. To further investigate the mechanisms associated with flight-associated immune changes, murine splenocytes immune parameters were assessed following 14 day space flight on Space Shuttle mission STS-135.

  18. The effect of enzymatically polymerised polyphenols on CD4 binding and cytokine production in murine splenocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamanaka

    Full Text Available High-molecular weight polymerised polyphenols have been shown to exhibit anti-influenza virus, anti-HIV, and anti-cancer activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulating activities of enzymatically polymerised polyphenols, and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of their effects. The cytokine-inducing activity of the enzymatically polymerised polyphenols derived from caffeic acid (CA, ferulic acid (FA, and p-coumaric acid (CoA was investigated using murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols, but not non-polymerised polyphenols, induced cytokine synthesis in murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols induced several cytokines in murine splenocytes, with interferon-γ (IFN-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF being the most prominent. The underlying mechanisms of the effects of the polymerised polyphenols were then studied using neutralising antibodies and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis. Our results show that polymerised polyphenols increased IFN-γ and GM-CSF production in splenocytes. In addition, the anti-CD4 neutralised monoclonal antibody (mAb inhibited polymerised polyphenol-induced IFN-γ and GM-CSF secretion. Moreover, polymerised polyphenols bound directly to a recombinant CD4 protein, and FACS analysis confirmed that interaction occurs between polymerised polyphenols and CD4 molecules expressed on the cell surface. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that enzymatic polymerisation confers immunoactivating potential to phenylpropanoic acids, and CD4 plays a key role in their cytokine-inducing activity.

  19. The Effect of Enzymatically Polymerised Polyphenols on CD4 Binding and Cytokine Production in Murine Splenocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Tamiya, Yumi; Motoi, Masuro; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Miura, Noriko N.; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight polymerised polyphenols have been shown to exhibit anti-influenza virus, anti-HIV, and anti-cancer activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulating activities of enzymatically polymerised polyphenols, and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of their effects. The cytokine-inducing activity of the enzymatically polymerised polyphenols derived from caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and p-coumaric acid (CoA) was investigated using murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols, but not non-polymerised polyphenols, induced cytokine synthesis in murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols induced several cytokines in murine splenocytes, with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) being the most prominent. The underlying mechanisms of the effects of the polymerised polyphenols were then studied using neutralising antibodies and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Our results show that polymerised polyphenols increased IFN-γ and GM-CSF production in splenocytes. In addition, the anti-CD4 neutralised monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibited polymerised polyphenol-induced IFN-γ and GM-CSF secretion. Moreover, polymerised polyphenols bound directly to a recombinant CD4 protein, and FACS analysis confirmed that interaction occurs between polymerised polyphenols and CD4 molecules expressed on the cell surface. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that enzymatic polymerisation confers immunoactivating potential to phenylpropanoic acids, and CD4 plays a key role in their cytokine-inducing activity. PMID:22540016

  20. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook, E-mail: mwhur2@yuhs.ac

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Knockout of Kaiso results in concordant high expression of Bcl6 and c-Myc in spleen. •Kaiso binds the Bcl6 promoter and represses Bcl6 transcription by recruiting NCoR. •Upregulated Bcl6 increases splenocyte proliferation and causes large diffused GC. •Cell cycle-inhibition genes such as Cdkn1b and Cdkn1a are repressed by Bcl6. -- Abstract: Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  1. Expression of p21/waf1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas--correlation with p53 and mdm2 and cellular proliferation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, I O; Lam, K Y; Ng, M; Regezi, J A

    1999-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/waf1 is regulated by p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. In addition, mdm2 is an oncogene which forms an auto-regulatory loop with the normal p53 protein and its role has been implicated in oncogenesis. To determine whether a correlation exists between the expression of these gene products, tumor differentiation, tumor staging and radiation therapy, we investigated the expression of p21, p53 and mdm2, and cellular proliferation by Ki-67 (MIB1) labeling index using immunohistochemistry in 88 human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples from 56 patients. Tumor expression of all nuclear proteins was scored according to the percentage of positive cancer nuclei, both with the cancer tissue as a whole as well as in different epithelial compartments of differentiation. Positive p21, p53, mdm2 and MIB1 staining was present in 82.4, 67.8, 25.9 and 98.8% of the SCC samples. The staining in different epithelial compartments of differentiation varied: those of p21 and mdm2 present predominantly in suprabasal and upper regions of the tumors: those of p53 and MIB1 in basal and suprabasal regions. Higher levels of p21 expression were seen in actively proliferating tumors (P = 0.025). p21 expression positively correlated with mdm2 expression but not with p53 expression. Moreover, the level of p21 expression was higher in older patients (P = 0.024) and female patients (P = 0.008). There was no significant association among p53, mdm2 and MIB1. Expression of p53 was higher in tumors with poorer cellular differentiation and in younger patients (P = 0.038 and 0.028). There was no association between tumor stage by TNM classification and the expression of any of these gene products or proliferation index. Radiation therapy did not alter the expression of any of these. To conclude, p21 protein was overexpressed in oral SCCs, and this overexpression was related to cell proliferation index and mdm2 expression but independent of p53

  2. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  3. Stable multi-infection of splenocytes during SIV infection - the basis for continuous recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Anke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombination is an important mechanism in the generation of genetic diversity of the human (HIV and simian (SIV immunodeficiency viruses. It requires the co-packaging of divergent RNA genomes into the same retroviral capsid and subsequent template switching during the reverse transcription reaction. By HIV-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, we have previously shown that the splenocytes from 2 chronically infected patients with Castelman's disease were multi-infected and thus fulfill the in vivo requirements to generate genetic diversity by recombination. In order to analyze when multi-infection first occurs during a lentivirus infection and how the distribution of multi-infection evolves during the disease course, we now determined the SIV copy numbers from splenocytes of 11 SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques cross-sectionally covering the time span of primary infection throughout to end-stage immunodeficiency. Results SIV multi-infection of single splenocytes was readily detected in all monkeys and all stages of the infection. Single-infected cells were more frequent than double- or triple- infected cells. There was no strong trend linking the copy number distribution to plasma viral load, disease stage, or CD4 cell counts. Conclusions SIV multi-infection of single cells is already established during the primary infection phase thus enabling recombination to affect viral evolution in vivo throughout the disease course.

  4. Atrazine-induced apoptosis of splenocytes in BALB/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Jing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR, is the most commonly applied broad-spectrum herbicide in the world. Unintentional overspray of ATR poses an immune function health hazard. The biomolecular mechanisms responsible for ATR-induced immunotoxicity, however, are little understood. This study presents on our investigation into the apoptosis of splenocytes in mice exposed to ATR as we explore possible immunotoxic mechanisms. Methods Oral doses of ATR were administered to BALB/C mice for 21 days. The histopathology, lymphocyte apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins from the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL apoptotic pathway were examined from spleen samples. Results Mice administered ATR exhibited a significant decrease in spleen and thymus weight. Electron microscope histology of ultrathin sections of spleen revealed degenerative micromorphology indicative of apoptosis of splenocytes. Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes increased in a dose-dependent manner after ATR treatment. Western blots identified increased expression of Fas, FasL and active caspase-3 proteins in the treatment groups. Conclusions ATR is capable of inducing splenocytic apoptosis mediated by the Fas/FasL pathway in mice, which could be the potential mechanism underlying the immunotoxicity of ATR.

  5. Prolonged urinary excretion of 51chromium label from cyclosporine-pretreated human fetal splenocytes following infusion in the NOD mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.M.; Schmid-Formby, F.; Christiaansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Human fetal splenocytes were isolated, labeled with 51 chromium, and transfused into NOD male mice for determination of cell survival. One-half of the mice received splenocytes which had been incubated in cyclosporine A (CSA, 20 micrograms/ml) for 30 min and washed extensively, while controls received splenocytes incubated in diluent alone. After the first transfusion of splenocytes, survival was the same for both CSA-treated and control animals with a t 1/2 of 34 days. A second survival study showed a decrease of t 1/2 in the control animals to 18 days and an increase in the animals receiving CSA treated cells to 53 days (P less than 0.01). These in vivo studies confirm in vitro studies documenting that pretreatment of donor cells with CSA is an effective means of modulating the immune response

  6. EZH2 expression in gliomas: Correlation with CDKN2A gene deletion/ p16 loss and MIB-1 proliferation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkait, Suvendu; Sharma, Vikas; Jha, Prerana; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Suri, Vaishali; Suri, Ashish; Sharma, B S; Sarkar, Chitra

    2015-10-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mediated down-regulation of CDKN2A/p16 has been observed in cell lines as well as in a few carcinomas. However, there is no study correlating EZH2 expression with CDKN2A/p16 status in gliomas. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate EZH2 expression in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors and correlate with CDKN2A/p16 status as well as MIB-1 labeling index (LI). Gliomas of all grades (n = 118) were studied using immunohistochemistry to assess EZH2, p16 and MIB-1 LI and fluorescence in situ hybrization to evaluate CDKN2A gene status. EZH2 expression and CDKN2A homozygous deletion (HD) were both significantly more frequent in high-grade gliomas (HGG). Further, strong EZH2 expression (LI ≥ 25%) was significantly more common in HGGs without CDKN2A HD (48.7%; 19/39) as compared to cases with deletion (15.8%; 3/19). Loss of p16 expression was noted in 100% and 51.3% of CDKN2A deleted and non-deleted tumors, respectively. Notably, 80% (16/20) of the CDKN2A non-deleted HGGs with p16 loss had strong EZH2 expression, in contrast to only 15.8% (3/19) in the deleted group. Loss of p16 expression significantly correlated with MIB-1 LI, irrespective of EZH2 status. Thus, this study shows that EZH2 expression correlates with tumor grade in both astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors and hence can be used as a diagnostic marker to differentiate between low and HGGs. Further, this is the first report demonstrating an inverse correlation of strong EZH2 expression with CDKN2A HD in HGGs. Loss of p16 protein expression is mostly attributable to CDKN2A HD and correlates significantly with MIB-1 LI. Notably, our study for the first time suggests a possible epigenetic mechanism of p16 loss in CDKN2A non-deleted HGGs mediated by strong EZH2 expression. A hypothetical model for control of proliferative activity in low versus HGGs is therefore proposed. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  7. Altered Innate and Lymphocytic Immune Responses in Mouse Splenocytes Post-Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, ShenAn; Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.; Actor, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to affect immune responses of astronauts and animals, decreasing lymphocytic responses to mitogenic stimuli, delayed typed hypersensitivity reactions, and T-cell activation. Despite changes in immune suppression, there are no reports of consistent adverse clinical events post flight. To further investigate the spectrum of affected immune responses, murine splenocytes were stimulated immediately post-shuttle flight (14 days on STS-135) with T-cell stimulators or toll-like receptor agonists. Comparisons were made to ground control splenocytes from age-matched mice. Cell phenotypes were assessed, as well as activation markers and associated cytokine production. The CD4+ population decreased with no concurrent decrease in CD8+ cells from shuttle mice post flight compared to ground controls. Regarding antigen presenting cell populations, the number of CD11c+ cells were slightly elevated post flight, compared to ground controls, with increased MHC Class I expression (I-A(sup b)) and no change in Class II expression (H-2K(sup b)). CD86+ populations were also significantly diminished. However, the decreased markers did not correlate with activity. Stimulation of splenocytes post flight showed significant increase in bead uptake, increased Class I expression, increased TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in response to TLR-2 (zymosan) and TLR-4 (LPS) agonists. While most activated (ConA or anti-CD3/anti-CD28) CD4+ cells showed markedly diminished responses (reduced IL-2 production), non-specific T cell responses to superantigen (SEA/SEB) increased post flight as determined by expression of early activation markers. Production of additional cytokines was also dysregulated postflight. Overall, persistent immune changes during space flight could represent unique clinical risks for exploration class missions. The consequences of pathogenic encounter remain an important concern that should be addressed.

  8. Effects of multiple low dose radiation on the apoptosis of splenocytes and immune factor in male diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Guo Caixia; Dong Lihua; Wang Jianfeng; Liu Shuchun; Lu Zhe; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of multiple low dose radiation (LDR) on the apoptosis of splenocytes and immune factors in diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into control, DM and DM + LDR groups. The irradiation doses were 25, 50 and 75 mGy, and the irradiated times were 15. At the fourth weekend after the DM rats irradiated, the apoptotic rate and TCRαβ percentage of splenocytes were detected by flow cytometry, and the content of IL-2 in both serum and supernatant of cultured splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Results: Compared with that in the control, the body weight (BW) decreased in the DM and DM + LDR groups,particularly in DM group. The blood glucose (BG) level in the DM + LDR groups was higher than that in the control, but decreased significantly as compared with that in the DM group (P < 0.01). As compared with those in the control, the apoptotic rate in DM + 50 mGy (P < 0.05) and the content of serum IL-2 in DM + 75 mGy group (P < 0.01) all increased significantly, while the content of IL-2 in supernatant of cultured splenocytes decreased significantly in the DM + LDR groups. Compared with those in the DM group, the apoptotic rate and the percentage of TCRαβ in splenocytes in the DM + LDR groups (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) and the content of IL-2 in serum in DM + 50 mGy group (P < 0.01) decreased significantly. Conclusions: The multiple LDR could weaken the loss of BW and increase of BG caused by DM, decrease the splenocyte apoptosis induced by DM, and regulate the immune factors. (authors)

  9. Capsaicin from chili (Capsicum spp. inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4yk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation is implied in cardiovascular disease and significantly contributes to vessel lumen reduction following surgical interventions such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery. Therefore, identification and characterization of compounds and mechanisms able to counteract VSMC proliferation is of potential therapeutic relevance. This work reveals the anti-proliferative effect of the natural product capsaicin from Capsicum spp. by quantification of metabolic activity and DNA synthesis in activated VSMC. The observed in vitro activity profile of capsaicin warrants further research on its mechanism of action and potential for therapeutic application.

  10. Expression profiles of prion and doppel proteins and of their receptors in mouse splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier-Dirikoc, Sevda; Zsürger, Nicole; Cazareth, Julie; Ménard, Baptiste; Chabry, Joëlle

    2008-08-01

    Doppel (Dpl) shares common structural features with the prion protein (PrP) whose pathologic isoform is considered as the causative agent of prion diseases. Although their physiological functions in the immune system remain largely unknown, we demonstrated that substantial amounts of PrP and Dpl are expressed by spleen cells notably B lymphocytes, granulocytes and DC, but not T lymphocytes and NK. To characterize trans-interacting partners of PrP and Dpl on mouse splenocytes, fluorescent PrP and Dpl tetramers were produced and used as tracers. Both tetramers specifically bind to B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and granulocytes and in a lesser extend to T lymphocytes. No binding was observed on NK, follicular dendritic cells and mesenchymal spleen cells. The activation of intracellular transduction signals (i.e. intracellular calcium concentration and activation of the MAP kinase pathway) suggested that PrP and Dpl tetramers bind to functional receptors on B cells. None of the previously described PrP partners account for the binding sites characterized here. Our study suggests a possible role for PrP and Dpl in the cell-cell interactions in the immune system.

  11. Toxocara canis mucins among other excretory-secretory antigens induce in vitro secretion of cytokines by mouse splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Ewa; Wasyl, Katarzyna; Klockiewicz, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The effect of Toxocara larval antigens on cytokine secretion by mouse splenocytes was studied in vitro. Recombinant mucins were produced in Pichia pastoris yeast, and Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigens were collected from in vitro culture of L2 larvae. Tc-MUC-2, Tc-MUC-3, Tc-MUC-4, and Tc-MUC-5 were expressed as glycoproteins and were specifically recognized by Toxocara canis-infected dog serum antibodies. Mouse splenocytes stimulated with recombinant mucins produced IL-5, IL-6, and TGF-β. Cell stimulation with whole TES products was more effective and resulted in secretion of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β and downregulation of TNF-α production. IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion was noted only after ConA treatment. Cells originating from infected animals produced significantly smaller amounts of these two cytokines compared to control cells, which suggests that Th1 and Th17 response in infected mice is strongly inhibited. However, splenocyte stimulation with both TES and ConA upregulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-17. This shows that TES antigens have strong immunomodulatory properties and are able to induce a broad range of effects on murine immune cells.

  12. A glucuronic acid binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-02-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa lectin was purified from seeds of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivar number 1. The purification protocol entailed Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, Mono S and Superdex 75. The lectin-enriched fraction was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Hemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on Mono S and eluted with a linear 0.3-1 M NaCl gradient. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a single absorbance peak which appeared as a single 32-kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate poylacylamide gel electrophoresis. Full hemagglutinating activity was observed when the lectin was exposed to a pH ranging from 3 to 11. About 50% activity remained at pH 12, and about 25% at pH 0 to pH 2. Activity was totally abolished at pH 13-14. The activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was 20 °C-60 °C. However, only 50% and 12.5% of the activity remained at 65 °C and 70 °C, respectively. Activity was barely discernible at 75 °C and completely abrogated at and above 80 °C. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucuronic acid. Maximum mitogenic activity of the lectin toward murine splenocytes occurred at a lectin concentration of 0.488 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucuronic acid. The lectin did not exhibit antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma (HepG2) cells, breast cancer (MCF7) cells, and nasopharynegeal carcinoma CNE stage 1 and stage 2 cells. It was also devoid of significant anti-HIV reverse transcriptase activity.

  13. Targeted next-generation sequencing of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma in the skull base reveals combined TP53 and PTEN mutations with increased proliferation index, an implication for pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lu; Hong, Xiafei; Guo, Xiaopeng; Cao, Dengfeng; Gao, Xiaohuan; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Gong, Xinqi; Chen, Rongrong; Ni, Jianjiao; Yao, Yong; Wang, Renzhi; Chen, Xi; Tian, Pangzehuan; Xing, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. DDCS consists of two morphologically distinct components: the cartilaginous and noncartilaginous components. Whether the two components originate from the same progenitor cells has been controversial. Recurrent DDCS commonly displays increased proliferation compared with the primary tumor. However, there is no conclusive explanation for this mechanism. In this paper, we present two DDCSs in the sellar region. Pa...

  14. 2-O-α-glucopytanosyl L-ascorbic acid reduced mutagenicity at HPRT locus of mouse splenocytes following BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinashi, Yuko; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Nagata, Kanji; Ono, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), normal tissue surrounding the tumor cells sometimes take up boron compounds resulting in radiation-induced damage to normal tissue. We have previously reported the evidence for increased the mutagenicity of thermal neutron in the presence of boron. In addition, we described the biological radio-protective effects of the ascorbic acid for mutation induction following BNCT in vitro. Here, we investigated these radio-protective effects of ascorbic acid for mutation induction in mouse splenocytes on HPRT locus following a BNCT study in vivo. (author)

  15. Irradiation before and donor splenocyte infusion immediately after transplantation induce tolerance to lung, but not heart allografts in miniature swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Wiebke; Buechler, Gwen; Jansson, Katharina; Avsar, Murat; Knöfel, Ann-Kathrin; Salman, Jawad; Hoeffler, Klaus; Siemeni, Thierry; Gottlieb, Jens; Karstens, Johann H; Jonigk, Danny; Reising, Ansgar; Haverich, Axel; Strüber, Martin; Warnecke, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    Solid organs may differ in their potential to induce and maintain a state of donor-specific tolerance. Previously, we induced stable immunological tolerance in a lung transplantation model in miniature swine. Here, we wished to transfer this established protocol into a heart transplantation model in miniature swine. Heterotopic heart transplantation (HTX) was performed in four and left-sided lung transplantation (LTX) in seven minipigs from gender- and SLA-mismatched donors. All recipients received nonmyeloablative irradiation, donor splenocyte infusion and intravenous pharmacologic immunosuppression for 28 postoperative days. All transplanted hearts were rejected within 95 days. In contrast, four animals of the LTX group developed stable tolerance surviving beyond 500 days, and three further animals rejected 119, 239 and 360 days post-transplantation. In both groups, peripheral blood donor leucocyte chimerism peaked 1 h after reperfusion of the allograft. Importantly, the early chimerism level in the LTX group was significantly higher compared to the HTX group and remained detectable throughout the entire observation period. In conclusion, lungs and hearts vary in their potential to induce a state of tolerance after transplantation in a protocol with pre-operative recipient irradiation and donor splenocyte co-transplantation. This could be due to differential early levels of passenger leucocyte chimerism. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Concanavalin A-mediated in vitro activation of a secondary cytotoxic T-cell response in virus-primed splenocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Jensen, B L

    1980-01-01

    In a recent report it was shown that what appeared to be secondary cytotoxic T cells could be obtained from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-primed splenocytes after stimulation in vitro with the non-specific T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The present experiments attempt to chara......In a recent report it was shown that what appeared to be secondary cytotoxic T cells could be obtained from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-primed splenocytes after stimulation in vitro with the non-specific T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). The present experiments attempt...... to characterize further these effector cells and, in particular, to establish whether the Con A-activated cytotoxic effectors are qualitatively different from the secondary cytotoxic T cells induced by restimulation with the homologous antigen. It was found that: (1) in vitro activation with Con A could......, since no evidence was found to indicate a role for other cell types or soluble (cytotoxic or arming) factors; (4) cytotoxicity was specific with regard to both virus and 'self'. By comparison with previous data on LCMV-induced cytotoxic T cells, it is concluded that Con A induces the generation...

  17. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  18. Effect of low dose radiation on Th1 and Th2 of thymocytes and splenocytes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ou; Liu Shuzheng; Mu Ying

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the possible mechanism of activation of helper T cells after low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, the influence of whole-body irradiation (WBI) with 75 mGy X-rays on Th1 and Th2 was studied. Methods: Mice were irradiated at a dose rate of 12.5 mGy/min, and IFN-γ and IL-6 mRNA levels of the myocytes and splenocytes were analyzed by dot blot and Northern blot hybridization. Results: It was found that IFN-γ and IL-6 mRNA significantly increased after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Conclusion: The gene induction of cytokine profile after LDR indicates that activation of both Th1 and Th2 subtypes may be involved in the stimulation of immune functions by LDR

  19. Sunroot mediated synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of its antibacterial and rat splenocyte cytotoxic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravinthan A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adithan Aravinthan,1,* Muthusamy Govarthanan,2,3,* Kandasamy Selvam,4 Loganathan Praburaman,2,3 Thangasamy Selvankumar,3 Rangachari Balamurugan,1 Seralathan Kamala-Kannan,2 Jong-Hoon Kim1 1College of Veterinary Medicine, Biosafety Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea; 2Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, South Korea; 3PG and Research Department of Biotechnology, Mahendra Arts and Science College, Kalippatti, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India; 4Centre for Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A rapid, green phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the aqueous extract of Helianthus tuberosus (sunroot tuber was reported in this study. The morphology of the AgNPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed that biomolecules in the tuber extract were involved in the reduction and capping of AgNPs. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis of the AgNPs, using an energy range of 2–4 keV, confirmed the presence of elemental silver without any contamination. Further, the synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against phytopathogens such as Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodis. The AgNPs (1–4 mM extensively reduced the growth rate of the phytopathogens. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of the synthesized AgNPs was analyzed using rat splenocytes. The cell viability was decreased according to the increasing concentration of AgNPs and 67% of cell death was observed at 100 µg/mL. Keywords: cytotoxicity, Helianthus tuberosus

  20. Acrylamide induces immunotoxicity through reactive oxygen species production and caspase-dependent apoptosis in mice splenocytes via the mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Ehsan; Shaki, Fatemeh; AbedianKenari, Saeid; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a well-known food neo-contamination, can be produced during food preparing at high temperature. The immunotoxicity of AA have been revealed in the experimental animals. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism responsible for the immunotoxicity of AA. The mice splenocytes exposed to AA concentrations (0,5,10 and 25 mM) and apoptosis cell death was measured through Annexin V/Propidium Iodide staining by flow cytometry method. The role of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways were evaluated respectively by activity of caspase-8 and-9. Furthermore, the spleen mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation from mice and mitochondrial toxicity endpoints were determined after AA exposure. Exposure of splenocytes to AA increased the splenocytes' apoptotic cell death. Also, increased activation of both caspase-8 and-9 were observed in mice splenocytes after AA exposure. Treatment of isolated mitochondria with AA lead to disturbance in activity of complex I and III of mitochondrial electron transfer chain that result in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. These events were accompanied by mitochondrial membrane swelling, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and significant falling of mitochondrial activity. AA-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction along with mitochondrial oxidative damage seems to be critical events leading to activation of caspase cascade and apoptotic cell death in spleen that finally can attenuate immune system's function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The lack of cytotoxic effect and radioadaptive response in splenocytes of mice exposed to low level internal β-particle irradiation through tritiated drinking water in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Matthew; Blimkie, Melinda; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Gregoire, Eric; Klokov, Dmitry

    2013-12-05

    Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO) at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  2. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Flegal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  3. Preliminary study to characterize differences in potential immunomodulatory effects of cyclosporine A using BALB/c and ICR mouse splenocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Mariño

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine A (CsA is widely used as an immunosuppressant for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and immune regulation in transplant patients. Due to its wide applicability, studies of unwanted side effects of CsA are imperative. It has been found that not all patients treated with CsA display the same types/patterns of adverse effects. To ascertain the bases for these differential responses, potential differing effects of CsA on B-lymphocytes were analyzed. This entailed an assessment of changes in CsA viability and mitotic activity within splenocyte populations from BALB/c and ICR mice. These particular strains were examined because: (1 in each of them, previously have been shown that differed in the respond to biological response modifiers, such as bacterial agents, and/or immunogens; (2 our own earlier studies showing strain-associated differences in ex vivo splenocyte/lymphocyte responses to other drug; and, (3 a potential immunomodulatory effect of any agent should be studied in at least two different strains during a broad toxicological evaluation. Splenocytes from each strain were treated with 200 μg/mL CsA, and CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cell viabilities were monitored at various time points during the exposure period. In general, there appeared to be a trend toward greater decreases in viability among BALB/c B-lymphocytes than their ICR counterparts as incubation progressed. Differences related with T-lymphocyte sensitivity to drug associated to strains was not observed, because it was uniformly lethal throughout. With regard to mitotic activity, cells from ICR mice were more susceptible to inhibition of spontaneous cell division at low concentrations of CsA (relative to the rates of blastogenesis by BALB/c counterparts. At higher concentrations of the drug however, there were no differences in the sensitivity of each strain. This work provides new insight into the mechanism of action of CsA and illustrates the need for at least two

  4. Ki67 Proliferation Index as a Tool for Chemotherapy Decisions During and After Neoadjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment of Breast Cancer: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1031 Trial (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Matthew J; Suman, Vera J; Hoog, Jeremy; Goncalves, Rodrigo; Sanati, Souzan; Creighton, Chad J; DeSchryver, Katherine; Crouch, Erika; Brink, Amy; Watson, Mark; Luo, Jingqin; Tao, Yu; Barnes, Michael; Dowsett, Mitchell; Budd, G Thomas; Winer, Eric; Silverman, Paula; Esserman, Laura; Carey, Lisa; Ma, Cynthia X; Unzeitig, Gary; Pluard, Timothy; Whitworth, Pat; Babiera, Gildy; Guenther, J Michael; Dayao, Zoneddy; Ota, David; Leitch, Marilyn; Olson, John A; Allred, D Craig; Hunt, Kelly

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in estrogen receptor (ER) -positive primary breast cancer triaged to chemotherapy when the protein encoded by the MKI67 gene (Ki67) level was > 10% after 2 to 4 weeks of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. A second objective was to examine risk of relapse using the Ki67-based Preoperative Endocrine Prognostic Index (PEPI). Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1031A trial enrolled postmenopausal women with stage II or III ER-positive (Allred score, 6 to 8) breast cancer whose treatment was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant AI therapy with anastrozole, exemestane, or letrozole. For the trial ACOSOG Z1031B, the protocol was amended to include a tumor Ki67 determination after 2 to 4 weeks of AI. If the Ki67 was > 10%, patients were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A pCR rate of > 20% was the predefined efficacy threshold. In patients who completed neoadjuvant AI, stratified Cox modeling was used to assess whether time to recurrence differed by PEPI = 0 score (T1 or T2, N0, Ki67 2) versus PEPI > 0 disease. Results Only two of the 35 patients in ACOSOG Z1031B who were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy experienced a pCR (5.7%; 95% CI, 0.7% to 19.1%). After 5.5 years of median follow-up, four (3.7%) of the 109 patients with a PEPI = 0 score relapsed versus 49 (14.4%) of 341 of patients with PEPI > 0 (recurrence hazard ratio [PEPI = 0 v PEPI > 0], 0.27; P = .014; 95% CI, 0.092 to 0.764). Conclusion Chemotherapy efficacy was lower than expected in ER-positive tumors exhibiting AI-resistant proliferation. The optimal therapy for these patients should be further investigated. For patients with PEPI = 0 disease, the relapse risk over 5 years was only 3.6% without chemotherapy, supporting the study of adjuvant endocrine monotherapy in this group. These Ki67 and PEPI triage approaches are being definitively studied in the ALTERNATE trial (Alternate Approaches for

  5. Isolation of a glucosamine binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity towards splenocytes and anti-proliferative activity towards tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. "brown kidney bean." The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20 °C-60 °C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65 °C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0-2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13-14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7) cells, hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2) cells with IC(50) of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response.

  6. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8{sup +} T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Min Sook [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Min-Yeong [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Graduate School, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Daeho [Department of Microbiology, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Allen E. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kye Yong [Department of Pathology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164, World cul-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-380 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8{sup +} T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with the WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells and CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells, but increased granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in TIS21KO mice.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of 27 selected terpenoid compounds tested through modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion profiles using murine primary splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chi-Mei; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated 27 selected terpenoid compounds, including 8 monoterpenoids, 7 sesqui-terpenoids, 3 di-terpenoids, 8 tri-terpenoids, and 1 tetra-terpenoid, for their Th1/Th2 immunomodulatory potential using mouse primary splenocytes. Changes in Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, secreted by terpenoid-treated splenocytes were measured using the ELISA method. The results showed that triptolide, a diterpenoid, was most cytotoxic, reflecting an IC50 value of 46nM. Eucalyptol, limonene, linalool, thymol, parthenolide, andrographolide, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid and β-sitosterol showed a strong Th2-inclination and anti-inflammation potential in vitro. In addition, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, oridonin, triptolide, diosgenin, betulinic acid, escin, and β-sitosterol treatments significantly inhibited both IL-2 (Th1) and IL-10 (Th2) cytokine production at the same time, suggesting that these terpenoid compounds have an anti-inflammation potential through the inhibition of T-cell immune responses. Diosgenin treatments significantly increased IFN-γ secretion levels using mouse splenocytes, suggesting that diosgenin may be useful in treating a viral infection through the stimulation of IFN-γ production. Menthone, farnesol and oridonin treatments did not markedly increase IL-10/IL-2 (Th2/Th1) cytokine secretion ratios, suggesting that menthone, farnesol and oridonin may have a relative Th1-inclination property, compared to the other selected terpenoid compounds. The relative Th1-inclination property of menthone, farnesol and oridonin may be applied to improve Th2-skewed allergic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  9. Fissile material proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility depends on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. To effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of nuclear related sites and facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for fissile material (plutonium and highly enriched uranium)

  10. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 α/β TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- γ and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by α-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 α/β TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of α-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of α-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation

  11. France and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2001-05-01

    The Observatory of French nuclear weapons looks forwards to the elimination of nuclear weapons in conformity with the aims of the nuclear non-proliferation Treaty. This file tackles the breakdown of disarmament, the missile-launching nuclear submarines ( new generation) program counter to non-proliferation, nuclear submarines, security and health, nuclear submarines and the environment, the program itself and the requirements of the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  12. Globalization and Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    growing with each other? Is the process of globalization as it makes technology , education, etc., available to more and more coun- tries—and even...So to conclude, I ask, does globalization make the world go to hell because of rampant proliferation of technology , falling into the 23. And their...CIM D0012837.A1/Final August 2005 Globalization and Proliferation A presentation to a Workshop on Proliferation Networks at the Naval

  13. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  14. Protection of athymic (Nu/Nu BALB/c mice against Plasmodium berghei by splenocytes from normal (Nu/ + BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Ferraroni

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Athymic BALB/c (Nu/Nu mice died at 7-13 days after inoculation (DAI of Plasmodium berghei NK65, whereas their heterozygous (Nu/+ littermates died at 7-8 DAI. Nude (Nu/Nu mice, reconstituted with 2 x 10(7 splenocytes from uninfected heterozygous (Nu/+ littermates at 20 days before parasite inoculation (DBI, died about 2 days earlier than control nude mice; nude mice reconstituted at 10 or 2 DBI lived 2 to 4 days longer than control nudes; and nude mice reconstituted 2 DAI lived even longer and some survived. These findings indicate that P. berghei NK65 induces at least two T-cell dependent immune phenomena, one suppressive and the other stimulatory. Reconstitution of nude mice with T-cells from BALB/c (Nu/+ mice appeared to reduce or bypass suppressive T-cell activities which allowed the formation of a protective immune response by some of the nude mice.

