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Sample records for splendens supplies mucus

  1. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  2. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  3. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 μmol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with le...

  4. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  6. Bicarbonate diffusion through mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, E H; Miller, J; Engel, E

    1995-09-01

    The mucus layer overlying duodenal epithelium maintains a pH gradient against high luminal acid concentrations. Despite these adverse conditions, epithelial surface pH remains close to neutrality. The exact nature of the gradient-forming barrier remains unknown. The barrier consists of mucus into which HCO3- is secreted. Quantification of the ability of HCO3- to establish and maintain the gradient depends on accurate measurement of this ion's diffusion coefficient through mucus. We describe new experimental and mathematical methods for diffusion measurement and report diffusion coefficients for HCO3- diffusion through saline, 5% mucin solutions, and rat duodenal mucus. The diffusion coefficients were 20.2 +/- 0.10, 3.02 +/- 0.31, and 1.81 +/- 0.12 x 10(-6) cm2/s, respectively. Modeling of the mucobicarbonate layer with this latter value suggests that for conditions of high luminal acid strength the neutralization of acid by HCO3- occurs just above the epithelial surface. Under these conditions the model predicts that fluid convection toward the lumen could be important in maintaining the pH gradient. In support of this hypothesis we were able to demonstrate a net luminal fluid flux of 5 microliters.min-1.cm-2 after perfusion of 0.15 N HCl in the rat duodenum.

  7. Clerodendrum splendens: a potential source of antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Boota, F.

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial status of the bark and leaves of Clerodendrum splendens was evaluated.The inquisition had provided that the leaf and bark of the plant had exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential. The antibacterial activity was significant against S. aureus with the maximum effectiveness of 71 ± 0.6 mm displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of bark. Moreover, all the petroleum ether extracts exhibited maximum inhibitory effects against all the bacterial strains. The Gram negative strains, i.e. K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli had provided good to satisfactory results within the range of 20 ± 0.8 mm to 69 ± 0.9 mm. Excellent activities were exhibited by leaf and bark extracts against the fungal pathogens with the maximum potential displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of leaf i.e. 57 ± 0.5 mm against A. oryzae. The MIC assays were carried out to further authenticate the results obtained by zones of inhibitions. The MIC potential exhibited by Gram negative bacteria for K. pneumoniae was evaluated to be > 0.032 mg/mL while for the S. aureus was roughly evaluated to be > 0.088. Moreover, the MIC activity displayed against other Gram negative bacterial strains was reported > 0.112 ± 0.7 mg/mL for E. coli and > 0.059 ± 1.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa. The MIC effectiveness for the fungal strain of A. niger and A. oryzae was evaluated to be 0.118 ± 0.7 mg/mL. (author)

  8. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  9. Altering mucus rheology to "solidify" human mucus at the nanoscale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Lai

    Full Text Available The ability of mucus to function as a protective barrier at mucosal surfaces rests on its viscous and elastic properties, which are not well understood at length scales relevant to pathogens and ultrafine environmental particles. Here we report that fresh, undiluted human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM transitions from an impermeable elastic barrier to non-adhesive objects sized 1 microm and larger to a highly permeable viscoelastic liquid to non-adhesive objects smaller than 500 nm in diameter. Addition of a nonionic detergent, present in vaginal gels, lubricants and condoms, caused CVM to behave as an impermeable elastic barrier to 200 and 500 nm particles, suggesting that the dissociation of hydrophobically-bundled mucin fibers created a finer elastic mucin mesh. Surprisingly, the macroscopic viscoelasticity, which is critical to proper mucus function, was unchanged. These findings provide important insight into the nanoscale structural and barrier properties of mucus, and how the penetration of foreign particles across mucus might be inhibited.

  10. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory mucus in epidemiology has mainly been studied using standardized questionnaires including questions on cough and phlegm. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) much controversy exists regarding the importance of mucus hypersecretion. From being the key element in the 'British...... hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function......, such an effect has been shown in subsequent studies on general population samples. Chronic mucus hypersecretion also increases risk of hospital admission which may be due to an increased risk of lower respiratory tract infection. In severe COPD this may explain the increased mortality associated...

  11. Does milk increase mucus production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Jim; McGlashan, Susan Read

    2010-04-01

    Excessive milk consumption has a long association with increased respiratory tract mucus production and asthma. Such an association cannot be explained using a conventional allergic paradigm and there is limited medical evidence showing causality. In the human colon, beta-casomorphin-7 (beta-CM-7), an exorphin derived from the breakdown of A1 milk, stimulates mucus production from gut MUC5AC glands. In the presence of inflammation similar mucus overproduction from respiratory tract MUC5AC glands characterises many respiratory tract diseases. beta-CM-7 from the blood stream could stimulate the production and secretion of mucus production from these respiratory glands. Such a hypothesis could be tested in vitro using quantitative RT-PCR to show that the addition of beta-CM-7 into an incubation medium of respiratory goblet cells elicits an increase in MUC5AC mRNA and by identifying beta-CM-7 in the blood of asthmatic patients. This association may not necessarily be simply cause and effect as the person has to be consuming A1 milk, beta-CM-7 must pass into the systemic circulation and the tissues have to be actively inflamed. These prerequisites could explain why only a subgroup of the population, who have increased respiratory tract mucus production, find that many of their symptoms, including asthma, improve on a dairy elimination diet. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lead tolerance and cellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tian, Shengke [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M.J.I.; Liao, Haibing [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elsholtzia splendens had a good ability of lead tolerance and accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was mostly restricted to the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb and Ca shared most similar distribution patterns in E. splendens. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in Elsholtzia splendens-a copper (Cu) accumulator plant using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence. According to chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, E. splendens displayed certain tolerance at 100 {mu}M Pb treatment. Lead concentration in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens reached 45,183.6, 1657.6, and 380.9 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Pb was mostly accumulated in the roots, and there were also high concentrations of Pb been transported into stems and leaves. Micro-XRF analysis of the stem and leaf cross section revealed that Pb was mostly restricted in the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues of both stem and leaf of E. splendens. The correlation between distribution of K, Ca, Zn and Pb were analyzed. There were significant positive correlations (P < 0.01) among Pb and Ca, K, Zn distribution both in stem and leaf of E. splendens. However, among the three elements, Ca shared the most similar distribution pattern and the highest correlation coefficients with Pb in both stem and leaf cross section of E. splendens. This suggests that Ca may play an important role in Pb accumulation in stem and leaf of E. splendens.

  13. The House Crow (Corvus splendens: A Threat to New Zealand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Fraser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The house crow (Corvus splendens, a native of the Indian subcontinent, has shown a rapid expansion of habitat range across Eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Europe and Asia. It is an adaptable, gregarious commensal bird which is regarded globally as an important pest species due to its impacts on livestock, agricultural and horticultural crops and indigenous fauna and as a fecal contaminator of human environments and water resources. Two Maxent (v3.3.3k models (A with presence data in Australia and (B with simulated entry data locations in New Zealand and a third ArcGIS model (C with environmental and social layers are used to determine an overall suitability index and establish a niche-based model of the potential spatial distribution for C. splendens within New Zealand. The results show that New Zealand, particularly the northern regions of North Island, has suitable environments for the establishment of the house crow. In order of suitability Model B showed highest potential land area suitability (31.84% followed by Model A (13.79% and Model C (10.89%. The potential for further expansion of this bird’s invasive range is high and, if New Zealand is invaded, impacts are likely to be significant.

  14. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic mucus lines all mucosal surfaces of the body and forms a potential barrier to mucosal drug delivery. Mucus is mainly composed of water and mucins; high-molecular weight glycoproteins forming an entangled network. Consequently, mucus forms a steric barrier and due to its negative charge...... barrier to drug delivery. Current knowledge of mucus characteristics and barrier properties, as achieved by state-of-the-art methodologies, is the topic of this MiniReview emphasizing the gastrointestinal mucus and an overall focus on oral drug delivery. Cell culture-based in vitro models are well......, studies of peptide and protein drug diffusion in and through mucus and studies of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles are included to illustrate the mucus as a potentially important barrier to obtain sufficient bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and thus an important parameter to address...

  15. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, Cornelis Peter van der

    1991-01-01

    The use of physiotherapeutic techniques may increase mucus transport in patients with airways disease including COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The most effective parts of the treatment are probably forced expirations with open glottis and coughing. However, in patients

  16. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-07-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior.

  17. Semi-automated tracking of behaviour of Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durey, Maëlle; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Matessi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel software system for animal behaviour tracking is described. It is used for tracking fish filmed in aquariums using a low quality acquisition system. The tracking is based on a multiscale template matching technique that finds both the position and the orientation of the tra......In this paper, a novel software system for animal behaviour tracking is described. It is used for tracking fish filmed in aquariums using a low quality acquisition system. The tracking is based on a multiscale template matching technique that finds both the position and the orientation...... of the tracked fish. The template is matched in the background subtracted frames, where the background is estimated using a median based approach. The system is very stable and has been used in a large behavioural study design to the use of the behavioural pattern known as mate choice copying in Betta splendens....

  18. The HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS use for research of Ignalina NPP vicinity contamination by Cs 137 and Co 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiponas, D.; Marchiulenene, D.

    2002-01-01

    The superficial distribution of Cs 137 and Co 60 and specific activity of these radionuclides in Hylocomium splendens in Ignalina NPP vicinity was investigated. The increase of Cs 137 and Co 60 specific activity in Hylocomium splendens was linked with increasing of these radionuclides activity in atmospheric deposits

  19. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-06-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  20. Growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens Lowe 1834 in the South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens from South-West Indian Ocean seamounts were studied based on whole otolith readings. Ages of the fish under study ranged between one year and 14 years (15.5–43.5cm fork length). Age distribution was related to depth. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males were ...

  1. Toxicity and deficiency of copper in Elsholtzia splendens affect photosynthesis biophysics, pigments and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongyun; Kroneck, Peter M H; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-06-18

    Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in China. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and chlorophyll fluorescence in mesophyll of E. splendens were used to investigate the copper-induced stress from deficiency and toxicity as well as the acclimation to excess copper stress. The plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing either Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-EDDHA. Copper toxicity affected light-acclimated electron flow much stronger than nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) or dark-acclimated photochemical efficiency of PSIIRC (Fv/Fm). It also changed spectrally resolved Chl fluorescence kinetics, in particular by strengthening the short-wavelength (<700 nm) part of NPQ altering light harvesting complex II (LHCII) aggregation. Copper toxicity reduced iron accumulation, decreased Chls and carotenoids in leaves. During acclimation to copper toxicity, leaf copper decreased but leaf iron increased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels. Copper tolerance in E. splendens was inducible; acclimation seems be related to homeostasis of copper and iron in E. splendens. Copper deficiency appeared at 10 mg copper per kg leaf DW, leading to reduced growth and decreased photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII). The importance of these results for evaluating responses of phytoremediation plants to stress in their environment is discussed.

  2. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  3. Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, J F; Burggren, W W

    2014-03-01

    The effect of hypoxia on air-breathing onset and survival was determined in larvae of the air-breathing fishes, the three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus and the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Larvae were exposed continuously or intermittently (12 h nightly) to an oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 20, 17 and 14 kPa from 1 to 40 days post-fertilization (dpf). Survival and onset of air breathing were measured daily. Continuous normoxic conditions produced a larval survival rate of 65-75% for B. splendens and 15-30% for T. trichopterus, but all larvae of both species died at 9 dpf in continuous hypoxia conditions. Larvae under intermittent (nocturnal) hypoxia showed a 15% elevated survival rate in both species. The same conditions altered the onset of air breathing, advancing onset by 4 days in B. splendens and delaying onset by 9 days in T. trichopterus. These interspecific differences were attributed to air-breathing characteristics: B. splendens was a non-obligatory air breather after 36 dpf, whereas T. trichopterus was an obligatory air breather after 32 dpf. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Influence of temperature on Pythium splendens--induced root disease on carambola, Averrhoa carambola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2004-02-01

    A series of glasshouse and incubator studies were conducted to investigate the role played by Pythium splendens in a decline disorder of carambola, Averrhoa carambola. Plants, 4-6 months old, were grown in native calcareous soil either infested or not infested with the pathogen. Isolates recovered from atemoya, carambola and passion fruit grew optimally at 30 degrees C, and significantly (P carambola. Temperature had a profound impact on the latter relationships. Two or more times more necrosis developed at 10 and 15 degrees C than at 25 and 30 degrees C. Total biomass accumulations were over four times greater at 30 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, and were always lower in soil infested with P. splendens. When biomass totals from infested and noninfested soil were compared, relative values were lowest at 15 and 20 degrees C and were almost two times greater at 30 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Root infection by P. splendens was greatest at 15 and 20 degrees C, far below the species' optimum for growth, and at 30 degrees C was over nine times lower than at 15 and 20 degrees C. This is the first detailed report of P. splendens as a pathogen of carambola.

  5. Symplasmic and apoplasmic transport inside feather moss stems of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, K; Turzanska, M; Nilsson, M-C

    2017-11-10

    The ubiquitous feather mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens form a thick, continuous boundary layer between the soil and the atmosphere, and play important roles in hydrology and nutrient cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems. The water fluxes among these mosses and environmental factors controlling them are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether feather mosses are capable of internal transport and to provide a better understanding of species-specific morphological traits underlying this function. The impacts of environmental conditions on their internal transport rates were also investigated. Cells involved in water and food conduction in P. schreberi and H. splendens were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Symplasmic and apoplasmic fluorescent tracers were applied to the moss stems to determine the routes of internal short- and long-distance transport and the impact of air humidity on the transport rates. Symplasmic transport over short distances occurs via food-conducting cells in both mosses. Pleurozium schreberi is also capable of apoplasmic internal long-distance transport via a central strand of hydroids. These are absent in H. splendens. Reduced air humidity significantly increased the internal transport of both species, and the increase was significantly faster for P. schreberi than for H. splendens. Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens are capable of internal transport but the pathway and conductivity differ due to differences in stem anatomy. These results help explain their varying desiccation tolerance and possibly their differing physiology and autecology and, ultimately, their impact on ecosystem functioning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. GROWTH AND COLOUR PERFORMANCE OF THE CROSSBREED MARBLE STRAIN Betta splendens AND Betta imbellis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Betta ornamental fish of marble strain is a strain which is prefered by the hobbyists, because of its unique color, expensive price, and difficult to obtain the fish color strains. Therefore strain marble betta fish is still dominant for export quality for national and international contests. The aim of this study was to observe the growth and color performance of the crossedbreed marble strains of wild betta, Betta imbellis crossed with Betta splendens. The hybrids of B. imbellis (f x B. splendens (m (D had a specific length and weight rate, (1,113 ± 0.04%/day; 2,531 ± 0.14%/day; 26.61 ± 2.02 mm which was better than that of the hybrids B. imbellis (m x B. splendens (f (C (1,099 ± 0.02%/day; 2,244 ± 0.13%/day; 25.97 ± 1.33 mm; and 0.0027 ± 0.0003 mm. However, the survival rate of the C hybrids (42.19 ± 11.42% was higher than those of D (33.67%-17.08%. Based on the obtained results of the color identification the hybrids had as many as 15 characters of color, homozygous strains of marble which became the target of as much as 1%.

  7. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Uvaria chamae and Clerodendoron splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Ebere Okwu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Uvaria chamae P. Beauv and Clerodendron splendens A Cheval are known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. Their anti-inflammatory and oxytocic properties were assessed in this study. The extracts and aspirin were found to inhibit carrageenan-induced paw oedema on albino rats and mice with a strong activity in aspirin having (80.43 % inhibition while U. chamae and C. splendens have 69.57% and 47.83% inhibition respectively. The plants extract exhibition and uterine contraction activity on guinea pig. Phytochemical studies on the plants revealed the presence of bioactive components comprising flavonoids (0.70 – 5.70 mg. 100 g-1, alkaloids (0.81-5.40 mg. 100 g-1, tannins (0.40 – 3.60 mg. 100 g-1, saponins (0.38 – 2.10 mg. 100 g-1 and phenols (0.08 – 0.10 mg. 100 g-1. These bioactive compounds may be responsible for the medicinal properties of U. chaemae and C. splendens that form the basis of their use in herbal medicine in Nigeria.

  8. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

    2014-03-01

    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia.

  9. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian

    Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals, fresh coral mucus and floating and attached mucus detritus from the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea was studied. Corallochytrium limacisporum Raghukumar, Thraustochytrium motivum Goldstein...

  10. The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

    2009-02-01

    Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size.

  11. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  12. Effects of Different Temperatures for Drying Cervical Mucus Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different room temperatures for drying cervical mucus on crystallisation of fern-tree patterns was determined using cervical mucus smears from 60 women undergoing investigation for infertility at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Cervical mucus smears were dried in the oven at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35C ...

  13. Vliv vybraných faktorů na reprodukci ryby Betta splendens

    OpenAIRE

    HOMOLKA, Václav

    2013-01-01

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens; order Perciformes, family Osphronemidae) is a fish occurring in the area of south east Asia. Above branchial organ (so-called labyrinth) allowes it to breath an air oxygen. It is a territorial sort of fish, males are brawling to each other. In a breeding fish take alive or frozen food and also artificial feed. The fish is bubblenest, spawns are put into a foam nest, built by a male, that takes care about the posterity for some time. The task of the ...

  14. Skin mucus proteins of lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Manjari Patel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus serves as a first line of defense against pathogens and external stressors. In this study the proteomic profile of lumpsucker skin mucus was characterized using 2D gels coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Mucosal proteins were identified by homology searches across the databases SwissProt, NCBInr and vertebrate EST. The identified proteins were clustered into ten groups based on their gene ontology biological process in PANTHER (www.patherdb.org. Calmodulin, cystatin-B, histone H2B, peroxiredoxin1, apolipoprotein A1, natterin-2, 14-3-3 protein, alfa enolase, pentraxin, warm temperature acclimation 65 kDa (WAP65kDa and heat shock proteins were identified. Several of the proteins are known to be involved in immune and/or stress responses. Proteomic profile established in this study could be a benchmark for differential proteomics studies.

  15. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osadnik CR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian R Osadnik,1,2 Christine F McDonald,2,3 Anne E Holland2,4,51Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, 4Department of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, 5Department of Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaWe wish to thank Ramos et al for presenting a succinct and up-to-date synthesis of the evidence relating to the important issue of mucus hypersecretion in COPD.1 The authors highlight the association of mucus hypersecretion with poor outcomes, including increased risk of exacerbations, hospitalization and mortality. These associations have led to interest in the potential benefits of mucus clearance techniques in COPD. As Ramos et al1 point out, although the physiological rationale for airway clearance techniques (ACTs in COPD is strong, clinical efficacy has historically been difficult to establish, perhaps due to the variety of techniques and outcomes that have been employed in small studies. We have recently synthesized this body of evidence in a Cochrane systematic review of ACTs for individuals with COPD. The review demonstrated ACTs are safe and meta-analysis showed they confer small beneficial effects on a limited range of important clinical outcomes, such as the need for and duration of ventilatory assistance during an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD.2View original paper by Ramos and colleagues.

  16. Polymers in the gut compress the colonic mucus hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Preska Steinberg, Asher; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2016-06-28

    Colonic mucus is a key biological hydrogel that protects the gut from infection and physical damage and mediates host-microbe interactions and drug delivery. However, little is known about how its structure is influenced by materials it comes into contact with regularly. For example, the gut abounds in polymers such as dietary fibers or administered therapeutics, yet whether such polymers interact with the mucus hydrogel, and if so, how, remains unclear. Although several biological processes have been identified as potential regulators of mucus structure, the polymeric composition of the gut environment has been ignored. Here, we demonstrate that gut polymers do in fact regulate mucus hydrogel structure, and that polymer-mucus interactions can be described using a thermodynamic model based on Flory-Huggins solution theory. We found that both dietary and therapeutic polymers dramatically compressed murine colonic mucus ex vivo and in vivo. This behavior depended strongly on both polymer concentration and molecular weight, in agreement with the predictions of our thermodynamic model. Moreover, exposure to polymer-rich luminal fluid from germ-free mice strongly compressed the mucus hydrogel, whereas exposure to luminal fluid from specific-pathogen-free mice-whose microbiota degrade gut polymers-did not; this suggests that gut microbes modulate mucus structure by degrading polymers. These findings highlight the role of mucus as a responsive biomaterial, and reveal a mechanism of mucus restructuring that must be integrated into the design and interpretation of studies involving therapeutic polymers, dietary fibers, and fiber-degrading gut microbes.