  15. Director's series on proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author's. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia's Nuclear Legacy

  16. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  17. Non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, I.T.

    1981-01-01

    Proliferation is a problem that can only be solved when the political problems which lead countries to contemplate, the possession of nuclear weapons are solved; in the meantime it can only be managed. Non-proliferation policy has to deal both with the political and the technical aspects of proliferation. It must seek to buy time by addressing the reasons why nations feel the political need to construct nuclear weapons, as well as delaying the moment when such nations feel capable of doing so. The subject is examined and proposals made. (author)

  18. Getting serious about proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1984-01-01

    The US needs to give a higher priority to nuclear non-proliferation, but Reagan's policies assume that proliferation is inevitable and that it is more important to be a reliable supplier than to cause trade frictions by trading only with those nations which sign the non-proliferation treaty (NPT). This undercuts US leadership and the intent of the agreement. Several bills now before Congress could help to restore US leadership by tightening export restrictions and the use of plutonium from the US

  19. Cruise Missile Proliferation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feickert, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    About 75 countries currently possess cruise missiles.1 Many experts predict that anti- ship and land attack cruise missile proliferation will increase in terms of both scope and technological sophistication...

  20. Countering Chinese Proliferation Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchik, Stephen J

    1994-01-01

    Control of the proliferation of nuclear technology (including fissile material), chemical and biological weapons and their precursors, and ballistic missile delivery systems continues to be a priority for the United States Government...

  1. Nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    DOE's nuclear non-proliferation responsibilities are defined by the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). The Department's major responsibilities in this area are to: (1) provide technical assistance to the Department of State in negotiating agreements for civil cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy with other countries and international organizations; (2) join with other agencies to reach executive branch judgments with respect to the issuance of export licenses by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; (3) be responsible for processing subsequent arrangements with other agencies as required by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act; (4) control the distribution of special nuclear materials, components, equipment, and nuclear technology exports; (5) participate in bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign governments and organizations to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; and (6) act as a primary technical resource with respect to US participation in the International Atomic Energy Agency

  2. Dynamics of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book looks beyond policy disputes to make a systematic examination of the assumptions and contending hypotheses that constitute contemporary thinking on nuclear proliferation. Rather than determine who is right or wrong, the intent is to develop a better picture by using the various schools of thought as analytic windows. A better understanding of how the process operates should offer better guidance for predicting future nuclear proliferation and, ultimately, for controlling it. Separate chapters deal with the contending views, the technological and motivational bases of nuclear proliferation, the presence of a technological imperative, testing the motivational hypothesis, the dynamics of the process, and forecasting. Four appendices present historical decisions, the technical model, cost-estimating procedures, and procedures for estimating nuclear propensities. 288 references, 17 figures, 26 tables

  3. Cell proliferation in carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.M.; Ellwein, L.B. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (USA))

    1990-08-31

    Chemicals that induce cancer at high doses in animal bioassays often fail to fit the traditional characterization of genotoxins. Many of these nongenotoxic compounds (such as sodium saccharin) have in common the property that they increase cell proliferation in the target organ. A biologically based, computerized description of carcinogenesis was used to show that the increase in cell proliferation can account for the carcinogenicity of nongenotoxic compounds. The carcinogenic dose-response relationship for genotoxic chemicals (such as 2-acetylaminofluorene) was also due in part to increased cell proliferation. Mechanistic information is required for determination of the existence of a threshold for the proliferative (and carcinogenic) response of nongenotoxic chemicals and the estimation of risk for human exposure.

  4. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  5. anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okonkwo

    It most commonly occurs after phakic vitrectomy and scleral buckling for diabetic traction retinal detachment. It usually manifests with haemorrhage into the vitreous cavity or anterior hyaloid 3 to 12 weeks after vitrectomy and is the result of fibrovascular proliferation from the peripheral retina extending toward the equator of ...

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-independent peroxisome proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Takero; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPARα-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPARα dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPARα-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPARα-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11α, might be associated with the PPARα-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part

  7. The flame retardants tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether suppress the induction of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in murine splenocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, Sabine; Boecker, Ronald; Tiegs, Gisa

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated flame retardants (PBF) are frequently used additives in electronical equipment. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which bioaccumulate with several health effects for humans and the environment. This study investigated immunotoxic effects of the PBF tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP A), tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether (TBBP A-AE), tetrabromobisphenol A-bis-(2,3-dibromopropyl-ether) (TBBP A-PE), decabromodiphenylether (DBDE), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) in vitro. The structurally related polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) and dioxins mediate their immunotoxicity via the Ah-receptor gene complex. A highly relevant function of the Ah receptor, the induction of CYP 1A1 in hepatocytes of C57BL/6 mice by the established inducers 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and PCB77 was compared to the effect of PBF by measurement of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. The PBF did not show any induction of CYP 1A1, while EROD activity of hepatocytes exposed to MC and PCB77 was induced 10.8- and 8.7-fold, respectively. To investigate immunotoxic effects of the flame retardants, splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice were incubated with subtoxic doses of the flame retardants and PCB77 and activated by concanavalin A (Con A). The flame retardants TBBP A and TBBP A-AE significantly inhibited the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in contrast to TBBP A-PE, DBDE, TBP, and PCB77 as shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis by laser scanning cytometry. None of the substances had any effect on the Con A-induced production of cytokines. Hence, TBBP A and TBBP A-AE may act as immunotoxic compounds by specifically inhibiting the expression of CD25

  8. Melatonin Reverses Fas, E2F-1 and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediated Apoptosis and Dysregulation of Autophagy Induced by the Herbicide Atrazine in Murine Splenocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sharma

    Full Text Available Exposure to the herbicide Atrazine (ATR can cause immunotoxicity, apart from other adverse consequences for animal and human health. We aimed at elucidating the apoptotic mechanisms involved in immunotoxicity of ATR and their attenuation by Melatonin (MEL. Young Swiss mice were divided into control, ATR and MEL+ATR groups based on daily (x14 intraperitoneal administration of the vehicle (normal saline, ATR (100 mg/kg body weight and MEL (20 mg/kg body weight with ATR. Isolated splenocytes were processed for detection of apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC and TUNEL assays, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress by immunostaining. Key proteins involved in apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy were quantified by immunoblotting. ATR treatment resulted in Fas-mediated activation of caspases 8 and 3 and inactivation of PARP1 which were inhibited significantly by co-treatment with MEL. MEL also attenuated the ATR-induced, p53 independent mitochondrial apoptosis through upregulation of E2F-1 and PUMA and suppression of their downstream target Bax. An excessive ER stress triggered by ATR through overexpression of ATF-6α, spliced XBP-1, CREB-2 and GADD153 signals was reversed by MEL. MEL also reversed the ATR-induced impairment of autophagy which was indicated by a decline in BECN-1, along with significant enhancement in LC3B-II and p62 expressions. Induction of mitochondrial apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy dysregulation provide a new insight into the mechanism of ATR immunotoxicity. The cytoprotective role of MEL, on the other hand, was defined by attenuation of ER stress, Fas-mediated and p53 independent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as well as autophagy signals.

  9. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  10. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-21

    Plutonium Cargo Rejected [LA TERCERA DE LA HORA 8 Oct] .................. 7 URUGUAY Nuclear Energy Agreement With Canada Shelved [BUSQUEDA 2 Oct...will monitor the shipment via there is concern over proliferation, such as South Africa, satellite, the Middle East and the Korean peninsula. As to the...Santiago IA TERCERA DE LA HORA national Affairs Commissions with the only opposition in Spanish 8 Oct 92 p 16 coming from the Herreraist faction congressmen

  11. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  12. Evaluation of the Cell Proliferation Process of Ovarian Follicles in Hypothyroid Rats by Proliferation Cell Nuclear Antigen Immunohistochemical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghaddam Dorafshani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The normal females reproductive function , needs hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovarian extensive hormonal messages. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced production and secretion of thyroid hormones. During follicular growth PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and cycklin D complex play an important role in regulating cell proliferation .This study aimed to determine the cell proliferation index and how this process changes induced by thyroid hormone decreased in rat ovarian follicles.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 20 Wistar female rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group was chemically thyroidectomized by administering propylthiouracil (PTU (500 mg per liter of drinking water. The control group received normal drinking water. After three weeks rats were killed and their ovaries dissected and fixed for the histological preparation. Cell proliferation was determined by PCNA and stereological methods were used for counting cells.Results: Cell proliferation index showed a significant decrease in the frequency of follicular growth from prenatal to graafian follicles in hypothyroidism groups(P0.05 . PCNA expression determined that Primary follicle growth begins earlier. Positive PCNA cells were not observed in primordial follicles of the groups.Conclusion: According to the results of our study, this hypothesis is raised that granulosa cells in growing follicles may be increased by follicle adjacent cells in ovarian stroma . Hormonal changes following the reduction of thyroid hormones may greatly affect the cell proliferation index and lead to faster follicle degeneration.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012; 19 (3:5-15

  13. Induction of p53-mediated apoptosis in splenocytes and thymocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Zheng, Li; Jin, Yi-He

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in human and wildlife tissues. It has been reported that PFOS can cause atrophy of the immune organs and apoptosis of immunocytes in rodents. However, the mechanism behind such cause is still unclear. To understand the model of cell death and its mechanism on lymphoid cells in vivo, we conducted a dose/response experiment in which 4 groups of male adult C57BL/6 mice (12 mice per group) were dosed daily by oral gavage with PFOS at 0, 0.0167, 0.0833, or 0.8333 mg/kg/day, yielding targeted Total Administered Dose (TAD) of 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg PFOS/kg, respectively, over 60 days. The results showed that spleen and thymus weight were significantly reduced in the highest PFOS-dose-group (TAD 50 mg PFOS/kg) compared to the control group, whereas liver weight was significantly increased. We analyzed the cell death via apoptosis with an annexin-V/propidium iodide assay by flow cytometry, and observed that both the percentage of apoptosis and the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 in splenocytes and thymocytes increased in a dose-related manner after PFOS treatment. We also observed that PFOS induced p53-dependent apoptosis through the cooperation between the Bcl-xl down regulation without changing the Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The down regulation of Bcl-xl was strongly indicating mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis. It is confirmed by the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. All of these findings establish an important role of p53 and mitochondrial function in PFOS induced toxic environment in the host. -- Highlights: ► PFOS immunotoxicity is caused by induction of apoptosis via the p53 activation. ► PFOS exposure can induce down regulation of Bcl-xl. ► Mitochondria are involved in PFOS-induced apoptosis. ► PFOS exposure can cause the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3.

  14. Induction of p53-mediated apoptosis in splenocytes and thymocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: ghdong@mail.cmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Zhang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zheng, Li [Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Jin, Yi-He [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in human and wildlife tissues. It has been reported that PFOS can cause atrophy of the immune organs and apoptosis of immunocytes in rodents. However, the mechanism behind such cause is still unclear. To understand the model of cell death and its mechanism on lymphoid cells in vivo, we conducted a dose/response experiment in which 4 groups of male adult C57BL/6 mice (12 mice per group) were dosed daily by oral gavage with PFOS at 0, 0.0167, 0.0833, or 0.8333 mg/kg/day, yielding targeted Total Administered Dose (TAD) of 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg PFOS/kg, respectively, over 60 days. The results showed that spleen and thymus weight were significantly reduced in the highest PFOS-dose-group (TAD 50 mg PFOS/kg) compared to the control group, whereas liver weight was significantly increased. We analyzed the cell death via apoptosis with an annexin-V/propidium iodide assay by flow cytometry, and observed that both the percentage of apoptosis and the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 in splenocytes and thymocytes increased in a dose-related manner after PFOS treatment. We also observed that PFOS induced p53-dependent apoptosis through the cooperation between the Bcl-xl down regulation without changing the Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The down regulation of Bcl-xl was strongly indicating mitochondrial involvement in apoptosis. It is confirmed by the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. All of these findings establish an important role of p53 and mitochondrial function in PFOS induced toxic environment in the host. -- Highlights: ► PFOS immunotoxicity is caused by induction of apoptosis via the p53 activation. ► PFOS exposure can induce down regulation of Bcl-xl. ► Mitochondria are involved in PFOS-induced apoptosis. ► PFOS exposure can cause the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3.

  15. Can we predict nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The author aims at improving nuclear proliferation prediction capacities, i.e. the capacities to identify countries susceptible to acquire nuclear weapons, to interpret sensitive activities, and to assess nuclear program modalities. He first proposes a retrospective assessment of counter-proliferation actions since 1945. Then, based on academic studies, he analyzes what causes and motivates proliferation, with notably the possibility of existence of a chain phenomenon (mechanisms driving from one program to another). He makes recommendations for a global approach to proliferation prediction, and proposes proliferation indices and indicators

  16. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  17. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-27

    JPRS-TND-92-016 27 MAY 1992 JPRS Repor Proliferation Issues ÄBpxovea tcz pursue ieiaaM| Ipfe. fötmbuasa OsüoaÜBd .^L ■ — —— au »** 19980112...6 MOROCCO Berrada on Proposed Nuclear Power Plant [ MAROC SOIR 22 Apr] 6 JPRS-TND-92-016 27 May 1992 2 CENTRAL EURASIA Proposals on...three days of talks here on normalizing relations with Japan, which were largely stalemated over Tokyo’s demand for Pyongyang’s assurance that it did

  18. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...... information on progress or lack of progress in the reconstruction of the post Taliban Afghanistan. The index is mainly based on information collected on the internet in order to provide quick access to the original source. The index is under development and thus new information will be added on a continuous...

  19. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  20. Non Proliferation of Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang S Irawan

    2004-01-01

    Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons is the international community's efforts to maintain the security of the world, in order to prevent the spread of nuclear technology and the use of nuclear weapons, promoting cooperation for the use of nuclear peaceful purposes, build mutual trust (Confidence Building Measures) as well as to achieve the ultimate goal of disarmament overall (General and Complete Disarmament). Addressing the post-WTC tragedy, 11 September 2001, the Indonesian government should set up a National Measures (National Action Plan), among others formed the National Security Council and NBC Counter Proliferation Unit, or the National Authority for Nuclear Treaty, preparing national legislation, to prevent the abuse nuclear materials for terrorist acts, prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear materials, developed a National Preparedness and Emergency Response Management in the event of a nuclear accident or attack by the use of nuclear terrorism. Importance of a National Action Plan meant the existence of a national commitment in the context of compliance with treaties and conventions which have been ratified relating to safety, security, safeguards towards a general and complete disarmament, to safeguard national security and maintain peace (safeguards) international

  1. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  2. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  3. The changing proliferation threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopko, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Technological advances and new adversaries with new motives have reduced the relevancy and effectiveness of the American nonproliferation strategy that was developed during the Cold War. The Cold War`s end and the breakup of the Soviet Union have created new proliferation dangers even as they have reduced others. The familiar balance of nuclear terror that linked the superpowers and their client states for nearly 50 years in a choreographed series of confrontations has given way to a much less predictable situation, where weapons of unthinkable power appear within the grasp of those more willing to use them. Rogue nations and {open_quotes}clientless{close_quotes} states, terrorist groups, religious cults, ethnic minorities, disaffected political groups, and even individuals appear to have jointed a new arms race toward mass destruction. The author describes recent events that suggest the new trends and a serious challenge to US national security.

  4. The nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    1995-04-01

    In this book is detailed the beginning of nuclear military power, with the first bomb of Hiroshima, the different ways of getting uranium 235 and plutonium 239, and how the first countries (Usa, Ussr, China, United kingdom, France) got nuclear weapons. Then the most important part is reviewed with the details of non-proliferation treaty and the creation of IAEA to promote civilian nuclear power in the world and to control the use of plutonium and uranium in nuclear power plants. The cases of countries who reached the atom mastery, such Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, Iraq, North Korea, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Algeria, Taiwan and the reasons which they wanted nuclear weapon for or why they gave up, are exposed

  5. Disorder of G2-M Checkpoint Control in Aniline-Induced Cell Proliferation in Rat Spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Wang

    Full Text Available Aniline, a toxic aromatic amine, is known to cause hemopoietic toxicity both in humans and animals. Aniline exposure also leads to toxic response in spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and the eventual formation of tumors on chronic in vivo exposure. Previously, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation, which could eventually contribute to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. Despite our demonstration that cell proliferation was associated with deregulation of G1 phase cyclins and increased expression of G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, molecular mechanisms, especially the regulation of G2 phase and contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in aniline-induced splenic cellular proliferation remain largely unclear. This study therefore, mainly focused on the regulation of G2 phase in an animal model preceding a tumorigenic response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day in drinking water or drinking water only (controls for 30 days, and expression of G2 phase cyclins, CDK1, CDK inhibitors and miRNAs were measured in the spleen. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins A, B and CDK1, particularly phosphor-CDK1, and decreases in CDK inhibitors p21 and p27, which could promote the splenocytes to go through G2/M transition. Our data also showed upregulation of tumor markers Trx-1 and Ref-1 in rats treated with aniline. More importantly, we observed lower expression of miRNAs including Let-7a, miR-15b, miR24, miR-100 and miR-125, and greater expression of CDK inhibitor regulatory miRNAs such as miR-181a, miR-221 and miR-222 in the spleens of aniline-treated animals. Our findings suggest that significant increases in the expression of cyclins, CDK1 and aberrant regulation of miRNAs could lead to an accelerated G2/M transition of the splenocytes, and

  6. Apigenin inhibits proliferation and migratory properties of Barrett's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Proliferation index of OE33 in the absence and presence of apigenin was determined by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and apoptosis was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Boyden Chamber's assay was applied to determine the migration and invasion of control and ...

  7. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H

    2009-07-01

    Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

  8. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  9. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  10. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  11. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  12. Cyclooxygenases: Proliferation and differentiation | Rastegar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tissues and is highly inducible by growth factors, cytokines, and tumour promoters. In several studies, the effect of cyclooxygenases on different cell types has been investigated. This review focuses on cyclooxygenases function, cell proliferation and differentiation. Key words: Cyclooxygenases, proliferation, differentiation, ...

  13. Nuclear proliferation: linkages and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation must be periodically re-examined as a moral as well as a practical foreign policy dilemma. The question is asked whether proliferation precludes a safe and peaceful world, or if a halt to proliferation is adequate without other arms control. The moral dilemma in foreign policy arises over the need to make practical choices which often serve one goal while sacrificing another. The ramifications of nuclear proliferation are examined and the conclusions reached that it is not an acceptable option. It is also decided that, because general disarmament steps will be more difficult to achieve, the world may have to accept a small number of nuclear arsenals as the price of state sovereignties. A high priority for making the effort to prevent proliferation is advised. 8 references

  14. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  15. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alshaary, A. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Banajh, M. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Burbidge Geoffrey see Narlikar Jayant, V., 67. Chen, H. D. see Li, K. J., 147. Chen, Y. Q. see Huang, C., 139. Cui Wenyuan Evolution of the Distribution of Neutron Exposures in the Galaxy. Disc: An Analytical Model, 55. Dhurde Samir see ...

  16. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alecian, E. see Samadhi, R., 171; see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Antia, H. M. Helioseismology, 161. Ashoka, B. N. see Seetha, S., 301. Baudin, F. see Samadhi, R., 171. Boehm, T. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Catala, C. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Cunha Margarida S. Asteroseismic Theory of Rapidly Oscillating Ap Stars, 213.

  17. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.

  18. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2008) 29, 405–409. Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 125; X-ray Emission Characteristics of Flares. Associated with CMEs, 195. Alyana Radharani see Rathod Jatin, 293; see Reddy Chandrasekhar, A., 313. Ambastha Ashok Helioseismic Effects of Energetic Transients, 93; see Maurya.

  19. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...

  20. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 155. Aghaee, A. Determination of the Mean Hi Absorption of the Intergalactic. Medium, 59. Agrawal, S. P. see Singh Ambika, 89. Biesiada Marek Could the Optical Transient SCP 06F6 be due to Micro- lensing?, 213. C¸ aliskan, S . see Küçük, ˙I., 135. Evans Lloyd, T. Carbon ...

  1. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Ahmad Farooq see Iqbal Naseer, 373. Ali Syed Salman Study of a Large Helical Eruptive Prominence Associated with. Double CME on 21 April 2001, 347; see Uddin Wahab, 267. Ali, A. Chemistry of Carbon Rich Star IRAS 15194–5115, 399. Ambastha Ashok Photospheric, Chromospheric and Helioseismic ...

  2. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...

  4. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stricted geologic time range, easily preservable, of short species duration and found in multiple environment. Index fossils are used by geologists and palaeontologists as significant aids to determine the correlation and age of rock sequences [2]. Geologists use both large fossils or 'macrofossils' and microscopic fossils or ...

  5. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Yan, X. L. see Deng, L. H., 221. Phase Relationship Between Sunspot Number, Flare Index and Solar Radio. Flux, 387. ZANINETTI, L. Revisiting the Cosmological Principle in a Cellular Framework, 399. ZHAO XIAN-FENG. Constraints on the Moment of Inertia of a Proto Neutron Star from the Hyperon Coupling Constants, ...

  6. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Index Fossils - Evidences from Plant Sources. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Dipanjan Ghosh1. Biological Science Department Kirnahar Shib Chandra High School Kirnahar, Birbhum 731302, West Bengal, India.

  7. The kinetics of cell proliferation in Wilms' tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willnow, U.

    1979-01-01

    The proliferation kinetics of 11 Wilms' tumours (9 primary tumours, 2 lung metastases) were studies by an autoradiographic in vitro method using simple labelling with 3H-thymidine and double labelling with 3H- and 14C-thymidine. The results were in accordance with clinical experience of rapid tumour growth. The 3H-thymidine labelling index ranges between 22.4 and 46.3%, the mean cell cycle time between 11.2 and 22.1 hr, the DNA synthesis time between 8.5 and 13.8 hr, and the mitosis time between 0.3 and 1.5 hr. The growth fraction, which can be determined only approximately with in vitro methods, showed an average value of 0.5. The growth of 2 lung metastases did not differ from the pattern of proliferation of the primary Wilms' tumours. The proliferative activity of Wilms' tumours reaches the magnitude of rapidly proliferating experimental animal tumours. Since X-rays and most cytostatics show specific activity dependent upon the phase of the cell cycle or the proliferative behaviour, cytokinetic data of individual tumours allow the formulation of an index, which represents a general measure of the sensitivity of tumour cells to chemotherapy and radiation. For Wilms' tumours this Cytokinetic Therapy Index ranges between 0.62 and about 1. This is in a region of high sensitivity. The fundamental importance of proliferation kinetics for the treatment of malignant individual solid tumours in children is discussed. (author)

  8. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  9. Ptolemaic indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Lie Hetland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a new family of bounds for use in similarity search, related to those used in metric indexing, but based on Ptolemy's inequality, rather than the metric axioms. Ptolemy's inequality holds for the well-known Euclidean distance, but is also shown here to hold for quadratic form metrics in general, with Mahalanobis distance as an important special case. The inequality is examined empirically on both synthetic and real-world data sets and is also found to hold approximately, with a very low degree of error, for important distances such as the angular pseudometric and several Lp norms. Indexing experiments are performed on several data sets, demonstrating a highly increased filtering power when using certain forms of Ptolemaic filtering, compared to existing, triangular methods. It is also shown that combining the Ptolemaic and triangular filtering can lead to better results than using either approach on its own.

  10. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases.

  11. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity

  12. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity.

  13. The Regulatory Roles of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Secretions of Type 1/Type 2 Relative Cytokines by Splenocytes and Dendritic Cells Exposed to Clonorchis sinensis Excretory/Secretory Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Du, Ying; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Yu, Qian; Li, Bo; Xu, Jiang-Tao; Li, Xiang-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian; Yan, Chao; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2018-02-01

    The roles of TLR4 in mediation of innate immune response and in regulation of adaptive immune responses triggered by Clonorchis sinensis remain unknown. In the present study, splenocytes derived from C3H/HeN (TLR4 wild ) and C3H/Hej mice (TLR4 mut ) that were infected with 45 metacercariae of C. sinensis were harvested, then stimulated by C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESP) or medium (control) for 48 h, respectively. Meanwhile, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from normal C3H/HeN and C3H/Hej mice were prepared and stimulated with medium, ESP, LPS, or ESP+LPS for 24 h, respectively. The supernatants were collected, and the concentrations of type 1 and type 2 relative cytokines were determined by ELISA. The maturation of BMDCs indicated by surface markers of CD80, CD86, and MHC II was evaluated by flow cytometry. The results showed that the levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 in the splenocytes from C. sinensis-infected TLR4 mut mice were significantly lower than those from TLR4 wild mice when they were further exposed to ESP. For BMDCs, the productions of the cytokines IL-12p70 and IL-10, but not IL-4, in the BMDCs from TLR4 mutation mice were predominantly decreased compared with those from TLR4 wild mice when the BMDCs were co-stimulated by ESP combined with LPS. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ESP could significantly decrease the high levels of CD80, CD86, and MHC II which were elevated by LPS. In conclusion, these data suggest that TLR4 may play a regulatory role in type 1 immune responses during C. sinensis infection.

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine on the proliferative responses of splenocytes from T. cruzi-infected rats Efeito imunomodulatório da cimetidina sobre a resposta blastogênica de esplenócitos de ratos infectados por T. cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Sato

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine (CIM, a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist, was evaluated in respect to the blastogenic response to Con A of Wistar Furth (WF rats infected by the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. Enhancement of blastogenesis of normal splenocytes was observed at a concentration of 10-3M. However, the splenocytes from infected animals responded to concentrations of CIM ranging from 10-8 to 10-3M. The mitogenic response to Con A of cells from infected animals was restored in the presence of CIM. The results show that CIM modulates the "in vitro" proliferative response of cells from T. cruzi-infected rats and suggest an immunoregulatory role of histamine and/or of cells that express H2 receptors in this infection.O efeito imunomodulatório da Cimetidine (CIM, um antagonista do receptor de histamina-tipo 2, foi avaliado na resposta blastogênica a Con A em células de ratos Wistar Furth (WF infectados pela cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. Foi observado que apenas na concentração de 10-3M de Cimetidine houve amplificação da resposta blastogênica de esplenócitos normais a Con A. Entretanto, a capacidade mitogênica de esplenócitos de animais infectados foi restaurada na presença de molaridades da droga que variaram entre 10-8 a 10-3. Os resultados demonstraram que a CIM tem o potencial de modular a resposta mitogênica de células de animais infectados pelo T. cruzi, sugerindo um papel imunoregulatório da histamina e/ou células que expressam receptores H2 nesta infecção.

  15. Relationship between cancer cell proliferation and thallium-201 uptake in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Fujii, Teruhiko; Yamana, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Rikimaru, Toru; Hayashi, Akihiro; Kurata, Seiji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Although thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) uptake is related to perfusion in many normal tissues, the biologic rationale for 201 Tl uptake in tumors is uncertain. To determine if tumor uptake is related to cell proliferation, we correlated the relative retention of 201 Tl in lung tumors with expression of Ki-67, an indicator of cell proliferation. Sixty patients with lung tumors, included small cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-small cell carcinoma (n=52), underwent 201 Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. The 201 Tl lesion uptake was determined on early and delayed images and the radiotracer retention index (RI) was calculated. Tumor specimens were obtained at surgery or bronchoscopy. The cell proliferation ratio was estimated with MIB-1, a monoclonal antibody that recognized the nuclear antigen Ki-67. The average 201 Tl index was 2.13±0.61 (early) and 2.46±0.83 (delayed). The average RI was 17.44±35.01. Overall, the 201 Tl index (delayed) and the cancer cell proliferation were correlated (r=0.70, p 201 Tl index on delayed images and the cell proliferation ratio in patients with small cell but not non-small cell lung carcinoma. The 201 Tl index (delayed) was significantly higher (p 201 Tl imaging appears to be useful for evaluating patients with small cell lung carcinoma but not non-small lung carcinoma, and is correlated with the monoclonal antibody MIB-1, marker of cell proliferation. (author)

  16. Future non-proliferation challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelchenko, Volodymyr

    2008-01-01

    Having chaired the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee Mr. Volodymyr Yelchenko noted that the NPT States parties reaffirmed the important role of the Treaty as the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation regime. They stressed that non-compliance with the Treaty provisions by States parties undermined non-proliferation and placed emphasis on the mutually reinforcing nature of disarmament and non-proliferation, and due respect for the right of States parties to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in conformity with the treaty. They reaffirmed the importance of promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation for peaceful purposes in ways consistent with the non-proliferation goal of the Treaty. The universality aspect was brought to the front with the lack of progress in this area. States parties called upon India, Israel and Pakistan to accede to the Treaty as non-nuclear-weapons states, promptly and without conditions and to bring into force comprehensive safeguards agreements, together with Additional Protocols, for ensuring non-proliferation. There is concern that non-States actors could gain access to weapons of mass destruction. One of the underlying themes at the Second Prepcom was the total elimination of nuclear weapons as the only absolute guarantee against their proliferation. Negative consequences to nuclear non-proliferation were also mentioned in the context of the abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the development of missile defense systems, with the risk of a new arms race on Earth and in outer space. The importance of the immediate commencement of negotiations in the Conference of Disarmament on a treaty concerning fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and the urgent conclusion of such a treaty as a beneficial step towards non-proliferation was stressed. The NPT states parties reaffirmed the role of the IAEA as the sole competent authority responsible for

  17. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear proliferation and safeguards. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This comprehensive analysis of the technological, economic, and political factors affecting the potential spread of nuclear weapons proved useful in the congressional debate which culminated in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978. The report was subsequently published commercially and has been a frequently cited reference in the literature on proliferation and nuclear power. Despite developments since 1977, the information in the OTA report is still useful to those wishing to obtain an indepth understanding of the issues. Included is an analysis of why a nation might want nuclear weapons development program and the various sources of nuclear material are discussed. The control of proliferation is considered as well as its relation to the nuclear industry

  19. [Hepatocyte proliferation and DNA content in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werling, K; Szentirmay, Z; Schaff, Z; Szalay, F; Tulassay, Z

    2000-07-09

    Apart from inflammatory reaction, the death of hepatocytes is also a characteristic of chronic hepatitis. Necroinflammation is followed by compensatory proliferation, which plays a rather important role in maintaining the liver function. Authors studied the DNA content of hepatocytes in patients with chronic hepatitis C, and determined the ratio of hepatocytes in phases G1, S and G2 to determine the hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration capacity of the liver. Liver biopsy samples were taken from 23 patients with chronic hepatitis C and from 16 with chronic hepatitis with non viral origin, from which nuclear suspension counts were done based on the histological slides. A total of 16 normal liver tissue samples served as control. The DNA index, G1, S, G2 and polyploid fraction were determined using the DNACE (Digital Image Analyzer for Nuclear Deoxyribonucleic Acid Content Estimation, KFKI/NIO, Hungary) digital imaging process. The DNA index was found to be significantly higher in the chronic hepatitis C than in the non-C group, with the verification of aneuploidy (DI > 1.10). The chronic non-C hepatitis cases showed lower G1 (88 +/- 6) and higher S (7.8 +/- 6.6) fractions. In comparison to the normal liver tissues, the chronic hepatitis C cases also revealed a significantly (p presentation of the HCV proliferation inhibitory effect. The polyploid cell fraction revealed a significantly higher value in the chronic non-viral cases as compared to the C virus group, reflecting on the decreased regeneration capacity of the liver. When comparing the HCV groups, significant differences were found between the mild and moderate cases in respect to the G1 and G2 fractions. At the same time, the moderate and severe cases showed statistical deviation regarding the DNA index. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection reduces the proliferation of hepatocytes and the regeneration capacity of the liver. The aneuploid DNA index reflects on genetic instability, which could be the basis

  20. Ultracentrifuge and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voortman, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The author states that there is no meaningful difference, from the point of view of proliferation between peaceful, civil, scientific application of nuclear fission, and the use of it in nuclear weapons. The proliferation of the nuclear technology for weapons appeared and appears to be closely connected with the spread of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. In connection with this, he discusses the Ultracentrifuge plant at Almelo (Netherlands) and the supply of nuclear technology by West-Germany especially to Brazil. Further the changed American policy and the possibility of an American/Russian deal to prevent the spread of the nuclear enrichment technology is discussed

  1. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of /sup 3/H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells (/sup 3/H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the /sup 3/H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The /sup 3/H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the /sup 3/H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas.

  2. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of 3 H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells ( 3 H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the 3 H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The 3 H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the 3 H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas. (orig.) [de

  3. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  4. Non proliferation of nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2015-10-01

    After having evoked the behaviour of nuclear countries regarding the development of nuclear weapons and uranium procurement, or nuclear programmes after the Second World War until nowadays, the author presents the non proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a construction at the service of super-powers. He comments and discusses the role of the IAEA control system and its evolutions: a control limited to declared installations, an export control with the spectre of plutonium, a control system thwarted by some technological innovations, information systems coming in, and an additional protocol related to the application of guarantees. He comments the evolution of the context from a bipolar world to a world without pole which raises the issue of how to have commitments respected: description of the role and practice of non proliferation during the Cold War, after the Cold War, and in a world without governance

  5. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  6. Russia’s Proliferation Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    governments who suspected what was going on but looked the other way. Thus his operation confirms the necessity of foreign help for governmental ...was riddled with gangland hits as the state tried to take it over but is possibilities for corruption have not abated. Rather since government and...officials or for the government to arrange a covert and possibly corrupt sale or transfer of nuclear technologies to proliferators using the channels of

  7. Nuclear Proliferation: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    enrichment equipment. In 1980 the first uranium enrichment demonstration facility became operational at the Kahuta Research Laboratories ( KRL ). This...Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL-14480 (September 2005), p. 24. 1976: Kahuta Research Laboratories ( KRL ) was established and given the exclusive task...operational at KRL . See M. D. Zentner, G. L. Coles, and R. J. Talbert, “Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis,” Pacific Northwest National

  8. Systemic response of Korean dark-striped field mice, Apodenmus agrarius coreae after high-dose- rate γ-irradiation: Organ weights, hemato-chemistry, apoptosis of splenocytes and sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Choi, Hoon; Joo, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hee Sun [Radiation Health Research Institute, KHNP, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Dong Kwon [Nuclear Environment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Since the territory of the radio-contaminated area is in homeogenous in radiation level and spectrum, investigation of the genetical mutation process in the natural animal populations inhabiting the radioontaminated areas will be provide a realistic picture of genetic effects for radiation exposure. However, little is known about the basic data such as systemic responses after ionizing radiation exposures in wild small rodents. Taking into account different radio-sensitivity of dark-striped field mice (A. a. coreae, THOMAS), the objective of the study is focus on investigate the level of systemic responses, included organ weights, hemato-chemistry and apoptosis in splenocytes and sperm of caudal epididymis after high-dose-rate irradiation especially as a potential biological dosimeter in radio-ecology. Figure 1 summarizes the results of the apoptotic events in spleen (data not shown at here) and in sperm of caudal epididymis at 24hrs after a single high-dose-rate γ-irradiation. The results of apoptosis in spleen and sperm caused by exposure to different doses of γ-irradiation are displayed. The data show that the field striped mice after irradiated with more than high dose of 0.5 Gy induces an significantly increased apoptosis. Results also shown that for exposure to 0.5 Gy, the apoptosis of both organs ware decreased compared to those of other γ-irradiated mice.

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenases and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, G; Maggiora, M; Paiuzzi, E; Oraldi, M; Canuto, R A

    2012-02-15

    deviation in hepatoma and lung cancer cell lines, as is the case in chemically induced hepatoma in rats. High ALDH3A1 expression and activity have been correlated with cell proliferation, resistance against aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation, and resistance against drug toxicity, such as oxazaphosphorines. Indeed, cells with a high ALDH3A1 content are more resistant to the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of lipidic aldehydes than are those with a low content. A reduction in cell proliferation can be observed when the enzyme is directly inhibited by the administration of synthetic specific inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, or siRNA or indirectly inhibited by the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) with polyunsaturated fatty acids or PPARγ transfection. Conversely, cell proliferation is stimulated by the activation of ALDH3A1, whether by inhibiting PPARγ with a specific antagonist, antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, or a medical device (i.e., composite polypropylene prosthesis for hernia repair) used to induce cell proliferation. To date, the mechanisms underlying the effects of ALDHs on cell proliferation are not yet fully clear. A likely hypothesis is that the regulatory effect is mediated by the catabolism of some endogenous substrates deriving from normal cell metabolism, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, which have the capacity to either stimulate or inhibit the expression of genes involved in regulating proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neme Leandro G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

  11. Lymphocyte Proliferation Response in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khosravi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in humans and domestic animals. The underlying mechanisms that cause prolonged illness are complex and not fully understood. Immune responses may have an important role in the chronicity of infection. Here, we evaluated the lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with chronic and acute brucellosis. Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 22 patients with acute brucellosis, 21 patients with chronic brucellosis and 21 healthy people with the similar age, sex and genetic background as control group. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll and the cellular proliferation was quantified in presence of antigen and phytohemaglutinin-A by MTT method. Results: The brucella antigen-specific stimulation index in patients with chronic brucellosis was significantly lower than the acute brucellosis patients (p=0.001. Also, stimulating the lymphocytes with phytohemaglutinin-A has shown that proliferative response in patients with chronic brucellosis was lower than the other groups (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results indicated that chronic brucellosis inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the induction of anergy.

  12. Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Kristian; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare paraneoplastic intraocular disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients driven by an IgG factor associated with an underlying malignancy. Characteristic ocular findings include exudative retinal detachment, rapid...... cataract formation and uveal melanocytic tumours. The awareness and documentation of BDUMP has increased during the past decade, and the increasing amount of data collected demonstrates the effect of treatment with plasmapheresis and the value of diagnostic tools in BDUMP such as genetic and immunologic...

  13. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, V.; Braniste, F.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Lisii, C.; Nacu, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  14. Inhibition of allogeneic cytotoxic T cell (CD8+) proliferation via polymer-induced Treg (CD4+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning; Toyofuku, Wendy M; Yang, Xining; Scott, Mark D

    2017-07-15

    T cell-mediated immune rejection remains a barrier to successful transplantation. Polymer-based bioengineering of cells may provide an effective means of preventing allorecognition and the proliferation of cytotoxic (CD8 + ) T lymphocytes (CTL). Using MHC-disparate murine splenocytes modified with succinimidyl valerate activated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [SVA-mPEG] polymers, the effects of leukocyte immunocamouflage on CD8 + and CD4 + alloproliferation and T regulatory (Treg) cell induction were assessed in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) model. Polymer-grafting effectively camouflaged multiple leukocyte markers (MHC class I and II, TCR and CD3) essential for effective allorecognition. Consequent to the polymer-induced immunocamouflage of the cell membrane, both CD8 + and CD4 + T cell alloproliferation were significantly inhibited in a polymer dose-dependent manner. The loss of alloproliferation correlated with the induction of Treg cells (CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + ). The Tregs, surprisingly, arose primarily via differentiation of naive, non-proliferating, CD4 + cells. Of biologic importance, the polymer-induced Treg were functional and exhibited potent immunosuppressive activity on allogeneic CTL proliferation. These results suggest that immunocamouflage-mediated attenuation of alloantigen-TCR recognition can prevent the tissue destructive allogeneic CD8 + T cell response, both directly and indirectly, through the generation/differentiation of functional Tregs. Immunocamouflage induced tolerance could be clinically valuable in attenuating T cell-mediated transplant rejection and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. While our previous studies have demonstrated that polymer-grafting to MHC disparate leukocytes inhibits CD4 + cell proliferation, the effects of PEGylation on the alloproliferation of CD8 + cytotoxic T cells (CTL) was not examined. As shown here, PEGylation of allogeneic leukocytes prevents the generation of the CTL response responsible for acute

  15. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  16. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium

  17. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). NIS Div.

    1996-05-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium.

  18. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  19. Clinical impact of ki-67 labeling index in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2013-01-01

    The ki-67 index is a marker of proliferation in malignant tumors. Studies from the period 2000 to 2012 on the prognostic and predictive value of ki-67 labeling index (LI) in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) are reviewed. Twenty-eight studies reported on the prognostic value of ki-67 index with various...

  20. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining in breast carcinoma and its relationship to clinical and pathological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S; Jain, R; Rusia, U; Gupta, R L

    1997-01-01

    Tumour proliferative activity of 74 breast lesions was assessed by determining mitotic index and immunostaining for proliferative cell nuclear antigen using Peroxidase antiperoxidase method. The indices were correlated with histomorphology and clinical stage of the disease. Positively stained nuclei and mitotic figures were counted per 1000 cells to calculate Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and mitotic index respectively. Sixty four cases stained positive for PCNA. The index ranged between 0 to 98. PCNA index was significantly low in benign lesions as compared to malignant lesions (p < 0.0002). There was a linear correlation between the mitotic index and PCNA index. PCNA index also showed significant correlation with tumour size and histologic grade; however, it had no correlation with axillary lymph node status.

  1. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  2. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  3. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  4. Romania non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Lucian; Grama, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Non-proliferation concept in Romania is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which was ratified in 1970. According to the Article III of the Treaty, Romania ratified in 1972, the Agreement between Romania and IAEA for the application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2000 Romania ratified the Additional Protocol to contribute through increased transparency, to confidence that no undeclared nuclear activities are concealed within the declared programme or make use of elements of that programme. Under the Additional Protocol Romania understands to increase the transparency of its nuclear activities lengthways fuel cycle. Romania has a strong legal framework to control nuclear material and nuclear activities. The Law 111/1996, republished is the Law on the safe deployment of nuclear activities. CNCAN issued National Regulations for Safeguards and Physical Protection. Prospecting for uranium in Romania was initiated in 1950. Between 1962 and 1978 all the uranium ore production was stockpiled at the mine sites. In 1978 the Feldioara Powder Plant was commissioned, since then both ore stockpiles and ore exploited have been processed to uranium chemical concentrates. The Powder Plant Feldioara was conceived and built following the necessity of milling and processing the uranium ore to UO 2 , in concordance with the national nuclear programme in order to produce electric energy from nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Fuel Plant has capability to manufacture CANDU-6 nuclear fuel. Nuclear Fuel Plant consists of two Production areas, the Quality Assurance and Engineering Departments. There are two Production Departments: Pelleting area including granulation, pressing, sintering, pellet grinding, uranium recycling and Assembling area including components fabrication, beryllium coating, brazing, graphite coating, fuel element and bundle assembly welding. Romania's Strategy for Energy Sector

  5. Proliferation resistance: issues, initiatives and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The vision of a nuclear renaissance has highlighted the issue of proliferation resistance. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance. The GenIV International Forum (GIF) and others have devoted attention and resources to proliferation resistance. However, the hope of finding a way to make the peaceful uses of nuclear energy resistant to proliferation has reappeared again and again in the history of nuclear power with little practical consequence. The concept of proliferation resistance has usually focused on intrinsic (technological) as opposed to extrinsic (institutional) factors. However, if there are benefits that may yet be realized from reactors and other facilities designed to minimize proliferation risks, it is their coupling with effective safeguards and other nonproliferation measures that likely will be critical. Proliferation resistance has also traditionally been applied only to state threats. Although there are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, technology can play a limited role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating many non-state threats. These and other issues are not academic. They affect efforts to evaluate proliferation resistance, including the methodology developed by GIF's Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group as well as the proliferation resistance initiatives that are being pursued or may be developed in the future. This paper will offer a new framework for thinking about proliferation resistance issues, including the ways the output of the methodology could be developed to inform the decisions that states, the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) and others will have to make in order to fully realize the promise of a nuclear renaissance.

  6. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. [Journal selection and indexing for Index Medicus and Chinese periodicals indexed in Index Medicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia

    2005-01-01

    Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are indexed for Index Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is indexed in Index Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for Index Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for indexing at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

  8. Intelligence and Nuclear Proliferation: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Keith A.

    2011-09-01

    Intelligence agencies play a fundamental role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation, as they help to understand other countries' intentions and assess their technical capabilities and the nature of their nuclear activities. The challenges in this area remain, however, formidable. Past experiences and the discoveries of Iraq's WMD programs, of North Korean nuclear weapon program, and of Iranian activities, have put into question the ability of intelligence to monitor small, clandestine proliferation activities from either states or non-state entities. This Proliferation Paper analyzes the complex challenges intelligence faces and the various roles it plays in supporting national and international nuclear non-proliferation efforts, and reviews its track record. In an effort to shed light on the role and contribution of intelligence in national and international efforts to halt, if not prevent, further nuclear weapon proliferation, this paper first analyzes the challenges intelligence faces in monitoring small, clandestine proliferation activities and the role it plays in supporting non-proliferation efforts. It then reviews the intelligence track record in monitoring proliferation including the lessons learned from Iraq. Finally, it addresses whether it is possible for intelligence to accurately monitor future clandestine proliferation efforts. (author)

  9. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  10. Immunosuppressive Effects ofBryoriasp. (Lichen-Forming Fungus) Extracts via Inhibition of CD8+T-Cell Proliferation and IL-2 Production in CD4+T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Lee, Sung-Ju; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2017-06-28

    Lichen-forming fungi are known to have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammation, and anti proliferative effects. However, the immunosuppressive effects of Bryoria sp. extract (BSE) have not previously been investigated. In this study, the inhibitory activity of BSE on the proliferation of CD8 + T cells and the mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR) was evaluated in vitro. BSE was non-toxic in spleen cells and suppressed the growth of splenocytes induced by anti-CD3. The suppressed cell population in spleen cells consisted of CD8 + T cells and their proliferation was inhibited by the treatment with BSE. This extract significantly suppressed the IL-2 associated with T cell growth and IFN-γ as the CD8 + T cell marker. Furthermore, BSE reduced the expression of the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα) on CD8 + T cells and CD86 on dendritic cells by acting as antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the MLR produced by the co-culture of C57BL/6 and MMC-treated BALB/c was suppressed by BSE. IL-2, IFN-γ, and CD69 on CD8 + T cells in MLR condition were inhibited by BSE. These results indicate that BSE inhibits the MLR via the suppression of IL-2Rα expression in CD8 + T cells. BSE has the potential to be developed as an anti-immunosuppression agent for organ transplants.

  11. Control of cell proliferation in human glioma by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R I; Sherry, A; Hassanzadah, M; Freshney, M; Crilly, P; Morgan, D

    1980-06-01

    Survival and proliferation of cell cultures from human anaplastic astrocytomas were shown to be enhanced by glucocorticoids with an optimal concentration of approximately 2.5 x 10(-5)M (10 micrograms/ml). The stimulation of proliferation was only observed in a clonal growth assay and was reversed as the size of individual colonies reached approximately 50 cells. Above this size, and in regular monolayer cultures, glucocorticoids were found to inhibit cell proliferation as measured by direct cell counting and incorporation of [3H] thymidine. Cultures grown to maximum cell densities in non-limiting medium conditions reached a lower terminal cell density, and had a reduced labelling index with [3H] thymidine in the presence of glucocorticoids. Although there was little difference between the actions of beta-methasone, dexamethasone and ethyl prednisolone, methyl prednisolone was found to be more effective, both in terms of stimulation of clonal growth and inhibition of growth at high cell densities. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity with glucocorticoids up to 5 x 10(-5)M (20 micrograms/ml) and it is suggested that glucocorticoids act via a normal regulatory process, perhaps enhancing cell-cell recognition.

  12. Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-10-30

    Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human.

  13. Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsavee Malinee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. Results It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI. The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P Conclusion Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation and induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human.

  14. Brexit, Euratom and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedersten, Anna

    2016-01-01

    One of the issues absent from the academic (and public) debate on the United Kingdom's (UK) referendum vote to withdraw from the European Union (EU) (commonly referred to as 'Brexit') is what will happen to the UK's membership in the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). The Euratom Treaty was signed in Rome in 1957, together with the European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty. It was concluded for an unlimited period and it establishes a Community that has a separate legal personality from the EU. Thus, the EU and Euratom form two separate, although closely linked entities. Euratom's principal mission is related to the economy, tasked with 'creating the conditions necessary for the speedy establishment and growth of nuclear industries'; in other words, to promote the nuclear industry. This reflects the high expectations for nuclear energy in the 1950's. Some even believed that the development of nuclear energy would trigger an industrial revolution; however, Euratom only came to play a minor role in the European integration process. Despite this, the Euratom Treaty has remained, almost unchanged, since its adoption and is still frequently applied, although it is unclear to what extent it has boosted the nuclear industry. This article has a two-fold purpose. The first purpose is to address the constitutional issue of 'partial membership'. All EU member states are also members of Euratom. It has always been assumed that with membership in the EU also comes a membership in Euratom. But, what about withdrawal? What are the arguments for 'partial membership'? The second purpose of this article is to shed light on some implications of Brexit as it relates to Euratom. The most serious consequences are perhaps found in the area of nuclear non-proliferation. The United Kingdom is one of two nuclear weapon states in the EU (France being the other one). Withdrawal from Euratom means withdrawal from its control

  15. Proliferation after the Iraq war; La proliferation apres la guerre d'Irak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daguzan, J.F

    2004-09-15

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  16. To Index or Not To Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Fred

    1996-01-01

    Describes an experiment comparing the performance of an automatic full-text indexing software for personal computers (i.e., the Quick-Finder facility in WordPerfect 6.1 for Windows) with the human intellectual assignment of indexing terms to each document in a collection. Results are discussed in terms of ease of use, the time factor, and recall…

  17. The challenges of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article first outlines that the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a tool of domination used by nuclear powers: they can keep and even develop their own nuclear arsenal, while other countries who sign this treaty commit themselves not to try to acquire nuclear weapons. The USA and USSR kept on persuading various countries to sign this treaty, but eventually let some countries develop their military nuclear programme (Israel, Pakistan, or India). He evokes technical difficulties in the application of the Treaty, notably for the control of centrifugation activities. He outlines that the USA have now a dominant position with respect to this Treaty and its application, but that the Treaty remains a major safety element for the world. He evokes more recent and negative evolutions: the withdrawal of North Korea from the Treaty, the destruction of an Iraqi nuclear reactor by Israel (i.e. the destruction of a nuclear installation belonging to a country who signed the NPT by a country who did not sign it). He proposes an overview of the Iranian issue (history of the Iranian nuclear programme, of the nuclear crisis, of the still going on negotiations), and describes what could be the worst possible scenario

  18. Safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1985-01-01

    It deserves re-emphasizing that the first and most important obstacle to the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a matter of political judgement and determination. Safeguards cannot prevent a violation of obligations... any more than bank or company audits can prevent a misappropriation of funds. All they can do is expose infringements or arouse suspicions - in effect, sound the alarm. By submitting the whole of their nuclear energy sector to impartial international inspection, States can inspire great confidence on the part of the rest of the world in the exclusively peaceful nature of their programmes. Safeguards are today an essential precondition for imports of nuclear power technology, uranium fuel, and many different kinds of material for the nuclear energy sector. Without IAEA safeguards, the existing market in this sector would be unworkable. Potentially, the most important aspect of the acceptance of IAEA safeguards by nuclear-weapon States is that it shows their readiness to submit important installations within their territory to impartial inspection

  19. North Korea: a mercenary proliferator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Remy

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that North Korea possesses a rather advanced ballistic programme which has been started in the 1970 with the Chinese support, that North Korea is the fourth world producer of ballistic missiles, the author outlines that this country has become a major proliferator as it exports this production to different States and non-State actors. He recalls the long history of relationships between North Korea and terrorist organisations (even during the Cold War), comments the current and major support of North Korea to Hamas and Hezbollah in Gaza and in Lebanon. These relationships are then related with those these both organisations have with Syria and Iran who are in fact the relays between them and North Korea. The author explains why Hamas and Hezbollah must buy their weapons to such a far country: Iran is submitted to international sanctions, Iran and Syria want to avoid being banned from the international community for selling weapon to a terrorist (or so-said) organisation, and prices are rather competitive. If North Korea is also submitted to international sanctions, weapon smuggling seems to be institutional in this country. The author finally briefly evokes the issue of chemical weapons: North Korea possesses few thousand tonnes of these weapons, and could export them to non-state organisations

  20. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1995-11-17

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.

  1. Control of cell proliferation by Myc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchard, C; Staller, P; Eilers, M

    1998-01-01

    Myc proteins are key regulators of mammalian cell proliferation. They are transcription factors that activate genes as part of a heterodimeric complex with the protein Max. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding how Myc stimulates cell proliferation and how this might contribute...

  2. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  3. Effect of simvastatin on the proliferation of rat cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zhao, Lian-You; Zheng, Qiang-Sun; Fan, Yan-Hong; Tian, Jian-Wei; Yang, Xue-Dong

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of simvastatin on the proliferation of rat cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) induced by arginine vasopressin (AVP). METHODS: CFs of neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were isolated by trypsin digestion method and growth-arrested CFs were stimulated with 1x10-7 mol/L AVP in the presence of simvastatin (Sim) with varied concentrations. MTT assay was employed to measure CFs proliferation and determine the cell number, and the cell cycle distribution was determined with flow cytometer (FCM). RESULTS: With the increase of Sim concentration, D490 of CFs as shown by MTT assay gradually decreased, and for the cells treated with 1x10-6 mol/L Sim or 1x10-5 mol/L Sim, D490 (0.215+/-0.041and 0.163+/-0.018, respectively) was significantly lower than that of the control (0.939+/-0.048, P<0.01). In a dose-dependent manner, Sim decreased the cell percentage at S stage and the proliferation index (PI) as its concentration increased, but acted to the contrary effect with the percentage of cells at G0/G1 stage, and in CFs treated with 1x10-5 mol/L or 1x10-6 mol/l Sim, the 3 parameters were significantly different from those measured in the CFs with 1x10-7 mol/L AVP treatment (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that Sim can inhibit the proliferation of CFs induced by AVP, possibly through the mechanism of regulating the cell cycle distribution.

  4. Increased extracellular pressure stimulates tumor proliferation by a mechanosensitive calcium channel and PKC-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Marc D; Zeng, Bixi; Downey, Christina; Sirivelu, Madhu P; Tepe, Jetze J

    2015-02-01

    Large tumors exhibit high interstitial pressure heightened by growth against the constraining stroma. Such pressures could stimulate tumor proliferation via a mechanosensitive ion channel. We studied the effects of 0-80 mmHg increased extracellular pressure for 24 h on proliferation of SW620, Caco-2, and CT-26 colon; MCF-7 breast; and MLL and PC3 prostate cancer cells, and delineated its mechanism in SW620 cells with specific inhibitors and siRNA. Finally, we compared NF-kB, phospho-IkB and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in the high pressure centers and low pressure peripheries of human tumors. Pressure-stimulated proliferation in all cells. Pressure-driven SW620 proliferation required calcium influx via the T-type Ca(2+) channel Cav3.3, which stimulated PKC-β to invoke the IKK-IkB-NF-kB pathway to increase proliferation and S-phase fraction. The mitotic index and immunoreactivity of NF-kB, phospho-IkB, and cyclin D1 in the center of 28 large human colon, lung, and head and neck tumors exceeded that in tumor peripheries. Extracellular pressure increases [Ca(2+)]i via Cav3.3, driving a PKC-β- IKK- IkB-NF-kB pathway that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Rapid proliferation in large stiff tumors may increase intratumoral pressure, activating this pathway to stimulate further proliferation in a feedback cycle that potentiates tumor growth. Targeting this pathway may inhibit proliferation in large unresectable tumors. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the notion of steps in indexing and reveals that the document-centered approach to indexing is prevalent and argues that the document-centered approach is problematic because it blocks out context-dependent factors in the indexing process. A domain-centered approach to indexing...... is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  6. Supersymmetry and index theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1985-01-01

    The author presents information mainly concerned with the fact that many of the ingredients and results in index theory have very simple analogs in supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems so that using elementary quantum mechanics one can obtain new proofs of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem and related results. Simple ideas on index theorems and characteristic classes are reviewed; simple results on fermion functional integrals are outlined; supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems which appear naturally in dealing with index problems are analyzed; proof of the classical index theorem is presented; the character valued index theorem is derived; and applications of the methods developed here for the computation of anomalies are presented

  7. Reduction of myeloid suppressor cell derived nitric oxide provides a mechanistic basis of lead enhancement of alloreactive CD4+ T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrer, David G.; Hueber, Sara; Laiosa, Michael D.; Eckles, Kevin G.; McCabe, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The persistent environmental toxicant and immunomodulator, lead (Pb), has been proposed to directly target CD4 + T cells. However, our studies suggest that CD4 + T cells are an important functional, yet indirect target. In order to identify the direct target of Pb in the immune system and the potential mechanism of Pb-induced immunotoxicity, myeloid suppressor cells (MSCs) were evaluated for their ability to modulate CD4 + T cell proliferation after Pb exposure. Myeloid suppressor cells regulate the adaptive immune response, in part, by inhibiting the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. It is thought that the mechanism of MSC-dependent regulation involves the release of the bioactive gas, nitric oxide (NO), blocking cell signaling cascades downstream of the IL-2 receptor and thus preventing T cells from entering cell-cycle. In mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), increasing numbers of MSCs suppressed T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and this suppression is strikingly abrogated with 5 μM lead (Pb) treatment. The Pb-sensitive MSC population is CD11b + , GR1 + and CD11c - and thus phenotypically consistent with MSCs described in other literature. Inhibition of NO-synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for the production of NO, enhanced alloreactive T cell proliferation in MLC. Moreover, Pb attenuated NO production in MLC, and exogenous replacement of NO restored suppression in the presence of Pb. Significantly, MSC from iNOS-/- mice were unable to suppress T cell proliferation. An MSC-derived cell line (MSC-1) also suppressed T cell proliferation in MLC, and Pb disrupted this suppression by attenuating NO production. Additionally, Pb disrupted NO production in MSC-1 cells in response to treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and LPS or in response to concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. However, neither the abundance of protein nor levels of mRNA for the inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS) were altered with Pb treatment. Taken together these data suggest that Pb

  8. Proliferaton index in pituitary adenomas from a black African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayodeji Salami

    2016-12-31

    Dec 31, 2016 ... composed of adenohypophyseal cells, some of which secrete hor- monal substances.3,4 Most of the tumours ... tumours show invasion of surrounding structures with increase in proliferation.4 The WHO classification ..... index in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 ...

  9. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Dakic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A, which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY, and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO but not DYRK1A (pargyline. INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo.

  10. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  11. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  12. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  13. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  14. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  15. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  16. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  17. Non-proliferation and multinational enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The paper supplements CC/WG.2/9 in presenting the Japanese delegation's contribution in the areas of non-proliferation and multi-national enterprises. The paper questions whether multinational enrichment enterprises would constitute a significant non-proliferation factor, noting that the nature of the venture might create a potential for the dissemination of sensitive information. The paper also argues that a multi-national venture which was not economically competitive (with national facilities) would have questionable viability. The conclusion is that non-proliferation advantages, if any, would be a result, not an objective of such a venture

  18. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  19. Comparative analysis of proliferation resistance assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko; Osabe, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the methodologies was performed based on the discussions in the international workshop on 'Assessment Methodology of Proliferation Resistance for Future Nuclear Energy Systems' held in Tokyo, on March 2005. Through the workshop and succeeding considerations, it is clarified that the proliferation resistance assessment methodologies are affected by the broader nuclear options being pursued and also by the political situations of the state. Even the definition of proliferation resistance, despite the commonality of fundamental issues, derives from perceived threat and implementation circumstances inherent to the larger programs. Deep recognitions of the 'difference' among communities would help us to make further essential and progressed discussion with harmonization. (author)

  20. Indexing Executive Compensation Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst); O.G. Spalt (Oliver)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the efficiency of indexing executive pay by calibrating the standard model of executive compensation to a large sample of US CEOs. The benefits from linking the strike price of stock options to an index are small and fully indexing all options would increase compensation costs

  1. The Europe 2020 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  2. SCTR regulates cell cycle-related genes toward anti-proliferation in normal breast cells while having pro-proliferation activity in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seongeun; Kim, Byungtak; Kang, Han-Sung; Jeong, Gookjoo; Bae, Hansol; Lee, Hyunkyung; Lee, Seungyeon; Kim, Sun Jung

    2015-11-01

    Secretin receptor (SCTR), the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) for secretin, has been observed to be upregulated in a few tumor types while downregulated in others, promoting or suppressing the proliferation of tumor cells, respectively. However, little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanism of dysregulation in cancer. In the present study, an analysis of the biological pathways affected by methylation in breast cancer using the methylome databases revealed that GPCRs played a major part in the affected pathway. SCTR, one of the dysregulated GPCRs, showed hypermethylation (pcells identified the G2/M stage checkpoint as the top-scored pathway. Cell cycle-related genes were all upregulated or downregulated suppressing cell proliferation. However, the overexpression of SCTR in MCF-7 cells led to a 35% increase of the cell proliferation index and 2.1-fold increase of cellular migration. Our findings indicate that SCTR suppresses the proliferation of normal breast cells, while the gene stimulates the proliferation and migration of cancer cells being downregulated by promoter methylation.

  3. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Jin; Ko, Han Seok

    1997-05-01

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  5. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Jin; Ko, Han Seok.

    1997-05-01

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  7. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to discuss nuclear proliferation, analyse which problems are real and which are a misapprehension, and to suggest a way forward which retains the benefits of nuclear power while providing a more certain protection against undesirable proliferation. After an introductory section the lecture continues under the following headings: plutonium production and accessibility; the use of plutonium; fast reactor fuel; the interim period; conclusions. (U.K.)

  8. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise

  9. Inhibition of cell proliferation by glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, J.P.; Dinsdale, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of glycerol on proliferation of BHK, CHO, HBL, MCF-7, and human glioma cells was studied. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased in all the cell lines at glycerol concentrations of 2-4% in the culture medium. The inhibition was dose-dependent, complete suppression of proliferation occurring at a glycerol concentration of 4% for the MCF-7 cell line and 6-8% for the BHK, CHO and human glioma cells. Studies on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation correlate with the effect on cell proliferation. The viability of the cells was not significantly affected until higher concentrations of glycerol were present. Recovery studies with BHK cells indicated that replacement of the glycerol medium with glycerol-free medium resulted in full recovery following exposure to 4% glycerol and only partial recovery of proliferation rate following exposure to 10-12% glycerol. It is concluded that glycerol, a substance that is normally present in tissues, can serve as a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation

  10. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  11. Supporting non proliferation and global security efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    2013-01-01

    CEA contributes as a major actor of France's action against nuclear proliferation and to the strengthening of nuclear security at national level as European and International levels, in particular through the support of the IAEA activities in nuclear non proliferation with the French Support Programme for the IAEA safeguards system and security with the contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Plan and cooperation projects with the European Commission. The CEA is a French government funded technological research organization, organized around 5 branches: Nuclear Energy, Technological Researches, Defence (DAM), Material Sciences and Life Sciences. Within the scope of its activities, CEA covers most of the research areas and techniques in nuclear non-proliferation and security. The CEA is also the advisor of the French Government on nuclear policy. Treaty monitoring and the development and implementation of non proliferation and global security programs is an important mission of DAM which rely on nuclear weapons manufacture and past testing experience. The programmes on non proliferation and global security carried out to fulfil DAM's mission cover the following areas: development of monitoring and detection methods and equipments, country profiles and nuclear stockpiles assessment, arms control instruments, proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle, monitoring of nuclear tests, operation and maintenance of national detection capabilities and contribution to CTBT verification systems. (A.C.)

  12. Top-k point of interest retrieval using standard indexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Anders; Jensen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of Internet-connected, location-aware mobile devices, such as smartphones, we are also witnessing a proliferation and increased use of map-based services that serve information about relevant Points of Interest (PoIs) to their users. We provide an efficient and practical......I as a compact bit string. This technique extends an existing spatial encoding to also encode the textual aspect of a PoI in compressed form. The resulting bit strings may then be indexed using index structures such as B-trees or hashing that are standard in DBMSs and key-value stores. As a result......, it is straightforward to support the proposed functionality using existing data management systems. The paper also proposes a novel top-k query algorithm that merges partial results while providing an exact result. An empirical study with real-world data indicates that the proposed techniques enable excellent indexing...