  17. Cervical mucus properties stratify risk for preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha S Critchfield

    Full Text Available Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth.To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus.Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction.

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS. We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO, using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including “oxidation reduction”, “transcription factor activity”, and “ion channel transporter”. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress.

  19. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY DSSE10 IN HEAD SQUASH TOXORHYNCHITES SPLENDENS USING IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PEROXIDASE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Fiona Sari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus are transmitted from human to human by the bites of infective female Aedesmosquitoes from subgenus Stegomyia. One of the way to detect Dengue virus antigen is by usingimmunohistochemical technique. This method was reported to detect dengue vims antigen in lowlevels. The aims of this study is to measure sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal antibodyDSSE10 using SBPC to detect antigen Dengue virus in head squash Toxorhynchites splendenswere infected with dengue patient serum and RT-PCR as gold standart. Artificially-infected Tx.splendens mosquitoes with serum positif dengue virus were used as infectious samples and noninfectedTx. splendens mosquitoes were used as control negative. The immunohistochemichalSBPC assay using monoclonal antibody DSSE10 then applied in mosquitoes head squash todetect Dengue vims antigen. RT-PCR as a gold standart was applied in each mosquito thorax.The result were analyzed by descriptive stasistic test and 2x2 diagnostic test table. Monoclonalantibody DSSE10 using immunohistochemical SBPC assay in head squash Tx. splendens wasgave sensitivity 87,09% and specificity 92,5%. Conclussion of this study is DSSE10 Monoclonalantibodies can be used as primary antibodies for the detection of dengue vims antigen inmosquito head squashKeywords: Dengue viruses, SBPC, antibodies DSSE10, head squash, Toxorhynchitessplendens' Virus Dengue ditularkan dari orang ke orang melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes dari subgenusStegomyia. Salah satu cara untuk mendeteksi antigen vims Dengue adalah dengan menggunakanteknik imunohistokimia. Metode imunohistokimia dilaporkan dapat mendeteksi antigen vimsDengue dalam kadar yang rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan evaluasi sensitivitasdan spesifitas antibodi monoklonal DSSE10 dengan metode imunohistokimia Streptavidin BiotinPeroxidase Complex (SBPC untuk mendeteksi antigen Dengue melalui scdiaan head squashnyamuk Toxorhynchites splendens yang diinfeksi dengan scrum penderita

  20. Tethered by Self-Generated Flow: Mucus String Augmented Feeding Current Generation in Larval Oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Wheeler, J.; Anderson, E.

    2016-02-01

    Marine zooplankton live in a nutritionally dilute environment. To survive, they must process an enormous volume of water relative to their own body volume for food. To achieve this, many zooplankters including copepods, invertebrate larvae, and protists create a feeding current to concentrate and transport food items to their food gathering structures. To enhance the efficiency of the feeding current, these zooplankters often rely on certain "tethering" mechanisms to retard their translational motion for producing a strong feeding current. The tethering force may include excess weight due to gravity, force from attachment to solid surfaces, and drag experienced by strategically placed morphological structures. Larval oysters are known from previous studies to release mucus strings during feeding, presumably for supplying a tethering force to enhance their feeding-current efficiency. But the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used a high-speed microscale imaging system (HSMIS) to observe the behavior of freely swimming and feeding larval oysters. We also used HSMIS to measure larval imposed feeding currents via a micro-particle image velocimetry (µPIV) technique. HSMIS allows observations along a vertically oriented focal plane in a relatively large water vessel with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. Our high-speed videos show that a feeding larval oyster continuously released a long mucus string into its feeding current that flows downward; the feeding current subsequently dragged the mucus string downward. Analysis of our µPIV data combined with a hydrodynamic model further suggests that the drag force experienced by the mucus string in the feeding current contributes significantly to the tethering force required to generate the feeding current. Thus, mucus strings in larval oysters act as "anchors" in larval self-generated flow to actively tether the feeding larvae.

  1. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F.L. Pivetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens, uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro quantidades de palha de arroz (0, 4, 6 e 8 t ha-1 combinadas com três doses do herbicida oxyfluorfen (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1. Observou-se que os tratamentos que levaram à veiculação do herbicida (nas duas doses testadas e nas três quantidades de palha apresentaram controle de plantas daninhas sem que efeitos fitotóxicos severos fossem observados nas plantas de sálvia. A pulverização direta do herbicida sobre o solo e as plantas de sálvia não se mostrou viável. O tratamento que proporcionou controle satisfatório de plantas daninhas sem causar danos às plantas de sálvia e que, por isso, pode ser recomendado foi o que recebeu o herbicida na dose de 2 L ha-1, veiculado a 4 t ha-1 de palha de arroz.Weed control is one of the main constrains to flower garden maintenance. This work aimed to study the possibility of translocating oxyfluorfen to rice straw and of selectivity of Salvia splendens, one of the main ornamental species produced and commercialized in Brazil, to the herbicide. A randomized block design was used in the factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of four amounts of rice straw (0, 4, 6 and 8 t ha-1 combined with three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 1 and 2 L ha-1. The results showed that the treatments that led to translocation of the herbicide to rice straw showed great weed control, without any high phytotoxicty damage to the salvia plants. The treatment receiving g 4 L ha-1 of herbicide in 2

  2. Experimental study of hypersecretion of mucus in the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, L

    1963-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 40 or 300 to 400 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 5 hr/day, 5 day/wk. Three-mo exposure to 40 ppm yielded no great change. At 300 to 400 ppm, considerable mucus was observed in many animals by the 4th wk. There was accompanying hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucus-secreting goblet cells.

  3. Intestinal mucus protects Giardia lamblia from killing by human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenian, A J; Gillin, F D

    1987-02-01

    We have previously shown that nonimmune human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Killing requires a bile salt and the activity of the milk bile salt-stimulated lipase. We now show that human small-intestinal mucus protects trophozoites from killing by milk. Parasite survival increased with mucus concentration, but protection was overcome during longer incubation times or with greater milk concentrations. Trophozoites preincubated with mucus and then washed were not protected. Protective activity was associated with non-mucin CsCl density gradient fractions. Moreover, it was heat-stable, non-dialyzable, and non-lipid. Whereas whole mucus inhibited milk lipolytic activity, protective mucus fractions did not inhibit the enzyme. Furthermore, mucus partially protected G. lamblia trophozoites against the toxicity of oleic acid, a fatty acid which is released from milk triglycerides by lipase. These studies show that mucus protects G. lamblia both by inhibiting lipase activity and by decreasing the toxicity of products of lipolysis. The ability of mucus to protect G. lamblia from toxic lipolytic products may help to promote intestinal colonization by this parasite.

  4. Assessment of (Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora Cell Cultures Response Under to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Angélica Guerrero Zúñiga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures are homogenous experimental systems, highly controllable that allow the study of short and large water stress adaptations without the interference of the different tissues and development of plants. An approach to understand these adaptations is through the presence of induced proteins; as a result of changes in genetic expression. This work analyze the response of Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora cell cultures exposed to abscisic acid (ABA, through the electrophoretic characterization of quantity and quality of stress induced proteins. There were recorded low molecular weight polypeptides (< 35kDa, common in experiments under ABA 10mM, followed by the association with 20 and 30mM ABA conditions, with a particularly response of cell cultures without the stress agent.

  5. Chronic mucus hypersecretion in COPD and death from pulmonary infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1995-01-01

    The association of chronic mucus hypersecretion and mortality is a matter of debate. We wished to determine whether the relationship between chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related mortality could be explained by proneness to pulmonary infection. We...... with pulmonary infection implicated (relative risk (RR) 3.5) but not of death without pulmonary infection (RR 0.9). We consider that subjects with COPD and chronic mucus hypersecretion are more likely to die from pulmonary infections than subjects without chronic mucus hypersecretion. This may explain the excess...... radiography, death was classified as either due to pulmonary infection (n = 38), other causes (n = 51), or unclassifiable (n = 12). Of subjects reporting chronic mucus hypersecretion at the initial examination, pulmonary infection was implicated in 54% of deaths, whereas this only occurred in 28% of subjects...

  6. Uncertain population dynamic and state variables of alfonsino (Beryx splendens Dinámica poblacional incierta y variables de estado en alfonsino (Beryx splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Wiff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfonsino (Beryx splendens is a species associated with seamounts, with an important fishery in Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile (33°40'S, 79°00'W. Since 2004, this resource has been managed by catch quotas estimated from stock assessment models. The alfonsino model involves high levels of uncertainty for several reasons including a lack of knowledge of aspects of the population dynamics and poorly informative time-series that feed the proposed evaluation models. This work evaluated three hypotheses regarding population dynamics and their influence on the main state variables (biomass, recruitment of the model using age-structured and dynamic biomass models. The hypotheses corresponded to de-recruitment of older individuals, non-linearity between standardized catch per unit effort, and population abundance as well as variations of the relative importance of length structures. According to the results, the depletion of the spawning biomass between 1998 and 2008 varied between 9 and 56%, depending on the combination of hypotheses used in the model. This indicates that state variables in alfonsino are not robust to the available information; rather, they depend strongly on the hypothesis of population dynamics. The discussion is focused on interpreting the causes of the changes in the state variables in light of a conceptual model for population dynamics in alfonsino and which pieces of information would be necessary to reduce the associated uncertainty.El alfonsino (Beryx splendens es una especie asociada a montes submarinos. En Chile sustenta una importante pesquería en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (33°40'S, 79°00'W. Desde el año 2004, este recurso es administrado a través de cuotas anuales de capturas, las cuales son estimadas desde un modelo de evaluación de stock. La modelación de la población de alfonsino se caracteriza por una alta incertidumbre, debido a diversas fuentes, como son desconocimiento de aspectos de su din

  7. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [Agricultural College, Henan University of Science and Technology, 70 Tianjin Road, Luoyang, Henan Province 471003 (China) and Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)]. E-mail: wfy1975@163.com; Lin Xiangui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China); Yin Rui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens.

  8. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fayuan; Lin Xiangui; Yin Rui

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens

  9. Effects of CaCl2 solutions to alleviate drought stress effects in potted ornamentals Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jędrzejuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedding plants are often subjected to soil water deficit – either after planting and/or during the market chain. Methods to alleviate the negative water stress effects are sought for to preserve ornamental values of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of two bedding plants, Ageratum houstonianum Mill. and Salvia splendens Sellow ex Scult., to water stress and treatments with calcium chloride aimed to alleviate drought effects. Plants were subjected either to 45 days of periodical stress (five cycles when watering was off for 5 consecutive days, followed by four cycles on for 5 consecutive days or 10 days of radical drought (complete water withdrawal. On the first day, before the onset of drought, plants were watered with 0.5% Ca or 1% Ca w/v as a solution of calcium chloride (5 g or 10 g Ca per 1 dm3 of the growing substrate. The similarly Ca-treated but routinely watered plants provided controls to evaluate the water shortage effects. Plant height, inflorescence length/number, leaf number, leaf area (in Salvia splendens only, aboveground plant part weight, and root weight (in Salvia splendens only as well as leaf relative water content (RWC were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiments. Water withdrawal during 10 days of growth (radical drought reduced by half RWC in leaves of withering Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum plants. Its effects on the growth parameters were less pronounced and mitigated by Ca applications. Also in the periodically stressed plants of both species, RWC and most growth parameters were reduced by water shortage but Ca applications alleviated the negative stress effects.

  10. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant ...

  11. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Bastholm, Sara; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. Spontaneously shed cervical mucus plugs from healthy women in active labor, were tested. The viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs were investigated...... with using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Random-effects regression was used for statistical analysis. The CMPs are solid-like viscoelastic structures and the elastic modulus dominated the viscous modulus at all frequencies. These rheological characteristics...

  12. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES FOR SPERM - CERVICAL-MUCUS INTERACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KREMER, J; JAGER, S

    An overview is presented of the effects of antisperm antibodies on the sperm - cervical mucus interaction. Antisperm IgA on spermatozoa or in cervical mucus can severely inhibit sperm penetration of cervical mucus and migration through it. Disturbance of the sperm - cervical mucus interaction is the

  13. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  14. The impact of weather conditions on dynamics of Hylocomium splendens annual increment and net production in forest communities of forest-steppe zone in Khakassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Goncharova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of annual increments of green moss Hylocomium splendens (Hedw. Schimp. in B.S.G. in the Khakassia forest-steppe zone has been studied. The values of the moss linear and phytomass increments were investigated in different habitats for 6 years. The aboveground annual production of the H. splendens in phytocenosis was estimated. Linear increments of the H. splendens growing under the tree canopy and opening between trees were not significantly different. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are significantly higher than in the openings between trees. The density of moss mats, proportion between leaves and stems were calculated. It was revealed that climatic factors have a different degree and duration influence on the moss increments in different habitats. Linear increments of H. splendens in different habitats synchronously respond to weather factor changes. The air temperature was the most important at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period; the amount of precipitation was more important in the middle of the growth period. Phytomass increments of H. splendens in different habitats respond differently to influence of weather conditions. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are not sensitive to air temperature, and more sensitive to precipitations in the middle of growth period than one of opening between trees. The specificity of the climatic factors’ influence on the biomass growth depends on habitat conditions.

  15. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Pontes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, natural products with antifungal and antioxidant activities are being increasingly researched for a more sustainable alternative to the chemicals currently used for the same purpose. The plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata is a causative agent of diseases in citrus, leading to huge economic losses. Antioxidants are important for the production of medicines for various diseases that may be related to the presence of free radicals, such as cancer, and in the cosmetic industry as an anti-aging agent and the food industry as preservatives. This study evaluated the antifungal and antioxidant potential of extracts of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens, a tree species that occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by an assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, and the antifungal activity was assessed through the evaluation of mycelial growth. Majority of the extracts exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, especially the acetonic extract (4A. The antioxidant activity may be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the extracts showed no inhibitory activity of mycelial growth of the fungus tested, with the exception of dichloromethanic extract (2B, which had an inhibitory effect (10.2% at the end of testing.

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ; Luděk STÁDNÍK; Mojmír VACEK; František LOUDA

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts), sperm motility (SM) during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC) and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval), open days (SP), inseminations number for pregnancy (index), an...

  17. Muc5b Is the Major Polymeric Mucin in Mucus from Thoroughbred Horses With and Without Airway Mucus Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Karine; Cardwell, Jacqueline M.; Humphrey, Emma; Newton, Richard; Knight, David; Clegg, Peter; Thornton, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Mucus accumulation is a feature of inflammatory airway disease in the horse and has been associated with reduced performance in racehorses. In this study, we have analysed the two major airways gel-forming mucins Muc5b and Muc5ac in respect of their site of synthesis, their biochemical properties, and their amounts in mucus from healthy horses and from horses with signs of airway mucus accumulation. Polyclonal antisera directed against equine Muc5b and Muc5ac were raised and characterised. Immunohistochemical staining of normal equine trachea showed that Muc5ac and Muc5b are produced by cells in the submucosal glands, as well as surface epithelial goblet cells. Western blotting after agarose gel electrophoresis of airway mucus from healthy horses, and horses with mucus accumulation, was used to determine the amounts of these two mucins in tracheal wash samples. The results showed that in healthy horses Muc5b was the predominant mucin with small amounts of Muc5ac. The amounts of Muc5b and Muc5ac were both dramatically increased in samples collected from horses with high mucus scores as determined visually at the time of endoscopy and that this increase also correlated with increase number of bacteria present in the sample. The change in amount of Muc5b and Muc5ac indicates that Muc5b remains the most abundant mucin in mucus. In summary, we have developed mucin specific polyclonal antibodies, which have allowed us to show that there is a significant increase in Muc5b and Muc5ac in mucus accumulated in equine airways and these increases correlated with the numbers of bacteria. PMID:21602926

  18. Muc5b is the major polymeric mucin in mucus from thoroughbred horses with and without airway mucus accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rousseau

    Full Text Available Mucus accumulation is a feature of inflammatory airway disease in the horse and has been associated with reduced performance in racehorses. In this study, we have analysed the two major airways gel-forming mucins Muc5b and Muc5ac in respect of their site of synthesis, their biochemical properties, and their amounts in mucus from healthy horses and from horses with signs of airway mucus accumulation. Polyclonal antisera directed against equine Muc5b and Muc5ac were raised and characterised. Immunohistochemical staining of normal equine trachea showed that Muc5ac and Muc5b are produced by cells in the submucosal glands, as well as surface epithelial goblet cells. Western blotting after agarose gel electrophoresis of airway mucus from healthy horses, and horses with mucus accumulation, was used to determine the amounts of these two mucins in tracheal wash samples. The results showed that in healthy horses Muc5b was the predominant mucin with small amounts of Muc5ac. The amounts of Muc5b and Muc5ac were both dramatically increased in samples collected from horses with high mucus scores as determined visually at the time of endoscopy and that this increase also correlated with increase number of bacteria present in the sample. The change in amount of Muc5b and Muc5ac indicates that Muc5b remains the most abundant mucin in mucus. In summary, we have developed mucin specific polyclonal antibodies, which have allowed us to show that there is a significant increase in Muc5b and Muc5ac in mucus accumulated in equine airways and these increases correlated with the numbers of bacteria.

  19. Zoanthid mucus as new source of useful biologically active proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Míriam Camargo; de Albuquerque Modesto, Jeanne Claíne; Pérez, Carlos Daniel; Ottaiano, Tatiana Fontes; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Campos, Ikaro Henrique Mendes Pinto; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Palythoa caribaeorum is a very common colonial zoanthid in the coastal reefs of Brazil. It is known for its massive production of mucus, which is traditionally used in folk medicine by fishermen in northeastern Brazil. This study identified biologically active compounds in P. caribaerum mucus. Crude mucus was collected during low tides by the manual scraping of colonies; samples were maintained in an ice bath, homogenized, and centrifuged at 16,000 g for 1 h at 4 °C; the supernatant (mucus) was kept at -80 °C until use. The enzymatic (proteolytic and phospholipase A 2 ), inhibitory (metallo, cysteine and serine proteases), and hemagglutinating (human erythrocyte) activities were determined. The results showed high levels of cysteine and metallo proteases, intermediate levels of phosholipase A 2 , low levels of trypsin, and no elastase and chymotrypsin like activities. The mucus showed potent inhibitory activity on snake venom metalloproteases and cysteine proteinase papain. In addition, it showed agglutinating activity towards O + , B + , and A + erythrocyte types. The hemostatic results showed that the mucus prolongs the aPTT and PT, and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, ADP, and thrombin. The antimicrobial activity was tested on 15 strains of bacteria and fungi through the radial diffusion assay in agar, and no activity was observed. Compounds in P. caribaeorum mucus were analyzed for the first time in this study, and our results show potential pharmacological activities in these compounds, which are relevant for use in physiopathological investigations. However, the demonstration of these activities indicates caution in the use of crude mucus in folk medicine. Furthermore, the present or absent activities identified in this mucus suggest that the studied P. caribaeorum colonies were in thermal stress conditions at the time of sample collection; these conditions may precede the bleaching

  20. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactive effects of copper stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorphyl fluorescence parameters of elsholtzia splendens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Jin, Z.; Li, J.