  13. Correlation between apoptosis, proliferation and bcl-2 expression in malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiberu, S W; Pringle, J H; Sobolewski, S; Murphy, P; Lauder, I

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To investigate whether clinical features of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, at the time of first biopsy, correlate with studies of cell proliferation and cell death as well as with the level of bcl-2 expression. Methods—Bcl-2 expression, determined by immunocytochemistry, was compared with cell proliferation, measured using in situ hybridisation for histone mRNA, and cell death by apoptosis, measured using in situ end labelling for DNA cleavage. Results—Histone mRNA staining gave a labelling index of 30% of cells for reactive germinal centres, 5.2-13.5% of cells for low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 12.1-50.5% of cells for high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In situ end labelling gave a labelling index of 5.0-10.0% of cells for reactive germinal centres, 1.0-3.7% of cells for low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 4.7-13.5% of cells for high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was a positive correlation between apoptotic index and proliferation index. More cases of low grade than high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma expressed bcl-2. There was no correlation between apoptotic index and bcl-2 expression for high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusions—The molecular mechanisms controlling cell proliferation and death in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are complex, probably involving a range of genes, including bcl-2. A better understanding of resistance to cell death is needed if the clinical goal of tailoring cancer treatment to individual tumours is to be achieved. Images PMID:16696087

  14. Glycemic index, insulinemic index, and satiety index of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    To determine glycemic, insulinemic, and satiety indices of 3 types of kefir. This study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1, 50 g of available carbohydrate from low-fat strawberry kefir or orange kefir was tested, and in phase 2, low-fat plain kefir containing 25 g of available carbohydrates was tested for glycemic index (GI), in both cases compared with an equivalent amount of glucose. In phase 3, 1000-kJ portions of all 3 types of kefirs were compared with white bread with the same energy content to determine the insulinemic index (II) and satiety index (SI) of all 3 kefirs. In all phases, a single-meal, randomized crossover design was performed in which the test meals were given to healthy adults, 5 men and 5 women. The total incremental plasma glucose area under the curve (iAUC) for strawberry, orange, and plain kefirs was significantly lower compared with the respective high-GI control food, which was glucose solution. However, the IIs and SIs of kefir did not differ significantly from the white bread. Kefir is a low- to moderate-GI food; however, its II was high. Although kefir had higher water content, the SI of kefir was not significantly different from white bread.

  15. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3651 - 3700 of 11090 ... Vol 10, No 38 (2011), Effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) on proliferation and apoptosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, Abstract PDF. S Pan, B Pei, CR Zhang, C Fan, LG Bian, QF Sun. Vol 6, No 9 (2007), Effect of immersion systems on ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 701 - 750 of 1309 ... F Anjum, SA Bukhari, M Shahid, TH Bokhari, MMA Talpur. Vol 10, No 2 (2013), Extract of Perilla frutescens inhibits tumor proliferation of .... Ahmed A. Allam, Sami A. Gabr, Jamaan Ajarem, Ahmad H. Alghadir, Revathi Sekar, Billy K.C. Chow. Vol 14, No 1 (2017), Geographical impact on essential oil ...

  18. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase IIα to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A.

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo IIα mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo IIα mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo IIα mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo IIα mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo IIα mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors

  19. Bilateral Diffuse Uveal Melanocytic Proliferation: Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ruchi; Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Thornton, Sophie; Kalirai, Helen; Damato, Bertil; Coupland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study To describe the clinicopathological features, mutational and chromosomal copy number analysis, and 8-year follow-up of a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) associated with clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Methods Histological evaluation, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis and GNAQ/11 mutational analysis were performed in a 67-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of BDUMP. Results Histological evaluation revealed proliferation of bland spindle cells, diffusely replacing the uveal tract, which showed a proliferation index of less than 1%. There was absence of mutations involving the codon 209 and 183 of GNAQ, and of GNA11. MLPA analysis showed disomy 3 with polysomy 8q for both eyes. The patient died 8 years later of an unrelated condition. Conclusions Although BDUMP is considered to be a benign proliferative disease, copy number alterations of unknown significance may occur in these lesions. PMID:27171825

  20. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  1. Preventing proliferation: the impact on international politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quester, G.H.

    Nine predictions are advanced on the impact on the international system of a successful effort to contain nuclear proliferation. The world will see a modest dilution of the prerogatives of sovereignty, very much tailored to the halting of nuclear weapons spread. Some breakthroughs will be achieved in the multinational management of nuclear industry. Current pariah states may escape such status, simply through the latent possibility of nuclear proliferation. Nuclear weapons will continue to go unused in combat, just as they have since 1945. Soviet-American cooperation on the nuclear proliferation front will continue. The traffic in conventional arms may, by contrast, go relatively unchecked, as most countries conclude that this kind of weapons spread is less bad than nuclear proliferation. All of this will be carried through by statements distorted by the normal deceptions of diplomacy. The world will, nonetheless, generally become more sophisticated in discounting any glamor of political clout in nuclear weapons programs. Most of the barrier to proliferation will come through normal political and economic exchange, rather than through any violent or military interventions. 20 references.

  2. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C. [ed.

    1993-09-07

    Two essays are included in this booklet. Their titles are ``The Dynamics of the NPT Extension Decision`` and ``North Korea`s Nuclear Gambit.`` The first paper discusses the conference to be held in 1995 to review the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which will decide whether the treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Topics relevant to this discussion are: Arms control issues, the nuclear test ban, the limited test ban treaty, the French nuclear testing moratorium, former Soviet nuclear weapons, Iraq, North Korea, nuclear-weapon-free zones, security, controls on nuclear weapon materials, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, safeguards, politics, and organizational and procedural issues. The second paper examines short, medium, and long term issues entailed in Korea`s nuclear proliferation. Topics considered include: Korean unification, North Korean politics, the nuclear issue as leverage, and the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty.

  3. Cell Proliferation on Planar and Curved Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Michelle; Chang, Ya Wen; Cruz, Ricardo; Fragkopoulos, Alexandros; Garcia, Andres; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Aberrant epithelial collective cell growth is one of the major challenges to be addressed in order to treat diseases such as cancer and organ fibrosis. The conditions of the extracellular microenvironment, properties of the cells' cytoskeleton, and interfacial properties of the substratum (the surface in contact with epithelial cells) have a significant influence on the migratory behavior of epithelial cells, cell proliferation and migration. This work focuses on understanding the impact the substratum curvature has on cell behavior. We focus on cell proliferation first and study MDCK cells on both planar and curved hydrogel substrates. The curved hydrogels are based on polyacrylamide and have toroidal shape, with tube radius 200 um and an aspect ratio in the rage between 2 and 9. Proliferation is measured using the Click-it EDU assay (Invitrogen), which measures cells that are synthesizing DNA. Funding Source is Childrens Healthcare of Atlanta.

  4. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  5. Proliferation resistance assessment of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper examines the major proliferation aspects of thermal recycle systems and the extent to which technical or institutional measures could increase the difficulty or detectability of misuse of the system by would-be proliferators. It does this by examining the various activities necessary to acquire weapons-usable material using a series of assessment factors; resources required, time required, detectability. It is concluded that resistance to proliferation could be improved substantially by collecting reprocessing, conversion and fuel fabrication plants under multi national control and instituting new measures to protect fresh MOX fuel. Resistance to theft at sub-national level could be improved by co-location of sensitive facilities high levels of physical protection at plants and during transportation and possibly by adding a radiation barrier to MOX prior to shipment

  6. Nuclear power and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apold, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theme of Dr. Marshall's lecture was that it is, from the viewpoint of prevention of proliferation of nuclear weapons,preferable to use plutonium as a fuel in FBR reactors rather than store it in what, in effect, would be plutonium mines. The true threat of proliferation lies in uranium enrichment. The FBR reactor is misunderstood and the US policy is not against breeders as such. Safeguards against the misuse of plutonium by leaving a residue of radioactivity after reprocessing is quite feasible, despite certain practical problems and extra costs. Weapon proliferation is subject to political objectives and intentions. Definite proposals are, (a) a limited number of reprocessing centres, (b) an accelerated development of FBR reactors, (c) a new FBR fuel cycle, (d) stop storage of spent thermal reactor fuel, (e) reinforced safeguards. (JIW)

  7. Israel's position on non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marom, R.

    1986-01-01

    Israel maintained that the complex international system and worldwide political tension created a situation in which comprehensive plans of disarmament could not produce any positive result. The deadlock in the field of general and complete disarmament has brought Israel to the realization that one possible way to alleviate the stalemate could be progress by stages through partial measures of disarmament. Israel's position on non-proliferation indicates that the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone (NWFZ), as it relates to the Middle-East, could serve as a credible alternative to the unilateral adherence to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) and an effective measure of non-proliferation in the region. (Author)

  8. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  9. Ankle-Brachial Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measured at your arm. A low ankle-brachial index number can indicate narrowing or blockage of the arteries in ... tell your doctor so that he or she can continue to monitor your risk. Blockage (0.9 or less). An ankle-brachial index number less than 1.0 indicates narrowing of ...

  10. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  11. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse Title Index. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 2, No 1 (1978), Weakly Nonlinear Waves with Slowly-Varying Speed, Abstract PDF. SC Chikwendu. Vol 33, No 2 (2014), Web Portal Usability among Nigerian University Students: A Case ...

  13. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    , planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...... using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park...... summary variables were used to create a raster surface (ParkIndex) representing the probability of park use for all 100m×100m cells in KCMO. Two park summary variables were positively associated with park use - the number of parks and the average park quality index within 1 mile. The ParkIndex probability...

  14. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  15. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-12-27

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  16. United States non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    1978-01-01

    U.S. non-proliferation policy is aimed at slowing the spread of nuclear weapons capabilities, managing the destabilizing effects of nuclear technology for energy purposes, and fostering international standards and institutions to deal responsibly with global nuclear development. These goals assume that nuclear technology has not already precluded social control and recognize the social benefits offered by peaceful uses of atomic energy. Non-proliferation policies recognize that the motivation for possessing nuclear weapons is a more-difficult problem than technical ability and will concentrate on reducing those incentives through international agreements and safeguards and by maintaining the separation of commercial nuclear fuel cycles and military uses

  17. Proliferation risks; Proliferatierisico's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed.

  18. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Rutherford, D.A.; Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Mangan, D.L.; Moya, R.W.; Moore, L.R.; Strait, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study open-quotes Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutoniumclose quotes defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This report proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials

  19. The G8 global partnership against proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, O.

    2003-01-01

    Launched in 2002, the G8 global partnership against the proliferation of massive destruction weapons will contribute up to 20 billion dollars to the dismantling of the nuclear and chemical weapons of the former USSR (20000 nuclear warheads stored in 123 sites, 1350 tons of weapon grade plutonium and enriched uranium, 40000 tons of chemical agents, 190 decommissioned nuclear submarines etc..). This partnership, which has entered its realization phase, inaugurates a new cooperation with the Russian Federation. I could be used tomorrow in other regions of the world and become an instrument of the international community for the fight against proliferation. (J.S.)

  20. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Rutherford, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Mangan, D.L.; Moya, R.W.; Moore, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strait, R.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This report proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials.

  1. MARKOV Model Application to Proliferation Risk Reduction of an Advanced Nuclear System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-07-13

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) emphasizes proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) as a main goal for future nuclear energy systems. The GIF PR&PP Working Group has developed a methodology for the evaluation of these systems. As an application of the methodology, Markov model has been developed for the evaluation of proliferation resistance and is demonstrated for a hypothetical Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. This paper presents the case of diversion by the facility owner/operator to obtain material that could be used in a nuclear weapon. The Markov model is applied to evaluate material diversion strategies. The following features of the Markov model are presented here: (1) An effective detection rate has been introduced to account for the implementation of multiple safeguards approaches at a given strategic point; (2) Technical failure to divert material is modeled as intrinsic barriers related to the design of the facility or the properties of the material in the facility; and (3) Concealment to defeat or degrade the performance of safeguards is recognized in the Markov model. Three proliferation risk measures are calculated directly by the Markov model: the detection probability, technical failure probability, and proliferation time. The material type is indicated by an index that is based on the quality of material diverted. Sensitivity cases have been done to demonstrate the effects of different modeling features on the measures of proliferation resistance.

  2. CXCL12 expression promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma proliferation and worsens the prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchi, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Matsuda, Sachiko; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Wada, Norihito; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Nakamura, Rieko; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Omori, Tai; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its corresponding receptor CXCR4 are key players in the development of several cancers. Therefore, we hypothesized that there is a functional causality between CXCL12 expression and tumor progression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We performed an immunohistochemical analysis in 79 consecutive patients with ESCC. We performed in vitro and in vivo cell proliferation assays using ESCC cell lines and a newly established transfectant stably overexpressing CXCL12. Immunohistochemistry revealed positive CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression in 48 (61 %) and 62 (78 %) patients, respectively. Additionally, the expression levels did not significantly correlate with any clinicopathological factors. The MIB-1 proliferation index was markedly higher in ESCC with a positive expression of CXCR4 or CXCL12. Positive CXCL12 expression was significantly correlated with lower recurrence-free survival (RFS, p = 0.02). Cox’s hazard models revealed CXCL12 expression as an independent predictive factor for recurrence. In vitro, CXCL12 exposure or overexpression enhanced ESCC proliferation; and AMD3100, a specific inhibitor of CXCR4, equally decreased proliferation irrespective of CXCL12 exposure or overexpression. In the mouse model, AMD3100 significantly decreased ESCC tumor size (p = 0.03). CXCL12 stimulates ESCC proliferation, and its expression levels are related to lower RFS in patients with ESCC. Our findings indicate that positive CXCL12 expression may be a useful marker for predicting the outcome in patients with ESCC and is a potentially new therapeutic target for ESCC

  3. St Gallen 2015 subtyping of luminal breast cancers : impact of different Ki67-based proliferation assessment methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, Cornelia M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413647927; van Diest, Paul J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775; Decker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Ki67 has been proposed as prognostic proliferation marker in luminal breast cancer (BC), but little is known on the influence of Ki67 assessment methods on subtyping into luminal A- and B-like tumors. Our aim was to study the influence of different Ki67-labeling index (Ki67-LI) assessment methods on

  4. Epithelialization and stromalization of porcine follicular granulosa cells during real-time proliferation - a primary cell culture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesiółka, S; Bryja, A; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Bukowska, D; Piotrowska, H; Porowski, L; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    The process of oocyte growth and development takes place during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. This is accompanied by biochemical and morphological changes, occurring from the preantral to antral stages during ovarian follicle differentiation. It is well known that the process of follicle growth is associated with morphological modifications of theca (TCs) and granulosa cells (GCs). However, the relationship between proliferation and/or differentiation of porcine GCs during long-term in vitro culture requires further investigation. Moreover, the expression of cytokeratins and vimentin in porcine GCs, in relation to real-time cell proliferation, has yet to be explored. Utilizing confocal microscopy, we analyzed cytokeratin 18 (CK18), cytokeratin 8 + 18 + 19 (panCK), and vimentin (Vim) expression, as well as their protein distribution, within GCs isolated from slaughtered ovarian follicles. The cells were cultured for 168 h with protein expression and cell proliferation index analyzed at 24-h intervals. We found the highest expression of CK18, panCK, and Vim occurred at 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC) as compared with other experimental time intervals. All of the investigated proteins displayed cytoplasmic distribution. Analysis of real-time cell proliferation revealed an increased cell index after the first 24 h of IVC. Additionally, during each period between 24-168 h of IVC, a significant difference in the proliferation profile, expressed as the cell index, was also observed. We concluded that higher expression of vimentin at 120 h of in vitro proliferation might explain the culmination of the stromalization process associated with growth and domination of stromal cells in GC culture. Cytokeratin expression within GC cytoplasm confirms the presence of epithelial cells as well as epithelial-related GC development during IVC. Moreover, expression of both cytokeratins and vimentin during short-term culture suggests that the process of GC proliferation

  5. Cell proliferation markers in the transplanted canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.A. Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mongrel dogs were subcutaneously transplanted with the canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT on the hypogastric region. Twelve specimens of tumors were collected, half during the proliferative phase and the other half during the regressive phase. Fragments of the tumor were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and routinely processed for light microscopy. Sections of 4µm were stained by Schorr or AgNOR or either immunostained for MIB1 (Ki67. Schorr stain, AgNOR and MIB1 showed an increased proliferative activity through mitotic index, nuclear argyrophilic protein stain and cycling tumoral cells in the growing tumors, respectively. All of the three cell proliferation markers were able to distinguish the TVT in both evolution phases. MIB1 monoclonal antibody was the best in the morphologic evaluation of growth and regression of TVT. This resulted in higher values than AgNORs counting and mitotic index. MIB1 immunostaining was the most effective parameter of the proliferative activity of TVT. However, a significant correlation has been detected only between mitosis counting and AgNORs.

  6. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of chloroquine on human blood mononuclear cells was studied. High concentrations of chloroquine in vitro profoundly suppressed the proliferation of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated cells, as indicated by decreased 14C-thymidine incorporation. Lower concentrations of chloroquine increase...

  7. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferati...

  8. Developing a non-proliferation culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, J.

    2007-01-01

    Mr. J Joly, the President of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), said that ESARDA has been actively involved in developing and promoting safeguards for more than 35 years and he is pleased to cooperate with the IAEA and the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management in the organization of this symposium. He proposes the development of a 'non-proliferation culture' as a key principle and defines a non-proliferation culture as the characteristics and attitudes of organizations and individuals that: (i) relate to the protection against the diversion and theft of nuclear material and the provision of information about research and development related to the nuclear fuel cycle; and (ii) receive the attention warranted by their significance. According to him the non-proliferation culture has three universal features: (i) policy commitments at the State level; (ii) the organizational framework and commitments; and (iii) the attitudes and behaviour of the staff members of these organizations. These aspects should be considered as a whole, and they should demonstrate transparency with respect to States' exclusively peaceful nuclear activities and contribute to establishing confidence among States and regions of the world. He concludes that a synergy should be developed between the cultures of nuclear non-proliferation, security and safety. Each of these cultures represents a key principle and, as such, can help to establish confidence among States and regions of the world. To the public, these cultures should represent professionalism, competence and responsibility by all parties involved

  9. Pro-inflammatory mediation of myoblast proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Otis

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cell function is largely dictated by the surrounding environment following injury. Immune cell infiltration dominates the extracellular space in the injured area, resulting in increased cytokine concentrations. While increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression has been previously established in the first 3 days following injury, less is known about the time course of cytokine expression and the specific mechanisms of cytokine induced myoblast function. Therefore, the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 at several time points following injury, and their effects on myoblast proliferation, were examined. In order to do this, skeletal muscle was injured using barium chloride in mice and tissue was collected 1, 5, 10, and 28 days following injury. Mechanisms of cytokine induced proliferation were determined in cell culture using both primary and C2C12 myoblasts. It was found that there is a ∼20-fold increase in IL-1β (p≤0.05 and IL-6 (p = 0.06 expression 5 days following injury. IL-1β increased proliferation of both primary and C2C12 cells ∼25%. IL-1β stimulation also resulted in increased NF-κB activity, likely contributing to the increased proliferation. These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-1β alone can increase the mitogenic activity of primary skeletal muscle satellite cells and offer insight into the mechanisms dictating satellite cell function following injury.

  10. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  11. Nuclear Society and non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskij, A.Ya.; Kushnarev, S.V.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Khromov, V.V.; Shmelev, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the USSR Nuclear Society in 1991 the special working group on the problems of nuclear weapons non-proliferation and nuclear materials control, uniting the experts of different types (nuclear physicists, lawyers, teachers), was created. This group became the mechanism of the practical Nuclear Society activity realization in this sphere. Three milestones of the innovative activity can be specified. First Milestone. In January 1992 the Central Nuclear Society Board (of the International Public Nuclear Society Association) published a special appeal to the First Leaders of all countries - former USSR republics. This address paid a special attention to the unity of the USSR power-industrial complex, and numerous problems arisen while separating this complex, including nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems, were indicated as well. Second Milestone. In 1992 and 1993 the Nuclear Society experts issued two selection 'Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control Problems' including reviewing basic papers. In addition, materials on non-proliferation and control are published regularly in the organs. Third Milestone.In 1993 - 1997 some special scientific and technical events (conferences, workshops, meetings) allowing to analyze the joint international projects and contracts outcomes, and establish new contacts between the specialists of NIS, Baltic states and others, have been hold

  12. Progesterone stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Liem, SMS; Moes, H; Koiter, TR; Uilenbroek, JTJ

    Treatment of cyclic and pregnant rats with progesterone stimulates cell proliferation within the islets of Langerhans. It was investigated whether this effect of progesterone depends on sex and/or the presence of the gonads or the presence of oestradiol, For this purpose, Silastic tubes containing

  13. Thalidomide increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, M R; O'Toole, E A; Palicharla, P; West, D P; Woodley, D T

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide is reported to have therapeutic utility in the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum, Behçet's disease, aphthous ulcers, and skin wounds. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on human keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two early and critical events in the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Thalidomide at concentrations less than 1 microM did not affect keratinocyte viability. Using a thymidine incorporation assay, we found that thalidomide, at therapeutic concentrations, induced more than a 2. 5-fold increase in the proliferative potential of the cells. Keratinocyte migration was assessed by two independent motility assays: a colloidal gold assay and an in vitro scratch assay. At optimal concentrations, thalidomide increased keratinocyte migration on a collagen matrix more than 2-fold in the colloidal gold assay and more than 3-fold in the scratch assay over control. Although pro-migratory, thalidomide did not alter the level of metalloproteinase-9 secreted into culture medium. Thalidomide did, however, induce a 2-4-fold increase in keratinocyte-derived interleukin-8, a pro-migratory cellular autocrine factor. Human keratinocyte migration and proliferation are essential for re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Interleukin-8 increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation and is chemotactic for keratinocytes. Therefore, thalidomide may modulate keratinocyte proliferation and motility by a chemokine-dependent pathway.

  14. Luteoloside Inhibits Proliferation of Human Chronic Myeloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leukemia K562 cells and whether luteoloside induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in K562 cells. Methods: Luteoloside's ... for anticancer potential. Keywords: Luteoloside, Myeloid leukemia, Proliferation, Cell cycle arrest, Apoptosis, Anticancer. Tropical ..... central role as the key control point in the mitochondria pathway.

  15. Luteoloside Inhibits Proliferation of Human Chronic Myeloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of luteoloside on the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and whether luteoloside induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in K562 cells. Methods: Luteoloside's cytotoxicity was assessed using a cell counting kit. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry ...

  16. Proliferation: does the peaceful use of nuclear energy have to lead to proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Stein, G.

    The question of whether the proliferation of nuclear weapons is promoted by an increasing use of peaceful nuclear energy can be answered with a well-founded no. Even a regional renouncing of the peaceful use of nuclear energy would not reduce the worldwide problem of nuclear weapons' proliferation. Therefore, joint efforts must be aimed at promoting trust between peoples in the nuclear sphere and the political reasons for the proliferation of nuclear weapons must be reduced in order also to promote international harmony

  17. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  18. Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  19. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  20. VT Nitrate Leaching Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Nitrate Leaching Index data for the state of Vermont. This is a derivative product based on the SSURGO soils data for all counties except Essex...

  1. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  2. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  3. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  4. Indexing for summary queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Ke; Wang, Lu; Wei, Zhewei

    2014-01-01

    returned by reporting queries. In this article, we design indexing techniques that allow for extracting a statistical summary of all the records in the query. The summaries we support include frequent items, quantiles, and various sketches, all of which are of central importance in massive data analysis....... Our indexes require linear space and extract a summary with the optimal or near-optimal query cost. We illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of our designs through extensive experiments and a system demonstration....

  5. NURSING REMUNERATION INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Suprajitno Suprajitno

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses have some variables, which can be used as basic of the remuneration. The aim of the study was to develop nursing remuneration index in the hospital of Ngudi Waluyo Wlingi using statistics approach. Methods: Research design was descriptive, study that is divided into two levels. The fi rst level was surveying and focus group discussion and the second level was assessing the remuneration index formula by simulation. The subject for surveying was the whole nurses who have st...

  6. Effect of catecholamines and thermal exposure on lymphocyte proliferation, IL-1α & β in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Upadhyay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of catecholamines (epinephrine/norepinephrine and thermal exposure on in vitro buffalo Lymphocyte Proliferation (LP apparently healthy 2- 2 1/2 years old Murrah buffalo heifers maintained as per the standard feeding and management practices were selected from Institute herd. Jugular blood was collected in the forenoon on the day of experiment and processed for Total Leucocyte Count (TLC and Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC. Lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed using whole blood and cells were incubated with epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng/ml at 37oC with 5% CO2. Cells were counted after 72 hrs of incubation and Lymphocyte Proliferation Index (LPI was calculated. Thermal stress effect on the cultures was observed after exposure at 45oC for 4 hr after 72hrs of incubation. The cells were separated from media and media was used for analysis of IL-1α & 1β by ELISA kit. Lymphocyte proliferation Index decreased in responses to Epinephrine and Norepinephrine (P<0.01. Concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng /ml had no distinguishable effect on LPI. IL-1α & IL-1β levels when compared with control in supernatant (exposed to 45°C were low (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between LPI and IL-1α (r=0.80; P<0.01 and between LPI and IL-1β (r=0.78; P<0.05. The study indicated that lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and IL-1α & β levels were affected by catecholamines and thermal exposure. Further the levels of catecholamines had significant (P<0.01 negative effect on LPI indicating that catecholamines levels modulate immunity through IL-1α and IL-1β in buffaloes.

  7. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2004-10-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  8. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Kaempferol Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Aaron Y.; Li, Min; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2010-01-01

    Background Kaempferol is one of the most important constituents in ginkgo flavonoids. Recent studies indicate kaempferol may have anti-tumor activities. The objective in this study was to determine the effect and mechanisms of kaempferol on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods Pancreatic cancer cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 were treated with Kampferol, and the inhibitory effects of kaempferol on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation were examined by direct cell counting, 3H-thymidine incorporation and MTS assay. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells was determined as an index of cytotoxicity. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL assay. Results Upon the treatment with 70 μM kaempferol for 4 days, MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by 79% and 45.7% as determined by direct cell counting and MTS assay, respectively, compared with control cells (Pkaempferol significantly inhibited Panc-1 cell proliferation. Kaempferol treatment also significantly reduced 3H-thymidine incorporation in both MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells. Combination treatment of low concentrations of kaempferol and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) showed an additive effect on the inhibition of MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation. Furthermore, kaempferol had a significantly less cytotoxicity than 5-FU in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (P=0.029). In both MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells, apoptotic cell population was increased when treated with kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Ginkgo biloba extract kaempferol effectively inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and induces cancer cell apoptosis, which may sensitize pancreatic tumor cells to chemotherapy. Kaempferol may have clinical applications as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18570926

  9. HTGR strategy for reduced proliferation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, H.B.; Dahlberg, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The HTGR stratregy for reduced proliferation potential is one aspect of a potential broader nuclear strategy aimed primarily toward a transition nuclear period between today's uranium-consumption reactors and the long-range balanced system of breeder and advanced near-breeder reactors. In particular, the normal commerce of U-233 could be made acceptable by: (a) dependence on the gamma radiation from U-232 daughter products, (b) enhancement of that radioactivity by incomplete fission-product decontamination of the bred-fuel, or (c) denaturing of the U-233 with U-238. These approaches would, of course, supplement institutional initiatives to improve proliferation resistance such as the collocation of facilities and the establishment of secure energy centers. 6 refs

  10. Proliferation resistant technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandtel, K.C.; Chilton, P.D.; Daugherty, W.L.; McDonnel, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study investigates the incidental contribution to latent proliferation by the various elements of the peaceful nuclear power fuel cycle. The objective of the study was to develop a quantitative measure of this contribution. General proliferation issues were not studied. Two different procedures are used. The first makes use of the Bechtel Energy Supply Planning Model (ESPM) cost data base for energy facilities and yielded quantitative results in terms of dollar-related comparative values. The second procedure relied primarily on economic data from the United Nations International Standard Industrial Codes which was interpreted, based on a technical consideration of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons technology. The ESPM cost data was accepted in toto and used to illustrate the methodology. Not all cost items (e.g., purchase of expensive fabricated products needed for the operation and maintenance of a given facility) have any relationship to the technology transfer from the given facility.

  11. Note: How Does Product Proliferation Affect Responsiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Diwakar Gupta; Mandyam M. Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    In this note we consider some strategies that a manufacturing firm may use to deal with an increase in the variety of products it offers. We indicate how alternate strategies for dealing with product proliferation impact the firm's responsiveness, measured in terms of average production lead time and average work-in-process inventory. Focusing on the make-to-order environment and using queueing models, we derive conditions under which an increase in product variety can improve both individual...

  12. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The paper focuses on examining the degree to which nuclear systems could be used to acquire nuclear weapons material. It establishes a framework for proliferation resistance assessment and illustrates its applicability through an analysis of reference systems for once-through cycles, breeder cycles and thermal recycle. On a more tentative basis, the approach is applied to various alternative technical and institutional measures. This paper was also submitted to Working Groups 5 and 8

  13. Myocyte proliferation in the developing heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmera, David; Thompson, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 6 (2011), s. 1322-1334 ISSN 1058-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0615; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cell proliferation * cardiac development * embryo * heart Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2011

  14. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-10-17

    This series is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. Essays contained in this document include: Key issues on NPT renewal and extension, Africa and nuclear nonproliferation, Kenya`s views on the NPT, Prospects for establishing a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the middle east, effects of a special nuclear weapon materials cut-off convention, and The UK view of NPT renewal.

  15. Noble gas, a potential nuclear proliferation indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the post-Cold War era, it appears that nuclear proliferation will be a continuing problem. At least one reliable technique to detect nuclear activities is needed to deter potential proliferators. This paper proposes a candidate technique for detection. Early efforts to measure nuclear fuel performance resulted in the consideration of a variety of potential techniques. In 1965, Maeck proposed determination of nuclear fuel burnup based on the ratio of two stable fission product isotopes of the same element. Maeck proposed using three ratios: 84 Kr/ 83 Kr, 132 Xe/ 131 Xe, and 144 Nd/ 143 Nd. More recent work includes useful application of krypton and xenon isotope correlation techniques to safeguards at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The safeguards application requires very precise measurement of the fission product isotopes, detailed fuel exposure history, and knowledge of the neutron spectrum. Meeting all these requirements is extremely difficult and requires carefully controlled conditions. The most likely scenario for a proliferator to produce nuclear material suitable for weapons applications is reprocessing of reactor fuel to recover the plutonium. Since useful amounts of plutonium are produced in all uranium-fueled reactors, reprocessing the reactor fuel would be much easier and less expensive than mining and enriching uranium to weapons-grade material. Reprocessing nuclear reactor fuel releases the noble gases krypton and xenon from the fuel. Because capture of the noble gases is difficult, expensive, and produces a radiation hazard, the gases will normally be released during reprocessing. These factors provide the basis for this proposed technique of detecting proliferators

  16. Beta cell proliferation and growth factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Svensson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    1999-01-01

    cloned a novel GH/PRL stimulated rat islet gene product, Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor-1). This protein contains six EGF-like motifs and may play a role both in embryonic pancreas differentiation and in beta cell growth and function. In summary, the increasing knowledge about the mechanisms involved...... in beta cell differentiation and proliferation may lead to new ways of forming beta cells for treatment of diabetes in man....

  17. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this `Full Scope Safeguards` on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear weapon applications.

  18. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of the efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the exclusively peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this 'Full Scope Safeguards' on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear

  19. Sovereignty and non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimminich, O.

    1990-01-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty seems to violate the fundamental principle of the quality of the states. However, if interpreted in the light of the latest developments of the international law, it is possible to justify the discriminations which it imposes on the non-nuclear states. A crucial point is the implementation of article VI by the nuclear states. If the latter procrastinate in nuclear disarmament the whole NPT-regime will collapse. (orig.) [de

  20. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  1. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  2. Enhancement by Enlargement: The Proliferation Security Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Minister Mahathir Mohammad. In any event, Malaysia’s expressions of common interest with the United States in cooperative efforts to combat terrorism...instances 10 The sharp change in the current Malaysian government’s stance toward cooperation with the United States from that of the preceding, Mahathir ...preceding prime minister, Mahathir , Malaysia was implicated in the proliferation network of Pakistan’s A. Q. Khan. As part of that network

  3. Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    is a constitutional federation made up of Abu Dhabi , Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quaiwain, Ras al-Khaimah, and Fujairah. The Strait consists of...country’s economy . Out of these thousands of munitions, only a few drones and anti- ship cruise missiles were guided. But as the proliferation of guided...the United States maintain the freedom of movement, trade routes, and global commerce that are key to the United States and world economies , as well

  4. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  5. Proliferation networks: between Sopranos and Supermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumberger, Guillaume; Gruselle, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    One success in the struggle against proliferation during the last decade has been that Western countries have reinforced mechanisms for control over exports of goods and technologies intended for the perfection of weapons of mass destruction. These new constraints have probably resulted in the appearance of a genuine proliferation economy, partly underground, organized around contacts between acquisition and sales networks, searching to exploit weaknesses in existing control systems to obtain wanted goods and technologies. This phenomenon is particularly worrying, because the level of technical skills attained by some suppliers is sufficiently high to guarantee that their customers will have a functional product satisfying their demand. Apart from systematic exploitation of vulnerabilities in export control systems, the capacity of these networks of suppliers to conduct their operations is reinforced by access to technologies and globalization of the market and financial tools. This article is the first of a series of two and explores the operation of these proliferation networks. The second article will be dedicated to an analysis of existing tools or other tools that can be implemented to combat them. (authors)

  6. Nuclear non-proliferation: failures and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.; Press, R.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the evolution of combined political and technical attempts to achieve worldwide acceptance of a commitment to non-proliferation, to note failures to date, and to identify essential factors to be satisfied if greater and necessary success is to be achieved in the immediate future. For this it is necessary to separate the realism and unrealism so often involved in discussing the concept of non-proliferation, as defined above, particularly if treated as a moral principle rather than as part of a general security issue reflecting shifts in regional and global stability. The political nature of the non-proliferation problem is underlined by the fact that whereas five nuclear weapon states are currently accepted, any threatened increase in that number is discouraged by every possible peaceful means. This fact combines political acceptance of an existing international situation with a belief that any addition to the present number must lead to international instability. Success in preventing additions may be more readily achieved through political understanding and perhaps some compromises, in particular cases, rather than through seeking a universal solution to a generalized problem

  7. Future technology challenges in non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. For example, various gamma ray imaging approaches are being explored to combine spatial resolution with background suppression in order to enhance sensitivity at reasonable standoff distances and acquisition times. New materials and approaches are being developed in order to provide adequate energy resolution in field use without the necessity for liquid nitrogen. Finally, different detectors combined into distributed networks offer promise for detection and tracking of radioactive materials. As the world moves into the 21st century, the possibility of greater reliance on nuclear energy will impose additional technical requirements to prevent proliferation. In addition to proliferation resistant reactors, a careful examination of the various possible fuel cycles from cradle to grave will provide additional technical and nonproliferation challenges in the areas of conversion, enrichment, transportation, recycling and waste disposal. Radiation detection technology and information management have a prominent role in any future global regime for nonproliferation beyond the current Advanced Protocol. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. (author)

  8. The motivations of proliferating countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Jean-Claude; Daguzan, Jean-Francois; Pasco, Xavier; Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This report is based on previous works made by the GSPP group (GSPP stands for geographic-social-psychological-political) which defined conceptual backgrounds for a new approach to nuclear proliferation, notably by introducing an associated method, the GSPP method, which is used in this study. Thus, this report first presents the GSPP method through its application to the analysis of the decision dynamics in the case of a proliferating State, a discussion of the seven determining factors (national resources, history and strategic context, type of political regime, leader's history and personal typology, international dependencies and alliances, elites and mediators, public opinions), a discussion of the interactions between these factors, an application of the first determining factor, and an application of the GSPP method to the case of biological and chemical proliferation. In the next part, the authors propose sheets which report the application of the method to different countries (Iran, Israel, Iraq, Algeria, Libya, China, India, Pakistan, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa). The content and the exploitation of these sheets is then discussed, and the authors address the perspective of development of a GSPP model, notably by using the Maslowe pyramid. They propose an application of this model to the case of Iran

  9. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-01-01

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, F.; Hildenbrand, G.; Chari, P.R.; Imai, R.

    1978-01-01

    In a four-part discussion, United States non-proliferation policies are described, followed by responses and reactions from the Federal Republic of Germany, India, and Japan. The provisions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 are described as having both an internationalist ad a unilateralist approach. Criteria for agreements for cooperation and obtaining export licenses are outlined and the steps for implementation and negotiation are explained. The German author warns that the U.S. may be risking its chance to influence world nuclear trade and recommends more pragmatic and flexible policies to deal with proliferation. The Indian author criticizes the U.S. for not adopting an approach that differentiates between non-nuclear weapon states in terms of their technological capabilities and questions whether it is realistic to pursue inflexible trade policies. The Japanese author commends the U.S. for its moral stance, but criticizes its unilateral approach, which he finds lacking in realism and a sense of history

  11. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  12. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  13. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  14. Proliferation of lung cells in chronically hypoxic rats. An autoradiographic and radiochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedenzu, C.; Grasedyck, K.; Voelkel, N.F.; Bittmann, S.; Lindner, J.

    1981-05-01

    Chronic hypoxia induces an increase in the DNA-synthesis rate of lung tissue and this study confirms this previously reported result using in vivo incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. Autoradiographic investigations demonstrate an increase in the /sup 3/H-thymidine labelling index of cells in the bronchial epithelial lining, of lung parenchyma cells, and of smooth muscle cells in the media of pulmonary arteries after 9 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 4250 m (Pb = 440 Torr). In contrast, in control tissue from rat liver and kidney chronic hypoxia inhibits the proliferation of sinusoid endothelial cells and Kupffer cells and also the proliferation of renal tubulus epithelial cells. Our results indicate that chronic hypoxia stimulates proliferation of various cell types in the rat lung; cells of the bronchial epithelial lining respond to chronic hypoxia with very high proliferation rates; and the formation of new media smooth muscle cells may contribute to the adaptation process of the pulmonary arteries of chronically hypoxic rats. These results can contribute to the understanding of pulmonary hypertension, an often seen concomitant reaction of chronic lung diseases.

  15. RELATIVE PROLIFERATION RISKS FOR NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING ARRANGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHENG, L.Y.; YUE, M.; BARI, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a probabilistic approach to quantify the proliferation risks of fuel leasing and recycling. A Markov model approach is applied to evaluate the probability of proliferation success by diversion or theft. Proliferation risk is calculated as a product of the probability of success and the corresponding consequences

  16. Oxidative stress induced pulmonary endothelial cell proliferation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellular hyper-proliferation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, pulmonary endothelial cells proliferation is susceptible to redox state modulation. Some studies suggest that superoxide stimulates endothelial cell proliferation while others have ...

  17. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  18. Assessing youth engagement with a collaborative Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, K.; Nefedova, A.; Thurner, T

    2016-07-01

    As a response to the proliferation of student-led protests and movements across the globe, we, as part of an international platform for young planning professionals- Urbego-, have developed the Youth Engagement Index (YEI) that assesses the involvement of young generations (ages 18-34) in urban governance. Designed to include, and be improved upon by, a collaboration with relevant actors such as local municipal governments, academia, nongovernmental youth organizations and the youth themselves, the YEI presents a unique opportunity to unveil weaknesses and opportunities for cities in terms of engaging their youth. Furthermore, the collaborative process highlights the value of having a recognized and engaged youth for future urban development and city life in general. (Author)

  19. Shape-dependent regulation of proliferation in normal and malignant human cells and its alteration by interferon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesh, D.A.; Greene, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between cell morphology, proliferation, and contact inhibition was studied in normal and malignant human cells which varied in their sensitivity to contact inhibition. Their ability to proliferate was examined under conditions where the cells were constrained into different shapes by plating onto plastic surfaces coated with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) can precisely vary the shape of cells without toxicity. Cell proliferation was quantitated by cell counts and labeling indices were determined by autoradiography. The normal JHU-1 foreskin fibroblasts and IMR-90 lung fibroblasts exhibited contact-inhibited growth with a saturation density of 2.9 X 10(5) and 2.0 X 10(5) cells/cm2, respectively. These cells also exhibited stringent dependency on cell shape with a mitotic index of less than 3% at poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) concentrations at which the cells were rounded versus a labeling index of 75-90% when the cells were flat. The malignant bladder carcinoma line RT-4 exhibited partial contact-inhibited growth. Its dependency on cell shape was less stringent than that of normal cells with a mitotic index of 37-40% when rounded and 79% when flat. The malignant fibrosarcoma line, HT1080, was not contact inhibited and was entirely shape independent with a mitotic index of 70-90% regardless of cell shape. Treatment of HT1080 cells with low concentration of human fibroblast interferon (less than 40 units/ml) restored shape-dependent proliferation while having little effect on normal cells. Subantiproliferative doses of interferon were also shown to restore contact-inhibited proliferation control to malignant cells previously lacking it

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 312 of 312 ... Vol 30, No 1-2 (2015), Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol and Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat Plasma, Abstract PDF. Olayaki L A, Sulaiman S O, Anoba N B. Vol 25, No 2 (2010), Waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, and body mass index in the diagnosis of metabolic ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1463 ... Vol 14, No 4 (2014), Association between mean platelet volume levels and inflammation in SLE patients presented with arthritis, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 3 (2010), Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract ...

  2. Indexes to Volume 56

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Unsharp spin observables, non-locality and Fry, Walther and Li experiment. Sisir Roy. 189–198. Backward causation, hidden variables and the meaning of completeness. Huw Price. 199–210. An experiment to distinguish between de Broglie-Bohm and standard quan- tum mechanics. Partha Ghose. 211–216.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 2005 ... Issue, Title. Vol 92, No 4 (2015), Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban Slum in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract. GI Ahaneku, CU Osuji, OC Oguejiofor, BC Anisiuba, VO Ikeh, JE Ahaneku. Vol 80, No 10 (2003):, Blood pressure control in a population where antihypertensives are ...

  4. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...

  5. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  6. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 379 ... Vol 52, No 1 (2016), Effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on body mass index, immunological and virological status of Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS ... Vol 51, No 2 (2015), Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in females with pelvic floor dysfunction, Abstract PDF.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 183 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2005), Influence Of Specialized Mathematical Language On Secondary School Students Mathematical Achievement In Kenya, Abstract ... Vol 6, No 1 (2001), Maternal education, age and household head gender associated with weight for age index of preschool children in Imo state ...

  9. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 577 ... Vol 25, No 2 (2008), Maternal Serum Triglycerides at Midpregnancy and Term Neonate Weight in Non-Diabetic Women with Normal Body Mass Index, Abstract PDF. L Sekhavat, F Zare. Vol 25, No 1 (2008), MDGs & SOGON: Mortality, The Media & Corporate Nigeria - The Third Olusola Adewole Ojo ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 68 of 68 ... Vol 11, No 2 (2013), Some Haematological Parameters in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients in Nassarawa Gwom Following the 2010 Jos Crisis ... Vol 10, No 2 (2012), The comparative study of the body mass index of Hausa and Yoruba children aged 2-5 in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria, Abstract.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 338 ... Vol 17, No 2 (2005), A successful cognitive-behavioural intervention that failed: a case study of adolescent conduct disorder at a school for the disadvantaged, Abstract. E Mashalaba, D Edwards. Vol 27, No 3 (2015), A validational study of the Ironson–Woods Spirituality/ Religiousness Index in Nigerian ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 10, No 4 (2004), Occurrence of Parasites in Pseudotolithus elongatus and Cynoglossus seneglensis in Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. JT Abraham, PA ... P C Chikezie. Vol 9, No 1 (2003), Parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables: a function of the leaf area index (lai), Abstract PDF.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 775 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2016), Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial study of silver nanoparticles (agNPs), Abstract PDF. Aminu A. Hamisu, Maryam Abdullahi, U. Abubakar, S. Bilal, A.J. Abbas. Vol 2, No 2 (2009), Body mass index variations among adolescents from Kano Metropolis, Nigeria, Abstract ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 242 ... ... No 2 (2008), Effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) On Degree of Angular Knee Deformity in Children with Blount\\'s Disease. Abstract. A Bafor, AO Ogbemudia, PFA Umebese. Vol 11, No 2 (2012), Efficacy of Six Weeks Skin Traction in the Management of Chronic Pain from Lumber Spondylosis, Abstract.

  16. Indexes to Volume 77

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  17. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis consist...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1011 ... Issue, Title. Vol 31, No 2 (2012), Design and Development of a Soap Stamping and Tableting Machine for Small Scale Soap Manufacturer, Abstract PDF. BN Nwankwojike. Vol 36, No 3 (2017), DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A DISCOMFORT INDEX METER FOR DETERMINATION OF STRESS IN ...

  19. A Tourism Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK

  20. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 162 of 162 ... Issue, Title. Vol 2, No 2 (2003), The Significance Of Adaptive Changes In Rat Haemoglobin Micro-environment And Electophoretic Fractions During Barocamera Hypoxia, Abstract. BO Ekpo. Vol 5, No 1 (2006), The study of conicity index and waist hip ratio in Nigerian children and adolescents, Abstract.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 708 ... Vol 37, No 1 (2012), A comparative assessment of the health status of feral populations of Clarias gariepinus from three dams in the Limpopo and Olifants river systems, Limpopo province, South Africa, using the fish health assessment index protocol, Abstract. GN Madanire-Moyo, WJ Luus-Powell, ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 273 ... AMS Nyomora. Vol 38, No 2 (2012), Distribution and Potential Impact of Feral Cotton on the Reintroduction of Cotton in the Southern Highlands, Tanzania, Abstract PDF. O Shilla, TP Hauser, FI Tibazarwa. Vol 31 (2005):, Distribution of hourly variability index of sky clearness, Abstract PDF. A Madhlopa.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 245 of 245 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2014), Sewage disposal methods in a sub-urban community in Edo state, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. AR Isara, AQ Aigbokhaode. Vol 16, No 1 (2017), Sleep deprivation and coffee consumption induced changes in blood pressure, body mass index and blood glucose in male Wistar albino rats ...

  5. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  6. Montessori Index. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleege, Virginia B.; And Others

    This volume, the result of 2 years of work, is an index to 24 volumes on Montessori theory and practice. The books were read and analyzed a minimum of six times. Sixteen of the volumes are authored by Maria Montessori. (DR)

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 483 ... Vol 41, No 2 (2014), Serum zinc levels in HIV infected children attending the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Vol 43, No 1 (2016), Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a Nigerian child: a need for a high index of suspicion, Abstract PDF.

  8. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    of various sorts of environmental noise and at the same time offers a stable threshold value. Thus we introduced a new Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) improving classification accuracy in areas that include shadow and dark surfaces that other classification methods often fail to classify correctly...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 661 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. .... A El-Mahdy, B Bolduc, J Upadhyay, R Shoukr, A Khoury. Vol 19, No 1 (2013), Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, Abstract PDF.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 985 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 17 (2010), Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic Wave Algorithm, Abstract. E Ikata .... Vol 17 (2010), Analytic derivation of the wave profile and phase speed of sixth order Stokes waves in deep water, Abstract.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 229 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get ... KM Lawal, MN Umego, SB Ojo. Vol 17, No 1 (2005), Obtaining the green's function for electromagnetic waves propagating in layered in-homogeneous thin film media of spherical particles on a substrate, Abstract.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 48 of 48 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... Vol 1 (2000), Measurement of Ground Electrical Conductivity for Planning Medium Wave Radio Broadcast Stations in South Western Nigeria, Abstract PDF. Moses Oludare Ajewole, Adeseye Muyiwa ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 45 of 45 ... Vol 7, No 1 (2015), On The Relationship between Illiquidity, Aggregate Market Return and Conditional Volatility of the NIFTY Index, Abstract PDF. Som Sankar Sen. Vol 2, No 2 (2009), Opportunities for Micro and Small Scale Businesses in the Tourism Sector: The Case of The Kenya Coast1, Abstract PDF.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 6, No 4 (2000), Solar energy as a viable pathway toward ecologically sustainable, Details ... Vol 18, No 3-4 (2012), Source Apportionment and distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Imo River Sediments near Afam Power Station, S.E. Nigeria: Molecular index and Multi-Variate Approaches, Abstract PDF.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 58 ... Vol 6, No 10 (2009), An Analysis of Alternative Weighting System on the National Price Index in Tanzania: The Implication to Poverty Analysis, Abstract PDF. AF Mkenda, W ... Vol 5, No 7 (2008), Exchange Rate Volatility, Currency Substitution and Monetary Policy in Nigeria, Abstract. DO Yinusa, AE Akinlo.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 390 ... Vol 46, No 3 (2005), Pattern of fertility and perception of population concerns in Kwara State, Nigeria, Abstract. MO Araoye .... Vol 54, No 3 (2013), Prevalence of obesity among adolescents in Ile‑Ife, Osun state, Nigeria using body mass index and waist hip ratio: A comparative study, Abstract. Adedayo ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 951 - 1000 of 1329 ... ... Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil from Selected Solid Waste Dump Sites in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. FU Obianefo, IO Agbagwa, F.B.G. Tanee. Vol 19, No 3 (2015), Physico-Chemical Characterization and Pollution Index Determination of Leachates from Warri Waste ...

  18. Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle (Proliferation Resistance Engineering Program: PREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Clark, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    This document describes the proliferation resistance engineering concepts developed to counter the threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons in an International Fuel Service Center (IFSC). The basic elements of an International Fuel Service Center are described. Possible methods for resisting proliferation such as processing alternatives, close-coupling of facilities, process equipment layout, maintenance philosophy, process control, and process monitoring are discussed. Political and institutional issues in providing proliferation resistance for an International Fuel Service Center are analyzed. The conclusions drawn are (1) use-denial can provide time for international response in the event of a host nation takeover. Passive use-denial is more acceptable than active use-denial, and acceptability of active-denial concepts is highly dependent on sovereignty, energy dependence and economic considerations; (2) multinational presence can enhance proliferation resistance; and (3) use-denial must be nonprejudicial with balanced interests for governments and/or private corporations being served. Comparisons between an IFSC as a national facility, an IFSC with minimum multinational effect, and an IFSC with maximum multinational effect show incremental design costs to be less than 2% of total cost of the baseline non-PRE concept facility. The total equipment acquisition cost increment is estimated to be less than 2% of total baseline facility costs. Personnel costs are estimated to increase by less than 10% due to maximum international presence. 46 figures, 9 tables

  19. Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle (Proliferation Resistance Engineering Program: PREP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Clark, R.G.

    1979-01-19

    This document describes the proliferation resistance engineering concepts developed to counter the threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons in an International Fuel Service Center (IFSC). The basic elements of an International Fuel Service Center are described. Possible methods for resisting proliferation such as processing alternatives, close-coupling of facilities, process equipment layout, maintenance philosophy, process control, and process monitoring are discussed. Political and institutional issues in providing proliferation resistance for an International Fuel Service Center are analyzed. The conclusions drawn are (1) use-denial can provide time for international response in the event of a host nation takeover. Passive use-denial is more acceptable than active use-denial, and acceptability of active-denial concepts is highly dependent on sovereignty, energy dependence and economic considerations; (2) multinational presence can enhance proliferation resistance; and (3) use-denial must be nonprejudicial with balanced interests for governments and/or private corporations being served. Comparisons between an IFSC as a national facility, an IFSC with minimum multinational effect, and an IFSC with maximum multinational effect show incremental design costs to be less than 2% of total cost of the baseline non-PRE concept facility. The total equipment acquisition cost increment is estimated to be less than 2% of total baseline facility costs. Personnel costs are estimated to increase by less than 10% due to maximum international presence. 46 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Aspects of cell proliferation in oral epithelial dysplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R J; MacDonald, D G; Felix, D H

    2000-02-01

    There is a need for objective methods of assessment of oral epithelial precancerous lesions and reliable markers for the prediction of malignant change in these lesions. Cell proliferation was examined in 20 dysplastic lesions from the tongue and floor of mouth using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki-67, and a histological compartment analysis was performed. Half of a fresh biopsy from each case was incubated in BrdU for 15 min, the other half was routinely processed and used for Ki-67 analysis. Sections from each block were immunohisto chemically stained with antibodies against BrdU and Ki-67. Dysplasia was graded according to the method of Smith & Pindborg. The BrdU labelling index (LI) and the growth fraction (GF), assessed by the use of Ki-67, was quantified and expressed as units per millimetre basement membrane length (BL) and per 100 total nucleated cells (TNC). The mean LI/TNC was 10.87 (SD 3.65) and the mean LI/BL was 51.55 (SD 20.75). The mean GF/TNC was 26.66 (SD 17.78) and GF/BL was 157.07 (SD 125.84). The mean epithelial thickness was 229.09 microm (SD 104.73). The LI/BL correlated with the atypia score and with the GF/BL. The progenitor compartment sizes also correlated with the atypia scores. The BrdU labelling index provides a further objective measurement of oral epithelial dysplasia and the progenitor compartments were large, implying that basal cell hyperplasia is a significant component of the dysplasia.

  1. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingling [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Zhao, Yingmin [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin [Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Gu, Jian [Department of Hematology, Yangzhou University School of Clinical Medicine, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Yu, Duonan, E-mail: duonan@yahoo.com [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Disease, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Institute of Comparative Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou 225001 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  2. The non-proliferation regime, vertical proliferation and the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1988-12-01

    The disarmament orientation of the NPT, which stands beside the central aim of avoiding horizontal proliferation, raises a question: Does a compatibility exist between the non-proliferation policy of the Federal Republic and its security policy, which has its basic pillar in the nuclear deterrence strategy? Critics of this deterrence policy therefore, hinting to the disarmament determination of the NPT, demand that the Federal Republic should exercise its influence for the conclusion of a 'Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty' (CTBT), the establishment of a 'Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zones' (NWFZ) in Europe, a 'No First Use'-Treaty (NFU) and finally the abolishment of all atomic weapons ('Zero Solution'). According to them such disarmament 'remedies' can reestablish or assure the waning or damaged international consensus for horizontal non-proliferation. This is a contribution for the establishment of a stable world order and will smooth the way for a prolongation of the NPT in the year 1995. An analysis of the history and the structure of interests shows that the policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is deeply rooted in the NPT and that a prolongation of the treaty and its own membership is a substantial object of the foreign and security policy. Consequently the Federal Republic has to face the demands for an intensification of 'anti-nuclear measures' and has to examine their acceptability and their usefulness with respect to non-proliferation. The structure of the problem encloses the following aspects: The security conception of the Federal Republic with its military-strategic essence; the provisions in article VI NPT for negotiations with the object of a world free of atomic weapons; the derived disarmament 'remedies' for strengthening the consensus for horizontal non-proliferation and, finally, the real interface between horizontal and vertical proliferation. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingling; Zhao, Yingmin; Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  4. Nuclear energy and proliferation: A longer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power has expanded slowly; and it is largely based on reactors that require no recycle. The original basis for concern about proliferation - that nuclear power would be used very widely and that it would be based on systems that required reprocessing - has been shaken. The present world nuclear energy system, which is small and based on no-recycle reactors, is relatively resistant to proliferation via diversion from power reactors. Though worry about proliferation can never be eliminated, the perceived connection between power and bombs can be slowly reduced. The proposal to link fuel take-back with waste disposal poses a dilemma for the ''nuclear environmental'' activists. This group objects to nuclear power because, in their view, reactor wastes threaten the environment, and because bombs and reactors are connected. Both objections are held, often passionately; it would be difficult to assess which takes primacy. This proposal further breaks the ''Nuclear Connection,'' but at the expense of adding a little to the volume of wastes the United States would have to dispose of. We are in effect saying that the loosening of the nuclear connection through the take-back scheme should take precedence over the tiny environmental burden incurred by the addition of a few percent to the total wastes the U.S. already must dispose of. It is hoped that the nuclear environmental community will recognize this trade-off, and will help create the atmosphere of public understanding necessary if fuel take-back is to be accepted in the United States

  5. Intraretinal proliferation induced by retinal detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.K.; Erickson, P.A.; Lewis, G.P.; Anderson, D.H. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Cellular proliferation after retinal detachment was studied by {sup 3}H-thymidine light microscopic autoradiography in cats that had experimental detachments of 0.5-180 days duration. The animals underwent labeling 2 hr before death with an intraocular injection of 200 microCi of {sup 3}H-thymidine. The number of labeled nuclei were counted in 1-micron thick tissue sections in regions of detachment, in regions of the experimental eyes that remained attached, and in control eyes that had no detachments. In the normal eye, in one that had only the lens and vitreous removed, and in the eyes with 0.5- and 1-day detachments, the number of labeled nuclei ranged from 0/mm (0.5-day detachment) to 0.38/mm (lens and vitreous removed only). By 2 days postdetachment, the number of labeled nuclei increased to 2.09/mm. The highest levels of labeling occurred in two animals with detachments of 3 (7.86/mm) and 4 (7.09/mm) days. Thereafter, the numbers declined steadily until near-baseline counts were obtained at 14 days. The number of labeled nuclei was slightly elevated in the attached regions of two animals with 3-day detachments. Labeled cell types included: Mueller cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and endothelial cells of the retinal vasculature, and both resident (microglial cells) and invading macrophages. In an earlier study RPE cells were also shown to proliferate in response to detachment. Thus, these data show that proliferation is a rapid response to detachment, reaching a maximum within 4 days, and that virtually every nonneuronal cell type in the retina can participate in this response. The data suggest that events leading to such clinical manifestations as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and subretinal fibrosis may have their beginnings in this very early proliferative response.

  6. Intraretinal proliferation induced by retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.K.; Erickson, P.A.; Lewis, G.P.; Anderson, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Cellular proliferation after retinal detachment was studied by 3 H-thymidine light microscopic autoradiography in cats that had experimental detachments of 0.5-180 days duration. The animals underwent labeling 2 hr before death with an intraocular injection of 200 microCi of 3 H-thymidine. The number of labeled nuclei were counted in 1-micron thick tissue sections in regions of detachment, in regions of the experimental eyes that remained attached, and in control eyes that had no detachments. In the normal eye, in one that had only the lens and vitreous removed, and in the eyes with 0.5- and 1-day detachments, the number of labeled nuclei ranged from 0/mm (0.5-day detachment) to 0.38/mm (lens and vitreous removed only). By 2 days postdetachment, the number of labeled nuclei increased to 2.09/mm. The highest levels of labeling occurred in two animals with detachments of 3 (7.86/mm) and 4 (7.09/mm) days. Thereafter, the numbers declined steadily until near-baseline counts were obtained at 14 days. The number of labeled nuclei was slightly elevated in the attached regions of two animals with 3-day detachments. Labeled cell types included: Mueller cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and endothelial cells of the retinal vasculature, and both resident (microglial cells) and invading macrophages. In an earlier study RPE cells were also shown to proliferate in response to detachment. Thus, these data show that proliferation is a rapid response to detachment, reaching a maximum within 4 days, and that virtually every nonneuronal cell type in the retina can participate in this response. The data suggest that events leading to such clinical manifestations as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and subretinal fibrosis may have their beginnings in this very early proliferative response

  7. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the later years the risks of nuclear proliferation have again become a major topic of interest. This is primarily due to the acute problems caused by Iraq, North Korea, and the 3 new states of the former USSR, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Analysis shows that security problems and prestige are the two most important motives, when the risks of proliferation are considered. But motives are not enough. To produce nuclear weapons a number of technological requirements must also be fulfilled. The country must be able to produce almost pure fissile material, i.e. 235 U or 239 Pu. It must also be able to solve a number of metallurgical, explosive, ignition, physics and other problems. These are in particular non-trivial, if a implosion weapon is to be designed. A review is made of the nuclear facilities in a number of the countries which have been suggested as possible future nuclear weapons countries. In particular facilities which can produce almost pure fissile materials, 235 U and 239 Pu, are considered. The possibility of nuclear terrorists have often been discussed in the media. However, it seems very unlikely that even a major terrorist or mafia organization will be able to solve all the weapons design problems, even if they could steal the fissile material. It is finally discussed what can be done to reduce the risk of further nuclear proliferation. Political pressure can be brought to bear on countries outside the NPT to join it, but it can be counter-productive, and sometimes the countries that are able to exert such pressure, are not willing to do so for other political reasons. The problem of countries which are party to the NPT, but which are believed to acquire nuclear weapons capability in violation of the treaty, can be countered by unannounced inspections of non-declared facilities. However, such inspections can only be meaningfully performed if the necessary intelligence is available. (EG)

  8. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  9. Site index comparisons among hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Site index is one of the more easily measured indicators of the productive capacity of an area for a given species. In mixed stands, the site index of one species can be used to predict the site index of another. Site index also illustrates growth differences among species.

  10. Paraquat increases connective tissue growth factor expression and impairs lung fibroblast proliferation and viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Xie, Y-P; Pang, L; Zang, X-X; Wang, J; Shi, D; Wu, Y; Liu, X-L; Wang, G-H

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of paraquat-induced damage using cultured human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), in order to promote the development of improved therapies for paraquat poisoning. Paraquat's effects on proliferation were examined by flow cytometry, on viscoelasticity by the micropipette aspiration technique, and on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paraquat was found to significantly reduce the proliferation index of MRC-5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (p paraquat led to a significant and time-dependent increase in CTGF expression (p paraquat-induced lung fibrosis but may represent useful targets of improved molecular-based therapies for paraquat poisoning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Proliferation resistance assessment of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The first part of the present paper describes the basic assessment procedure that is adopted in the analysis of the three generic nuclear systems. Once-through, fast breeder, and thermal recycle systems are then treated in Sections II, III, and IV, respectively. In each of these sections, a reference system is examined, possible technical and institutional improvements are considered, and alternative system types are indicated. Section V then discusses the relative proliferation resistance of the three generic systems. Although this paper emphasizes the analysis and comparison of individual fuel cycle alternatives, Section V indicates briefly how these analyses then have to be considered in a broader context where systems coexist

  12. Non-proliferation and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: In my view, drastic nuclear disarmament by nuclear weapon States could be coupled with universal commitment to non-proliferation by non-nuclear weapon States by 1995 when the extension of the NPT Will be discussed. The incentives and disincentives for making and stockpiling nuclear weapons are first of all in the political and security fields, (Global and regional detente reduce the incentive, With the cold war gone, the US and Russia are now agreeing on far-reaching cuts in their nuclear arsenals and at some point the other declared nuclear weapon States Will follow.In the regional fields, we have seen how Argentina and Brazil are about to commit themselves to exclusively peaceful uses of the atom through the Latin American Tlatelolco Treaty. And we have seen how South Africa has joined the NPT. A new wave of States adhering to the NPT may be expected from countries in the former Soviet Union. Some have already come, others are on the way. Detente in the Middle East and on the Indian subcontinent would improve the outlook for non-proliferation in these areas. A second barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in export restrictions on sensitive nuclear material and equipment, Following the discoveries in Iraq, these restrictions are being strengthened in a large number of States. A third barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in the economic and political consequences that would follow for a State if IAEA safeguards inspection revealed activities aimed at the production of nuclear weapons. These must have a high degree of reliability. The case of Iraq showed that it was possible for a closed, highly militarized State to hide nuclear activities from the IAEA and the world We are now drawing the lessons from this case. It is not physically possible for inspectors to look into every building and basement in vast countries, They must have information about where to look, and the IAEA is significantly strengthening its information basis. The IAEA has also re

  13. Good news, bad news on proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    While Argentina and Brazil now seem less likely to acquire nuclear weapons, Indian and Pakistani intentions remain uncertain. The Israeli nuclear program and recent allegations of black-marketing are even more disturbing. The author notes the positive developments in Latin America and some hopeful signs in South Asia, despite uncertainties over their final outcome. He finds Israel's program the most disturbing because of the deployment of Jericho II missiles and indications that Israel possesses a fully militarized nuclear force which was developed by illegal means. These activities could politicize the Non-Proliferation Treaty review conference. 14 references

  14. Proliferation conditions for human satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Schrøder, H D

    2001-01-01

    Primary satellite cell cultures have become an important tool as a model system for skeletal muscles. A common problem in human satellite cell culturing is fibroblast overgrowth. We combined N-CAM (Leu19) immunocytochemical staining of satellite cells (Sc) with stereological methods to estimate...... the fraction of Sc in culture. Evaluation of different culture conditions allowed us to find proliferation conditions preferentially for Sc: a) Sc should be cultured on surfaces coated with ECM-gel. b) Primary cell culture should be inoculated in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum to increase cell...