    2017-01-01

    To determine interactive effects of added copper (Cu) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the photosynthesis of Elsholtzia splendens, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted. Four treatments were used, including -Cu-AMF (no Cu addition and no AMF inoculation), +Cu-AMF (Cu addition but no AMF inoculation), -Cu+AMF (no Cu addition and AMF inoculation), and +Cu+AMF (Cu addition and AMF inoculation). Cu addition did not change diurnal variation curves of the net photosynthetic rate(PN), the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci), the stomatal conductance (gs), or the transpiration rate (E); however, it significantly decreased the daily mean PN, gs, E, light-use efficiency (LUE), and carboxylation efficiency (CE). Furthermore, AMF inoculation significantly increased the daily mean PN, gs, LUE, and CE of E. splendens. In response to light, Cu addition significantly decreased the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (PNmax), the light saturation point (LSP), the light compensation point (LCP), and the apparent quantum yield (AQY), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax and AQY. In response to the CO/sub 2/ concentration, Cu addition significantly decreased PNmax and the CO/sub 2/ saturation point (CSP), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax. Both Cu addition and AMF inoculation significantly decreased the relative chlorophyll content. Compared to the negative control treatment (-Cu-AMF), Cu addition significantly increased the minimal fluorescence, but significantly decreased maximal fluorescence, variable fluorescence,and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. These results suggest that AMF inoculations alleviate the inhibitory effect of copper stress on E. splendens plants by weakening its toxic effects on the photosynthetic apparatus and pigments. (author)

  2. Complex rheological behaviors of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin mucus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiang; Su, Heng; Lv, Weiyang; Du, Miao; Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The functions and structures of biological mucus are closely linked to rheology. In this article, the skin mucus of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was proved to be a weak hydrogel susceptible to shear rate, time, and history, exhibiting: (i) Two-region breakdown of its gel structure during oscillatory strain sweep; (ii) rate-dependent thickening followed by three-region thinning with increased shear rate, and straight thinning with decreased shear rate; and (iii) time-dependent rheopexy at low shear rates, and thixotropy at high shear rates. An interesting correlation between the shear rate- and time-dependent rheological behaviors was also revealed, i.e., the rheopexy-thixotropy transition coincided with the first-second shear thinning region transition. Apart from rheology, a structure of colloidal network was observed in loach skin mucus using transmission electron microscopy. The complex rheology was speculated to result from inter- and intracolloid structural alterations. The unique rheology associated with the colloidal network structure, which has never been previously reported in vertebrate mucus, may play a key role in the functions (e.g., flow, reannealing, lubrication, and barrier) of the mucus

  3. Complex rheological behaviors of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang, E-mail: 11229036@zju.edu.cn; Su, Heng, E-mail: shtdyso@163.com; Lv, Weiyang, E-mail: 3090103369@zju.edu.cn; Du, Miao, E-mail: dumiao@zju.edu.cn; Song, Yihu, E-mail: s-yh0411@zju.edu.cn; Zheng, Qiang, E-mail: zhengqiang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The functions and structures of biological mucus are closely linked to rheology. In this article, the skin mucus of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was proved to be a weak hydrogel susceptible to shear rate, time, and history, exhibiting: (i) Two-region breakdown of its gel structure during oscillatory strain sweep; (ii) rate-dependent thickening followed by three-region thinning with increased shear rate, and straight thinning with decreased shear rate; and (iii) time-dependent rheopexy at low shear rates, and thixotropy at high shear rates. An interesting correlation between the shear rate- and time-dependent rheological behaviors was also revealed, i.e., the rheopexy-thixotropy transition coincided with the first-second shear thinning region transition. Apart from rheology, a structure of colloidal network was observed in loach skin mucus using transmission electron microscopy. The complex rheology was speculated to result from inter- and intracolloid structural alterations. The unique rheology associated with the colloidal network structure, which has never been previously reported in vertebrate mucus, may play a key role in the functions (e.g., flow, reannealing, lubrication, and barrier) of the mucus.

  4. Human intestinal mucus proteins isolated by transanal irrigation and proctosigmoidoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Gómez Buitrago

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal mucus essentially consists of a network of Mucin2 glycoproteins embedded in many lower molecular weight proteins. This paper contributes to the proteomic study of human intestinal mucus by comparing two sample collection methods (transanal irrigation and brush cytology during proctosigmoidoscopy and analysis techniques (electrophoresis and digestion in solution. The entire sample collection and treatment process is explained, including protein extraction, digestion and desalination and peptide characterisation using a nanoAcquity UPLC chromatograph coupled to an HDMS spectrometer equipped with a nanoESI source. Collecting mucus via transanal irrigation provided a larger sample volume and protein concentration from a single patient. The proctosigmoidoscopy sample could be analysed via digestion in solution after depleting albumin. The analysis indicates that a simple mucus lysis method can evaluate the electrophoresis and digestion in solution techniques. Studying human intestinal mucus complexes is important because they perform two essential survival functions for humans as the first biochemical and physical defences for the gastrointestinal tract and a habitat for intestinal microbiota, which are primarily hosted in the colon and exceeds the human genetic information and cell number 100- and 10-fold (1.

  5. Effect of commercial grade endosulfan on growth and reproduction of the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, A; Pandian, T J

    2014-09-01

    To study the effects of endosulfan on survival, growth and reproduction of the obligate air-breathing male heterogametic fighting fish Betta splendens, posthatchlings of the fighting fish were discretely immersed for 3 h/day during the labile period on the 2nd, 5th, and 8th day posthatching (dph) at selected concentrations of commercial grade endosulfan ranging from 175 to 1400 ng/L. The immersions at 1,400 ng/L led to 21% mortality, among the 79% of surviving fry, 80% developed into females. The endosulfan reduced the air-breathing frequency of 5- and 8-day old hatchlings, and the reduction in the frequency persisted even after a depuration period of 172 days. In the ovary of the treated females, reduced number of vitellogenic oocytes with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. In the testis of the treated males, the reduced number of spermatogonia with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. The treated male induced the female to spawn a fewer eggs, which were subsequently incubated in his smaller bubble nest. The control females attained puberty on the 138th dph and spawned 120 eggs once in every 15 days, the females, which were previously treated at 1400 ng/L, postponed puberty to the 179th dph and spawned 70 eggs once in every 32 days. During the 240-day experiment, endosulfan is found to reduce significantly the cumulative progeny production from 760 to 144, reducing significantly to 19% of the control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  6. [Mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. Extravasation mucoceles (mucus granulomas) and retention mucoceles (mucus retention cysts) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, G; Donath, K; von Gumberz, C

    1981-06-01

    360 cases of salivary glands cysts (= 6%) were collected in the Salivary Glands Register (Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg) from 1965 until 1979 among a total of 5739 register cases. 273 cases of the cystic lesions (= 76%) were mucoceles of the minor salivary glands. The analysis of these 273 cases revealed the following results: 1. Two types of mucoceles can be morphologically distinguished: extravasation mucoceles and retention mucoceles. 2. The extravasation mucocele is in our material (240 cases = 88.7%) the most frequent type of mucocele. The term "extravasation mucocele" of the anglo-american literature is identical with the term "mucus granuloma" ("Schleimgranulom") introduced by Hamperl (1932). 3. The main signs of the mucus granulomas are: predominant location (79%) at the lower lip, age peak in the 2nd decade and more frequent occurrence (in 60%) in the male sex. 4. Three stages of development can be distinguished in the pathogenesis of the mucus granulomas: an initial stage (interstitial mucus lakes), a resorption stage (mucus granulomas with macrophages, foam cells and foreign bodies giant cells) and a terminal stage with the development of a pseudocyst (capsule of collagen tissue, no epithelial demarcation). 5. The retention mucocele (synonym: mucus retention cyst) is a rare type of mucocele (33 cases = 11.3%). The main signs are: nearly equal occurrence in all oral regions, age peak in the 8th decade, moderate predominance of the female sex. 6. The retention mucoceles contain viscous mucous material, possess always an epithelial demarcation of the cysts differentiated analogous to the different segments of the salivary duct system and show as a rule no inflammatory reaction compared with the extravasation mucoceles. 7. Microtraumas and mucus congestions play the important role in the development of the extravasation mucocele. The final formation depends on the amount of the overflowed mucus and the intensity of the mucus phagocytosis. 8

  7. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  8. Mucus glycoprotein secretion by tracheal explants: effects of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.A.; Kaizu, T.

    1980-01-01

    Tracheal slices incubated with radioactive precursors in tissue culture medium secrete labeled mucus glycoproteins into the culture medium. We have used an in vivtro approach, a combined method utilizing exposure to pneumotoxins in vivo coupled with quantitation of mucus secretion rates in vitro, to study the effects of inhaled pollutants on mucus biosynthesis by rat airways. In addition, we have purified the mucus glycoproteins secreted by rat tracheal explants in order to determine putative structural changes that might by the basis for the observed augmented secretion rates after exposure of rats to H2SO4 aerosols in combination with high ambient levels of ozone. After digestion with papain, mucus glycoproteins secreted by tracheal explants may be separated into five fractions by ion-exchange chromatography, with recovery in high yield, on columns of DEAE-cellulose. Each of these five fractions, one neutral and four acidic, migrates as a single unique spot upon cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH values of 8.6 and 1.2. The neutral fraction, which is labeled with [3H] glucosamine, does not contain radioactivity when Na2 35SO4 is used as the precursor. Acidic fractions I to IV are all labeled with either 3H-glucosamine or Na2 35SO4 as precursor. Acidic fraction II contains sialic acid as the terminal sugar on its oligosaccharide side chains, based upon its chromatographic behavior on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin-Agarose. Treatment of this fraction with neuraminidase shifts its elution position in the gradient to a lower salt concentration, coincident with acidic fraction I. After removal of terminal sialic acid residues with either neuraminidase or low pH treatment, the resultant terminal sugar on the oligosaccharide side chains is fucose. These results are identical with those observed with mucus glycoproteins secreted by cultured human tracheal explants and purified by these same techniques

  9. Unique mechanism of Helicobacter pylori for colonizing the gastric mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, H; Nakazawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen causing chronic infection. Urease and motility using flagella are essential factors for its colonization. Urease of H. pylori exists both on the surface and in the cytoplasm, and is involved in neutralizing gastric acid and in chemotactic motility. H. pylori senses the concentration gradients of urea in the gastric mucus layer, then moves toward the epithelial surface by chemotactic movement. The energy source for the flagella movement is the proton motive force. The hydrolysis of urea by the cytoplasmic urease possibly generates additional energy for the flagellar rotation in the mucus gel layer.

  10. Leaf litter is essential for seed survival of the endemic endangered tree Pouteria splendens (Sapotaceae from central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Sotes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouteria splendens (A.DC. Kuntze, the Chilean lúcumo, is an endemic tree and the only member of the Sapotaceae family in Chile. It is considered an endangered species as a consequence of its restricted distribution and small population size. Currently, individuals of P. splendens are immersed in a heterogeneous landscape with rocky mounds and plains located in areas densely populated by humans. Natural regeneration in the species seems to be low, despite the fact that plants are able to produce fruits. The species produces brightly colored fleshy drupes. There is no information about the dispersal pattern and the fate of the seeds. In this work we investigate (i the seed dispersal pattern and (ii the effect of tree canopy and the presence of leaf litter on seed survival, both in rocky mounds and plains. Results indicated an extremely low distance of seed dispersal, with most of the seeds falling down under the canopy. Seed survival under the canopy without leaf litter was very low and even zero in rocky mounds. Nevertheless, the presence of leaf litter covering the seeds increased survival in both habitats. Outside the canopy, seed survival only increased in plains. We suggest that future conservation programs should focus on protecting both adult plants and leaf litter under trees.

  11. Survival of Betta splendens fish (Regan, 1910) in domestic water containers and its effectiveness in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae (Linnaeus, 1762) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    In Northeast Brazil, large domestic containers used to store water are important breeding sites of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Betta splendens (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) fish in domestic containers in Fortaleza (Ceará State), as well as its effectiveness in the control of premature A. aegypti stages. The use of B. splendens was compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in domestic containers. In a first home visit, B. splendens or Bti were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 and 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. Betta splendens fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. When the fish was present, the infestation rate was significantly higher (P containers, but that appropriate measures should be taken to assure prolonged survival and the presence of fish in the containers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Bifidobacteria or Fiber Protects against Diet-Induced Microbiota-Mediated Colonic Mucus Deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Bjoern O; Birchenough, George M H; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    that administration of Bifidobacterium longum was sufficient to restore mucus growth, whereas administration of the fiber inulin prevented increased mucus penetrability in WSD-fed mice. We hypothesize that the presence of distinct bacteria is crucial for proper mucus function. If confirmed in humans, these findings...

  13. Milk consumption and mucus production in children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thiara, Gurkaran; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Many parents of children with asthma are becoming increasingly reluctant to add milk to their children’s diet because they believe it will worsen their children’s asthma owing to increased mucus secretion. Recognizing the importance of milk as part of a healthy diet in supporting growth and calcium consumption, is it advisable to restrict milk in the diet?

  14. Susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion, a genome wide association study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Dijkstra (Akkelies); J. Smolonska (Joanna); M. van den Berge (Maarten); C. Wijmenga (Ciska); P. Zanen (Pieter); M.A. Luinge (Marjan); I. Platteel (Inge); J.-W.J. Lammers (Jan-Willem); M. Dahlback (Magnus); K. Tosh (Kerrie); P.S. Hiemstra (Pieter); P.J. Sterk (Peter); M.E. Spira (Micha); J. Vestbo (Jorgen); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); M. Benn (Marianne); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); M. Dahl (Morten); W.M.M. Verschuren (W. M. Monique); H.S.J. Picavet (Susan); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); M. Owsijewitsch (Michael); H.U. Kauczor (Hans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); E. Nizankowska-Mogilnicka (Eva); F. Mejza (Filip); P. Nastalek (Pawel); C.C. van Diemen (Cleo); M.H. Cho (Michael); E.K. Silverman (Edwin); R.O. Crapo (Robert); T.H. Beaty (Terri); D.J. Lomas (David John); A.B. Bakke (Arnold B.); A. Gulsvik (Amund); Y. Bossé (Yohan); M. Obeidat (Ma'en); D.W. Loth (Daan); L. Lahousse (Lies); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); U. Brouwer (Uilke); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M.C. Nawijn (Martijn); H.J.M. Groen (Henk); W. Timens (Wim); H.M. Boezen (Marike); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); R.A. de Boer (Rudolf); M. Bruinenberg (M.); L. Franke (Lude); P. van der Harst (Pim); H.L. Hillege (Hans); M.M. van der Klauw (Melanie); G. Navis (Gerjan); J. Ormel (Johan); J.G.M. Rosmalen (Judith); J.P.J. Slaets (Joris); H. Snieder (Harold); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); B. Wolffenbuttel (Bhr)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a

  15. Cardiorespiratory physiological phenotypic plasticity in developing air-breathing anabantid fishes (Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, Jose F; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-08-01

    Developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology in response to chronic hypoxia is poorly understood in larval fishes, especially larval air-breathing fishes, which eventually in their development can at least partially "escape" hypoxia through air breathing. Whether the development air breathing makes these larval fishes less or more developmentally plastic than strictly water breathing larval fishes remains unknown. Consequently, developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology was determined in two air-breathing anabantid fishes ( Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus ). Larvae of both species experienced an hypoxic exposure that mimicked their natural environmental conditions, namely chronic nocturnal hypoxia (12 h at 17 kPa or 14 kPa), with a daily return to diurnal normoxia. Chronic hypoxic exposures were made from hatching through 35 days postfertilization, and opercular and heart rates measured as development progressed. Opercular and heart rates in normoxia were not affected by chronic nocturnal hypoxic. However, routine oxygen consumption M˙O2 (~4  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour in normoxia in larval Betta ) was significantly elevated by chronic nocturnal hypoxia at 17 kPa but not by more severe (14 kPa) nocturnal hypoxia. Routine M˙O2 in Trichopodus (6-7  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour), significantly higher than in Betta , was unaffected by either level of chronic hypoxia. P Crit , the PO 2 at which M˙O2 decreases as ambient PO 2 falls, was measured at 35 dpf, and decreased with increasing chronic hypoxia in Betta , indicating a large, relatively plastic hypoxic tolerance. However, in contrast, P Crit in Trichopodus increased as rearing conditions grew more hypoxic, suggesting that hypoxic acclimation led to lowered hypoxic resistance. Species-specific differences in larval physiological developmental plasticity thus emerge between the relatively closely related Betta and Trichopodus Hypoxic rearing increased hypoxic tolerance in

  16. Bovine alpha-lactalbumin stimulates mucus metabolism in gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Y; Shimokawa, Y; Toida, T; Matsui, H; Takase, M

    2007-02-01

    Bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), a major milk protein, exerts strong gastroprotective activity against rat experimental gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this activity, the influence of alpha-LA on gastric mucus metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, RGM1 cells (a rat gastric epithelial cell line) were selected for observation of the direct activity of alpha-LA on gastric mucosal cells and cultured in the presence of either alpha-LA or ovalbumin (OVA), a reference protein showing no gastroprotective activity. Amounts of synthesized and secreted mucin, a major component of mucus, were determined using [3H]glucosamine as a tracer, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the culture medium were determined by RIA. For the in vivo study, the thickness of the mucus gel layer, a protective barrier for gastric mucosa, was evaluated histochemically in rat gastric mucosa. alpha-Lactalbumin (3 mg/mL) significantly stimulated mucin synthesis and secretion in RGM1 cells and also increased PGE2 levels in the culture medium. In contrast, OVA showed no enhancing effects under identical conditions. Neither indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, nor AH23848, a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist, affected alpha-LA-induced enhancement of mucin synthesis and secretion. In vivo, oral administration of alpha-LA (300 mg/kg x 3 times/d x 7 d) increased the thickness of the mucus gel layer in rats. These results indicate that alpha-LA fortifies the mucus gel layer by stimulating mucin production and secretion in gastric mucus-producing cells, and that this enhancing effect is independent of endogenous PGE2. Comparison of the efficacy of alpha-LA with OVA suggests that the activities observed in RGM1 cells are closely related to the gastroprotective effects in rat gastric ulcer models. In conclusion, alpha-LA stimulates mucus metabolism, and this action may be responsible for its gastroprotective

  17. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  18. Pirenzepine block of ACh-induced mucus secretion in tracheal submucosal gland cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, J.M.; Dwyer, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Muscarinic stimulation of mucus secretion, as measured by the release of [ 3 H]glycoprotein, was studied in explants from the tracheal epithelium of weanling swine. The mucus glycoprotein secretion was transient, ceasing within the first 10 min of a continuous exposure to 100 μM ACh. Increasing the solutions' osmotic pressure did not alter basal mucus glycoprotein secretion. Mucus glycoprotein secretion was inhibited by 2-10 μM PZP, indicting that the M 3 muscarinic receptors mediate cholinergic stimulation of mucus production

  19. Workflow for the Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Small Metabolites in Fish Skin Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Ivanova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The skin mucus of fish is in permanent contact with the aquatic environment. Data from the analysis of the chemical composition of skin mucus could potentially be used for monitoring the health status of the fish. Knowledge about mucus composition or change in composition over time could also contribute to understanding the aetiology of certain diseases. The objective of the present study was the development of a workflow for non-invasive sampling of skin mucus from farmed salmon (Salmo salar for the targeted and untargeted detection of small metabolites. Skin mucus was either scraped off, wiped off using medical wipes, or the mucus’ water phase was absorbed using the same type of medical wipes that was used for the wiping method. Following a simple filtration step, the obtained mucus samples were subjected to hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Post-acquisition processing included the targeted analysis of 86 small metabolites, of which up to 60 were detected in absorbed mucus. Untargeted analysis of the mucus samples from equally treated salmon revealed that the total variation of the metabolome was lowest in absorbed mucus and highest in the scraped mucus. Thus, future studies including small-molecule metabolomics of skin mucus in fish would benefit from a sampling regime employing absorption of the water phase in order to minimize the bias related to the sampling step. Furthermore, the absorption method is also a less invasive approach allowing for repetitive sampling within short time intervals.

  20. Helicobacter pylori moves through mucus by reducing mucin viscoelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Celli, Jonathan P.; Turner, Bradley S.; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Keates, Sarah; Ghiran, Ionita; Kelly, Ciaran P.; Ewoldt, Randy H.; McKinley, Gareth H.; So, Peter; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Bansil, Rama

    2009-01-01

    The ulcer-causing gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the only bacterium known to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the human stomach. H. pylori survives in acidic conditions by producing urease, which catalyzes hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia thus elevating the pH of its environment. However, the manner in which H. pylori is able to swim through the viscoelastic mucus gel that coats the stomach wall remains poorly understood. Previous rheology studies on gastric mucin, the key...

  1. Factores de interés referentes a la colonización de Haemagogus Splendens para experimentos de transmisión con virus de fiebre amarilla en el Laboratorio Factores de interés referentes a la colonización de Haemagogus Splendens para experimentos de transmisión con virus de fiebre amarilla en el Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorno-Mesa Ernesto

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available 1 o Se amplia la distribución geográfica de Haemagogus splendens, conocida hasta hoy, anotando su papel importante como probable vector en la naturaleza. 2 o H. splendens es la especie del genero Haemagogus que biológicamente representa el eslabón entre este genero y Aedes, por la gran similitud de su comportamiento en el laboratorio, con A. aegypti. 3 o Es la especie de más fácil determinación por las hembras. 4 o Se da una técnica para el transporte y posturas de huevos de las hembras de mosquitos. 1o The known geographic distribution of Haemagogus splendens is extended, and its role as a probable vector in natural conditions is established. 2 o H. splendens of all the species of Haemaqogus, is the one that seems to constitute a biological link between that genus and the genus Aedes. (Based on the great similarity of behavior with Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. 3 o The identification of females is most easy. 4 o A technique for egg laying and transportation of the adults is described.

  2. The in vitro mucolytic effect of xylitol and dornase alfa on chronic rhinosinusitis mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Tim; Jain, Ravi; Radcliff, Fiona; Waldvogel-Thurlow, Sharon; Zoing, Melissa; Biswas, Kristi; Douglas, Richard

    2017-09-01

    The overproduction and stagnation of purulent mucus impair mucociliary clearance and exacerbate the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There is a clinical need for effective topical mucolytic agents to facilitate removal of mucus and improve postoperative outcomes. The effects of xylitol (5%) and dornase alfa (1 mg/mL) on mucus and mucus crusts were investigated. Viscoelasticity and viscosity of wet mucus derived from 30 CRS patients was measured with a plate rheometer. Postoperative dried mucus crust dissolution was measured by examining peripheral transparency, central transparency, and border definition of treated crust samples from 17 CRS patients. Xylitol and dornase alfa reduced wet mucus viscoelasticity at a frequency of 0.1 Hz significantly more than the saline control. Treatments also produced significantly lower viscosities than saline at a shear rate of 10 and 100 seconds -1 . Xylitol and dornase alfa significantly decreased mucus crust border definition relative to saline. Xylitol and dornase alfa may be efficacious mucolytics, encouraging the breakdown of postoperative mucus crusts and the reduction of viscoelasticity and viscosity of wet mucus. In vivo study is required to evaluate the potential of these agents in treating recalcitrant CRS. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts, sperm motility (SM during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval, open days (SP, inseminations number for pregnancy (index, and pregnancy rates (PR in Holstein cows (n=284. Signifi cant differences of interval, SP and index were detected also in relation to number of AI and day of lactation (P < 0.001. Cows without reproduction diseases (healthy had better results of interval, SP (P < 0.01, index and PR. Pregnancy rate of healthy cows was by 11.43% higher, but without statistical signifi cance. The higher results of PR (62.74% were discovered in relation to ferny-like crystallization of cervical mucus (P < 0.001. CMC affected results of cervical mucus survival test, the highest motility of sperms after the 60 and 90 minutes was assumed in the case of club moss – ferny (14.80% and 7.96% and ferny-like crystallization (13.82% and 8.47% with statistical signifi cance (P < 0.05. The choice of these characteristics and defi nition of their relations allows assuming their using for detailed study and determination of the cows´ biological ability to conceive, the one of the main components of effi ciency of cows´ reproduction.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF EUPHORBIA MILLI VAR. SPLENDENS (BOJER EX HOOK. URSCH & LEANDRI AND EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA WILLD. EX KLOTZSCH SPECIES LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study concerning the leaf structure of two Euphorbia species belonging to Euphorbiaceae family: Euphorbia milli var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook. Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch. Anatomically, the leaves of the studied species are quite similar in the basic structure. The petiole has a single-layered epidermis, a collenchyma tissue – hypodermis - and three collateral bundles embedded in a basic tissue. Differences occur concerning the relationship between the collateral bundles. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract petiole has almost the same structure as those of the leaf petiole. The blade is amphistomatic for Euphorbia milli var. splendes and hipostomatic for E. pulcherrima. The heterogeneous mesophyll is isobilateral in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade and bifacial in E. pulcherrima. The vascular system of the mid rib is represented by one collateral bundle for both species, more developed in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade. Differences appear concerning the epidermal cells cuticle thickness, the type of mesophyll, the abundance of the non-articulated laticifers and the development of the vascular system. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract has the same organization plan structure as the leaf blade but some features differences occur.

  5. Undefined role of mucus as a barrier in ocular drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto

    2015-10-01

    Mucus layer covers the ocular surface, and soluble mucins are also present in the tear fluid. After topical ocular drug administration, the drugs and formulations may interact with mucus layer that may act as a barrier in ocular drug delivery. In this mini-review, we illustrate the mucin composition of the ocular surface and discuss the influence of mucus layer on ocular drug absorption. Based on the current knowledge the role of mucus barrier in drug delivery is still undefined. Furthermore, interactions with mucus may prolong the retention of drug formulations on the ocular surface. Mucus may decrease or increase ocular bioavailability depending on the magnitude of its role as barrier or retention site, respectively. Mechanistic studies are needed to clarify the role of mucin in ocular drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, C.; Huettel, M.; Klueter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs(1), but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus(2,3). Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic...... matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients to the reef lagoon sediment, which acts as a biocatalytic mineralizing filter. In the Great Barrier Reef, the dominant genus of hard corals, Acropora, exudes up to 4.8 litres of mucus per square metre of reef area per day. Between 56......% and 80% of this mucus dissolves in the reef water, which is filtered through the lagoon sands. Here, coral mucus is degraded at a turnover rate of at least 7% per hour. Detached undissolved mucus traps suspended particles, increasing its initial organic carbon and nitrogen content by three orders...

  7. Mucus and Mucins: do they have a role in the inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus?

    OpenAIRE

    Mall, Anwar Suleman; Habte, Habtom; Mthembu, Yolanda; Peacocke, Julia; de Beer, Corena

    2017-01-01

    Background Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in an in vitro assay. Main body of abstract Crude mucus gels form continuous layers on the epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body and protect these epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors such as hydrochloric acid...

  8. Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3 is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry.

  9. Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry. PMID:21816061

  10. Novel Compounds from Shark and Stingray Epidermal Mucus With Antimicrobial Activity Against Wound Infection Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Extraction with Enzymes Collaborators at Daemen College also tested papain and pepsin for their abilities to liberate proteins from the mucus...pellet. Papain is a cysteine protease and a common active ingredient in meat tenderizers. It is often used to dissociate cells in the first step of cell...various treatments with Papain and Pepsin. Lane 1: EDTA-DTT extract; Lane 2-4: Mucus pellet + Papain for 30, 40, and 60 min; Lane 5: Mucus pellet

  11. Adherence of bacteria to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract of heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styková, E; Nemcová, R; Valocký, I; Novotný, F; Guba, P

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the adherence of indigenous vaginal bacteria, probiotic strains, and metritis pathogens to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tracts of heifers and cows and compared their adherence with the bacterial adherence to mucus collected from the stomach and large intestine of pigs. Most of the vaginal strains adhered to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract and strongly adhered to gastric mucus, with the exception of Lactobacillus buchneri 24S8. Only Lactobacillus mucosae 29S8, Enterococcus faecium E21, and E. faecium EAC adhered to colonic mucus. Probiotic strains adhered strongly to mucus collected from the reproductive tract and gastric mucus but did not adhere to colonic mucus. Pathogenic strains were adherent to vaginal, uterine horn, and gastric mucus, except Escherichia coli O8:K88ab:H9 (65), Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Gardnerella vaginalis, which adhered to uterine cervix mucus. Only Kocuria kristinae and G. vaginalis adhered to uterine body mucus; E. coli O149:K88ac (EC) adhered to colonic mucus. The strains did not exhibit host specificity but rather strain specificity. The ability to adhere to mucus was a characteristic unique to each strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding in vitro adherence of GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) lactobacilli isolated from different sources to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract.

  12. Enzyme decorated drug carriers: Targeted swords to cleave and overcome the mucus barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    The use of mucus permeating drug carrier systems being able to overcome the mucus barrier can lead to a remarkable enhancement in bioavailability. One promising approach is the design of mucolytic enzyme decorated carrier systems (MECS). These systems include micro- and nanoparticles as well as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) decorated with mucin cleaving enzymes such as papain (PAP) or bromelain (BRO). MECS are able to cross the mucus barrier in a comparatively efficient manner by cleaving mucus substructures in front of them on their way to the epithelium. Thereby these enzymes hydrolyze peptide bonds of mucus glycoproteins forming tiny holes or passages through the mucus. In various in vitro and in vivo studies MECS proved to be superior in their mucus permeating properties over nanocarriers without enzyme decoration. PAP decorated nanoparticles, for instance, remained 3h after oral administration to an even 2.5-fold higher extend in rat small intestine than the corresponding undecorated nanoparticles permeating the intestinal mucus gel layer to a much lower degree. As MECS break up the mucus network only locally without destroying its overall protective barrier function, even long term treatments with such systems seem feasible. Within this review article we address different drug carrier systems decorated with various types of enzymes, their particular pros and cons and potential applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mucus reduction promotes acetyl salicylic acid-induced small intestinal mucosal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yosuke; Handa, Osamu; Naito, Yuji; Takayama, Shun; Mukai, Rieko; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Majima, Atsushi; Yasuda-Onozawa, Yuriko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Fukui, Akifumi; Dohi, Osamu; Okayama, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naohisa; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2018-03-25

    Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is a useful drug for the secondary prevention of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but it has adverse effects on the small intestinal mucosa. The pathogenesis and prophylaxis of ASA-induced small intestinal injury remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the intestinal mucus, as the gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus, which exhibits protective effects against various gastrointestinal diseases. ASA was injected into the duodenum of rats, and small intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated using Evans blue dye. To investigate the importance of mucus, Polysorbate 80 (P80), an emulsifier, was used before ASA injection. In addition, rebamipide, a mucus secretion inducer in the small intestine, was used to suppress mucus reduction in the small intestine of P80-administered rats. The addition of P80 reduced the mucus and exacerbated the ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Rebamipide significantly suppressed P80-reduced small intestinal mucus and P80-increased intestinal mucosal lesions in ASA-injected rats, demonstrating that mucus is important for the protection against ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Mucus secretion-increasing therapy might be useful in preventing ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of Lsr2 gene of Mycobacterium leprae in nasal mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Custodio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nasal mucus from patients with leprosy were analyzed by PCR using specific primers for Lsr2 gene of Mycobacterium leprae. The presence of Lsr2 gene in the nasal mucus was detected in 25.80% of patients with paucibacillari leprosy, and 23.07% of contacts. Despite the absence of clinical features in the contact individuals, it was possible to detect the presence of Lsr2 gene in the nasal mucus of these individuals. Therefore, PCR detection of M. leprae targeting Lsr2 gene using nasal mucus samples could contribute to early diagnosis of leprosy.

  15. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2014-01-01

    labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G......ObjectiveTo characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. DesignExperimental research. SettingDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Population/SampleSpontaneously shed CMPs from 18 healthy women in active...

  16. Intestinal mucus and juice glycoproteins have a liquid crystalline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, E.A.; Lazarev, P.I.; Vazina, A.A.; Zheleznaya, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained from the following components of canine gastrointestinal tract: (1) native small intestine mucus layer; (2) the precipitate of the flocks formed in the duodenal juice with decreasing pH; (3) concentrated solutions of glycoproteins isolated from the duodenal juice. The X-ray patterns consist of a large number of sharp reflections of spacings between about 100 and 4 A. Some reflections are common for all components studied. All the patterns are interpreted as arising from the glycoprotein molecules ordered into a liquid crystalline structure. (author)

  17. Mucus sugar content shapes the bacterial community structure in thermally stressed Acropora muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny T.M. Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral’s mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. However, information on this topic is rare, and non-existent for corals that are under thermal stress. This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26°C to 31°C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed that, at lower temperatures, the main components of mucus were N-acetyl glucosamine and C6 sugars, but these constituted a significantly lower proportion of the mucus in thermally-stressed corals. The change in the mucus composition coincided with a shift from a γ-Proteobacteria- to a Verrucomicrobiae- and α-Proteobacteria-dominated community in the coral mucus. Bacteria in the class Cyanobacteria also started to become prominent in the mucus when the coral was thermally stressed. The increase in the relative abundance of the Verrucomicrobiae at higher temperature was strongly associated with a change in the proportion of fucose, glucose and mannose in the mucus. Increase in the relative abundance of α-Proteobacteria were associated with GalNAc and glucose, while the drop in relative abundance of γ-Proteobacteria at high temperature coincided with changes in fucose and mannose. Cyanobacteria were highly associated with arabinose and xylose. Changes in mucus composition and the bacterial community in the mucus layer occurred at 29°C, which were prior to visual signs of coral bleaching at 31°C. A compositional change in the coral mucus, induced by thermal stress could therefore be a key factor leading to a shift in the associated bacterial community. This, in turn, has the potential to impact the physiological function of the coral holobiont.

  18. Milk consumption and mucus production in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiara, Gurkaran; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-02-01

    Many parents of children with asthma are becoming increasingly reluctant to add milk to their children's diet because they believe it will worsen their children's asthma owing to increased mucus secretion. Recognizing the importance of milk as part of a healthy diet in supporting growth and calcium consumption, is it advisable to restrict milk in the diet? Dating back to the 12th century, milk has been proscribed for patients with asthma. However, to this very date studies have not been able to provide a definitive link for this recommendation. As there is a need for more conclusive evidence to determine the effect of milk among children with asthma and further understanding of mechanisms involved in mucus production, milk should not be eliminated or restricted. Health Canada recommends 2 servings of milk (0.5 L) a day for children 2 to 8 years of age and 3 to 4 servings of milk a day (0.75 to 1 L) for children 9 to 13 years of age for unrestricted healthy development.

  19. Post-secretory fate of host defence components in mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathe, Matthias; Forteza, Rosanna; Conner, Gregory E

    2002-01-01

    Airway mucus is a complex mixture of secretory products that provide a multifaceted defence against infection. Among many antimicrobial substances, mucus contains a peroxidase identical to milk lactoperoxidase (LPO) that is produced by goblet cells and submucosal glands. Airway secretions contain the substrates for LPO, namely thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide, at concentrations sufficient for production of the biocidal compound hypothiocyanite, a fact confirmed by us in vitro. In vivo, inhibition of airway LPO in sheep significantly inhibits bacterial clearance, suggesting that the LPO system is a major contributor to host defences. Since secretory products including LPO are believed to be steadily removed by mucociliary clearance, their amount and availability on the surface is thought to be controlled solely by secretion. In contrast to this paradigm, new data suggest that LPO and other substances are retained at the ciliary border of the airway epithelium by binding to surface-associated hyaluronan, thereby providing an apical, fully active enzyme pool. Thus, hyaluronan, secreted from submucosal gland cells, plays a previously unrecognized pivotal role in mucosal host defence by retaining LPO and possibly other substances important for first line host defence at the apical surface 'ready for use' and protected from ciliary clearance.

  20. Smoking produced mucus and clearance of particulates in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, T.D.; Poland, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Some studies of miners have shown a lesser relative lung-cancer risk for smokers than for nonsmokers. For example, experiments by Cross and associates with dogs have shown an apparent protective effect of cigarette smoke against radon-daughter and dust exposure. One reason for these changes may be the thickened mucus layer in the tracheobronchial region of smokers. Physiological changes in the lung due to smoking may decrease the effects of radioactive particles in cancers in the bronchial region by apparently promoting faster clearance, in that region, of radioactive particles and by decreasing the radiation dose through reduced penetration to the sensitive basal epithelial cells. Because of the short half-life of radon daughters, even if there is possible tobacco-related delay of particle clearance from the alveolar region it cannot affect radon clearance. Therefore, the possible mitigating effect of tobacco on radon-produced cancer appears to be limited to the tracheobronchial region. It would be of value to a number of occupations if the same changes in the lungs due to smoking could be produced in exposed workers in the absence of cigarette-smoking. Beta-carotene and vitamin A, which affect maintenance and secretion of the mucosal lining, appear to thicken mucus, thereby providing protection against radon-induced lung cancers that is similar to smoking-related changes in the lung

  1. Histopathology and culturable bacteria associated with "big belly" and "skin nodule" syndromes in ornamental Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H T; Senapin, S; Phiwsaiya, K; Techatanakitarnan, C; Dokladda, K; Ruenwongsa, P; Panijpan, B

    2018-06-02

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the popular aquarium ornamental fish in the global trade. Large numbers of ornamental fish farmed in central Thailand suffered from two common syndromes; preliminarily named skin nodule syndrome (SNS) and big belly syndrome (BBS): they showed noticeable clinical signs of abnormal appearances resulting in depressed saleability. Since very few specifics are known about causative agents of these syndromes, this study aimed at investigating histopathological features and culturable bacteria associated with these fish infected in the process of farming. Histopathologically, SNS fish consistently exhibited necrosis and severe melanization in the muscles and multiple internal organs. Whereas BBS fish exhibited either typical granulomas or tissue damage associated with acid-fast stained bacteria and Gram negative bacteria, respectively. Six different Gram negative bacterial species were recovered from BBS fish while 23 bacterial species belonging to 14 genera were recovered from fish suffering from SNS. Most of the culturable bacteria are new to betta fish and some of them are known to be marine bacteria, suggesting possible entry route via a contaminated live feed, commercial Artemia shrimp. The true causative agents of these syndromes remain unclear. However, histopathological changes and existence of a wide range of bacteria associated with the naturally diseased fish suggest involvement of multiple bacterial infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeted epigenetic editing of SPDEF reduces mucus production in lung epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Juan; Cano-Rodriquez, David; Winkle, Melanie; Gjaltema, Rutger A. F.; Goubert, Desiree; Jurkowski, Tomasz P.; Heijink, Irene H.; Rots, Marianne G.; Hylkema, Machteld N.

    2017-01-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion contributes to the morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Reducing mucus production is crucial for improving patients' quality of life. The transcription factor SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) plays a critical

  3. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  4. Bronchial Mucus Properties in Lung Cancer: Relationship with Site of Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gustavo Zayas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the biophysical properties of mucus from the left and right mainstem bronchi in patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy because of a unilateral radiological abnormality. It was hypothesized that abnormalities in the properties of mucus would be greater on the side with the lesion and that this would be most obvious in patients with unilateral lung cancer.

  5. The role of mucus as an invisible cloak to transepithelial drug delivery by nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Díaz, María; Birch, Ditlev; Wan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    administration since a variety of parameters will influence the specific barrier properties of the mucus including the luminal fluids, the microbiota, the mucus composition and clearance rate, and the condition of the underlying epithelia. Besides, after administration, nanoparticles interact with the mucosal...

  6. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  7. Preliminary Results on the Influence of Engineered Artificial Mucus Layer on Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döllinger, Michael; Gröhn, Franziska; Berry, David A.; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Luegmair, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have confirmed the influence of dehydration and an altered mucus (e.g., due to pathologies) on phonation. However, the underlying reasons for these influences are not fully understood. This study was a preliminary inquiry into the influences of mucus architecture and concentration on vocal fold oscillation. Method: Two…

  8. Influence of native catfish mucus on Flavobacterium columnare growth and proteolytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to 1) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, 2) determine t...