  15. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  16. Proliferation risks from nuclear power infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    Certain elements of nuclear energy infrastructure are inherently dual-use, which makes the promotion of nuclear energy fraught with uncertainty. Are current restraints on the materials, equipment, and technology that can be used either to produce fuel for nuclear electricity generation or material for nuclear explosive devices adequate? Technology controls, supply side restrictions, and fuel market assurances have been used to dissuade countries from developing sensitive technologies but the lack of legal restrictions is a continued barrier to permanent reduction of nuclear proliferation risks.

  17. Cell Proliferation Tracking Using Graphene Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Daly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a novel label-free graphene sensor array is presented. Detection is based on modification of graphene FET devices and specifically monitoring the change in composition of the nutritive components in culturing medium. Micro-dispensing of Escherichia coli in medium shows feasibility of accurate positioning over each sensor while still allowing cell proliferation. Graphene FET device fabrication, sample dosing, and initial electrical characterisation have been completed and show a promising approach to reducing the sample size and lead time for diagnostic and drug development protocols through a label-free and reusable sensor array fabricated with standard and scalable microfabrication technologies.

  18. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-08-12

    This fifth edition contains some of the papers that were presented in July 1994 at the Lawrence Livermore National conference entitled ``NPT: Review and Extension.`` Topics covered include: strategic warning and new nuclear states, the future for nuclear weapons, possibly stopping North Korean nukes without a war, Article VI of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty from the Chinese perspective, Article VI issues, Article VI and other NPT issues form the perspective of Russia, NPT review and extension, and finally problems facing total nuclear disarmament.

  19. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1978-02-01

    This lecture addresses the question of ''accessibility'' of plutonium as it would arise in fully commercial LMFBR and LWR once-through operations. It is pointed out that the storage of spent LWR fuel results in the progressive accumulation of plutonium which becomes increasingly accessible with time (the ''plutonium mine'') whereas with the LMFBR, economic considerations demand the rapid recycle of plutonium. Furthermore, the fast breeder reactor is primarily a plutonium incinerator, the net production of plutonium being rather small and controllable so as not to exceed society's needs for new energy supplies. An eight-point world nuclear development programme is suggested, taking full note of non-proliferation considerations

  20. The role of cellular proliferation in an experimental model of massive periretinal proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastenberg, D.M.; Diddie, K.R.; Dorey, K.; Ryan, S.J.

    1982-05-01

    Transplantation of from 10,000 to 750,000 autologous and homologous dermal fibroblasts into the vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes resulted in identical clinical findings leading to massive periretinal proliferation. A dose-response relationship between the number of cells injected and the extent of retinal traction that developed was established. The second phase of the experiment evaluated the effects of formalin and cobalt irradiation on the fibroblasts' ability to cause traction retinal detachment. Cell proliferation or the attainment of a critical mass of living cells was necessary for the development of traction retinal detachment.

  1. A nuclear proliferation antigen in chronic lymphoproliferative disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassab, A.H.; Nafae, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether the proliferation rates of tumour cells, in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders may reflect disease activity and relate to prognosis, we studied the expression of Ki-67% (a nuclear proliferation marker) by alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique (APAAP), in peripheral blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells (separated on ficoll-hypaque) and in lymph-node biopsies, from patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia (Cll), chronic lymphatic leukemia/prolymphocytic leukemia (CLL/PLL), prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) and non-hodgkin's lymphoma with leukemic plase. The proliferation rate was determined for these patients at presentation and again two months after therapy (to detect any change with therapy). We found that the highest rate of proliferation in each group was parallel to the degree of malignancy i.e. PLL showed higher proliferation than CLL/PLL, and CLL/PLL showed higher proliferation than CLL. In the NHL group the highest proliferation rate was found in the high high-grade NHL, followed by intermediate grade NHL then the low grade NHL. Lymph node biopsies also showed the same relation between proliferation rates and degree of malignancy. Bone marrow cells did not show a particular pattern probably due to interference from the erythroid element and contamination by peripheral blood. Ki-67% was compared to other proliferation markers serum B2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase. It was found to be an independent marker of proliferation it is unaffected by hepatic, renal and gastrointestinal elements and thus its specificity for the tumour proliferation

  2. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-01-01

    Often the methodologies for assessing proliferation risk are focused around the inherent vulnerability of nuclear energy systems and associated safeguards. For example an accepted approach involves ways to measure the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to potential proliferation. This paper describes preliminary investigation into non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve proliferation assessment and advance the approach to assessing nuclear material diversion. Proliferation resistance assessment, safeguard assessments and related studies typically create technical information about the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to diversion of nuclear material. The purpose of this research project is to find ways to integrate social information with technical information by explicitly considering the role of culture, groups and/or individuals to factors that impact the possibility of proliferation. When final, this work is expected to describe and demonstrate the utility of social science modeling in proliferation and proliferation risk assessments.

  3. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R.; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer non-toxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable due to individual phytochemicals rather may be ascribed to but to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination-index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03-0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE’s antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management. PMID:23441614

  4. Biodiversity intactness index

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2005-03-03

    Full Text Available range from complete protection to extreme trans- formation, such as urbanization. All activities are expressed on the basis of the area affected. The index is aggregated by weighting by the area subject to each activity and the number of species... pastures and fallow, or recently abandoned cultivated areas. Orchards and vineyards. SADC Landcover Data set36, filled with GLC2000 (ref. 37) for Namibia and Botswana. Plantation Natural land cover permanently replaced by dense plantations of trees...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang, Abstract PDF. N Yaakub, M.N.A. Raoff, M.N. Haris, A.A.A. Halim, M.K.A. Kamarudin. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang, Abstract ...

  6. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza; Rabbani, Mohsen; Janmaleki, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs

  7. Effects of hypergravity on adipose-derived stem cell morphology, mechanical property and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakolinejad, Alireza [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.rabbani@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janmaleki, Mohsen [Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Alteration in specific inertial conditions can lead to changes in morphology, proliferation, mechanical properties and cytoskeleton of cells. In this report, the effects of hypergravity on morphology of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) are indicated. ADSCs were repeatedly exposed to discontinuous hypergravity conditions of 10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g by utilizing centrifuge (three times of 20 min exposure, with an interval of 40 min at 1 g). Cell morphology in terms of length, width and cell elongation index and cytoskeleton of actin filaments and microtubules were analyzed by image processing. Consistent changes observed in cell elongation index as morphological change. Moreover, cell proliferation was assessed and mechanical properties of cells in case of elastic modulus of cells were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Increase in proliferation and decrease in elastic modulus of cells are further results of this study. Staining ADSC was done to show changes in cytoskeleton of the cells associated to hypergravity condition specifically in microfilament and microtubule components. After exposing to hypergravity, significant changes were observed in microfilaments and microtubule density as components of cytoskeleton. It was concluded that there could be a relationship between changes in morphology and MFs as the main component of the cells. - Highlights: • Hypergravity (10 g, 20 g, 40 g and 60 g) affects on adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). • ADSCs after exposure to the hypergravity are more slender. • The height of ADSCs increases in all test groups comparing their control group. • Hypergravity decreases ADSCs modulus of elasticity and cell actin fiber content. • Hypergravity enhances proliferation rate of ADSCs.

  8. Effects of prefeeding a prebiotic on diarrhea and colonic cell proliferation in piglets fed lactulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, C Lawrence; Chang, J C; Cooper, James R; Frankel, Wendy L

    2004-01-01

    Severe lactulose malabsorption causes osmotic diarrhea and decreased cecal cell proliferation. We tested the hypothesis that prefeeding with inulin, a prebiotic, would attenuate these effects. Piglets aged 10 days were randomized to 3 feeding groups (n = 6 each group): Control (CON), fed sow-milk replacement formula (SMR; lactose, 60 g/L) for 14 days; a lactulose-challenged group (LAC) that was fed SMR for 7 days and then a formula containing lactose (30 g/L) and lactulose (60 g/L) for 7 days; and a group prefed SMR containing inulin (3 g/L) for 7 days and then fed the lactulose-supplemented formula (INULIN). Groups CON and INULIN were pair-fed to LAC. Then, cecal tissue was collected for histology, determination of crypt cell proliferation index, apoptosis, and Western blot determination of expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein. The fraction of days when diarrhea was present (mean +/- SD) was greater for LAC (0.87 +/- 0.14; p = .004) than CON (0.28 +/- 0.22; INULIN: 0.52 +/- 0.44; p = .058 vs LAC). Cell proliferation index for the total crypt was less for LAC (0.12 +/- 0.04; p = .016) compared with CON (0.20 +/- 0.04; INULIN: 0.15 +/- 0.04; p = .06 vs LAC). BAX protein expression and apoptosis were similar in the 3 groups. We observed trends consistent with the hypothesis that prefeeding inulin attenuates diarrhea and the reduction in cell proliferation caused by lactulose.

  9. Effects of Urtica dioica on oxidative stress, proliferation and apoptosis after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Toydemir, Toygar; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Onur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, PH and PH + UD; each group contains eight animals. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg/day) once a day orally for 7 days starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At day 7 after resection, liver samples were collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at day 7 after hepatectomy. As a result, UD significantly increased MI and PI, significantly decreased AI and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion in PH rats. UD treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA level and increased the reduced SOD activity and GSH level in the tissues. These results suggest that UD pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Missile non-proliferation: an alternative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delory, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the author first proposes an overview of the notion of missile prohibition. He notices that the association between weapons of mass destruction and missiles is a prelude to the legitimacy of missile control, notably within the framework of the Missile Technology Control Regime or MTCR. He also comments the notion of total ban. In a second part, the author analyses and discusses the limitations of the control of technology diffusion. He discusses the role of the MTCR, comments the evolution of this regime with the taking of China and Russia into consideration, the impacts of national implementations of export regimes on the MTCR, and economic aspects of control implementation. In the next part, the author addresses other kinds of limitations, i.e. those related with capacity evolutions of proliferating States. The last part addresses the evolution towards a new definition of approach to missile non-proliferation, notably in terms of perception of missile roles and of technology transfer controls

  11. Nuclear proliferation: Some context and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    The article addressed the importance of nonproliferation and supporting and reinforcing nonproliferation commitments. The most important benefit of the NPT has been in its contribution to the security of individual states party, as well as to regional and international security, through the obligations which help to prevent any further proliferation of nuclear weapons. The NPT therefore powerfully augments the national security of every state party, and not merely just the NPT nuclear weapons states. Indeed, it is the countries of the developing world, as well as many other non-nuclear weapon states, that could suffer the most in security terms if a non-nuclear weapons state in the developing world suddenly acquired T he Bomb a nd became emboldened to engage in threats and adventurism against its neighbors. The nonproliferation regime hinges upon the steps that all countries take on their own and with like-minded allies to further nonproliferation goals - and whether the international community can successfully shape the calculations of present-day and future would-be proliferation in useful ways. The nonproliferation regime, therefore, includes not just the NPT and other legally-binding obligations but complex dynamics of persuasion and deterrence that employ many different tools. The NPT helps establish the core nonproliferation obligations toward which many of the tools in the international community's tool kit are directed.

  12. Nuclear proliferation. II. Monopoly or cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Increasing competition between a growing number of nations exporting nuclear technology and recent exporting of full fuel-cycle facilities raise fears of nuclear proliferation and widespread nuclear weapons. As a result of the 1973 oil crisis, industrial nations seeking a share in the international nuclear market in order to protect their economic interests must also cooperate to protect these same interests from nuclear risks. Disagreement over the form of cooperation centers on the competing exporters' tactics of undercutting safeguards and political restrictions. Monopoly was never an option for even the United States. Government intervention in the international nuclear market in the form of subsidies and financial incentives is a more practical approach than a free market. A cartel arrangement is appropriate to nuclear energy in the sense of reducing economic uncertainties, but political objections would be strong and there would be some risk of independent nuclear development. As a strategy to forestall proliferation, however, the cartel can control exports of enrichment and reprocessing facilities and make it more expensive for nations to independently develop nuclear weapons. An enlargement of safeguards arrangements by nuclear suppliers will require nations to trade some of their economic interests in order to achieve international political objectives

  13. Polyamines and post-irradiation cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, O.; Wronowski, T.; Lerozak, K.; Kopec, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of three sets of experiments will be presented. Firstly polyamines and DNA content was determined in bone marrow, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver and kidney of rabbits at the 1, 5, 10 and 20th day after exposure to 600 R of X-irradiation. Polyamine concentration in bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes was found to be markedly increased during the period of postirradiation recovery. Secondly, effect of 10 -5 M methyl glyoxalbis, guanylhydrazone (MGBG), an inhibitor of spermidine and spermine synthesis, on multiplication of X-irradiated cultures of murine lymphoblaste L5178Y-S was assessed. MGBG-induced inhibition of cell proliferation could be prevented by concurrent administration of 10 -4 M spermidine. Thirdly the influence of putrescine on bone marrow cellularity and 3 H-thymidine incorporation into bone marrow cells was investigated in X-irradiated mice. The results obtained indicate close relation of polyamines to cell proliferation processes after irradiation. (orig./AJ) [de

  14. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Kalamida

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index, apoptosis (Caspase 9 and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy.Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines.The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  15. Role of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium in Auricular Chondrocyte Proliferation and Engineered Cartilage Formation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the effects of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS on proliferation of auricular chondrocytes and formation of engineered cartilage in vitro. Pig auricular monolayer chondrocytes and chondrocyte pellets were cultured in media containing 1% ITS at different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS, 10%, 6%, 2%, 0%, or 10% FBS alone as a control for four weeks. Parameters including cell proliferation in monolayer, wet weight, collagen type I/II/X (Col I, II, X and glycosaminoglycan (GAG expression, GAG content of pellets and gene expression associated with cartilage formation/dedifferentiation (lost cartilage phenotype/hypertrophy within the chondrocyte pellets were assessed. The results showed that chondrocytes proliferation rates increased when FBS concentrations increased (2%, 6%, 10% FBS in ITS supplemented groups. In addition, 1% ITS plus 10% FBS significantly promoted cell proliferation than 10% FBS alone. No chondrocytes grew in ITS alone medium. 1% ITS plus 10% FBS enhanced cartilage formation in terms of size, wet weight, cartilage specific matrices, and homogeneity, compared to 10% FBS alone group. Furthermore, ITS prevented engineered cartilage from dedifferentiation (i.e., higher index of Col II/Col I mRNA expression and expression of aggrecan and hypertrophy (i.e., lower mRNA expression of Col X and MMP13. In conclusion, our results indicated that ITS efficiently enhanced auricular chondrocytes proliferation, retained chondrogenic phenotypes, and promoted engineered cartilage formation when combined with FBS, which is potentially used as key supplementation in auricular chondrocytes and engineered cartilage culture.

  16. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A

    2001-08-01

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material

  17. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A.

    2001-08-01

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material-protection metrics; b

  18. Criteria for proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Pickett, Susan; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the concept of nuclear proliferation resistance, this paper examines the technical definitions of proliferation resistance. Although nuclear proliferation resistance is often included as one of the major goals of advanced reactor research and development, the criteria for nuclear proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles is not defined clearly. The implied meaning of proliferation resistance was compared in proposals regarding the nuclear fuel cycle. Discrepancies amongst the proposals regarding the technical definition of proliferation resistance is found. While all these proposals indicate proliferation resistance, few clearly spell out exactly what criteria they are measuring themselves against. However we found there are also common feature in many proposals. They are; (1) Reduction of Pu, (2) Less separated Weapon Usable Materials, (3) Fewer steps, (4) Barrier for Weapon Usable Materials. Recognizing that there are numerous political and infrastructure measures that may also be taken to guard against proliferation risks, we have focused here on the definition of proliferation resistance in terms of technical characteristics. Another important conclusion is that in many proposals proliferation resistance is only one of the important criteria such as energy security, economical efficiency, and safety. (author)

  19. Can light water reactors be proliferation resistant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushady, Yousry

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade several questions were raised concerning the proliferation issues of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in comparison with other types of power reactors, particularly Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs). These questions were strongly highlighted when the Agreed Framework between the United States and the DPRK was signed in October 1994 and following the formation of KEDO organization to provide two LWRs to DPRK in replacement of all its GCRs in its nuclear program. One might summarize the main questions into three groups, mainly: 1. Can LWRs produce weapon-grade Plutonium (Pu)? 2. Why is the LWR type considered as a better option with regard to non-proliferation compared to other power reactors - particularly GCR and HWR types? 3. How could LWRs be more resistant to proliferation? This paper summarizes the effort to answer these questions. Included tables present numerical parameters for Pu production capability of the three main reactor types (LWRs, GCRs and HWRs) of a 400 MWe power reactor unit, during normal operation, and during abnormal operation to produce weapon grade Pu. Can LWRs produce weapon-grade Pu? It is seen from the available data that weapon-grade Pu could be produced in LWR fuel, as in the fuel of most other power reactor types, by limiting fuel irradiation to two or three months only. However, such production, though possible, is exceptional. In a recent study 5% of LWRs under IAEA safeguards have spent fuel inventory containing limited amount of high-grade Pu. The equilibrium burnup of discharged fuel is in the order of 33,000 MWD/T. However and due to lower enrichment of initial inventory almost half of that burnup is produced. In normal situations the discharged initial inventory has a Pu grade which is less than weapon grade and is unlikely to be used for weapon production. Why LWR the type is considered as a better option for non-proliferation Referring to tables, one can conclude that LWRs make less Pu

  20. Adipose-derived stem cells were impaired in restricting CD4+T cell proliferation and polarization in type 2 diabetic ApoE-/- mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Hao; Li, Ya; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yao-Yuan; Wang, Di; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zhou, Hui-Min; Song, Ming; Li, Yi-Hui; Tang, Meng-Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common and serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is accelerated via chronic systemic inflammation rather than hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue is the major source of systemic inflammation in abnormal metabolic state. Pro-inflammatory CD4 + T cells play pivotal role in promoting adipose inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for fat regeneration have potent ability of immunosuppression and restricting CD4 + T cells as well. Whether T2DM ADSCs are impaired in antagonizing CD4 + T cell proliferation and polarization remains unclear. We constructed type 2 diabetic ApoE -/- mouse models and tested infiltration and subgroups of CD4 + T cell in stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) in vivo. Normal/T2DM ADSCs and normal splenocytes with or without CD4 sorting were separated and co-cultured at different scales ex vivo. Immune phenotypes of pro- and anti-inflammation of ADSCs were also investigated. Flow cytometry (FCM) and ELISA were applied in the experiments above. CD4 + T cells performed a more pro-inflammatory phenotype in adipose tissue in T2DM ApoE -/- mice in vivo. Restriction to CD4 + T cell proliferation and polarization was manifested obviously weakened after co-cultured with T2DM ADSCs ex vivo. No obvious distinctions were found in morphology and growth type of both ADSCs. However, T2DM ADSCs acquired a pro-inflammatory immune phenotype, with secreting less PGE2 and expressing higher MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80). Normal ADSCs could also obtain the phenotypic change after cultured with T2DM SVF supernatant. CD4 + T cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory polarization exist in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic ApoE -/- mice. T2DM ADSCs had impaired function in restricting CD4 + T lymphocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory polarization due to immune phenotypic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Period 2 regulates neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Borgs, Laurence; Beukelaers, Pierre; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Nguyen, Laurent; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre; Albrecht, Urs; Belachew, Shibeshih; Malgrange, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Newborn granule neurons are generated from proliferating neural stem/progenitor cells and integrated into mature synaptic networks in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Since light/dark variations of the mitotic index and DNA synthesis occur in many tissues, we wanted to unravel the role of the clock-controlled Period2 gene (mPer2) in timing cell cycle kinetics and neurogenesis in the adult DG. Results In contrast to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, we observed a non-...

  2. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  3. Impact coverage of the success-index

    OpenAIRE

    EGGHE, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We show mathematically that the success-index can be any of the following impact indices, dependent on the value of the threshold used in the definition of the success-index: Hirsch-index (h-index), g-index, generalized Wu- and Kosmulski-indices, the average. success-index; Hirsch-index; h-Index; g-Index; Wu-index; Kosmulski-index

  4. Construction of Index System Based on Advanced Persistent Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of advanced persistent threat (APT, APT attack effect evaluation is playing an increasingly important role in cyberspace. As one of the hot issues of network security, the evaluation to its attack effect can quantify the harm caused by APT. Then according to the evaluation results, we can derive specific measures to the network attack. At present, a lot of work has done in the network attack effect evaluation index system. However, a significant barrier to the development of APT attack effect evaluation is that the existing index system is either from the point of view of the network security situation, or for a single attack weapons to customize. In this paper, an evaluation index system is proposed through analysing the features of APT. Through this index system, we can not only quantify APT attack effect, but also visually observe the APT ability from various angles. Then, we use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP to model the evaluation process and calculate the weight of each indicator. Finally, the Ukrainian Power Outages is taken as an example to validate the proposed index system. The experimental results verify the effectiveness of the index system.

  5. Cell proliferation inhibition in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, P. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Extended durations of spaceflight have been shown to be deleterious on an organismic level; however, mechanisms underlying cellular sensitivity to the gravitational environment remain to be elucidated. The majority of the gravitational studies to date indicates that cell regulatory pathways may be influenced by their gravitational environment. Still, few cell biology experiments have been performed in space flight and even fewer experiments have been repeated on subsequent flights. With flight opportunities on STS-50, 54, and 57, Sf9 cells were flown in the BioServe Fluids Processing Apparatus and cell proliferation was measured with and without exposure to a cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS) inhibitor. Results from these flights indicate that the Sf9 cells grew comparable to ground controls, that the CeReS inhibitor bound to its specific receptor, and that its signal transduction cascade was not gravity sensitive.

  6. Laser isotope separation and proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Werner

    2015-02-15

    There is an ongoing discussion on the proliferation danger of laser enrichment of uranium by the Silex process. Here this risk is compared to that of other processes, in particular centrifuges. The two methods need a similar size of the plant for a comparable production rate (in separative work units per year) and the time and costs for their construction do not differ much. This conclusion from published material does not depend on technical details of Silex. But enough details are known to allow for additional conclusions: Whereas the selectivity (enrichment factor) in the Silex process seems higher, the energy consumption is probably larger. Due to the laser's repetition rate being insufficient for the molecular beam, the method has probably a low depletion factor; this is a serious disadvantage for cascading for high enrichment such as for bomb uranium, although it may be acceptable for low enrichment without cascading for reactor purposes.

  7. Internationalization: an alternative to nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, E.

    1980-01-01

    Leading personalities in the field of nuclear energy worldwide assess possible improvements to the present nonproliferation regime and explore the possibilities for the internationalization of sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Their studies address past and current nonproliferation policies, the current controversy between the United States and its European allies on the development of fast breeder reactors and plutonium recycling, implications of the recent US Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 upon US/Euratom relations, industrial government relationships, safety concerns, and the special needs of developing countries. Their conclusions stress the recognition of complex factors such as military security, technical competition, the spread of nuclear technology, and politics that will limit any mechanism to govern nonproliferation. They urge greater effort in educating the public to the political and economic complexities of nuclear power and recommend strengthening international agreements and other arrangements, including controls and safeguards, and the general rules for the international trade of nuclear fuel. 11 figures, 7 tables

  8. Profitable solutions to climate, oil, and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B

    2010-05-01

    Protecting the climate is not costly but profitable (even if avoided climate change is worth zero), mainly because saving fuel costs less than buying fuel. The two biggest opportunities, both sufficiently fast, are oil and electricity. The US, for example, can eliminate its oil use by the 2040s at an average cost of $15 per barrel ($2000), half by redoubled efficiency and half by alternative supplies, and can save three-fourths of its electricity more cheaply than operating a thermal power station. Integrative design permits this by making big energy savings cheaper than small ones, turning traditionally assumed diminishing returns into empirically observed expanding returns. Such efficiency choices accelerate climate-safe, inexhaustible, and resilient energy supply-notably the "micropower" now delivering about a sixth of the world's electricity and 90% of its new electricity. These cheap, fast, market-financeable, globally applicable options offer the most effective, yet most underestimated and overlooked, solutions for climate, proliferation, and poverty.

  9. Intelligent hand-portable proliferation sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckman, S.L.; Bostrom, G.A.; Waterfield, L.G.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Ahuja, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from DOE's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, is currently developing an intelligent hand-portable sensor system. This system is designed specifically to support the intelligence community with the task of in-field sensing of nuclear proliferation and related activities. Based upon pulsed laser photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology, this novel sensing system is capable of quickly providing a molecular or atomic analysis of specimens. The system is capable of analyzing virtually any gas phase molecule, or molecule that can be induced into the gas phase by (for example) sample heating. This system has the unique advantages of providing unprecedented portability, excellent sensitivity, tremendous fieldability, and a high performance/cost ratio. The system will be capable of operating in a highly automated manner for on-site inspections, and easily modified for other applications such as perimeter monitoring aboard a plane or drone. The paper describes the sensing system

  10. Equine Hoof Canker: Cell Proliferation and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprich, V; Licka, T; Zipfl, N; Tichy, A; Gabriel, C

    2017-07-01

    Hoof canker is described as progressive pododermatitis of the equine hoof with absent epidermal cornification and extensive proliferation of the dermal papillary body; however, in-depth research on the type of proliferative activity has not yet been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine cell-specific proliferation patterns together with morphological analysis of hoof canker tissue. Tissues removed during surgery from 19 horses presented for treatment of canker were compared with similar postmortem tissues of healthy hooves of 10 horses. Morphological alterations visible in light microscopy were assessed semiquantitatively and graded for severity. Proliferative activity was evaluated by means of anti-PCNA (proliferative cell nuclear antigen) and anti-Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Histologically, canker tissue showed 5 major morphological alterations-the presence of lacunae, vacuoles, giant cells, hemorrhage, and inflammation-not seen in control tissue. Also, there was a notable koilocytotic appearance of keratinocytes in canker tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of PCNA protein expression in keratinocytes and fibroblasts of canker tissue compared with control tissue. In control tissue, keratinocytes showed higher levels of Ki67 compared with canker tissue, while the dermal fibroblasts of both groups showed similar levels of Ki67, indicating similar proliferative activity of less than 3% of total dermal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to previous reports, there is no evidence for increased proliferative activity of the dermal papillary body associated with hoof canker. Increased levels of PCNA protein expression and morphological alterations indicate that dysregulation of keratinocyte differentiation constitutes a key event in equine hoof canker development.

  11. Modeling hormonal control of cambium proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Vladyslav; Panchenko, Alexander; Smertenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium. Importance of cambium in xylem cells production makes it an ideal target for the tree breeding programs; however our knowledge about control of cambium proliferation remains limited. The morphology and regulation of cambium are different from those of stem cell niches that control axial growth. For this reason, translating the knowledge about axial growth to radial growth has limited use. Furthermore, genetic approaches cannot be easily applied because overlaying tissues conceal cambium from direct observation and complicate identification of mutants. To overcome the paucity of experimental tools in cambium biology, we constructed a Boolean network CARENET (CAmbium REgulation gene NETwork) for modelling cambium activity, which includes the key transcription factors WOX4 and HD-ZIP III as well as their potential regulators. Our simulations predict that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, and brassinosteroids act cooperatively in promoting transcription of WOX4 and HD-ZIP III; (2) auxin and cytokinin pathways negatively regulate each other; (3) hormonal pathways act redundantly in sustaining cambium activity; (4) individual cambium cells can have diverse molecular identities. CARENET can be extended to include components of other signalling pathways and be integrated with models of xylem and phloem differentiation. Such extended models would facilitate breeding trees with higher wood yield.

  12. Modeling hormonal control of cambium proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav Oles

    Full Text Available Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium. Importance of cambium in xylem cells production makes it an ideal target for the tree breeding programs; however our knowledge about control of cambium proliferation remains limited. The morphology and regulation of cambium are different from those of stem cell niches that control axial growth. For this reason, translating the knowledge about axial growth to radial growth has limited use. Furthermore, genetic approaches cannot be easily applied because overlaying tissues conceal cambium from direct observation and complicate identification of mutants. To overcome the paucity of experimental tools in cambium biology, we constructed a Boolean network CARENET (CAmbium REgulation gene NETwork for modelling cambium activity, which includes the key transcription factors WOX4 and HD-ZIP III as well as their potential regulators. Our simulations predict that: (1 auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, and brassinosteroids act cooperatively in promoting transcription of WOX4 and HD-ZIP III; (2 auxin and cytokinin pathways negatively regulate each other; (3 hormonal pathways act redundantly in sustaining cambium activity; (4 individual cambium cells can have diverse molecular identities. CARENET can be extended to include components of other signalling pathways and be integrated with models of xylem and phloem differentiation. Such extended models would facilitate breeding trees with higher wood yield.

  13. Trends in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear and missile proliferation are neither unique nor necessarily the most imposing proliferation challenges, but they are probably the most visible and mature aspects of the proliferation problem. In nuclear proliferation there the news are very ambivalent. Today we face somewhat between 7 and 9 counties with nuclear weapons: 5 acknowledged nuclear powers, Israel and Ukraine as well as the uncertain status of Pakistan and North Korea. The growing number of countries that have given up their nuclear programs is impressive, most spectacularly Argentina, Brazil and South Africa. Recently Kazakhstan has signed the Non-proliferation Treaty, and Belarus seems certain to follow. Thus the problem list is a short one now. The remaining issues are to be treated at the 1995 Non-proliferation Treaty Extension Conference

  14. 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) utilizes a refined methodology based on the 2000 Pilot ESI effort, to construct an index covering 122 countries...

  15. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and behaviors ...

  16. Introduction of Counter-Proliferation Capabilities in Development States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulfield, P.; Edwards, T.; Witkin, A.; Elgebaly, A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent history we have seen a number of States develop their indigenous industrial skills to a point suitable for the manufacture of nuclear components. Private individuals unbeknown to the State have then utilized this capability to supply directly into proliferation networks - potentially reducing international confidence in such a State. To combat this possibility, a developing State must recognize the challenges that are raised by its emerging skills and take action to introduce measures that not only help the State identify proliferation activities but also ensure the national security of the State. One of those measures might be to develop a capability within the State to recognize and counter the activities of would-be-proliferators. In many States this capability is managed and applied through a dedicated counter-proliferation unit that has strong links with border controls and customs organizations. A counter-proliferation unit, once established could show dramatic returns for a modest investment. The activities of such a Unit could save the State political embarrassment by hindering and narrowing the chances of unintentional proliferation activities. The Unit should not be introduced as part of a Safeguards agreement or as part of a non proliferation treaty. It should rather be established as an act by the State to protect and control its emerging technologies from being involved, willingly or unwittingly, in proliferation activities. This is a sovereign act of the State - solely for its benefit and should not be imposed by any external power. Today's would-be-proliferators around the world cooperate and act together; similarly emerging counter-proliferation units should act and work together in order to be a step ahead of the proliferators. Improved world-wide cooperation should increase the detection rate of proliferation incidents which will in turn curtail the spread of nuclear weapons - for the benefit of all. (author)

  17. Globalization and WMD Proliferation Networks: The Policy Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    radicalism.[4] Globalization is a central feature in this nexus. It expands access to the technologies of mass destruction and is coupled with the active... Globalization and WMD Proliferation Networks: The Policy Landscape Strategic Insights, Volume V, Issue 6 (July 2006) by John P. Caves , Jr...Defense Les Aspin announced in December 1993.[1][2] Globalization and Proliferation Networks The term “proliferation networks” has come into

  18. A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Debra A.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    Many cells appear to secrete factors called chalones that limit their proliferation, but in most cases the factors have not been identified. We found that growing Dictyostelium cells secrete a 60 kDa protein called AprA for autocrine proliferation repressor. AprA has similarity to putative bacterial proteins of unknown function. Compared with wild-type cells, aprA-null cells proliferate faster, while AprA overexpressing cells proliferate slower. Growing wild-type cells secrete a factor that i...

  19. Global Proliferation-Dynamics, Acquisition Strategies, and Responses. Volume 2. Nuclear Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    4There is some dispute about the ability of the chemical exchange ( CHEMEX ) process to enrich to weapons grade. 19 Table 2-3. Dedicated uranium...interest in EMIS in other third world countries. Chemex (chemical exchange) and laser isotope enrichment may be two other potential proliferation sleepers... Chemex has been largely 20 unproven in enriching uranium to a weapons-grade level, although it is considered to be more efficient than gaseous

  20. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  1. Prognostic value of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in laryngeal carcinoma : Results of the Accelerated Radiotherapy with Carbogen Breathing and Nicotinamide phase III randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, Saskia E.; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Rijken, Paul F.; Terhaard, Chris H.; Doornaert, Patricia A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van den Ende, Piet; van der Kogel, Albert J.; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.

    BackgroundThe prognostic and predictive value of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was investigated in a randomized trial comparing accelerated radiotherapy with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide (ARCON) to accelerated radiotherapy in laryngeal carcinoma. MethodsLabeling index of Ki-67 (Li Ki-67) in

  2. Prognostic value of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in laryngeal carcinoma : Results of the Accelerated Radiotherapy with Carbogen Breathing and Nicotinamide phase III randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, Saskia E.; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Rijken, Paul F.; Terhaard, Chris H.; Doornaert, Patricia A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Van Den Ende, Piet; Van Der Kogel, Albert J.; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prognostic and predictive value of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was investigated in a randomized trial comparing accelerated radiotherapy with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide (ARCON) to accelerated radiotherapy in laryngeal carcinoma. Methods Labeling index of Ki-67 (Li Ki-67)

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in oral leukoplakia: Association with clinicopathological features and cellular proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela C.; Gleber-Netto, Frederico O.; Sousa, Sílvia F.; Bernardes, Vanessa F.; Guimarães-Abreu, Mauro H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate the immunoexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a sample of oral leukoplakias (OL) and to determine the receptor’s association with dysplasia, tobacco consumption, lesion site, and proliferation rate. Although EGFR should be overexpressed in some oral leukoplakias, the factors that may interfere with this expression and the influence of this receptor on epithelial proliferation have yet to be investigated. Study Design: Samples of oral leukoplakias (48) and of normal oral epithelium (10) were immunohistologically examined for expression of EGFR. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, and p27 were also performed in leukoplakias. EGFR expression was associated with clinical and pathological features. Results: EGFR was positive in 62.5% of the leukoplakias and 50% of normal oral epithelium. The number of EGFR positive OL located in high-risk sites was significantly higher than EGFR positive OL located in low-risk sites. Most of the p27 negative leukoplakias were EGFR positive, and the p27 index in the parabasal layer was diminished in the presence of dysplasia. Positivity for EGFR was not associated with dysplasia, tobacco exposure, or Ki-67. Conclusion: EGFR is expressed in leukoplakia regardless of dysplasia, but EGFR positivity should be more frequent in lesions sited in areas of high cancer risk. The association between EGFR and p27 may represent an important mechanism in the control of cellular proliferation and malignant progression of oral epithelium and therefore warrants further investigation. Key words:Oral leukoplakia, EGFR, p27, Ki-67, epithelial dysplasia. PMID:22322523

  4. In Vitro Endothelial Cell Proliferation Assay Reveals Distinct Levels of Proangiogenic Cytokines Characterizing Sera of Healthy Subjects and of Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Voltan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although myocardial angiogenesis is thought to play an important role in heart failure (HF, the involvement of circulating proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines in the pathogenesis and/or prognosis of HF has not been deeply investigated. By using a highly standardized proliferation assay with human endothelial cells, we first demonstrated that sera from older (mean age 52±7.6 years; n=46 healthy donors promoted endothelial cell proliferation to a significantly higher extent compared to sera obtained from younger healthy donors (mean age 29±8.6 years; n=20. The promotion of endothelial cell proliferation was accompanied by high serum levels of several proangiogenic cytokines. When we assessed endothelial cell proliferation in response to HF patients’ sera, we observed that a subset of sera (n=11 promoted cell proliferation to a significantly lesser extent compared to the majority of sera (n=18. Also, in this case, the difference between the patient groups in the ability to induce endothelial cell proliferation correlated to significant (P<0.05 differences in serum proangiogenic cytokine levels. Unexpectedly, HF patients associated to the highest endothelial proliferation index showed the worst prognosis as evaluated in terms of subsequent cardiovascular events in the follow-up, suggesting that high levels of circulating proangiogenic cytokines might be related to a worse prognosis.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Haniu, Hisao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

  6. Review of Cohesion in Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi Rizi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Indexers often disagree on judging terms that best reflect the content of a document. Difference of opinion highlights one of the characteristics of indexing which is indexing cohesion. Also known as consistency, little study of the subject matter has been undertaken in the past few years. However, its importance has been recently acknowledged in effective information retrieval and expansion of access points to the document content. The present paper investigates cohesion in indexing. In addition of presenting the definitions offered by experts, it takes note of the factors influencing indexing cohesion. Methods for measuring cohesion are offered.

  7. Extracts of proliferating and non-proliferating human cells display different base excision pathways and repair fidelity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Pena Diaz, Javier; Andersen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) of damaged or inappropriate bases in DNA has been reported to take place by single nucleotide insertion or through incorporation of several nucleotides, termed short-patch and long-patch repair, respectively. We found that extracts from proliferating and non-proliferati......Base excision repair (BER) of damaged or inappropriate bases in DNA has been reported to take place by single nucleotide insertion or through incorporation of several nucleotides, termed short-patch and long-patch repair, respectively. We found that extracts from proliferating and non......-proliferating cells both had capacity for single- and two-nucleotide insertion BER activity. However, patch size longer than two nucleotides was only detected in extracts from proliferating cells. Relative to extracts from proliferating cells, extracts from non-proliferating cells had approximately two-fold higher...... concentration of POLbeta, which contributed to most of two-nucleotide insertion BER. In contrast, two-nucleotide insertion in extracts from proliferating cells was not dependent on POLbeta. BER fidelity was two- to three-fold lower in extracts from the non-proliferating compared with extracts of proliferating...

  8. Wnt activation affects proliferation, invasiveness and radiosensitivity in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Roberta; Ronchi, Alice; Buttarelli, Francesca Romana; Cortesi, Filippo; Marchese, Valeria; Della Bella, Elena; Renna, Cristiano; Baldi, Caterina; Giangaspero, Felice; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) associated with the Wnt activation represent a subgroup with a favorable prognosis, but it remains unclear whether Wnt activation confers a less aggressive phenotype and/or enhances radiosensitivity. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the biological behavior of an MB cell line, UW228-1, stably transfected with human β-catenin cDNA encoding a nondegradable form of β-catenin (UW-B) in standard culture conditions and after radiation treatment. We evaluated the expression, transcriptional activity, and localization of β-catenin in the stably transfected cells using immunofluorescence and WB. We performed morphological analysis using light and electron microscopy. We then analyzed changes in the invasiveness, growth, and mortality in standard culture conditions and after radiation. We demonstrated that (A) Wnt activation inhibited 97 % of the invasion capability of the cells, (B) the growth of the UW-B cells was statistically significantly lower than that of all the other control cells (p < 0.01), (C) the mortality of irradiated UW-B cells was statistically significantly higher than that of the controls and their nonirradiated counterparts (p < 0.05), and (D) morphological features of neuronal differentiation were observed in the Wnt-activated cells. In tissue samples, the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was lower in β-catenin-positive samples compared to non-β-catenin positive ones. The Ki-67 LI median (LI = 40) of the nuclear β-catenin-positive tumor samples was lower than that of non-nuclear β-catenin-positive samples (LI = 50), but the difference was not statistically significant. Overall, our data suggest that activation of the Wnt pathway reduces the proliferation and invasion of MBs and increases the tumor's radiosensitivity.

  9. The possibility of life proliferation from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    Enceladus is a medium sized icy satellite (MIS) of Saturn. MIS are built of mixtures of rocks and ices. According to [1]: "For life to have emerged […] on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential. The serpentinization process is emerging as an increasingly likely source of that energy" (see also [2]). We consider here conditions for origin of life in the early Enceladus and later proliferation of the life. Mass of serpentinite: The serpentinization on the Earth is often considered with hydrothermal activity in neovolcanic zones along mid-oceanic spreading centers. However, only in small part the hydrothermal activity really occurs. A simple calculations (e.g. [3]) indicate that mass fraction of silicates in Enceladus is ~0.646, hence the total mass of its silicate is ~6.97 10^1^9 kg. [4] considered the process of differentiation and core forming in Enceladus. He found that the result of differentiation is a relatively cold core of loosely packed grains with water between them. The entire core of Enceladus was probably permeable. This could lead to formation of extensive hydrothermal convective systems. It indicates that total mass of serpententinized silicate in Enceladus could be larger than on the Earth. The evolution of temperature in the Enceladus interior for the first a few hundreds Myr is given in [4]. He found that the temperature allows for existing the life even in the center of the satellite. It is possible that for hundreds of Myr the conditions in Enceladus were more favorable for origin of life than on the Earth. Proliferation of life: The low gravity of the Enceladus and its volcanic activity make transport possible. Note that the low temperature of plumes from active region of Enceladus does not kill the organisms. The primitive bacteria could leave the Enceladus with volcanic jets in the same way as particles of the E ring. Other mechanisms could transport particles to terrestrial planets. Therefore it

  10. Solar index generation and delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  11. Early changes in apoptosis and proliferation following primary chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C D; Parton, M; Smith, I E; Ellis, P A; Salter, J; Ashley, S; Gui, G; Sacks, N; Ebbs, S R; Allum, W; Nasiri, N; Dowsett, M

    2003-09-15

    Patients undergoing primary chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer consented to a core biopsy of the invasive breast primary pre- and 24 h postchemotherapy. The resulting tissue was analysed for apoptosis, Ki67, ER and HER-2 using immunohistochemical techniques. These data were then used to evaluate the relationship between these biological markers and response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Response rate to chemotherapy in this group was 86%, 16 patients (25%) achieved a clinical complete response and 41 (63%) a partial response. Prechemotherapy there was a significant correlation between Ki67 and apoptotic index (AI), r=0.6, (PKi67 (P=0.002) was seen 24 h following chemotherapy. No relationship was seen between pretreatment AI and clinical response, but higher Ki67 and growth index (Ki67/AI ratio, GI) did correlate with clinical response (both r=0.31, PKi67 at 24 h and clinical response or survival. Significant changes in apoptosis and proliferation can be demonstrated 24 h following chemotherapy, but these changes do not relate to clinical response or outcome in this study. Pretreatment proliferation and GI are however predictive of response to chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  12. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagami, Yoshifumi

    1982-01-01

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, 3 H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of 3 H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease. (J.P.N.)

  13. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagami, Y. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1982-02-01

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, /sup 3/H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of /sup 3/H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease.

  14. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.; Barquinero, J.; Barrios, L.; Verdu, G.; Perez, J.

    2006-01-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy γ rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  15. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J. [Valencia Hospital Univ. la Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Barquinero, J. [Barcelona Univ. Autonom, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Dept. de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Perez, J. [Hospital la Fe, Seccion de Radiofisica, Servicio de Radioterapia, valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy {gamma} rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  16. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  17. Proliferation resistance attributes of advanced plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    2009-01-01

    To obtain public acceptance for future use of Pu, new concepts must overcome the present concerns about environmental compliance as well as concerns about misusing plutonium of the civil nuclear fuel cycle for nuclear explosives e.g. by terrorists. In future the preferable remedy is the multi-recycling of all transuranium elements in fast neutron reactors. In such a partitioning and transmutation scheme, P T, Pu becomes proliferation resistant, when mixed with self-generated actinides. This strategy will also reduce the long-term radio-toxicity, the radiogenic heat production and the Pu content of the nuclear waste per G We produced in the geological repositories, which otherwise could be regarded as future Pu-mines. The development of advanced spent fuel reprocessing should aim at technologies with intrinsic barriers that under normal operation exclude the production of weapon usable fissile material at all stages of the process. Complementary institutional, extrinsic measures would then have to verify the declared operation and the absence of weapon usable material, instead of presently verifying the declared mass of weapon usable Pu.

  18. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  19. Tigecycline inhibits proliferation of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bijay Kumar; Seo, Incheol; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Suh, Seong-Il; Suh, Min-Ho; Baek, Won-Ki

    2015-03-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan parasite responsible for different diseases in humans, such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. Tigecycline, a third-generation tetracycline antibiotic, has potential activity to treat most of the antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. The effects of tigecycline in eukaryotic cells as well as parasites are less well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of tigecycline on trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The inhibitory effect of tigecycline on Acanthamoeba was determined by resazurin reduction and trypan blue exclusion assays. We found that tigecycline significantly inhibited the growth of Acanthamoeba (46.4 % inhibition at the concentration of 100 μM) without affecting cell viability and induction of encystation, whereas other tetracycline groups of antibiotics such as tetracycline and doxycycline showed no inhibitory effects. Furthermore, tigecycline decreased cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level by 26 % than the control and increased mitochondrial mass, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in tigecycline-treated cells. These findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased ATP production might play an important mechanism of tigecycline in suppression of Acanthamoeba proliferation.

  20. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nucler Weapons has the twin objectives of stopping the further spread of nuclear weapons and ending the nuclear arms race on the one hand, and promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy on the other. In quantitative and symbolic terms the NPT is a huge success. More than two-thirds of the world's nations have signed on, making this the most popular arms control agreement on earth. Not a single nation has declared itself to be a nuclear-weapons state beyond the original five members of the ''nuclear club'' who qualified for weapons status under the terms of the Treaty itself: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. No party to the Treaty has exercised the permitted option to drop out, and none has been found by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have diverted nuclear material from civil to weapons purposes. Nor has any party been known to have violated NPT prohibitions on developing or assisting other nations to develop nuclear weapons

  1. Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A

    2007-01-10

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.

  2. Perspectives of the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koungou, Leon

    2004-01-01

    To join traditional methods and new approaches of 'non-proliferation'. This is a technical method and the best way to fight against 'non-proliferation' which is facing few preoccupations: knowledge's disseminations; technologies; equipments and weapons that should be stopped. As it's important to note the return of nuclear danger as the end of confrontation between west-east which should be reduce. As the adaptation of mechanisms is necessary today, as it is important to react about states' incitations to violate international engagement of non-proliferation. Areas control allows finding out change and evolution, but more insufficient. Functional difficulties show that the IAEA (International Agency of Atomic Energy) does not work good. Safeguard system does not allow to respect 'non-proliferation' engagements; for instance 'junkies states' that they cannot dissuade traditional methods. The fight of 'non-proliferation' shows new progresses with fearing methods of prevention actions and heaviest international controls of exportation. The target of this is very ambitious. This new method is self-successful because it contributes to re-enforce international security when defeating acquisition of nuclear and mass destruction weapons by non-states factors. Therefore non-proliferation regime and especially 'non-proliferation treaty' remains delicate as long as some militaries state such USA will reject their 'non-proliferation' engagement. (author) [fr

  3. Expanding the Proliferation Security Initiative: A Legal and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    13 Sharp, Walter G. “Proliferation Security Initiative: The Legacy of Operacion Socotora.” 16 Transnational Law and...Gregory S. Jones. U.S. Combat Commands’ Participation in the Proliferation Security Initiative: A Training Manual . Washington, DC: RAND National Defense

  4. Non proliferation 1980 - INFCE and TnP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TNP (non-proliferation agreement of nuclear weapons), its non proliferation policy and the peaceful use of fuel cycle are described, as well as the safeguards of IAEA. It is also mentioned the functions of INFCE (International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). (A.B.T.) [pt

  5. Twenty years of the Non-proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblat, Jozef.

    1990-01-01

    The report assesses the achievements of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and discusses ways in which the non-proliferation regime could be strenghtened. It recommends a series of measures to be taken by the parties of the Treaty, both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons states, with a view to reinforcing the Treaty and achieving its universality. 198 refs

  6. Leptin regulates proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results showed that leptin could stimulate the proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of HCT-116 colon cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Ly294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) and rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor) could prevent the regulatory effects of leptin on the proliferation and apoptosis of HCT-116 cells via abrogating ...

  7. Constraining potential nuclear-weapons proliferation from civilian reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.; Gaines, L.L.; Minkov, V.; Olson, A.P.; Snelgrove, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cessation of the Cold War and renewed international attention to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are leading to national policies aimed at restraining nuclear-weapons proliferation that could occur through the nuclear-fuel cycle. Argonne, which has unique experience, technology, and capabilities, is one of the US national laboratories contributing to this nonproliferation effort

  8. Different concentrations of Sijunzi decoction inhibit proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous evidence demonstrated SD parties (Ginseng, Atractylodes, Poria, Licorice) can inhibit proliferation and induced apoptosis for gastric cancer cell. In order to further investigate the anticancer effect of SD in gastric cancer, we observed the effects of different concentrations of SD on proliferation and apoptosis of Side ...

  9. Non-proliferation aspects of long term assurance of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The meetings in this section deal with the non-proliferation aspects of long-term assurance of supply of the nuclear fuel cycle. A list of 12 fundamental questions concerning the observation and application of the non-proliferation regulations is followed by the comments made by representatives of 10 countries

  10. CSFV proliferation is associated with GBF1 and Rab2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Golgi apparatus and its resident proteins are utilized and regulated by viruses to facilitate their proliferation. Inthis study, we investigated Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) proliferation when the function of the Golgi wasdisturbed. Golgi function was disturbed using chemical inhibitors, namely, brefeldin A (BFA) and ...

  11. Costs and benefits of proliferation of Christian denominations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unbridled proliferation of Churches in Nigeria has steered up concerns among adherents of religious faiths, onlookers and academics alike. Nigerian society today is undergoing significant constant proliferation of Churches which has brought not only changing values, but also source of solutions to people's problems.

  12. Effect of triptolide on proliferation and apoptosis of angiotensin II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effect of triptolide (TPL) on cardiac fibroblasts (CFbs) and cardiac fibrosis remain unknown till now. This study was conducted to explore the effects of TPL on proliferation and apoptosis of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced CFbs. Materials and Methods: Ang II was used to promote proliferation of CFbs.

  13. 19 Costs and Benefits of Proliferation of Christian Denominations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    Abstract. The unbridled proliferation of Churches in Nigeria has steered up concerns among adherents of religious faiths, onlookers and academics alike. Nigerian society today is undergoing significant constant proliferation of Churches which has brought not only changing values, but also source of solutions to people's ...

  14. CSFV proliferation is associated with GBF1 and Rab2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-29

    Dec 29, 2016 ... The Golgi apparatus and its resident proteins are utilized and regulated by viruses to facilitate their proliferation. In this study, we investigated Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) proliferation when the function of the Golgi was disturbed. Golgi function was disturbed using chemical inhibitors, namely, ...

  15. Expression of MiR-9 promotes proliferation, migration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of miR-9 on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human neural stem cells (NSCs). Methods: The expression of miR-9 was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, while cell ...

  16. In vitro effect of lysophosphatidic acid on proliferation, invasion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on the proliferation, invasion and migration ability of 3AO, SKOV3 and CAOV3 human ovarian cancer cell lines. Methods: SKOV3, 3AO and CAOV3 cell lines were respectively treated with LPA. Changes in the proliferation rate of these cell lines were observed ...

  17. In vivo imaging of cellular proliferation in renal cell carcinoma using 18F-fluorothymidine PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Peter K.; Lee, Sze Ting; Murone, Carmel; Eng, John; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Berlangieri, Salvatore University; Pathmaraj, Kunthi; O’Keefe, Graeme J.; Sachinidis, John; Byrne, Amanda J.; Bolton, Damien M.; Davis, Ian D.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to measure cellular proliferation non-invasively in renal cell carcinoma may allow prediction of tumour aggressiveness and response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and to compare this to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and to an immunohistochemical measure of cellular proliferation (Ki-67). Twenty seven patients (16 male, 11 females; age 42-77) with newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma suitable for resection were prospectively enrolled. All patients had preoperative FLT and FDG PET scans. Visual identification of tumour using FLT PET compared to normal kidney was facilitated by the use of a pre-operative contrast enhanced CT scan. After surgery tumour was taken for histologic analysis and immunohistochemical staining by Ki-67. The SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake value) mean±SD for FLT in tumour was 2.59±1.27, compared to normal kidney (2.47±0.34). The mean SUVmax for FDG in tumour was similar to FLT (2.60±1.08). There was a significant correlation between FLT uptake and the immunohistochemical marker Ki-67 (r=0.72, P<0.0001) in RCC. Ki-67 proliferative index was mean ± SD of 13.3%±9.2 (range 2.2% - 36.3%). There is detectable uptake of FLT in primary renal cell carcinoma, which correlates with cellular proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 labelling index. This finding has relevance to the use of FLT PET in molecular imaging studies of renal cell carcinoma biology

  18. Whether the Weather Drives Patterns of Endemic Amphibian Chytridiomycosis: A Pathogen Proliferation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Garland, Stephen; Kriticos, Darren; McCallum, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic amphibian disease chytridiomycosis often exhibits strong seasonality in both prevalence and disease-associated mortality once it becomes endemic. One hypothesis that could explain this temporal pattern is that simple weather-driven pathogen proliferation (population growth) is a major driver of chytridiomycosis disease dynamics. Despite various elaborations of this hypothesis in the literature for explaining amphibian declines (e.g., the chytrid thermal-optimum hypothesis) it has not been formally tested on infection patterns in the wild. In this study we developed a simple process-based model to simulate the growth of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) under varying weather conditions to provide an a priori test of a weather-linked pathogen proliferation hypothesis for endemic chytridiomycosis. We found strong support for several predictions of the proliferation hypothesis when applied to our model species, Litoria pearsoniana, sampled across multiple sites and years: the weather-driven simulations of pathogen growth potential (represented as a growth index in the 30 days prior to sampling; GI30) were positively related to both the prevalence and intensity of Bd infections, which were themselves strongly and positively correlated. In addition, a machine-learning classifier achieved ∼72% success in classifying positive qPCR results when utilising just three informative predictors 1) GI30, 2) frog body size and 3) rain on the day of sampling. Hence, while intrinsic traits of the individuals sampled (species, size, sex) and nuisance sampling variables (rainfall when sampling) influenced infection patterns obtained when sampling via qPCR, our results also strongly suggest that weather-linked pathogen proliferation plays a key role in the infection dynamics of endemic chytridiomycosis in our study system. Predictive applications of the model include surveillance design, outbreak preparedness and response, climate change scenario modelling

  19. The future of nuclear non-proliferation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqa, A.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation in South Asia is currently one of the hot topics in world politics. The concern of the international community, and especially the USA, over this issue is coupled with the fear of nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan. As a result, Washington has been using its 'stick and carrot' policy to persuade the two countries involved not to develop their nuclear programs for military purposes. However both countries have not only continued to develop their nuclear ambitions, but seem to have achieved vertical nuclear proliferation. This paper examines the future non-proliferation in the South Asian region in the 1990s. This will be achieved by looking at the following: the development of the nuclear capabilities of both India and Pakistan; how these programs have been developed; the reasons for acquiring the capability for non-conventional defence; the real fear in terms of nuclear proliferation in the region; the possible options for dealing with nuclear proliferation in South Asia

  20. Proliferation of nuclear weapons: opportunities for control and abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, Victor W; Levy, Barry S

    2007-09-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. "Horizontal" proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. "Vertical" proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation--and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons--involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large.

  1. Canada and international safeguards. Verifying nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) came into force in 1970 and now has about 140 signatory nations. By creating legal barriers against proliferation and by promoting an international non-proliferation ethic, the NPT has promoted international peace and security. A key ingredient has been the confidence generated through verification by IAEA safeguards. By the end of 1988 IAEA safeguards agreements had been concluded with about 100 countries, including Canada. Over 500 nuclear facilities worldwide are under safeguards or contain safeguarded nuclear material. The existence of this credible and effective safeguards system makes international trade in nuclear equipment and materials possible, monitoring the transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries as well as between industrial countries. Canada is committed to non-proliferation and IAEA safeguards. Canadian non-proliferation policy is among the strictest in the world, even though opportunities have been lost to sell Canadian technology abroad as a result

  2. 2012 Environmental Performance Index and Pilot Trend Environmental Performance Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2012 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks 132 countries on 22 performance indicators in the following 10 policy categories: environmental burden of...

  3. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  4. Reflections on Arguing over Proliferation in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Paul

    2012-08-01

    The Non-Aligned Movement and others question non-proliferation for preserving an unfair world order, and export restrictions as aimed to protect lucrative technical monopolies. They repeatedly argue that the assurances of all states should be taken at face value, and national sovereignty outweighs access for inspections or convincing concrete answers to serious compliance questions. They privilege Westphalian Opacity over technical accountability. But recent events show how far deception, denial and defiant opacity have created the global WMD landscape. One example is the Iranian nuclear compliance crisis: Iran refuses questions, denounces evidence as 'false', and declines worthwhile investigatory dialogue. This autistic behaviour would hollow out any system of global control. Other countries have also apparently enriched small quantities of uranium or deny IAEA inspectors control of specific installations at enrichment facilities. As regards terrorism and WMD related materials, the 2006 Litvinenko case involved state-enabled radiological murder. A new UK judicial enquiry is announced, but normalisation will continue, to facilitate relations with the impenitent Russian state. Similarly no effective further enquiry is expected into Soviet BW research. Yet a major new book (Leitenberg and Zilinskas, 'The Soviet Biological Weapons Program') concludes that 'whatever genetically engineered bacterial and viral forms were created (...) remain stored in the culture collections of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense', As for Syria, the Assad regime adopted tactics like Iran's to build a 'ballistic-chemical-biological nexus'. Now fears grow that Syria's chemical stocks cannot be safeguarded during a Civil War and that the nexus will spread to Hezbollah. Yet developing states most driven to acquire WMD turn out to be similar unstable autocracies. Syria joined the NPT but refused investigations or plausible answers over

  5. Equiseparability on Terminal Wiener Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the properties of the terminal Wiener index, which was recently proposed by Gutman et al. (2004) [3], and to show the fact that there exist pairs of trees and chemical trees which cannot be distinguished by using it. We give some general methods for constructing...... equiseparable pairs and compare the methods with the case for the Wiener index. More specifically, we show that the terminal Wiener index is degenerate to some extent....

  6. Asset pricing with index investing

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Chabakauri; Oleg Rytchkov

    2014-01-01

    We provide a novel theoretical analysis of how index investing affects capital market equilibrium. We consider a dynamic exchange economy with heterogeneous investors and two Lucas trees and find that indexing can either increase or decrease the correlation between stock returns and in general increases (decreases) volatilities and betas of stocks with larger (smaller) market capitalizations. Indexing also decreases market volatility and interest rates, although those effects are weak. The im...

  7. Metabolic requirements for cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keibler, Mark A; Wasylenko, Thomas M; Kelleher, Joanne K; Iliopoulos, Othon; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The study of cancer metabolism has been largely dedicated to exploring the hypothesis that oncogenic transformation rewires cellular metabolism to sustain elevated rates of growth and division. Intense examination of tumors and cancer cell lines has confirmed that many cancer-associated metabolic phenotypes allow robust growth and survival; however, little attention has been given to explicitly identifying the biochemical requirements for cell proliferation in a rigorous manner in the context of cancer metabolism. Using a well-studied hybridoma line as a model, we comprehensively and quantitatively enumerate the metabolic requirements for generating new biomass in mammalian cells; this indicated a large biosynthetic requirement for ATP, NADPH, NAD(+), acetyl-CoA, and amino acids. Extension of this approach to serine/glycine and glutamine metabolic pathways suggested lower limits on serine and glycine catabolism to supply one-carbon unit synthesis and significant availability of glutamine-derived carbon for biosynthesis resulting from nitrogen demands alone, respectively. We integrated our biomass composition results into a flux balance analysis model, placing upper bounds on mitochondrial NADH oxidation to simulate metformin treatment; these simulations reproduced several empirically observed metabolic phenotypes, including increased reductive isocitrate dehydrogenase flux. Our analysis clarifies the differential needs for central carbon metabolism precursors, glutamine-derived nitrogen, and cofactors such as ATP, NADPH, and NAD(+), while also providing justification for various extracellular nutrient uptake behaviors observed in tumors. Collectively, these results demonstrate how stoichiometric considerations alone can successfully predict empirically observed phenotypes and provide insight into biochemical dynamics that underlie responses to metabolic perturbations.

  8. Use of SAR data for proliferation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, M.; Robin, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an active and coherent system. SAR images are complex data which contain both amplitude and phase information. The analysis of single SAR data required a very good experience and a good understanding of SAR geometry regarding layover, shadowing, texture and speckle. Image analyst can depicts and describes most of the facilities related to nuclear proliferation and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The Amplitude Change Detection (ACD) technique consists of a combination of two or three SAR amplitude data acquired with similar orbit and frequency parameters on different dates. That technique provides a very good overview of the changes and particularly regarding vehicles activity and constructions ongoing within the area of interest over the monitoring period. One of the particularities of the SAR systems is to be coherent. The phase of a single image is not exploitable. Thus when two or more SAR data have been acquired with identical orbit and frequency parameters, the phases shift are indicators of changes such as structural changes, terrain subsidence or motion. The Multi-Temporal Coherence (MTC) product merged the two type of information previously detailed: the ACD and coherence analysis. It consists of the combination of two amplitude images and the corresponding coherence computed image. The MTC image may highlights changes between two states of a target which on the ACD analysis appeared unchanged. EUSC uses the difference interferometry techniques in order to estimate volumes that have changed between two acquisition dates. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  9. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  10. 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) measures overall progress toward environmental sustainability for 142 countries based on environmental systems,...

  11. 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) centers on two broad environmental protection objectives: (1) reducing environmental stresses on human health, and (2)...

  12. Index Bioclimatic "Wind-Chill"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoreanu Elena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an important bioclimatic index which shows the influence of wind on the human body thermoregulation. When the air temperature is high, the wind increases thermal comfort. But more important for the body is the wind when the air temperature is low. When the air temperature is lower and wind speed higher, the human body is threatening to freeze faster. Cold wind index is used in Canada, USA, Russia (temperature "equivalent" to the facial skin etc., in the weather forecast every day in the cold season. The index can be used and for bioclimatic regionalization, in the form of skin temperature index.