  9. Ductal Mucus Obstruction and Reduced Fluid Secretion Are Early Defects in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Balázs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Defective mucus production in the pancreas may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of chronic pancreatitis (CP, therefore we aimed to (i investigate the qualitative and quantitative changes of mucus both in human CP and in an experimental pancreatitis model and (ii to correlate the mucus phenotype with epithelial ion transport function.Design: Utilizing human tissue samples and a murine model of cerulein induced CP we measured pancreatic ductal mucus content by morphometric analysis and the relative expression of different mucins in health and disease. Pancreatic fluid secretion in CP model was measured in vivo by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP and in vitro on cultured pancreatic ducts. Time-changes of ductal secretory function were correlated to those of the mucin production.Results: We demonstrate increased mucus content in the small pancreatic ducts in CP. Secretory mucins MUC6 and MUC5B were upregulated in human, Muc6 in mouse CP. In vivo and in vitro fluid secretion was decreased in cerulein-induced CP. Analysis of time-course changes showed that impaired ductal ion transport is paralleled by increased Muc6 expression.Conclusion: Mucus accumulation in the small ducts is a combined effect of mucus hypersecretion and epithelial fluid secretion defect, which may lead to ductal obstruction. These results suggest that imbalance of mucus homeostasis may have an important role in the early-phase development of CP, which may have novel diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  10. Effect of Xiaoqinglong decoction on mucus hypersecretion in the airways and cilia function in a murine model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Qi

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: XQL can attenuate cilia shortening, aid the clearance function of ciliated epithelial cells, and reduce mucus production in an OVA-induced asthma model in mice. XQL can inhibit mucus hypersecretion and could be a new type of pharmacotherapy.

  11. Micro-configuration Observation of Porous Bioceramic for Sliding on Intestinal Mucus Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure of the prepared porous bioceramic material, including surface porosity and apparent contact area with the artificial mucus film are computed and analyzed. The surface micro-configurations of the porous material before and after sliding on the mucus ftlm are observed in 2D and 3 D by digital microscopy. We describe how much mucus enters and stays within different pores, and how the porous material with rough/porous surface contacts with the mucus film ( elastic surface/gel). The presented results illustrate that the material with different porous structure can lead to different mucus suction, surface scraping and changes of contact area and condition during sliding, which will be active for high friction of robotic endoscope with the intestinal wall for intestinal locomotion.

  12. The milk mucus belief: sensations associated with the belief and characteristics of believers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, W K; Pinnock, C B

    1993-02-01

    The belief that milk produces mucus is widespread in the community and is associated with a significant reduction in milk consumption. Sensations associated with milk drinking were reported by otherwise healthy believers and non-believers in the milk-mucus effect (N = 169) in an unstructured interview, with further responses prompted about the duration, type and amount of milk causing the effect. The site predominantly affected was the throat, with sensations related to difficulty in swallowing and perceived thickness of mucus and salivary secretions, rather than excessive mucus production. The effect required only a small amount of milk and was reported to be of short duration. The chronic respiratory symptom history and dairy product intake of 130 of these subjects were also assessed. Milk-mucus believers were different from non-believers, reporting more respiratory symptoms and consuming less milk and dairy products. Symptoms consistent with the known effects of food allergy or intolerance were not reported.

  13. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  14. Villous Adenoma of the Ureter with Manifestation of Mucus Hydroureteronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Min Shih

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral tumor is prone to result in lumen obstruction. Villous adenoma is most frequently found in the colon and rectum, seldom in the urinary tract and even more rarely in the ureter or pelvis. Herein, we present a case of bilateral renal stones of more than 10 years' duration with the chief complaint of right flank pain. Obstruction of the right upper ureter with hydroureteronephrosis was observed on sonography, computed tomography and retrograde pyelography. Ureteroscopy revealed papillary tumor obstructing the upper third of the ureter and inducing hydroureteronephrosis with abundant mucoid content. The ureteral tumor proved to be villous adenoma by pathologic examination. It should be noted that ureteral villous adenoma may be related to previous enteric-type metaplastic mucosa or ureteritis glandularis, demonstrates profuse production of mucus, and may eventually undergo malignant transformation.

  15. Milk bioactive peptides and beta-casomorphins induce mucus release in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompette, Aurélien; Claustre, Jean; Caillon, Fabienne; Jourdan, Gérard; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2003-11-01

    Intestinal mucus is critically involved in the protection of the mucosa. An enzymatic casein hydrolysate and beta-casomorphin-7, a mu-opioid peptide generated in the intestine during bovine casein digestion, markedly induce mucus discharge. Because shorter mu-opioid peptides have been described, the effects of the opioid peptides in casein, beta-casomorphin-7, -6, -4, -4NH2 and -3, and of opioid neuropeptides met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and (D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,glycinol5)enkephalin (DAMGO) on intestinal mucus secretion were investigated. The experiments were conducted with isolated perfused rat jejunum. Mucus secretion under the influence of beta-casomorphins and opioid neuropeptides administered intraluminally or intra-arterially was evaluated using an ELISA for rat intestinal mucus. Luminal administration of beta-casomorphin-7 (1.2 x 10(-4) mol/L) provoked a mucus discharge (500% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone, a specific opiate receptor antagonist. Luminal beta-casomorphin-6, -4 and -4NH2 did not modify basal mucus secretion, whereas intra-arterial administration of beta-casomorphin-4 (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a mucus discharge. In contrast, intra-arterial administration of the nonopioid peptide beta-casomorphin-3 did not release mucus. Among the opioid neuropeptides, intra-arterial infusion of Met-enkephalin or dynorphin-A did not provoke mucus secretion. In contrast, beta-endorphin (1.2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a dose-dependent release of mucus (maximal response at 500% of controls). DAMGO (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L), a mu-receptor agonist, also evoked a potent mucus discharge. Our findings suggest that mu-opioid neuropeptides, as well as beta-casomorphins after absorption, modulate intestinal mucus discharge. Milk opioid-derived peptides may thus be involved in defense against noxious agents and could have dietary and health applications.

  16. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  17. Female-Specific Specialization of a Posterior End Region of the Midgut Symbiotic Organ in Plautia splendens and Allied Stinkbugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Meng, Xian-Ying; Koga, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Many stinkbugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are associated with bacterial symbionts in a posterior region of the midgut. In these stinkbugs, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus for transmission of the beneficial symbionts to their offspring. For ensuring the vertical symbiont transmission, a variety of female-specific elaborate traits at the cellular, morphological, developmental, and behavioral levels have been reported from diverse stinkbugs of the families Plataspidae, Urostylididae, Parastrachiidae, etc. Meanwhile, such elaborate female-specific traits for vertical symbiont transmission have been poorly characterized for the largest and economically important stinkbug family Pentatomidae. Here, we investigated the midgut symbiotic system of a pentatomid stinkbug, Plautia splendens. A specific gammaproteobacterial symbiont was consistently present extracellularly in the cavity of numerous crypts arranged in four rows on the midgut fourth section. The symbiont was smeared on the egg surface upon oviposition by adult females, orally acquired by newborn nymphs, and thereby transmitted vertically to the next generation and important for growth and survival of the host insects. We found that, specifically in adult females, several rows of crypts at the posterior end region of the symbiotic midgut were morphologically differentiated and conspicuously enlarged, often discharging the symbiotic bacteria from the crypt cavity to the main tract of the symbiotic midgut. The female-specific enlarged end crypts were also found in other pentatomid stinkbugs Plautia stali and Carbula crassiventris. These results suggest that the enlarged end crypts represent a female-specific specialized morphological trait for vertical symbiont transmission commonly found among stinkbugs of the family Pentatomidae. PMID:25636847

  18. Reduced fertilization rates in older men when cervical mucus is suboptimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B; Bigelow, Jamie L; Colombo, Bernardo

    2005-04-01

    Cervical mucus is vital in the regulation of sperm survival and transport through the reproductive tract. The goal of this study is to assess whether the lowered fertility for men in their late 30s and early 40s is related to the nature of cervical mucus on the day of intercourse. In a prospective study of 7 European family planning centers, 782 couples not using birth control recorded daily observations of intercourse and the nature of cervical mucus. Using data from 1,459 menstrual cycles, 342 ending in pregnancy, we estimate day-specific conception probabilities in relation to mucus and male and female age. On days where cervical mucus was not evident, intercourse for men in their late 30s and early 40s was 50% less likely to result in a clinical pregnancy, adjusting for intercourse timing and female age. As secretions become more conducive to sperm transport, the effect of male age diminishes steadily from 21% on days with damp secretions, to 11% on days with thick mucus, to only 4% on days with most fertile-type mucus. The effect of male age on fecundability can be minimized by timing intercourse on days with optimal secretions. II-2.

  19. Antibacterial properties of the skin mucus of the freshwater fishes, Rita rita and Channa punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, U; Nigam, A K; Mitial, S; Mitial, A K

    2011-07-01

    The skin mucus of Rita rita and Channa punctatus was investigated to explore the possibilities of its antibacterial properties. Skin mucus was extracted in acidic solvents (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and 3% acetic acid) and in triple distilled water (aqueous medium). The antibacterial activity of the mucus extracts was analyzed, using disc diffusion method, against five strains of bacteria--the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus; and the Gram negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. In both Rita rita and Channa punctatus, the skin mucus extracted in acidic solvents as well as in aqueous medium show antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. Nevertheless, the activity is higher in acidic solvents than that in aqueous medium. The acidic mucus extracts of Rita rita, show antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi as well. The results suggest that fish skin mucus have bactericidal properties and thus play important role in the protection of fish against the invasion of pathogens. Fish skin mucus could thus be regarded as a potential source of novel antibacterial components.

  20. Diffusion-sensitive optical coherence tomography for real-time monitoring of mucus thinning treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Sears, Patrick R.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Hill, David B.; Chapman, Brian S.; Tracy, Joseph B.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-03-01

    Mucus hydration (wt%) has become an increasingly useful metric in real-time assessment of respiratory health in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD, with higher wt% indicative of diseased states. However, available in vivo rheological techniques are lacking. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are attractive biological probes whose diffusion through tissue is sensitive to the correlation length of comprising biopolymers. Through employment of dynamic light scattering theory on OCT signals from GNRs, we find that weakly-constrained GNR diffusion predictably decreases with increasing wt% (more disease-like) mucus. Previously, we determined this method is robust against mucus transport on human bronchial epithelial (hBE) air-liquid interface cultures (R2=0.976). Here we introduce diffusion-sensitive OCT (DS-OCT), where we collect M-mode image ensembles, from which we derive depth- and temporally-resolved GNR diffusion rates. DS-OCT allows for real-time monitoring of changing GNR diffusion as a result of topically applied mucus-thinning agents, enabling monitoring of the dynamics of mucus hydration never before seen. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cell) with a layer of endogenous mucus were doped with topically deposited GNRs (80x22nm), and subsequently treated with hypertonic saline (HS) or isotonic saline (IS). DS-OCT provided imaging of the mucus thinning response up to a depth of 600μm with 4.65μm resolution, over a total of 8 minutes in increments of >=3 seconds. For both IS and HS conditions, DS-OCT captured changes in the pattern of mucus hydration over time. DS-OCT opens a new window into understanding mechanisms of mucus thinning during treatment, enabling real-time efficacy feedback needed to optimize and tailor treatments for individual patients.

  1. Comparison of different histological protocols for the preservation and quantification of the intestinal mucus layer in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilen Röhe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The histological characterization of the intestinal mucus layer is important for many scientific experiments investigating the interaction between intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune response and intestinal mucus production. The aim of this study was to examine and compare different fixation protocols for displaying and quantifying the intestinal mucus layer in piglets and to test which histomorphological parameters may correlate with the determined mucus layer thickness. Jejunal and colonal tissue samples of weaned piglets (n=10 were either frozen in liquid nitrogen or chemically fixed using methacarn solution. The frozen tissue samples were cryosectioned and subsequently postfixed using three different postfixatives: paraformaldehyde vapor, neutrally buffered formalin solution and ethanol solution. After dehydration, methacarn fixed tissues were embedded in paraffin wax. Both sections of cryopreserved and methacarn fixed tissue samples were stained with Alcian blue (AB-PAS followed by the microscopically determination of the mucus layer thickness. Different pH values of the Alcian Blue staining solution and two mucus layer thickness measuring methods were compared. In addition, various histomorphological parameters of methacarn fixed tissue samples were evaluated including the number of goblet cells and the mucin staining area. Cryopreservation in combination with chemical postfixation led to mucus preservation in the colon of piglets allowing mucus thickness measurements. Mucus could be only partly preserved in cryosections of the jejunum impeding any quantitative description of the mucus layer thickness. The application of different postfixations, varying pH values of the AB solution and different mucus layer measuring methods led to comparable results regarding the mucus layer thickness. Methacarn fixation proved to be unsuitable for mucus depiction as only mucus patches were found in the jejunum or a detachment of the mucus layer from

  2. Comparison of different histological protocols for the preservation and quantification of the intestinal mucus layer in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhe, Ilen; Hüttner, Friedrich Joseph; Plendl, Johanna; Drewes, Barbara; Zentek, Jürgen

    2018-02-05

    The histological characterization of the intestinal mucus layer is important for many scientific experiments investigating the interaction between intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune response and intestinal mucus production. The aim of this study was to examine and compare different fixation protocols for displaying and quantifying the intestinal mucus layer in piglets and to test which histomorphological parameters may correlate with the determined mucus layer thickness. Jejunal and colonal tissue samples of weaned piglets (n=10) were either frozen in liquid nitrogen or chemically fixed using methacarn solution. The frozen tissue samples were cryosectioned and subsequently postfixed using three different postfixatives: paraformaldehyde vapor, neutrally buffered formalin solution and ethanol solution. After dehydration, methacarn fixed tissues were embedded in paraffin wax. Both sections of cryopreserved and methacarn fixed tissue samples were stained with Alcian blue (AB)-PAS followed by the microscopically determination of the mucus layer thickness. Different pH values of the Alcian Blue staining solution and two mucus layer thickness measuring methods were compared. In addition, various histomorphological parameters of methacarn fixed tissue samples were evaluated including the number of goblet cells and the mucin staining area. Cryopreservation in combination with chemical postfixation led to mucus preservation in the colon of piglets allowing mucus thickness measurements. Mucus could be only partly preserved in cryosections of the jejunum impeding any quantitative description of the mucus layer thickness. The application of different postfixations, varying pH values of the AB solution and different mucus layer measuring methods led to comparable results regarding the mucus layer thickness. Methacarn fixation proved to be unsuitable for mucus depiction as only mucus patches were found in the jejunum or a detachment of the mucus layer from the epithelium was

  3. Static friction of porous bioceramic beta-TCP on intestinal mucus films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Ying-Chao; Jiang, Xin; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2006-09-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the beta-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous beta-TCP material.

  4. Static friction of porous bioceramic β-TCP on intestinal mucus films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinyu; Han Yingchao; Jiang Xin; Dai Honglian; Li Shipu

    2006-01-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the β-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous β-TCP material

  5. Gastric mucus and mucuslike hydrogels: Thin film lubricating properties at soft interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Patil, Navin J.; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    to be superior at hydrophilic tribological interfaces compared to hydrophobic ones. Facile spreading of all mucus samples at hydrophilic steel–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) interfaces allowed for the retainment of the lubricating films over a wide range of speed, slide/roll ratio, and external load. In contrast......, poor wetting at hydrophobic PDMS–PDMS interfaces led to depletion of the mucus samples from the interface with increasing speed. Among the different mucus models investigated in this study, fluid mixtures of commercially available porcine gastric mucin (PGM) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) displayed...

  6. Effect of Native Gastric Mucus on in vivo Hybridization Therapies Directed at Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Xiong, Ranhua

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than 50% of the worldwide population. It is mostly found deep in the gastric mucus lining of the stomach, being a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma. To face the increasing resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics, antimicrobial nucleic acid...... barriers-the highly viscoelastic gastric mucus and the bacterial cell envelope. We found that LNA/2'OMe is capable of diffusing rapidly through native, undiluted, gastric mucus isolated from porcine stomachs, without degradation. Moreover, although LNA/2'OMe hybridization was still successful without...

  7. FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY IN THE OTOLITH WIDTH AND LENGTH OF ADULT TELEOST (Beryx splendens LOWE, 1834 (FAMILY: BERCIDAE COLLECTED FROM THE ARABIAN SEA COASTS OF SULTANATE OF OMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Albusaidi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry was described for the otolith width and length of adult teleost Beryx splendens. The results showed that the level of asymmetry of the otolith width was the highest among the two asymmetry values obtained for the otolith of B. splendens. For the otolith width character, the results showed that the level of asymmetry at its highest value in fish ranging in length between 191–200 mm and in its lowest value in fish ranging in length between 121–180 mm. For the otolith length, the highest value of asymmetry is noticed in fish ranging in length between 231–244 mm and the lowest value in fish within the length of 121–190 mm. The possible cause of the asymmetry in this species has been discussed in relation to different pollutants and their presence in the area. No trend of increase in the asymmetry values with the fish length was noticed for the otolith width, but there is a weak trend of increase with the fish length in case of otolith length character.

  8. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  9. Effects of nitrate on the diurnal vertical migration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and the photosynthetic capacity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, J.J.; Horrigan, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    A non-thecate dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium splendens, was studied in a 12 d laboratory experiment in 2.0 x 0.25 m containers in which light, temperature, and nutrients could be manipulated. Under a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, the dinoflagellates exhibited diurnal vertical migrations, swimming downward before the dark period began and upward before the end of the dark period. This vertical migration probably involved geotaxis and a diel rhythm, as well as light-mediated behavior. The vertical distribution of nitrate affected the behavior and physiology of the dinoflagellate. When nitrate was present throughout the container, the organisms resembled those in exponential batch culture both in C:N ratios and photosynthetic capacity (P/sub max/); moreover, they migrated to the surface during the day. In contrast, when nitrate was depleted, C:N ratios increased, P/sub max/ decreased, and the organisms formed a subsurface layer at a depth corresponding to the light level at which photosynthesis saturated. When nitrate was present only at the bottom of the tank, C:N ratios of the population decreased until similar to those of nutrient-saturated cells and P/sub max/ increased; however, the dinoflagellates behaved the same as nutient-depleted cells, forming a subsurface layer during the light period. Field measurements revealed a migratory subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer dominated by G. splendens. It was just above the nitracline during the day, and in the nitracline during the night, which concurs with our laboratory observations.

  10. High molecular weight lectin isolated from the mucus of the giant African snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigeru; Shimizu, Masahiro; Nagatsuka, Maki; Kitajima, Seiji; Honda, Michiyo; Tsuchiya, Takahide; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    To understand better the host defense mechanisms of mollusks against pathogens, we examined the anti-microbial activity of mucus from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Hemagglutination activity of the mucus secreted by the integument of snails inoculated with Escherichia coli was observed to increase and to cause hemagglutination of rabbit red blood cells. Purification of the snail mucus lectin by sequential column chromatography revealed that the relative molecular mass of the lectin was 350 kDa. The hemagglutination activity of the lectin was Ca(2+)-dependent and was inhibited by galactose. Growth arrest tests showed that the lectin did not inhibit bacterial growth, but did induce agglutination of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Tissue distribution analyses using a polyclonal antibody revealed that the lectin was expressed in the tissues of the mantle collar. The lectin isolated from the mucus of the snail appeared to contribute to its innate immunity.

  11. Cervical mucus and serum estradiol as predictors of response to progestin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, L D; Shangold, M M; Ahmed, S W

    1990-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the correlation between and relative predictive value of each of the following variables and progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding: cervical mucus appearance, serum E2 level, patient age, duration of amenorrhea, smoking and exercise habits, and body composition. Of 120 oligomenorrheic and amenorrheic women evaluated, only cervical mucus appearance and serum E2 level were significantly associated with response to progestin challenge. A multivariate logistical regression analysis showed cervical mucus to be the most predictive variable followed by serum E2 level. No absolute E2 level was found to discriminate between those who did and those who did not have withdrawal bleeding after progestin challenge. These data suggest that office examination of cervical mucus may be a useful indicator and guideline in planning therapy.

  12. Lectin histochemical aspects of mucus function in the oesophagus of the reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W; Luz, S; Schnapper, A

    2009-08-01

    Using lectin histochemistry, the study characterizes basic functional aspects of the mucus produced by the oesophageal epithelium of the Reticulated python (Python reticulatus). Reaction staining varied as related to the two epithelium types present, containing goblet cells and ciliary cells. Remarkable intensities were achieved especially in the luminal mucus layer and the fine mucus covering the epithelial ciliary border for Con A (alpha-D-Man; alpha-D-Glc) as part of neutral glycoproteins, Limax flavus agglutinin (NeuNac = NeuNgc), emphasizing that water binding hyaluronan provides a hydrated interface conductive to the passage of material and UEA-I (alpha-L-Fuc), corroborating the view that fucose-rich highly viscous mucus is helpful against mechanical stress during prey transport.

  13. Vaginal mucus from ewes treated with progestogen sponges affects quality of ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-03-15

    The use of intravaginal sponges (IS) to synchronize estrous onset in ewes provokes vaginitis, an increase in the vaginal bacterial load, and growth of bacterial species that are not present during spontaneous estrous behavior. The objective of the study was to compare the functional sperm parameters after incubating it with mucus collected from the vagina of ewes during spontaneous estrus or estrous synchronized with IS. Pooled spermatozoa were co-incubated with: (1) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in spontaneous estrus; (2) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in estrus pretreated with progestogen-impregnated IS; (3) synthetic mucus; and (4) medium without mucus as a control group. Sperm samples were evaluated after incubating it for 30 and 90 minutes. The number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL), pH, and osmolality were greater in the mucus collected from ewes treated with IS than from those untreated (P = 0.046; P ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments both, 30 and 90 minutes after incubation (P = 0.0009 and P ewes treated with IS had a lower percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane than all the other treatments (P ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments (P ewes during their spontaneous estrus (P = 0.0005). The lowest percentages of sperm with acrosome damage were observed in sperm incubated with mucus collected from sheep in spontaneous estrus for 30 and 90 minutes (P ewes treated with IS than in the other three groups (P = 0.0005). The functionality and the viability of ram sperm is negatively affected by the cervical mucus of ewes pretreated with progestagen-impregnated IS used in estrous synchronization treatments. This may partially explain the decrease in conception rate obtained with treatments with IS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mellado; Laura Maricela Lara; Francisco Gerardo Veliz; María Ángeles de Santiago; Leonel Avendaño-Reyes; Cesar Meza-Herrera; José Eduardo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services), raised under intense heat (mea...

  15. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunder, Richard J.; Buckley, Jonathan; Val, Adalberto L.; Sloman, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg -1 ) or through the water (3 μg l -1 ) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 μg g -1 day -1 , and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  16. Mucus: An Underestimated Gut Target for Environmental Pollutants and Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillois, Kévin; Lévêque, Mathilde; Théodorou, Vassilia; Robert, Hervé; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2018-06-15

    Synthetic chemicals (environmental pollutants, food additives) are widely used for many industrial purposes and consumer-related applications, which implies, through manufactured products, diet, and environment, a repeated exposure of the general population with growing concern regarding health disorders. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physical and biological barrier against these compounds, and thus their first target. Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiota represents a major player in the toxicity of environmental pollutants and food additives; however, little is known on the toxicological relevance of the mucus/pollutant interplay, even though mucus is increasingly recognized as essential in gut homeostasis. Here, we aimed at describing how environmental pollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, and other persistent organic pollutants) and food additives (emulsifiers, nanomaterials) might interact with mucus and mucus-related microbial species; that is, “mucophilic” bacteria such as mucus degraders. This review highlights that intestinal mucus, either directly or through its crosstalk with the gut microbiota, is a key, yet underestimated gut player that must be considered for better risk assessment and management of environmental pollution.

  17. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunder, Richard J., E-mail: richard.maunder@astrazeneca.com [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Buckley, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.buckley@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Val, Adalberto L., E-mail: dalval@inpa.gov.br [Department of Ecology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, INPA, Manaus (Brazil); Sloman, Katherine A., E-mail: katherine.sloman@uws.ac.uk [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg{sup -1}) or through the water (3 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 {mu}g g{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  18. OligoG CF-5/20 normalizes cystic fibrosis mucus by chelating calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermund, Anna; Recktenwald, Christian V; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Meiss, Lauren N; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Philip D; Dessen, Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the guluronate (G) rich alginate OligoG CF-5/20 (OligoG) could detach cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus by calcium chelation, which is also required for normal mucin unfolding. Since bicarbonate secretion is impaired in CF, leading to insufficient mucin unfolding and thereby attached mucus, and since bicarbonate has the ability to bind calcium, we hypothesized that the calcium chelating property of OligoG would lead to detachment of CF mucus. Indeed, OligoG could compete with the N-terminus of the MUC2 mucin for calcium binding as shown by microscale thermophoresis. Further, effects on mucus thickness and attachment induced by OligoG and other alginate fractions of different length and composition were evaluated in explants of CF mouse ileum mounted in horizontal Ussing-type chambers. OligoG at 1.5% caused effective detachment of CF mucus and the most potent alginate fraction tested, the poly-G fraction of about 12 residues, had similar potency compared to OligoG whereas mannuronate-rich (M) polymers had minimal effect. In conclusion, OligoG binds calcium with appropriate affinity without any overt harmful effect on the tissue and can be exploited for treating mucus stagnation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Production of quorum-sensing signals by bacteria in the coral mucus layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Kuang, Weiqi; Long, Lijuan; Zhang, Si

    2017-12-01

    Quorum sensing is an integral part of bacterial communication and interaction, but has not been well characterized in coral mucus microbiota. In this study, of 61 coral mucus isolates, five alphaproteobacteria and one Vibrio species were found to produce N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), a quorum-sensing signal in bacteria. Eight gammaproteobacteria isolates were found to produce autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing signals along with two actinobacteria of the genus Rothia. Coral mucus is rich in the antioxidant dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the concentration of which has been found to increase under heat stress. Neither AHL nor AI-2 activity was induced by DMSP in those coral mucus isolates that did not initially produce quorum-sensing signals. However, the AI-2 activities of one Rothia isolate (SCSIO 13017) from coral mucus and of Vibrio shilonii (DSM 13774 isolated from a bleached coral) were found to increase in response to 5 μM DMSP but decreased in response to 50 μM DMSP for the first time. These findings suggest that the production of quorum-sensing signals in the coral mucus microbiota may play a role in structuring the surface microbial community as they respond to environmental stress.

  20. TMEM16A mediates the hypersecretion of mucus induced by Interleukin-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiachen; Jiang, Youfan; Li, Li; Liu, Yanan; Tang, Hui; Jiang, Depeng, E-mail: depengjiang@163.com

    2015-06-10

    Previous studies showed that the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC) was involved in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion induced by Interleukin-13 (IL-13). However, the mechanisms underlying the process were unknown. Recently, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was identified as the channel underlying the CaCC current. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the TMEM16A channel is part of the mechanism underlying IL-13-induced mucus hypersecretion. We observed that both TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated after treatment with IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial 16 (HBE 16) cells, which correlated with an increase in mucus production. Additionally, mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of IL-13 and similar increases were observed in the expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in the bronchial epithelium. Niflumic acid (NA), a selective antagonist of CaCC, markedly blocked IL-13-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC mRNA and protein production in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation with HBE16 cells revealed that TMEM16A overexpression clearly promoted mucus production, IκBα phosphorylation, and p65 accumulation in the nucleus. The loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of mucus production, and the TMEM16A-mediated production of MUC5AC was significantly blocked by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. Therefore, the TMEM16A channel acts upstream of NF-κB in the regulation of mucus production. This is the first demonstration that the TMEM16A-NF-κB pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, which provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism of mucin overproduction. - Highlights: • TMEM16A acts as downstream events of IL-13 signaling pathway. • Established the link between TMEM16A and mucus hypersecretion. • NF-κB activation might be responsible for TMEM16A mediated mucus secretion.

  1. Development of a HS-SPME-GC/MS protocol assisted by chemometric tools to study herbivore-induced volatiles in Myrcia splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Silva, Érica A; Saboia, Giovanni; Jorge, Nina C; Hoffmann, Camila; Dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Soares, Geraldo L G; Zini, Claudia A

    2017-12-01

    A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed and optimized for extraction and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of leaves and galls of Myrcia splendens. Through a process of optimization of main factors affecting HS-SPME efficiency, the coating divivnilbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/Car/PDMS) was chosen as the optimum extraction phase, not only in terms of extraction efficiency, but also for its broader analyte coverage. Optimum extraction temperature was 30°C, while an extraction time of 15min provided the best compromise between extraction efficiencies of lower and higher molecular weight compounds. The optimized protocol was demonstrated to be capable of sampling plant material with high reproducibility, considering that most classes of analytes met the 20% RSD FDA criterion. The optimized method was employed for the analysis of three classes of M. splendens samples, generating a final list of 65 tentatively identified VOC, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, phenol derivatives, as well as mono and sesquiterpenes. Significant differences were evident amongst the volatile profiles obtained from non-galled leaves (NGL) and leaf-folding galls (LFG) of M. splendens. Several differences pertaining to amounts of alcohols and aldehydes were detected between samples, particularly regarding quantities of green leaf volatiles (GLV). Alcohols represented about 14% of compounds detected in gall samples, whereas in non-galled samples, alcohol content was below 5%. Phenolic derived compounds were virtually absent in reference samples, while in non-galled leaves and galls their content ranged around 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Likewise, methyl salicylate, a well-known signal of plant distress, amounted for 1.2% of the sample content of galls, whereas it was only present in trace levels in reference samples. Chemometric analysis based on Heatmap associated

  2. Susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion, a genome wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkelies E Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA study of CMH in Caucasian populations.GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years. Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP.A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10(-6, OR = 1.17, located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1 on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G was associated with higher mRNA expression of SATB1 (4.3×10(-9 in lung tissue. Presence of CMH was associated with increased SATB1 mRNA expression in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients. SATB1 expression was induced during differentiation of primary human bronchial epithelial cells in culture.Our findings, that SNP rs6577641 is associated with CMH in multiple cohorts and is a cis-eQTL for SATB1, together with our additional observation that SATB1 expression increases during epithelial differentiation provide suggestive evidence that SATB1 is a gene that affects CMH.

  3. Design and intestinal mucus penetration mechanism of core-shell nanocomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Hongbo; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Meixia; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Xiuhua; Guan, Jian; Wu, Haiyang; Mao, Shirui

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study was to design intestinal mucus-penetrating core-shell nanocomplex by functionally mimicking the surface of virus, which can be used as the carrier for peroral delivery of macromolecules, and further understand the influence of nanocomplex surface properties on the mucosal permeation capacity. Taking insulin as a model drug, the core was formed by the self-assembly among positively charged chitosan, insulin and negatively charged sodium tripolyphosphate, different types of alginates were used as the shell forming material. The nanocomplex was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FTIR. Nanocomplex movement in mucus was recorded using multiple particle tracking (MPT) method. Permeation and uptake of different nanocomplex were studied in rat intestine. It was demonstrated that alginate coating layer was successfully formed on the core and the core-shell nanocomplex showed a good physical stability and improved enzymatic degradation protection. The mucus penetration and MPT study showed that the mucus penetration capacity of the nanocomplex was surface charge and coating polymer structure dependent, nanocomplex with negative alginate coating had 1.6-2.5 times higher mucus penetration ability than that of positively charged chitosan-insulin nanocomplex. Moreover, the mucus penetration ability of the core-shell nanocomplex was alginate structure dependent, whereas alginate with lower G content and lower molecular weight showed the best permeation enhancing ability. The improvement of intestine permeation and intestinal villi uptake of the core-shell nanocomplex were further confirmed in rat intestine and multiple uptake mechanisms were involved in the transport process. In conclusion, core-shell nanocomplex composed of oppositely charged materials could provide a strategy to overcome the mucus barrier and enhance the mucosal permeability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp. in catfish mucus extract under industrial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhowlaghar, Nitin; De Abrew Abeysundara, Piumi; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Mark W; Chang, Sam; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Sharma, Chander S

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on the growth and biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on different food-contact surfaces at 22 °C and 10 °C. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants at recommended concentrations and contact times for removing Salmonella biofilms cells on a stainless steel surface containing catfish mucus extract. Growth and biofilm formation of all Salmonella strains increased with higher concentrations of catfish mucus extract at both 10 °C and 22 °C. In 15 μg/ml of catfish mucus extract inoculated with 3 log CFU/ml, the biofilm levels of Salmonella on stainless steel surface reached to 3.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 10 °C or 5.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 22 °C in 7 days. In 375 μg/ml of catfish mucus extract inoculated with 3 log CFU/ml, the biofilm levels of Salmonella on the stainless steel surface reached 4.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 10 °C and 6.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 22 °C in 7 days. No differences were observed between Salmonella strains tested for biofilm formation in catfish mucus extract on the stainless steel surface. The biofilm formation by Salmonella Blockley (7175) in catfish mucus extract was less (P stainless steel, polyethylene and polyurethane surfaces. Salmonella biofilm cells were not detectable on the stainless steel surface after treatment with a mixture of disinfectants but were still present when single compound disinfectants were used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Manikantan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus from Epinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results: Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3 mm] was observed against Proteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1 mm] was observed against Vibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5– 37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactivepotency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  6. Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Merckx, Jacques; Flaud, Patrice; Fausser, Christian; Pelca, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance and cough are the two main natural mucus draining methods in the bronchial tree. If they are affected by a pathology, they can become insufficient or even ineffective, then therapeutic draining of mucus plays a critical role to keep mucus levels in the lungs acceptable. The manipulations of physical therapists are known to be very efficient clinically but they are mostly empirical since the biophysical mechanisms involved in these manipulations have never been studied. We develop in this work a model of mucus clearance in idealized rigid human bronchial trees and focus our study on the interaction between (1) tree geometry, (2) mucus physical properties and (3) amplitude of flow rate in the tree. The mucus is considered as a Bingham fluid (gel-like) which is moved upward in the tree thanks to its viscous interaction with air flow. Our studies point out the important roles played both by the geometry and by the physical properties of mucus (yield stress and viscosity). More particularly, the yield stress has to be overcome to make mucus flow. Air flow rate and yield stress determine the maximal possible mucus thickness in each branch of the tree at equilibrium. This forms a specific distribution of mucus in the tree whose characteristics are strongly related to the multi-scaled structure of the tree. The behavior of any mucus distribution is then dependent on this distribution. Finally, our results indicate that increasing air flow rates ought to be more efficient to drain mucus out of the bronchial tree while minimizing patient discomfort

  7. Utilization of mucus from the coral Acropora palmata by the pathogen Serratia marcescens and by environmental and coral commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Cohen, Matthew; Lipp, Erin K; Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Teplitski, Max

    2009-06-01

    In recent years, diseases of corals caused by opportunistic pathogens have become widespread. How opportunistic pathogens establish on coral surfaces, interact with native microbiota, and cause disease is not yet clear. This study compared the utilization of coral mucus by coral-associated commensal bacteria ("Photobacterium mandapamensis" and Halomonas meridiana) and by opportunistic Serratia marcescens pathogens. S. marcescens PDL100 (a pathogen associated with white pox disease of Acroporid corals) grew to higher population densities on components of mucus from the host coral. In an in vitro coculture on mucus from Acropora palmata, S. marcescens PDL100 isolates outgrew coral isolates. The white pox pathogen did not differ from other bacteria in growth on mucus from a nonhost coral, Montastraea faveolata. The ability of S. marcescens to cause disease in acroporid corals may be due, at least in part, to the ability of strain PDL100 to build to higher population numbers within the mucus surface layer of its acroporid host. During growth on mucus from A. palmata, similar glycosidase activities were present in coral commensal bacteria, in S. marcescens PDL100, and in environmental and human isolates of S. marcescens. The temporal regulation of these activities during growth on mucus, however, was distinct in the isolates. During early stages of growth on mucus, enzymatic activities in S. marcescens PDL100 were most similar to those in coral commensals. After overnight incubation on mucus, enzymatic activities in a white pox pathogen were most similar to those in pathogenic Serratia strains isolated from human mucosal surfaces.

  8. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs.

  9. Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. (syn. M. fallax (Rich. DC. (Myrtaceae Essential Oil from Amazonian Ecuador: A Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scalvenzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we performed the chemical characterization of Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. (Myrtaceae essential oil from Amazonian Ecuador and the assessment of its bioactivity in terms of cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity as starting point for possible applicative uses. M. splendens essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID: the major components were found to be trans-nerolidol (67.81% and α-bisabolol (17.51%. Furthermore, we assessed the cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (breast, A549 (lung human tumor cell lines, and HaCaT (human keratinocytes non-tumor cell line through 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT test: promising results in terms of selectivity and efficacy against the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 of 5.59 ± 0.13 μg/mL at 48 h were obtained, mainly due to α-bisabolol. Furthermore, antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria were performed through High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC bioautographic assay and microdilution method: trans-nerolidol and β-cedren-9-one were the main molecules responsible for the low antibacterial effects against human pathogens. Nevertheless, interesting values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were noticeable against phytopathogen strains. Radical scavenging activity performed by HPTLC bioautographic and spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH approaches were negligible. In conclusion, the essential oil revealed a good potential for plant defense and anti-cancer applications.

  10. Immobilization of pseudorabies virus in porcine tracheal respiratory mucus revealed by single particle tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Yang

    Full Text Available Pseudorabies virus (PRV initially replicates in the porcine upper respiratory tract. It easily invades the mucosae and submucosae for subsequent spread throughout the body via blood vessels and nervous system. In this context, PRV developed ingenious processes to overcome different barriers such as epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Another important but often overlooked barrier is the substantial mucus layer which coats the mucosae. However, little is known about how PRV particles interact with porcine respiratory mucus. We therefore measured the barrier properties of porcine tracheal respiratory mucus, and investigated the mobility of nanoparticles including PRV in this mucus. We developed an in vitro model utilizing single particle tracking microscopy. Firstly, the mucus pore size was evaluated with polyethylene glycol coupled (PEGylated nanoparticles and atomic force microscope. Secondly, the mobility of PRV in porcine tracheal respiratory mucus was examined and compared with that of negative, positive and PEGylated nanoparticles. The pore size of porcine tracheal respiratory mucus ranged from 80 to 1500 nm, with an average diameter of 455±240 nm. PRV (zeta potential: -31.8±1.5 mV experienced a severe obstruction in porcine tracheal respiratory mucus, diffusing 59-fold more slowly than in water. Similarly, the highly negatively (-49.8±0.6 mV and positively (36.7±1.1 mV charged nanoparticles were significantly trapped. In contrast, the nearly neutral, hydrophilic PEGylated nanoparticles (-9.6±0.8 mV diffused rapidly, with the majority of particles moving 50-fold faster than PRV. The mobility of the particles measured was found to be related but not correlated to their surface charge. Furthermore, PEGylated PRV (-13.8±0.9 mV was observed to diffuse 13-fold faster than native PRV. These findings clearly show that the mobility of PRV was significantly hindered in porcine tracheal respiratory mucus, and that the obstruction of PRV

  11. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  12. Humoral immune response against native or 60Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do; Seibert, Carla Simone

    2015-01-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or 60 Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  13. Evaluation of drug permeation under fed state conditions using mucus-covered Caco-2 cell epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Ditlev; Diedrichsen, Ragna G; Christophersen, Philip C

    2018-01-01

    The absence of a surface-lining mucus layer is a major pitfall for the Caco-2 epithelial model. However, this can be alleviated by applying biosimilar mucus (BM) to the apical surface of the cell monolayer, thereby constructing a mucosa mimicking in vivo conditions. This study aims to elucidate...... the influence of BM as a barrier towards exogenic compounds such as permeation enhancers, and components of fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF). Caco-2 cell monolayers surface-lined with BM were exposed to several compounds with distinct physicochemical properties, and the cell viability...... and permeability of the cell monolayer was compared to that of cell monolayers without BM and well-established mucus-secreting epithelial models (HT29 monolayers and HT29/Caco-2 co-culture monolayers). Exposure of BM-covered cells to constituents from FeSSIF revealed that it comprised a strong, hydrophilic barrier...