  13. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  14. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  15. Andrographolide suppresses preadipocytes proliferation through glutathione antioxidant systems abrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Feng, Lina; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to play a profound role in lipid storage and whole-body energy homeostasis. Inhibition of preadipocytes proliferation by natural products is one of the strategies to prevent obesity. Andrographolide, a small molecule, has been reported to possess versatile bioactivities. However, molecular mechanism underlying the potential effect of andrographolide on preadipocytes proliferation remains obscure. In the present study, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were employed to determine whether andrographolide could affect the proliferation of preadipocytes. Our results demonstrated andrographolide suppressed 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation. The casual relationship analysis indicated that andrographolide (10 and 20μg/ml) appeared to exert the proliferation inhibitory effect through suppression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) activity and depleting GSH by promoting its efflux in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which subsequently resulted in 2.06-2.41 fold increase in ROS accumulation. Excessive ROS eruption could account for oxidative damage to mitochondrial membranes as well as ultimately inhibition of cell proliferation. Taken together, our study reveals that suppression of GPX1 and GSH depletion by andrographolide seems to play a critical role in the inhibition of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes proliferation, which might have implication for obesity prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, S.; Mogami, Y.; Baba, S. A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity in space and slower under hypergravity Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that the hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself Kato et al 2003 In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under simulated microgravity performed by clinorotation and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis P tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air babbles reducing the shear stresses and turbulence under the rotation The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method and the latter for gas exchange Because the closed chamber has an inner dimension of 3 times 3 times 60 mm Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber despite its negative gravitactic behavior We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation Clinorotation had the effects of reducing the proliferation of P tetraurelia It reduced both the saturation cell density and the maximum proliferation rate although it had little effect on the

  17. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  18. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia on a slow rotating clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Satoe; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Baba, Shoji A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity conditions, and slower under hypergravity. Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself. In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation, Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under clinorotation (2.5 rpm) and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis. On the basis of the mechanical properties of Paramecium, this slow rate of the rotation appears to be enough to simulate microgravity in terms of the randomization of the cell orientation with respect to gravity. P. tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air bubbles, reducing the shear forces and turbulences under clinorotation. The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film; the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method, and the latter for gas exchange. Because of the small dimension for culture space, Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber in spite of its known negative gravitactic behavior. We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber, and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation. As a result, P. tetraurelia showed reduced proliferation under slow clinorotation. The saturation of the cell density as well as the maximum proliferation rate decreased, although we found no significant changes on the half maximal time for proliferation. We also found that the mean swimming velocity decreased under slow clinorotation. These results were not consistent with those under microgravity and fast rotating clinostat. This may suggest that randomization of the cell orientation performed by slow rotating clinostat has

  19. Therapeutic touch stimulates the proliferation of human cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria A; Jhaveri, Ankur; Clarke, Libbe W; Aronow, Michael S; Smith, Theresa H

    2008-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on the proliferation of normal human cells in culture compared to sham and no treatment. Several proliferation techniques were used to confirm the results, and the effect of multiple 10-minute TT treatments was studied. Fibroblasts, tendon cells (tenocytes), and bone cells (osteoblasts) were treated with TT, sham, or untreated for 2 weeks, and then assessed for [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into the DNA, and immunocytochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The number of PCNA-stained cells was also quantified. For 1 and 2 weeks, varying numbers of 10-minute TT treatments were administered to each cell type to determine whether there was a dose-dependent effect. TT administered twice a week for 2 weeks significantly stimulated proliferation of fibroblasts, tenocytes, and osteoblasts in culture (p = 0.04, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively) compared to untreated control. These data were confirmed by PCNA immunocytochemistry. In the same experiments, sham healer treatment was not significantly different from the untreated cultures in any group, and was significantly less than TT treatment in fibroblast and tenocyte cultures. In 1-week studies involving the administration of multiple 10-minute TT treatments, four and five applications significantly increased [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in fibroblasts and tenocytes, respectively, but not in osteoblasts. With different doses of TT for 2 weeks, two 10-minute TT treatments per week significantly stimulated proliferation in all cell types. Osteoblasts also responded to four treatments per week with a significant increase in proliferation. Additional TT treatments (five per week for 2 weeks) were not effective in eliciting increased proliferation compared to control in any cell type. A specific pattern of TT treatment produced a significant increase in proliferation of fibro-blasts, osteoblasts, and tenocytes in culture. Therefore, TT may

  20. Intermittent pressure decreases human keratinocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Maria R; Shih, Alan T; West, Dennis P; Martinez, Wanda M; Micali, Giuseppe; Landsman, Adam S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure changes and keratinocyte proliferation by determining whether keratinocytes exposed to altered mechanical pressures would proliferate at different rates compared to control cells not subjected to pressure changes. Tissue culture flasks of human keratinocytes plated at an approximate density of 15,000 cells/cm(2) undergoing an intermittent cyclic pressure of 362 mm Hg at a frequency of 2.28 or 5.16 cycles/min (0.038 or 0.086 Hz) for 8 h were compared to control flasks grown at ambient room pressure. An in-line pressure transducer was used to monitor and adjust pressure within the cell chambers, using a solenoid valve. A thymidine incorporation assay assessed the amount of cell proliferation in each set of experiments. Differences in proliferation between keratinocytes subjected to cyclic pressure changes and control cells were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) in 4 out of 5 proliferation assays. Also, a higher frequency of pressure changes consistently generated a reduced proliferation rate compared to that seen in cells exposed to a lower frequency of pressure changes. These data indicate that keratinocytes undergoing intermittent pressure changes exhibit decreased proliferation rates compared to controls. Furthermore, an increased frequency rate seems to have a greater effect on proliferation than low-frequency rate pressure changes, suggesting that the stress caused by frequently changed pressure may play a greater role in reducing keratinocyte proliferation than the actual magnitude of load applied to the cells. Our results support the current treatment protocol of reducing speed and duration of walking on the site of the wound to promote healing of foot ulcers. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Printed Proliferation: The Implications of Additive Manufacturing and Nuclear Weapons Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Nicholas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-26

    The growth of additive manufacturing as a disruptive technology poses nuclear proliferation concerns worthy of serious consideration. Additive manufacturing began in the early 1980s with technological advances in polymer manipulation, computer capabilities, and computer-aided design (CAD) modeling. It was originally limited to rapid prototyping; however, it eventually developed into a complete means of production that has slowly penetrated the consumer market. Today, additive manufacturing machines can produce complex and unique items in a vast array of materials including plastics, metals, and ceramics. These capabilities have democratized the manufacturing industry, allowing almost anyone to produce items as simple as cup holders or as complex as jet fuel nozzles. Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing as it is commonly called, relies on CAD files created or shared by individuals with additive manufacturing machines to produce a 3D object from a digital model. This sharing of files means that a 3D object can be scanned or rendered as a CAD model in one country, and then downloaded and printed in another country, allowing items to be shared globally without physically crossing borders. The sharing of CAD files online has been a challenging task for the export controls regime to manage over the years, and additive manufacturing could make these transfers more common. In this sense, additive manufacturing is a disruptive technology not only within the manufacturing industry but also within the nuclear nonproliferation world. This paper provides an overview of additive manufacturing concerns of proliferation.

  2. A temporary index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Jon; Craighead, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing management of low, intermediate and high-level nuclear waste is an unresolved issue for humanity, not least because the time-frames in question when dealing with the hazards of radioactive wastes, range from as little as a few tens of years to more than 100 000 years. It is from this starting point that we are beginning the development of an ambitious multifaceted artwork aiming to help us consider our relationship with deep-time and our nuclear legacy. The expressed aim of Temporary Index is to raise general awareness about these long-term management issues, and in doing so, to embed this knowledge into our collective cultural memory so as to transmit useful information about our nuclear waste into the future. We wish to create a series of decorative, real-time numeric counters based on the probabilistic decay (including decay of daughter products) of existing nuclear waste that we identify from the earliest weapons' development programmes in the United States right through to contemporary wastes being produced by nuclear energy production today across the world. Each display will countdown in seconds, showing the time remaining before the given item of waste (or a particular site) is considered safe to humans. A hypothetical example of one counter could be a bottle of sludge containing plutonium discovered in 2004 during an attempted clean-up of the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, United States. Another example might be the geological storage facility for vitrified nuclear waste at Horonobe in Japan, should it be established in the future. Accident sites, such as Chernobyl or Fukushima Daiichi could also be tagged with counters, as could low-level waste (LLW) repositories such as the one at Drigg near Sellafield in the United Kingdom. Whatever the items identified and this will be a complex process requiring collaboration with experts in the field, it is important that a wide range of short- and long-term counters are established to

  3. Study of cellular proliferation kinetics in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles Rios, M.; Isabel Torres, D.; Tkachenko, G.; Perez, C.; Diaz, J.W.; Moreno, J.

    1981-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of cellular proliferation studies conducted in 35 patients with positive diagnosis of breast cancer treated at IOR mastology service. In measuring cellular proliferation from cancer samples, we evaluated thymidine labelling rates (TLR) though the use of an autoradiographic technique having cancer cells undergo a labelling pulse with triatiated thymidine. The results show a correlation between proliferation parameters and mitosis in the histological study, age of patients and presence of estrogenic receptors in cancer tissue. No correlation with the presence of metastatic nodes was found. (author)

  4. Nuclear power struggles - industrial competition and proliferation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, W.; Loennroth, M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections entitled: the nuclear industry and trade relations, 1945-80 (political and commercial foundations of nuclear trade; rupture of nuclear relations); industries under strain (France; West Germany; Canada; USA; other nuclear reactor exporters - Japanese challenge; domestic demand - key to industrial viability); contest for reactor export markets (size and location of market; dynamics of competition); proliferation risks and trade policy, the non-proliferation regime - the robustness of the NPT and IAEA; future relations between supplier countries (nuclear trade policies; the roles of European suppliers in the non-proliferation regime); a new hope. (U.K.)

  5. Sustaining non-proliferation in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nye, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: introduction; the non-proliferation regime - 1950s to 1970s (IAEA safeguards; Non-proliferation Treaty; oil crisis; proposed sale of facilities for producing weapons-usable materials; USA position); the Carter Administration approach; INFCE (International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation); incentives (USA); export legislation (USA); domestic breeder policy (USA); maintaining the regime in the 1980s (safeguards; Pu and highly enriched uranium management; international spent fuel storage; fuel assurances); the problem of priority; rate vs. degree of proliferation; relations among regimes (international regimes); conclusion. (U.K.)

  6. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelec, K. M., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E. [Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, Materials Science and Metallurgy Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wardale, R. J., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk [Division of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  7. Proliferation networks at the time of targeted sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno; Nexon, Elisande

    2013-01-01

    After having outlined that nuclear proliferation networks are using the existing international market, the authors present the terminology associated with this field (acquisition transaction, acquisition organization) and outline that these networks are made of natural and legal persons with the objective of acquiring goods related to arm programs. They also notice that these natural and legal persons may intervene in an unwittingly way. They comment the evolution of proliferation networks during the past ten years in relationship with the worldwide development of goods flow and export controls. They outline that control measures and mechanisms must be continuously adapted to the evolution of bypassing methods used by proliferation networks

  8. The possibility of life proliferation from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Enceladus is a medium-sized icy satellite (MIS) of Saturn. MIS are built of mixtures of rocks and ices. Enceladus with its radius of 250 km is one of the smallest of MIS, however, it is geologically active. According to [1]: "For life to have emerged […] on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential. The serpentinization process is emerging as an increasingly likely source of that energy. Serpentinization of ultramafic crust would have continuously supplied hydrogen, methane, […] to off-ridge alkaline hydrothermal springs that interfaced with the metal-rich carbonic Hadean Ocean" (see also [2]). We consider here conditions for origin of life in early Enceladus and possible proliferation of the life from this satellite to the rest of Solar System. Mass of serpentinite: The serpentinization on the Earth is found in neovolcanic zones along mid-oceanic spreading centers. However, only in small part of them the hydrothermal activity really occurs. After [3] we consider the following reaction: Mg2SiO4 + MgSiO3 + 2H2O -> Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 . This reaction releases 241 000 J per kg of serpentine produced. Simple calculations (e.g. [4]) indicate that mass fraction of silicatesfmas in Enceladus is ˜0.646, hence the total mass of its silicate is ˜6.97 1019 kg. [4] found that the early core in Enceladus was a relatively cold structure built from loosely packed grains with water between them. At that time, there was not mechanism of removing the water. Since rocks are permeable up to the pressure of ˜300 MPa then the entire core of Enceladus was probably permeable for liquids. This could lead to formation of extensive hydrothermal convective systems. T-p conditions in Enceladus: The pressure in the center of Enceladus is ˜2.3 107 Pa that corresponds to pressure on the depth 2300 m in a terrestrial ocean. The evolution of temperature in the Enceladus interior for the first a few hundreds Myr is considered by [4]. If

  9. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  10. A Tourism Financial Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The paper uses monthly data on financial stock index returns, tourism stock sub-index returns, effective exchange rate returns and interest rate differences from April 2005 – August 2013 for Taiwan that applies Chang’s (2014) novel approach for constructing a tourism

  11. Maslov index for Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Portaluri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an explicit formula for computing the Maslov index of the fundamental solutions of linear autonomous Hamiltonian systems in terms of the Conley-Zehnder index and the map time one flow.

  12. National index of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    According to the 30 th december 1991 law, ANDRA is the public authority in charge of indexing the state and localisation of all the nuclear wastes existing on national territory. This index is the third edition of the resulting file. (D.L.)

  13. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  14. A New Index of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. de Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses and revises the latest Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the United Kingdom. We analyze the changes produced in the index from 2006 to 2011, as well as in the five basic factors that constitute the index: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. The analysis of these factors ?measured by sixty variables? has made it possible to develop a new index, based on the data from 167 countries, and calculate a revised ranking. Countries have been classified into four types: democracies, flawed democracies, mixed systems, and authoritarian/totalitarian regimes. The new index permits a better understanding of the impact of the crisis through variables such as economic growth, human development, quality of life, corruption, and violence.

  15. An Autocrine Proliferation Repressor Regulates Dictyostelium discoideum Proliferation and Chemorepulsion Using the G Protein-Coupled Receptor GrlH

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Tang; Yuantai Wu; Sarah E. Herlihy; Francisco J. Brito-Aleman; Jose H. Ting; Chris Janetopoulos; Richard H. Gomer; Scott D. Emr

    2018-01-01

    In eukaryotic microbes, little is known about signals that inhibit the proliferation of the cells that secrete the signal, and little is known about signals (chemorepellents) that cause cells to move away from the source of the signal. Autocrine proliferation repressor protein A (AprA) is a protein secreted by the eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum. AprA is a chemorepellent for and inhibits the proliferation of D. discoideum. We previously found that cells sense AprA using G proteins...

  16. The new US nuclear non-proliferation and export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. von.

    1981-01-01

    The future American nuclear non-proliferation and export policy will be determined chiefly by three elements: (1) Adherence to the former objective of nuclear non-proliferation. (2) A large and varied assortment of old and new tools for implementing this goal. (3) Much more differentiation in applying these tools in the light of the reliability, with respect to non-proliferation policy, of the respective partner. Consequently, it would make little sense for the new Administration to force upon allied industrialized countries, whose nuclear technologies are at the same level as that of the United States, restrictive rules on reprocessing and breeder technology. The new measures designed to curb proliferation are especially meant to destroy motivations that could cause states to own nuclear explosives. This also applies to the removal of economic motivations. (orig.) [de

  17. Imaging Macrophage and Hematopoietic Progenitor Proliferation in Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Yu-Xiang; Calcagno, Claudia; Binderup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Local plaque macrophage proliferation and monocyte production in hematopoietic organs promote progression of atherosclerosis. Therefore, noninvasive imaging of proliferation could serve as a biomarker and monitor therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVE: To explore (18)F-FLT positron emission...... tomography-computed tomography imaging of cell proliferation in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: (18)F-FLT positron emission tomography-computed tomography was performed in mice, rabbits, and humans with atherosclerosis. In apolipoprotein E knock out mice, increased (18)F-FLT signal was observed...... with atherosclerosis, (18)F-FLT signal significantly increased in the inflamed carotid artery and in the aorta. CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FLT positron emission tomography imaging may serve as an imaging biomarker for cell proliferation in plaque and hematopoietic activity in individuals with atherosclerosis....

  18. Myopericytoma proliferating in an unusual anastomosing multinodular fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Misago, Noriyuki; Asami, Akihiko; Tokunaga, Osamu; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    We herein describe a case of myopericytoma that proliferated in an unusual fashion. Myopericytoma is described as a group of rare, benign, dermal or subcutaneous tumors that are characterized histologically by a striking, concentric, perivascular proliferation of spindle cells and showing apparent differentiation towards perivascular myoid cells. Myopericytoma forms a morphological continuum with myofibroma/myofibromatosis, glomus tumor and angioleiomyoma. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who demonstrated a recurrent ulcer on an atrophic plaque on her left shin. A histopathological examination of the plaque demonstrated that tumor cells proliferated in an anastomosing multinodular fashion along the vessels in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In those nodules, there were numerous, small, concentric proliferations of myoid-appearing spindle cells around small vascular lumina. The present case is an unusual example of myopericytoma, manifesting in a characteristic anastomosing, multinodular, infiltrating fashion. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  20. The research progress of MSCs proliferation and differentiation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    MSCs) proliferation and differentiation in vitro and vivo. This review will introduce some newest articles mainly in China focusing on the growth and differentiation of MSCs, which were treated with a single herb or formulas.

  1. Nuclear proliferation and the near-nuclear countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwah, O.; Schulz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The process of nuclear proliferation and its consequences for the international political system is examined by focusing on the issues in the nuclear-strategic debate that divide first and second order states. Information is included on: the US-USSR arms race; SALT agreement; the Non-Proliferation Treaty; the nuclear aspirations and policies of India, Middle Eastern countries, South Africa, Japan, Brazil, and Argentina; and assessment of the risks related to the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons

  2. Information report on Proliferation geo-strategic stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This large report, notably based on interviews of many representatives of international institutions and politicians, ambassadors and researchers of different countries, all involved or specialized in nuclear and defence issues, starts with a description of the evolution of the international and geo-strategic context from the Cold War to a period of a new nuclear proliferation, with, in between, a period of stabilisation between the USA and the USSR. It also questions the various forms of proliferation which could be ballistic, biological, chemical, and cybernetic. Then, it analyses the role which mass destruction weapons have in international relationships, making a distinction between countries possessing such weapons (USA, Russia, China, France, Great-Britain), Israel which has been a newcomer for thirty years, the new actors (India, Pakistan, Iran, North Korea) with their own and different motivations, and the possible new actors (Libya, Syria). It comments the meaning of the ballistic threat and of the anti-missile defence. The third part of this report deals with the dissemination of proliferating technologies, describing the proliferation networks and the failure of actions against state-based proliferations, questioning the reality of the associated risks (discussion about the impact of September 11 attacks, about a chemical and biological terrorist threat which is realistic as well as difficult to be implemented, and about cybernetic attacks). The fourth part comments the impact of the international community on proliferation, outlining the different efficiencies of the international agreements and institutions (Chemical Weapons Convention, IAEA, Non Proliferation Treaty, Biological Weapons Convention, The Hague Code of Conduct), commenting the opportunities associated with other texts (those about nuclear free areas, or those produced by exporter groups), and discussing the attitude of the international community with respect to proliferation, and the

  3. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2004-01-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  4. Human renal tubular epithelial cells suppress alloreactive T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmers, M W H J; Korevaar, S S; Roemeling-van Rhijn, M; van den Bosch, T P P; Hoogduijn, M J; Betjes, M G H; Weimar, W; Baan, C C; Rowshani, A T

    2015-03-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) are one of the main targets of alloreactive T cells during acute rejection. We hypothesize that TECs modulate the outcome of alloimmunity by executing immunosuppressive effects in order to dampen the local inflammation. We studied whether TECs possess immunosuppressive capacities and if indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) might play a role in suppressing T cell alloreactivity. Next, we studied the role of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 with regard to TEC-related immunomodulatory effects. CD3/CD28 and alloactivated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured with activated TECs. We analysed CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and apoptosis in the absence or presence of IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-L-MT), anti-PD-L1 and anti-ICAM-1. Further, we examined whether inhibition of T cell proliferation was cell-cell contact-dependent. We found that TECs dose-dependently inhibited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation (Pcell proliferation was only partially restored or failed to restore using 1-L-MT. Activated TECs increased early and late apoptosis of proliferating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; only CD4(+) T cell apoptosis was statistically affected by 1-L-MT. Transwell experiments revealed that TEC-mediated immunosuppression is cell-cell contact-dependent. We found that anti-ICAM-1 affected only CD4(+) T cell apoptosis and not T cell proliferation. Our data show that TECs suppress both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation contact dependently. Interestingly, inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis of T cell subsets is differentially regulated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and ICAM-1, with no evidence for the involvement of PD-L1 in our system. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Experience in non-proliferation verification: The Treaty of Raratonga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The verification provisions of the Treaty of Raratonga are subdivided into two categories: those performed by IAEA and those performed by other entities. A final provision of the Treaty of Raratonga is relevant to IAEA safeguards according to support of the continued effectiveness of the international non-proliferation system based on the Non-proliferation Treaty and the IAEA safeguards system. The non-IAEA verification process is described as well

  6. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  7. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  8. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise

  9. Nuclear Law Bulletin Index Nos. 1 to 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the Nuclear Law Bulletin Index covers the first 99 issues of the Nuclear Law Bulletin (NLB). By established practice, the plan of the Index is not a replica of the Bulletin, as it was considered more useful for research purposes to group together all the information concerning legislative and regulatory activities, case law and bilateral agreements and to classify this information by country. Following classification by country, references to the work of international organisations, multilateral agreements, studies and articles are set out in separate sections. The 'Bibliography and News Briefs' section is omitted from the Index. A separate chapter of the Index has been devoted to the listing of the instruments published in the Supplements to the Bulletin, or in the Chapter 'Texts' from past Bulletins, up until the present date. Each item in the Index is followed by a reference to the relevant Bulletin. Legislative and regulatory texts, as well as agreements reproduced in the Bulletins or their Supplements, are also referenced. Plan of index: 1 - Reports and commentary 1a - Classification by country Legislative and regulatory activities (Environmental protection, Food irradiation, General legislation, regulations and instruments, International co-operation, Liability and compensation, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear installations, Nuclear safety and radiological protection - including nuclear emergency planning, Nuclear security, Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation, Nuclear-powered ships, Organisation and structure, Radioactive materials - including physical protection, Radioactive waste management, Transport of radioactive materials); Case law; Administrative decisions; Agreements; 1b - International organisations; 1c - Multilateral agreements; 2 - Studies and articles; 3 - Texts reproduced in the nuclear law bulletin; 3a - Classification by country; 3b - International organisations; 3c

  10. Diazoxide promotes oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Fogal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical conditions are associated with white matter injury, including periventricular white matter injury (PWMI, which is a form of brain injury sustained by preterm infants. It has been suggested that white matter injury in this condition is due to altered oligodendrocyte (OL development or death, resulting in OL loss and hypomyelination. At present drugs are not available that stimulate OL proliferation and promote myelination. Evidence suggests that depolarizing stimuli reduces OL proliferation and differentiation, whereas agents that hyperpolarize OLs stimulate OL proliferation and differentiation. Considering that the drug diazoxide activates K(ATP channels to hyperpolarize cells, we tested if this compound could influence OL proliferation and myelination.Studies were performed using rat oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC cultures, cerebellar slice cultures, and an in vivo model of PWMI in which newborn mice were exposed to chronic sublethal hypoxia (10% O(2. We found that K(ATP channel components Kir 6.1 and 6.2 and SUR2 were expressed in oligodendrocytes. Additionally, diazoxide potently stimulated OPC proliferation, as did other K(ATP activators. Diazoxide also stimulated myelination in cerebellar slice cultures. We also found that diazoxide prevented hypomyelination and ventriculomegaly following chronic sublethal hypoxia.These results identify KATP channel components in OLs and show that diazoxide can stimulate OL proliferation in vitro. Importantly we find that diazoxide can promote myelination in vivo and prevent hypoxia-induced PWMI.

  11. Dynamics of proliferating powers. For a new interdisciplinary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Jean-Claude; GRAND, Camille; Pasco, Xavier; SITT, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The authors highlight that conventional approaches to the proliferation of arms of massive destruction are not sufficient to provide a generic evaluation grid whereas such a grid is clearly needed. In a first part, they discuss the contribution of various theories of proliferation of arms of massive destruction which generally address this phenomenon through three main points of view: legal and political means of struggle against proliferation, analysis of technical capacities, and motivations of proliferating States. The authors indicate and briefly present the various associated models. Then, they develop the basis of an analytical method aimed at a better understanding of the 'proliferating power', and at using various approaches, and notably that related to leader's psychology. They comment the content of studies already published on these issues, more precisely address the psycho-sociological dimension, outline the interest of diplomacy in this psychological approach, evoke the different typologies of personality, and propose elements of a new matrix of analysis of the proliferation phenomenon which takes national resources, history and strategic context, type of political regime, history and personality typology of the leader, and international dependencies, alliances, elites and mediators of the inner power, and public opinions into account

  12. Caffeine alters proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Christian T; Magavi, Sanjay S P

    2009-01-01

    Neurogenesis continues through adulthood in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of mammals. Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in learning and memory, and linked with depression. Hippocampal neurogenesis is increased in response to a number of stimuli, including exposure to an enriched environment, increased locomotor activity, and administration of antidepressants. Adult neurogenesis is depressed in response to aging, stress and sleep deprivation. Intriguingly, caffeine modulates a number of these same stimuli in a dose dependent manner. We examined the dose and duration dependent effects of caffeine on the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons in adult mice. Extended, 7 day caffeine administration, alters the proliferation of adult hippocampal precursors in the mouse in a dose dependent manner; moderate to high doses (20-30 mg/kg per day) of caffeine depress proliferation while supraphysiological doses (60 mg/kg per day) increase proliferation of neuronal precursors. Acute, 1 day administration had no affect on proliferation. Caffeine administration does not affect the expression of early or late markers of neuronal differentiation, or rates of long-term survival. However, neurons induced in response to supraphysiological levels of caffeine have a lower survival rate than control cells; increased proliferation does not yield an increase in long-term neurogenesis. These results demonstrate that physiologically relevant doses of caffeine can significantly depress adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  13. The kinetics of cellular proliferation in regenerating liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, J I

    1968-03-01

    The study concerns the kinetics of cellular proliferation in the different cell populations of the normal and regenerating rat liver. A detailed analysis is presented, which includes techniques of in vivo labeling of DNA with tritiated thymidine and high-resolution radioautography, of the temporal and spatial patterns of DNA synthesis and cell division in the parenchymal cells, littoral cells, bile duct epithelium, and other cellular components in the liver during the first 64 hr of regeneration after partial hepatectomy. The analysis of cell population kinetics indicates that (a) the rate of entry of parenchymal cells into synthesis, after an initial burst of proliferative activity, was an orderly progression at 3-4%/hr; (b) most cells divided once and a few twice, a large proportion of the cell deficit being replaced by 72 hr after the onset of proliferation; (c) T(s) was approximately 8.0 hr; T(gg2+m/2), 3.0 hr; and M, approximately 1.0 hr. Littoral cell proliferation began about 24 hr after the onset of parenchymal cell proliferation; the rate of entry of littoral cells into synthesis was greater than 4%/hr. Interlobular bile duct cell proliferation lagged well behind the parenchymal and littoral cell populations both in time and extent of proliferation.

  14. A secreted factor represses cell proliferation in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Debra A; Gomer, Richard H

    2005-10-01

    Many cells appear to secrete factors called chalones that limit their proliferation, but in most cases the factors have not been identified. We found that growing Dictyostelium cells secrete a 60 kDa protein called AprA for autocrine proliferation repressor. AprA has similarity to putative bacterial proteins of unknown function. Compared with wild-type cells, aprA-null cells proliferate faster, while AprA overexpressing cells proliferate slower. Growing wild-type cells secrete a factor that inhibits the proliferation of wild-type and aprA- cells; this activity is not secreted by aprA- cells. AprA purified by immunoprecipitation also slows the proliferation of wild-type and aprA- cells. Compared with wild type, there is a higher percentage of multinucleate cells in the aprA- population, and when starved, aprA- cells form abnormal structures that contain fewer spores. AprA may thus decrease the number of multinucleate cells and increase spore production. Together, the data suggest that AprA functions as part of a Dictyostelium chalone.

  15. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  16. Firm Sustainability Performance Index Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed Radzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to bring a model for firm sustainability performance index by applying both classical and Bayesian structural equation modeling (parametric and semi-parametric modeling. Both techniques are considered to the research data collected based on a survey directed to the China, Taiwan, and Malaysia food manufacturing industry. For estimating firm sustainability performance index we consider three main indicators include knowledge management, organizational learning, and business strategy. Based on the both Bayesian and classical methodology, we confirmed that knowledge management and business strategy have significant impact on firm sustainability performance index.

  17. Testicular Sertoli cells influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ping; He, Lan; Pu, Dan; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhou, Wenxu; Sun, Yining; Hu, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The proliferation of dramatic increased by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → VEGF receptor-2 expression of ECs was up-regulated by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → The MHC expression of ECs induced by INF-γ and IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM induced by TNF-α decreased respectively after co-cultured with Sertoli cells. → ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also didn't increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The major problem of the application of endothelial cells (ECs) in transplantation is the lack of proliferation and their immunogenicity. In this study, we co-cultured ECs with Sertoli cells to monitor whether Sertoli cells can influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured ECs. Sertoli cells were isolated from adult testicular tissue. ECs were divided into the control group and the experimental group, which included three sub-groups co-cultured with 1 x 10 3 , 1 x 10 4 or 1 x 10 5 cell/ml of Sertoli cells. The growth and proliferation of ECs were observed microscopically, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) was examined by Western blotting. In another experiment, ECs were divided into the control group, the single culture group and the co-culture group with the optimal concentration of Sertoli cells. After INF-γ and TNF-α were added to the culture medium, MHC II antigen expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) were measured in the culture medium by ELISA. We demonstrated that 1 x 10 4 cell/ml Sertoli cells promoted the proliferation of co-cultured ECs more dramatically than that in other groups (P 4 cell/ml of the Sertoli cells was most effective in the up-regulation of KDR expression in the co-cultured ECs (P < 0.05). Sertoli cells can effectively suppress INF-γ-induced MHC II antigen expression in co-cultured ECs compared with single

  18. Testicular Sertoli cells influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ping, E-mail: fanpinggoodluck@163.com [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); He, Lan; Pu, Dan; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhou, Wenxu; Sun, Yining; Hu, Nan [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} The proliferation of dramatic increased by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} VEGF receptor-2 expression of ECs was up-regulated by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} The MHC expression of ECs induced by INF-{gamma} and IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM induced by TNF-{alpha} decreased respectively after co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also didn't increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The major problem of the application of endothelial cells (ECs) in transplantation is the lack of proliferation and their immunogenicity. In this study, we co-cultured ECs with Sertoli cells to monitor whether Sertoli cells can influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured ECs. Sertoli cells were isolated from adult testicular tissue. ECs were divided into the control group and the experimental group, which included three sub-groups co-cultured with 1 x 10{sup 3}, 1 x 10{sup 4} or 1 x 10{sup 5} cell/ml of Sertoli cells. The growth and proliferation of ECs were observed microscopically, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) was examined by Western blotting. In another experiment, ECs were divided into the control group, the single culture group and the co-culture group with the optimal concentration of Sertoli cells. After INF-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} were added to the culture medium, MHC II antigen expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) were measured in the culture medium by ELISA. We demonstrated that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml Sertoli cells promoted the proliferation of co-cultured ECs more dramatically than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml of the Sertoli cells was most effective in the up-regulation of KDR expression in the co-cultured ECs (P < 0.05). Sertoli

  19. Estradiol and corticosterone stimulate the proliferation of a GH cell line, MtT/S: Proliferation of growth hormone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Haruo; Hiraoka, Yoshiki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2016-08-01

    Estrogens are known as a potent growth-stimulator of the anterior pituitary cells such as prolactin cells and somatomammotroph cell lines, while glucocorticoids often inhibit cellular proliferation in the pituitary gland as well as in the extra-pituitary tissues. In this study, the involvement of these steroid hormones in the regulation of proliferation was examined in the MtT/S cells, secreting growth hormone (GH). Effects of estrogens and glucocorticoids were examined in MtT/S cells grown in the medium containing dextran-coated charcoal treated serum. The relative cell density after culture was estimated by the Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay System, and the proliferation rate was determined by the BrdU incorporation method. The mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Estradiol and the specific agonist for both estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ stimulated MtT/S growth at a dose dependent manner. The membrane impermeable estrogen, 17β-estradiol-bovine serum albumin conjugate also stimulated the MtT/S proliferation. The effects of all estrogens were inhibited by an estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182780. Corticosterone stimulated the proliferation of MtT/S cells at doses lower than 10nM without stimulating GH gene transcription, whereas it did not change the proliferation rate at 1μM. The effects of corticosterone were inhibited by glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor, RU486, but not by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone. Both estrogens and glucocorticoids were found to stimulate the proliferation of MtT/S, increasing the mRNA expression of cyclins D1, D3, and E. The results suggest that estrogens and glucocorticoids may be involved in the mechanisms responsible for the proliferation of GH cells in the course of pituitary development, to maintain the population of GH cells in the adult pituitary gland, and also in the promotion of GH cell tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Dictyostelium chalone uses G proteins to regulate proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Nana E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that organ size, and the proliferation of tumor metastases, may be regulated by negative feedback loops in which autocrine secreted factors called chalones inhibit proliferation. However, very little is known about chalones, and how cells sense them. We previously identified two secreted proteins, AprA and CfaD, which act as chalones in Dictyostelium. Cells lacking AprA or CfaD proliferate faster than wild-type cells, and adding recombinant AprA or CfaD to cells slows their proliferation. Results We show here that cells lacking the G protein components Galpha8, Galpha9, and Gbeta proliferate faster than wild-type cells despite secreting normal or high levels of AprA and CfaD. Compared with wild-type cells, the proliferation of galpha8-, galpha9- and gbeta- cells are only weakly inhibited by recombinant AprA (rAprA. Like AprA and CfaD, Galpha8 and Gbeta inhibit cell proliferation but not cell growth (the rate of increase in mass and protein per nucleus, whereas Galpha9 inhibits both proliferation and growth. galpha8- cells show normal cell-surface binding of rAprA, whereas galpha9- and gbeta- cells have fewer cell-surface rAprA binding sites, suggesting that Galpha9 and Gbeta regulate the synthesis or processing of the AprA receptor. Like other ligands that activate G proteins, rAprA induces the binding of [3H]GTP to membranes, and GTPgammaS inhibits the binding of rAprA to membranes. Both AprA-induced [3H]GTP binding and the GTPgammaS inhibition of rAprA binding require Galpha8 and Gbeta but not Galpha9. Like aprA- cells, galpha8- cells have reduced spore viability. Conclusion This study shows that Galpha8 and Gbeta are part of the signal transduction pathway used by AprA to inhibit proliferation but not growth in Dictyostelium, whereas Galpha9 is part of a differealnt pathway that regulates both proliferation and growth, and that a chalone signal transduction pathway uses G proteins.