  14. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator–prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss...... and aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in the mucus...

  15. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  16. The Skin-Mucus Microbial Community of Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Giusi; Hagen, Live Heldal; Porcellato, Davide; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Pope, Phillip B.; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2017-01-01

    The skin of the teleost is a flexible and scaled structure that protects the fish toward the external environment. The outermost surface of the skin is coated with mucus, which is believed to be colonized by a diverse bacterial community (commensal and/or opportunistic). Little is known about such communities and their role in fish welfare. In aquaculture, fish seem to be more susceptible to pathogens compared to wild fish. Indeed common fish farming practices may play important roles in promoting their vulnerability, possibly by causing changes to their microbiomes. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was employed to analyze the composition of the farmed Salmo salar skin-mucus microbiome before and after netting and transfer. The composition of the bacterial community present in the rearing water was also investigated in order to evaluate its correlation with the community present on the fish skin. Our results reveal variability of the skin-mucus microbiome among the biological replicates before fish handling. On the contrary, after fish handling, the skin-mucus community exhibited structural similarity among the biological replicates and significant changes were observed in the bacterial composition compared to the fish analyzed prior to netting and transfer. Limited correlation was revealed between the skin-mucus microbiome and the bacterial community present in the rearing water. Finally, analysis of skin-mucus bacterial biomasses indicated low abundance for some samples, highlighting the need of caution when interpreting community data due to the possible contamination of water-residing bacteria. PMID:29104567

  17. The Skin-Mucus Microbial Community of Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Minniti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The skin of the teleost is a flexible and scaled structure that protects the fish toward the external environment. The outermost surface of the skin is coated with mucus, which is believed to be colonized by a diverse bacterial community (commensal and/or opportunistic. Little is known about such communities and their role in fish welfare. In aquaculture, fish seem to be more susceptible to pathogens compared to wild fish. Indeed common fish farming practices may play important roles in promoting their vulnerability, possibly by causing changes to their microbiomes. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was employed to analyze the composition of the farmed Salmo salar skin-mucus microbiome before and after netting and transfer. The composition of the bacterial community present in the rearing water was also investigated in order to evaluate its correlation with the community present on the fish skin. Our results reveal variability of the skin-mucus microbiome among the biological replicates before fish handling. On the contrary, after fish handling, the skin-mucus community exhibited structural similarity among the biological replicates and significant changes were observed in the bacterial composition compared to the fish analyzed prior to netting and transfer. Limited correlation was revealed between the skin-mucus microbiome and the bacterial community present in the rearing water. Finally, analysis of skin-mucus bacterial biomasses indicated low abundance for some samples, highlighting the need of caution when interpreting community data due to the possible contamination of water-residing bacteria.

  18. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. SPDEF is required for mouse pulmonary goblet cell differentiation and regulates a network of genes associated with mucus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Xu, Y.; Kitzmiller, J.; Wert, S.E.; Maeda, Y.; Gregorieff, A.; Clevers, H.; Whitsett, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Various acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli increase the number and activity of pulmonary mucus-producing goblet cells, and goblet cell hyperplasia and excess mucus production are central to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases. However, little is known about the transcriptional

  20. Interfacial dilational properties of tea polyphenols and milk proteins with gut epithelia and the role of mucus in nutrient adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Anilda; Li, Yang; Corredig, Milena

    2015-12-01

    By interacting with nutrients, the mucus layer covering the intestinal epithelium may mediate absorption. This study aimed to determine possible interactions between epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), skim milk proteins or their complexes with human intestinal mucin films. The films were extracted from postconfluent monolayers of HT29-MTX, a human intestinal cell line, and a model system was created using drop shape tensiometry. The EGCG uptake tested in vitro on postconfluent Caco-2 cells or co-cultures of Caco-2/HT29-MTX (mucus producing) showed recovery of bioavailable EGCG only for Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting an effect of mucus on absorption. Interfacial dilational rheology was employed to characterize the properties of the interface mixed with mucus dispersion. Adsorption of polyphenols greatly enhanced the viscoelastic modulus of the mucus film, showing the presence of interactions between the nutrient molecules and mucus films. On the other hand, in situ digestion of milk proteins using trypsin showed higher surface activities as a result of protein unfolding and competitive adsorption of the hydrolyzed products. There was an increase of viscoelastic modulus over the drop ageing time for the mixed interfaces, indicating the formation of a stiffer interfacial network. These results bring new insights into the role of the mucus layer in nutrient absorption and the interactions of mucus and dairy products.

  1. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frade, P.R.; Roll, K.; Bergauer, K.; Herndl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associatedwith the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has thereforeremained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibita similar specificity towards coral hosts

  2. Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp. in catfish mucus extract under industrial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on the growth and biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on different food-contact surfaces at 22°C and 10°C. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the...

  3. Effect of trefoil factors on the viscoelastic properties of mucus gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, L; Madsen, F; Poulsen, S S

    2002-01-01

    Trefoil peptides (TFFs) are expressed and secreted in a tissue-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of coexpression of trefoil peptides and mucins has been demonstrated in most mucus-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of trefoil peptides is up-regulat...

  4. In Vitro Microfluidic Models of Mucus-Like Obstructions in Small Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Molly K.; Grotberg, James B.; Sznitman, Josué

    2012-11-01

    Liquid plugs can form in the lungs as a result of a host of different diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The existence of such fluid obstructions have been found as far down in the bronchiole tree as the sixteenth generation, where bronchiole openings have diameters on the order of a hundred to a few hundred microns. Understanding the propagation of liquid plugs within the bifurcating branches of bronchiole airways is important because their presence in the lungs, and their rupture and break-up, can cause injury to the epithelial cells lining the airway walls as a result of high wall shear stresses. In particular, liquid plug rupture and break-up frequently occurs at airway bifurcations. Until present, however, experimental studies of liquid plugs have generally been restricted to Newtonian fluids that do not reflect the actual pseudoplastic properties of lung mucus. The present work attempts to uncover the propagation, rupture and break-up of mucus-like liquid plugs in the lower generations of the airway tree using microfluidic models. Our approach allows the dynamics of mucus-like plug break-up to be studied in real-time, in a one-to-one in vitro model, as a function of mucus rheology and bronchial tree geometry.

  5. Milk consumption does not lead to mucus production or occurrence of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello; Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara; Sieber, Robert

    2005-12-01

    There is a belief among some members of the public that the consumption of milk and dairy products increases the production of mucus in the respiratory system. Therefore, some who believe in this effect renounce drinking milk. According to Australian studies, subjects perceived some parameters of mucus production to change after consumption of milk and soy-based beverages, but these effects were not specific to cows' milk because the soy-based milk drink with similar sensory characteristics produced the same changes. In individuals inoculated with the common cold virus, milk intake was not associated with increased nasal secretions, symptoms of cough, nose symptoms or congestion. Nevertheless, individuals who believe in the mucus and milk theory report more respiratory symptoms after drinking milk. In some types of alternative medicine, people with bronchial asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower respiratory tract, are advised not to eat so-called mucus-forming foods, especially all kinds of dairy products. According to different investigations the consumption of milk does not seem to exacerbate the symptoms of asthma and a relationship between milk consumption and the occurrence of asthma cannot be established. However, there are a few cases documented in which people with a cow's milk allergy presented with asthma-like symptoms.

  6. Description and comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of the teleost fish skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuartero, María; Del Mar Collado-González, María; Arizcún, Marta; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, María A

    2015-01-01

    The study of mucosal surfaces, and in particular the fish skin and its secreted mucus, has been of great interest recently among immunologists. Measurement of the viscosity and other physico-chemical parameters (protein concentration, pH, conductivity, redox potential, osmolality and density) of the skin mucus can help to understand its biological functions. We have used five marine species of teleost: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.), common dentex (Dentex dentex L.) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus L.), all of them with commercial interest in the aquaculture of the Mediterranean area. Mucus showed a direct shear- and temperature-dependent viscosity, with a non-Newtonian behavior, which differed however between two groups: one with higher viscosity (D. labrax, U. cirrosa, D. dentex) and the other with lower viscosity (S. aurata, E. marginatus). In addition, there was a clear interrelation between density and osmolality, as well as between density and temperature. Taking into account that high values of viscosity should improve the barrier effect against pathogens but low values of viscosity are needed for good locomotion characteristics, our results may help elucidate the relationship between physico-chemical and biological parameters of skin mucus, and disease susceptibility.

  7. Gallbladder contractility and mucus secretion after cholesterol feeding in the prairie dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y. F.; Moody, F. G.; Weisbrodt, N. W.; Zalewsky, C. A.; Coelho, J. C.; Senninger, N.; Gouma, D.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate changes in gallbladder contractility and mucus secretion in vitro during the early stages of gallstone formation in prairie dogs. Thirty-two animals were divided into five groups. Control animals were fed a trace cholesterol diet. Experimental animals were

  8. Trefoil factor peptide 3 is positively correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara Kjær; Samson, Mie Hesselund; Becher, Naja

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug are considered essential for the occlusion of the cervical canal and thereby for protection against ascending infections during pregnancy. Factors controlling this property are virtually unknown. This study explores a possible role of trefoil...

  9. Dissecting the genetics of chronic mucus hypersecretion in smokers with and without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E.; Boezen, H. Marike; Van Den Berge, Maarten; Vonk, Judith M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Barr, R. Graham; Burkart, Kirsten M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Pottinger, Tess D.; Silverman, Edward K.; Cho, Michael H.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Bossé, Yohan; Nickle, David C.; Paré, Peter D.; De Koning, Harry J.; Lammers, Jan Willem; Zanen, Pieter; Smolonska, Joanna; Wijmenga, Ciska; Brandsma, Corry Anke; Groen, Harry J M; Postma, Dirkje S.; Alizadeh, B. Z.; De Boer, R. A.; Boezen, H. M.; Bruinenberg, M.; Franke, L.; Van Der Harst, P.; Hillege, H. L.; Van Der Klauw, M. M.; Navis, G.; Ormel, J.; Postma, D. S.; Rosmalen, J. G M; Slaets, J. P.; Snieder, H.; Stolk, R. P.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H R; Wijmenga, C.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a notorious risk factor for chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH). CMH frequently occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The question arises whether the same single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are related to CMH in smokers with and without COPD. We performed two

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of Salmonella biofilms on various food-contact surfaces in catfish mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth and survival of Salmonella enterica in the presence of high and low concentrations (375 µg/ml and 15 µg/ml) of catfish mucus extract at 10 °C and 22 °C for 63 days. The second objective of this study was to investigate the biofilm formation of ...

  11. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and

  12. Eosinophil cationic protein stimulates and major basic protein inhibits airway mucus secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Davey, R T; Lundgren, B

    1991-01-01

    Possible roles of eosinophil (EO) products in modulating the release of mucus from airway explants were investigated. Cell- and membrane-free lysates from purified human EOs (1 to 20 x 10(5)) caused a dose-dependent release of respiratory glycoconjugates (RGC) from cultured feline tracheal explants...

  13. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a

  14. The conductivity of cervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conductivity of cervical mucus as a predictor of ovulation in beef cows synchronised with cloprostenol. C.T. McCabe, G.W. Sprowson, D.H. Holness. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. The influence of mucus microstructure and rheology in H. pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama eBansil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has evolved to survive in the highly acidic environment of the stomach and colonize on the epithelial surface of the gastric mucosa. Its pathogenic effects are well known to cause gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In order to infect the stomach and establish colonies on the mucus epithelial surface, the bacterium has to move across the gel-like gastric mucus lining of the stomach under acidic conditions. In this review we address the question of how the bacterium gets past the protective mucus barrier from a biophysical perspective. We begin by reviewing the molecular structure of gastric mucin and discuss the current state of understanding concerning mucin polymerization and low pH induced gelation. We then focus on the viscoelasticity of mucin in view of its relevance to the transport of particles and bacteria across mucus, the key first step in H. pylori infection. The second part of the review focuses on the motility of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels, and how infection with H. pylori in turn impacts the viscoelastic properties of mucin. We present recent microscopic results tracking the motion of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels. We then discuss how the biochemical strategy of urea hydrolysis required for survival in the acid is also relevant to the mechanism that enables flagella driven swimming across the mucus gel layer. Other aspects of the influence of H. pylori infection such as, altering gastric mucin expression, its rate of production and its composition, and the influence of mucin on factors controlling H. pylori virulence and proliferation are briefly discussed with references to relevant literature.

  16. Effects of temperature, nutrients, organic matter and coral mucus on the survival of the coral pathogen, Serratia marcescens PDL100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Erin E; Sutherland, Kathryn P; Lipp, Erin K

    2010-09-01

    Serratia marcescens is an enteric bacterium that causes white pox disease in elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata; however, it remains unclear if the pathogenic strain has adapted to seawater or if it requires a host or reservoir for survival. To begin to address this fundamental issue, the persistence of strain PDL100 was compared among seawater and coral mucus microcosms. Median survival time across all conditions ranged from a low of 15 h in natural seawater [with a first-order decay constant (k) = -0.173] at 30°C to a maximum of 120 h in glucose-amended A. palmata mucus (k = -0.029) at 30°C. Among seawater and mucus microcosms, median survival time was significantly greater within Siderastrea siderea mucus compared with seawater or mucus of Montastraea faveolata or A. palmata (P palmata mucus (P < 0.0001). Increasing the temperature of seawater to 35°C resulted in a significantly slower decay than that observed at 30°C (P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate that PDL100 is not well-adapted to marine water; however, survival can be improved by increasing temperature, the availability of coral mucus from S. siderea and most notably the presence of dissolved organic carbon. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A search for mixotrophy and mucus trap production in Alexandrium spp. and the dynamics of mucus trap formation in Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blossom, Hannah Eva; Bædkel, Tina Dencker; Tillmann, Urban

    2017-01-01

    , such as speed and frequency of trap formation as well as what happens to the trap after the A. pseudogonyaulax cell detaches from it. The percentage of A. pseudogonyaulax cells producing a mucus trap and the number of prey cells caught increased with increasing prey concentration, whereas the physical size...... of the traps was independent of prey concentration. In one strain given an excess of prey, within 1 h over 90% of individual A. pseudogonyaulax cells had formed a trap, each containing an average of 45 prey cells. Individual A. pseudogonyaulax cells steadily produced traps and up to 5 traps were produced...

  18. Proteomic profile of the skin mucus of farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan; Fuentes-Almagro, Carlos A; Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, Ma Ángeles; Prieto-Álamo, María-José

    2015-04-29

    Fish skin mucus is the first line of defense against infections and it discriminates between pathogenic and commensal bacterial strains. Mucus composition varies amongst fish species and is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. This study describes the first proteome map of the epidermal mucus of farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). We used an integrative proteomic approach by combining a label-free procedure (LC-MS/MS) with the classical 2-DE-PMF-MS/MS methodology. The identified mucosal proteins were clustered in four groups according to their biological functions. Structural proteins (actins, keratins, tubulins, tropomyosin, cofilin-2 and filamin-A) and metabolic proteins (ribosomal proteins, proteasomal subunits, NACA, VCP, histones, NDPK, transferrin, glycolytic enzymes, ATP synthase components, beta-globin, Apo-A1 and FABP7) were the best represented functional categories. We also found proteins involved in stress response (WAP65, HSPC70, Cu,Zn-SOD, and PRDX1 and PRDX2) and signal transduction (PP2A 65kDa regulatory subunit, 14-3-3 protein beta/alpha, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, RhoGDI and PEBP1). Most of the identified proteins address different aspects of the innate immune response. Additionally, we analyzed bacterial peptides identified in the skin mucus of healthy S. aurata. These results revealed that genera belonging to the Lactobacillales order constitute the most abundant microorganism populations in this habitat. This work shows that proteomic methods can be used to characterize fish skin mucus. Using a coupled approach of LC-MS/MS and a 2-DE-PMF-MS/MS, we have obtained the first comprehensive view of the skin mucosal proteome of S. aurata, a fish species that is economically relevant for Mediterranean aquaculture. We identified a panel of proteins involved in a variety of biological functions, particularly in the innate immune response. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first time a

  19. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Hadaidi, Ghaida Ali Hassan; Rö thig, Till; Yum, Lauren; Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Roder, Cornelia; Burt, John; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral

  20. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Farman Ullah; Tu, Jiagang; Xiong, Yang; Lan, Jiangfeng; Dong, Xing Xing; Liu, Xiaoling; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Mei, Jie; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA), a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS). The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals) at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:27589721

  1. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  2. High-attenuation mucus plugs on MDCT in a child with cystic fibrosis: potential cause and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Andrey; Brown, Shanaree; Applegate, Kimberly E.; Howenstine, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    High-attenuation mucus plugging is a rare finding in both adults and children. When it occurs, the field of differential diagnoses is typically quite small and includes acute hemorrhage, aspiration of radiodense material, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The last of these three diagnoses is the most difficult to make, although ABPA is more commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) or asthma. ABPA is radiographically characterized by recurrent mucus plugging, atelectasis, and central bronchiectasis. Thus far, high-attenuation mucus plugs have only been reported in adults. We report a rare case of a child with CF who had high-attenuation mucus plugs and atelectasis that raised the possibility of ABPA. We discuss the differential diagnoses of this finding and the role of multidetector CT in these children. (orig.)

  3. High-attenuation mucus plugs on MDCT in a child with cystic fibrosis: potential cause and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey; Brown, Shanaree [Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Applegate, Kimberly E. [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Howenstine, Michelle [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pulmonology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2007-06-15

    High-attenuation mucus plugging is a rare finding in both adults and children. When it occurs, the field of differential diagnoses is typically quite small and includes acute hemorrhage, aspiration of radiodense material, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The last of these three diagnoses is the most difficult to make, although ABPA is more commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) or asthma. ABPA is radiographically characterized by recurrent mucus plugging, atelectasis, and central bronchiectasis. Thus far, high-attenuation mucus plugs have only been reported in adults. We report a rare case of a child with CF who had high-attenuation mucus plugs and atelectasis that raised the possibility of ABPA. We discuss the differential diagnoses of this finding and the role of multidetector CT in these children. (orig.)

  4. Hypersecretion of mucus glycoprotein by the gallbladder epithelium in experimental cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S P

    1981-07-01

    In three models of cholelithiasis (dihydrocholesterol-fed rabbits, cholesterol-cholic acid-fed mice, and Lincomycin-treated guinea pigs), the quantity and chemical composition of gallbladder epithelial mucin have been studied using (1) a spectrum of histochemical glycoprotein stains, and (2) biochemical extraction, purification and analysis of the carbohydrate components of epithelial mucin. Despite the diverse mechanism of stone induction and difference in stone composition, a common pattern of response by the epithelial mucin was observed in all three models. There was a quantitative increase in epithelial mucus production at a time before stones were formed and this increase persisted till stones were formed. There was no difference, qualitatively, between mucus produced by normal and stone-forming gallbladders.

  5. Oxytetracycline Inhibits Mucus Secretion and Inflammation in Human Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Said Ahmad; Ishinaga, Hajime; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, but its nonantibacterial effects in the human respiratory tract are unknown. In this study, the effects of oxytetracycline on mucus secretion and inflammation were examined by PCR and ELISA in the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292. Oxytetracycline (10 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced MUC5AC gene expression and MUC5AC protein levels in NCI-H292 cells. It also downregulated IL-8 and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein levels. Our findings demonstrated that oxytetracycline suppressed mucus production and inflammation in human respiratory epithelial cells, providing further evidence for the usefulness of oxytetracycline for human airway inflammatory diseases. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. p38 MAPK and MMP-9 cooperatively regulate mucus overproduction in mice exposed to acrolein fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dai-Shun; Wang, Tao; Han, Su-Xia; Dong, Jia-Jia; Liao, Zeng-Lin; He, Guang-Ming; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ya-Juan; Xu, Dan; Hou, Yan; Li, Yan-Ping; Wen, Fu-Qiang

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on mice airway inflammation, mucus production and the possible cross-talk between p38 MAPK and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in mucin protein synthesis. Mice were exposed to 4.0 ppm of acrolein for 21 days with daily intraperitoneal injection of SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK. In control mice, sterile saline was administered instead. On days 7 and 21, mice were sacrificed to examine airway inflammation and mucus production by BALF cell counts, cytokine ELISA, and H&E and AB-PAS staining. The mRNA and protein levels of Muc5ac, p38 MAPK and MMP-9 in the lung were determined by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis. MMP-9 activity was measured by gelatin zymography. Both the numbers of inflammatory cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells were significantly increased in the airways of mice exposed to acrolein as compared to the control mice. Acrolein-increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was significantly reduced by SB203580. The airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia after acrolein challenge were also attenuated by SB203580 administration. Moreover, SB203580 treatment decreased the acrolein-induced increase of Muc5ac and MMP-9 expression and MMP-9 activity in airway epithelium. The results indicate an important role of p38 MAPK in acrolein-induced airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in mice. The cooperation of p38 and MMP-9 may contribute to the mucin overproduction after inflammatory challenge.

  7. Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Graham, N M; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, R M

    1990-02-01

    In the first of three studies investigating the widely held belief that "milk produces mucus," 60 volunteers were challenged with rhinovirus-2, and daily respiratory symptoms and milk and dairy product intake records were kept over a 10-day period. Nasal secretion weights were obtained by weighing tissues collected and sealed immediately after use. Information was obtained on 51 subjects, yielding 510 person-days of observation. Subjects consumed zero to 11 glasses of milk per day (mean, 2.7; SE, 0.08), and secretion weights ranged from zero to 30.4 g/day (mean, 1.1; SE, 0.1). In response to an initial questionnaire, 27.5% reported the practice of reducing intake of milk or dairy products with a cold or named milk or dairy products as bad for colds. Of the latter group, 80% stated the reason as "producing more mucus/phlegm." Milk and dairy product intake was not associated with an increase in upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms of congestion or nasal secretion weight. A trend was observed for cough, when present, to be loose with increasing milk and dairy product intake; however, this effect was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Those who believe "milk makes mucus" or reduce milk intake with colds reported significantly more cough and congestion symptoms, but they did not produce higher levels of nasal secretions. We conclude that no statistically significant overall association can be detected between milk and dairy product intake and symptoms of mucus production in healthy adults, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, with rhinovirus infection.

  8. Novel Compounds From Shark and Stingray Epidermal Mucus With Antimicrobial Activity Against Wound Infection Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    consistency compared to mucus from any of the ray species. While this difference is difficult to describe, the terms “ gelatinous ” or “sticky” are...visualized using silver stain (Figure 3). As observed with the ray species, protein patterns for clearnose skates are consistent among individuals of the...three clearnose skates, Raja eglanteria, visualized with silver stain. Molecular weights of standard proteins are in kilodaltons (kD). 9

  9. Structural and molecular insights into novel surface-exposed mucus adhesins from Lactobacillus reuteri human strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzold, Sabrina; MacKenzie, Donald A; Jeffers, Faye; Walshaw, John; Roos, Stefan; Hemmings, Andrew M; Juge, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The mucus layer covering the gastrointestinal tract is the first point of contact of the intestinal microbiota with the host. Cell surface macromolecules are critical for adherence of commensal bacteria to mucus but structural information is scarce. Here we report the first molecular and structural characterization of a novel cell-surface protein, Lar_0958 from Lactobacillus reuteri JCM 1112(T) , mediating adhesion of L. reuteri human strains to mucus. Lar_0958 is a modular protein of 133 kDa containing six repeat domains, an N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal anchoring motif (LPXTG). Lar_0958 homologues are expressed on the cell-surface of L. reuteri human strains, as shown by flow-cytometry and immunogold microscopy. Adhesion of human L. reuteri strains to mucus in vitro was significantly reduced in the presence of an anti-Lar_0958 antibody and Lar_0958 contribution to adhesion was further confirmed using a L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 lar_0958 KO mutant (6475-KO). The X-ray crystal structure of a single Lar_0958 repeat, determined at 1.5 Å resolution, revealed a divergent immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich fold, sharing structural homology with the Ig-like inter-repeat domain of internalins of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. These findings provide unique structural insights into cell-surface protein repeats involved in adhesion of Gram-positive bacteria to the intestine. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Christiane; Leithner, Katharina; Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8–198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  11. Association of tracheal mucus or blood and airway neutrophilia with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in an Australian racing yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Imaging of mucus clearance in the airways of living spontaneously breathing mice by optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Mario; Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Hüttmann, Gereon; König, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Mucus transport is essential to remove inhaled particles and pathogens from the lung. Impaired removal of mucus often results in worsening of lung diseases. To understand the mechanisms of mucus transport and to monitor the impact of therapeutic strategies, it is essential to visualize airways and mucus in living animals without disturbing transport processes by intubation or surgically opening the airways. We developed a custom-built optical coherence microscope (OCM) providing a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 1.5 µm with a field of view of 2 mm at up to 150 images/s. Images of the intact trachea and its mucus transport were recorded in anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice. NaCl solution (0.9% and 7%) or Lipopolysaccharide were applied intranasally. OCM resolved detailed structure of the trachea and enabled measuring the airway surface liquid (ASL) thickness through the tracheal wall. Without stimulation, the amount of ASL was only a few µm above the epithelium and remained constant. After intranasal application of 30 µl saline at different concentrations, an early fast cough-like fluid removal with velocities higher than 1 mm/s was observed that removed a high amount of liquid. The ASL thickness increased transiently and quickly returned to levels before stimulation. In contrast to saline, application of Lipopolysaccharide induced substantial mucus release and an additional slow mucus transport by ciliary beating (around 100 µm/s) towards the larynx was observed. In conclusion, OCM is appropriate unique tool to study mechanisms of mucus transport in the airways and effects of therapeutic interventions in living animals.

  13. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christiane; Leithner, Katharina; Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8-198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  14. Thiolated polymers: evidence for the formation of disulphide bonds with mucus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Verena M; Walker, Greg F; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    Disulphide bonds between thiolated polymers (thiomers) and cysteine-rich subdomains of mucus glycoproteins are supposed to be responsible for the enhanced mucoadhesive properties of thiomers. This study set out to provide evidence for these covalent interactions using poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugates of 2 and 450 kDa (PAA2-Cys, PAA450-Cys) displaying 402.5-776.0 micromol thiol groups per gram polymer. The effect of the disulphide bond breaker cysteine on thiomer-mucin disulphide bonds was monitored by (1) mucoadhesion studies and (2) rheological studies. Furthermore, (3) diffusion studies and (4) gel filtration studies were performed with thiomer-mucus mixtures. The addition of cysteine significantly (Ppolymer. Gel filtration studies showed that PAA2-Cys was able to form disulphide bonds with mucin glycoproteins resulting in an altered elution profile of the mucin/PAA2-Cys mixture in comparison to mucin alone or mucin/PAA2 mixture. According to these results, the study provides evidence for the formation of covalent bonds between thiomer and mucus glycoproteins.

  15. Disintegration of nano-embedded microparticles after deposition on mucus: A mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Christian A; Bohr, Adam; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Nicolas, Valérie; Tsapis, Nicolas; Fattal, Elias

    2016-03-01

    The conversion of colloidal drug carriers/polymeric nanoparticles into dry microparticulate powders (e.g., by spray-drying) is a prominent approach to overcome the aerodynamic limitations of these formulations for delivery via inhalation. However, to what extent such nano-embedded microparticles disintegrate into individual/intact nanoparticles after contacting relevant physiological media has so far not been addressed. Polymeric nanoparticles were spray-dried into nano-embedded microparticles (NEMs) using different amounts of trehalose as embedding matrix excipient. Formulations were characterized and then evaluated for their disintegration behavior after aerosolization onto model mucus. Although a rapid and complete aqueous redispersion was observed for specific excipient/nanoparticle weight ratios (i.e., greater than 1/1), the same formulations revealed no disintegration after deposition onto a static mucus layer. Double-labeled NEMs powders (i.e., dual color staining of polymeric nanoparticles and trehalose) demonstrated rapid matrix dissolution, while the nanoparticle aggregates persisted. When deposited onto agitated mucus, however, sufficient disintegration of NEMs into individual polymeric nanoparticles was observed. These findings indicate that mechanical forces are necessary to overcome the attraction between individual nanoparticles found within the NEMs. Thus, it remains questionable whether the lung mechanics (e.g., breathing, mucociliary clearance) acting on these formulations will contribute to the overall disintegration process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of sildenafil on acrolein-induced airway inflammation and mucus production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Liu, Y; Chen, L; Wang, X; Hu, X-R; Feng, Y-L; Liu, D-S; Xu, D; Duan, Y-P; Lin, J; Ou, X-M; Wen, F-Q

    2009-05-01

    Airway inflammation with mucus overproduction is a distinguishing pathophysiological feature of many chronic respiratory diseases. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have shown anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effect of sildenafil, a potent inhibitor of PDE5 that selectively degrades cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), on acrolein-induced inflammation and mucus production in rat airways was examined. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 14 and 28 days. Sildenafil or distilled saline was administered intragastrically prior to acrolein exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was acquired for cell count and the detection of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Lung tissue was examined for cGMP content, nitric oxide (NO)-metabolite levels, histopathological lesion scores, goblet cell metaplasia and mucin production. The results suggested that sildenafil pretreatment reversed the significant decline of cGMP content in rat lungs induced by acrolein exposure, and suppressed the increase of lung NO metabolites, the BALF leukocyte influx and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Moreover, sildenafil pretreatment reduced acrolein-induced Muc5ac mucin synthesis at both mRNA and protein levels, and attenuated airway inflammation, as well as epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia. In conclusion, sildenafil could attenuate airway inflammation and mucus production in the rat model, possibly through the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway, and, thus, might have a therapeutic potential for chronic airway diseases.

  17. Role of commercial probiotic strains against human pathogen adhesion to intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M C; Meriluoto, J; Salminen, S

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study present were to assess and to evaluate in vitro the abilities of commercial probiotic strains derived from fermented milk products and related sources currently marketed in European countries, to inhibit, compete and displace the adhesion of selected potential pathogens to immobilized human mucus. The adhesion was assessed by measuring the radioactivity of bacteria adhered to the human mucus. We tested 12 probiotic strains against eight selected pathogens. All strains tested were able to adhere to mucus. All probiotic strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P<0.05) the adhesion of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Staphylococcus and Enterobacter. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting that several complementary mechanisms are implied in the processes. Our results indicate the need for a case-by-case assessment in order to select strains with the ability to inhibit or displace a specific pathogen. Probiotics could be useful to correct deviations observed in intestinal microbiota associated with specific diseases and also, to prevent pathogen infections. The competitive exclusion properties of probiotics as well as their ability to displace and inhibit pathogens are the most importance for therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microbiota. The application of such strategies could contribute to expand the beneficial properties on human health against pathogen infection.

  18. Bacteroides in the infant gut consume milk oligosaccharides via mucus-utilization pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcobal, Angela; Barboza, Mariana; Sonnenburg, Erica D; Pudlo, Nicholas; Martens, Eric C; Desai, Prerak; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Weimer, Bart C; Mills, David A; German, J Bruce; Sonnenburg, Justin L

    2011-11-17

    Newborns are colonized with an intestinal microbiota shortly after birth, but the factors governing the retention and abundance of specific microbial lineages are unknown. Nursing infants consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) that pass undigested to the distal gut, where they may be digested by microbes. We determined that the prominent neonate gut residents, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides fragilis, induce the same genes during HMO consumption that are used to harvest host mucus glycans, which are structurally similar to HMOs. Lacto-N-neotetraose, a specific HMO component, selects for HMO-adapted species such as Bifidobacterium infantis, which cannot use mucus, and provides a selective advantage to B. infantis in vivo when biassociated with B. thetaiotaomicron in the gnotobiotic mouse gut. This indicates that the complex oligosaccharide mixture within HMOs attracts both mutualistic mucus-adapted species and HMO-adapted bifidobacteria to the infant intestine that likely facilitate both milk and future solid food digestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The milk-mucus belief: sensory analysis comparing cow's milk and a soy placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Arney, W K

    1993-02-01

    A questionnaire designed to measure the "milk mucus effect" was based on sensations and symptoms after drinking milk reported in interviews with 169 individuals, 70 of whom held the belief that milk produces mucus. This was used to measure responses in a randomized, double-blind trial of a flavoured UHT cow's milk drink, compared with a similarly flavoured and constituted UHT soy milk drink. The soy placebo was indistinguishable from cow's milk in a pretest of 185 individuals. Of 14 milk-mucus effect indicator variables, three showed significant increases after consumption of 300 ml of the test drink. These were "coating/lining over the mouth, throat or tongue" (39% increase), "need to swallow a lot" (31% increase) and "saliva thicker, harder to swallow than before" (42% increase). However, these increases occurred in both milk and placebo groups. It is concluded that the effect measured is not specific to cow's milk, but can be duplicated by a non-cow's milk drink with similar sensory characteristics.

  20. Detection of estrus in dairy cows by electrical measurements of vaginal mucus and by milk progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, P; Schiavo, J; Hall, C E; Foote, R H; Scott, N R

    1976-05-01

    Electrical resistance (ohms) of mucus were analyzed in 20 postpartum Holstein cows by use of a probe inserted into the anterior vagina every other day for 30 days. Composite milk samples were taken on the same day, and progesterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Cows were observed twice daily for standing estrus and reproductive organs palpated weekly per rectum (rectal palpation). Fifteen cows which were cycling showed increasing progesterone 6 to 7 days after the onset of estrus with values of 8.1 to 10.0 ng progesterone/ml milk on days 10 to 17. Concentrations had declined rapidly 2 days before onset of the next estrus. Progesterone in milk was affected by cow and by day of the cycle. Electrical resistance followed a similar cyclical pattern, but variability was large and only cows differed. The correlation between milk progesterone and mucus resistance was .22. Progesterone concentrations for four cows with follicular cysts fluctuated randomly with a mean of 2.6 ng/ml. Mean resistance of vaginal mucus was 44 omega for both cycling and cystic cows, indicating that a single measurement of electrical resistance every 2nd day was unreliable in distinguishing physiological states. One cow had high progesterone in milk on days 19 to 25 and was diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation 3 wk later. Cows were not seen in estrus 28% of the time when milk progesterone and rectal palpation indicated they were in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and were cycling.

  1. Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Skin Mucus Derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuochi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection, and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758. Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, we also observed a significant antifungal activity against some strains of Candida spp. Concerning anti-proliferative activity, we showed that fish mucus was specifically toxic for acute leukemia cells (HL60 with an inhibition of proliferation in a dose dependent manner (about 52% at 1000 μg/mL of fish skin mucous, FSM. Moreover, we did not observe effects in healthy cells, in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, and multiple myeloma cell lines (MM1, U266. Finally, it exhibited strong expression and activity of chitinase which may be responsible, at least in part, for the aforementioned results.

  2. Characterization of gelatin/chitosan scaffold blended with aloe vera and snail mucus for biomedical purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Angulo, Daniel Enrique; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2016-11-01

    Biologically active scaffolds used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been generating promising results in skin replacement. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of Aloe vera and snail mucus into scaffolds based on gelatin and chitosan could improve their structure, composition and biodegradability, with a potential effect on bioactivity. Homogeneous pore diameter as well as pore walls in the composite scaffold could be seen in the SEM image. The pores in the scaffolds were interconnected and their sizes ranged from 93 to 296μm. The addition of Aloe vera and snail mucus enlarged the mean pore size with increased porosity and caused changes in the pore architecture. The FTIR analysis has shown good affinity and interaction between the matrix and the Aloe, which may decrease water-binding sites, so this fact hindered the water absorption capacity of the material. The mechanical properties could explain the highest swelling capacity of the snail scaffold, because the high percentage of elongation could facilitate the entry of liquid in it, generating a matrix with plenty of fluid retention. The real innovation in the present work could be the use of these substances (Aloe and snail mucus) for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  4. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  5. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  6. Mucus and Mucins: do they have a role in the inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Anwar Suleman; Habte, Habtom; Mthembu, Yolanda; Peacocke, Julia; de Beer, Corena

    2017-10-06

    Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in an in vitro assay. Crude mucus gels form continuous layers on the epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body and protect these epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin proteolysis in the stomach lumen, the movement of hard faecal pellets in the colon at high pressure, the effects of shear against the vaginal epithelium during intercourse and the presence of foreign substances in the respiratory airways. Tumour-associated epitopes on mucins make them suitable as immune-targets on malignant epithelial cells, rendering mucins important as diagnostic and prognostic markers for various diseases, even influencing the design of mucin-based vaccines. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV-AIDS in the world. The main points of viral transmission are via the vaginal epithelium during sexual intercourse and mother-to-child transmission during breast-feeding. There have been many studies showing that several body fluids have components that prevent the transmission of HIV-1 from infected to non-infected persons through various forms of contact. Crude saliva and its purified mucins, MUC5B and MUC7, and the purified mucins from breast milk, MUC1 and MUC4 and pregnancy plug cervical mucus (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6), inhibit HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. There are conflicting reports of whether crude breast-milk inhibits HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. However studies with a humanised BLT mouse show that breast-milk does inhibit HIV and that breast-feeding is still advisable even amongst HIV-positive women in under-resourced areas, preferably in conjunction with anti-retroviral treatment. These findings raise questions of how such a naturally occurring biological

  7. Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the skin and mucus of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Rocco C.; Dove, Alistair; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    During horizontal or water-borne infection involving an obligate pathogen (e.g. – Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis), the pathogen interacted with and influenced the microbial diversity of the dermal mucus of fish. Prior to infection, the prevalent bacterial flora cultured from juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Comomonas terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Pseudomonas dimunita, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Serratia liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, other motile Aeromonas spp., and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After A. salmonicida was initially detected in this population as an external mucus infection, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., C. terrigenia, P. fluorescens, and P. dimunita, Staphylococcus sp., and A. hydrophila, were also present in appreciable numbers. Within several weeks, however, the A. salmonicida infection amplified and composed 78% of the total flora in the mucus. Only P. dimunita (4%). P. fluorescens (2%), and C. terrigenia (1%) were cultured at that time and more than a third of these fish showed evidence of a systemic A. salmonicida infection within their kidneys. Eight weeks after oral oxytetracycline treatments, A. salmonicida was no longer isolated from the mucus or kidneys of any fish and glucose inert or other oxidative microbes (e.g., P. fluorescens, C. terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp.) were beginning to repopulate the external surface of the salmon in increasing frequency. Still present and composing fairly large percentages of the total flora were A. hydrophila, as well as Enterobacter sp., and P. putrefaciens. A normal microbial diversity was re-established as the fish recovered. In another investigation, reduced biological diversity was noted in the dermal mucus among smallmouth bass that were sampled from the Jackson River (Covington, VA). In these fish, A. hydrophila and P. putrefaciens were the two

  8. Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Characterization of physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus in relation to parity and conception rate in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Verma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the physico-chemical properties of estrual cervical mucus among different parities and analyse their association with conception rate in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Cervical mucus was collected from the mid-cervix using sterile blue sheath before artificial insemination (AI in Murrah buffaloes (n=94 and examined for appearance (transparent/ translucent, consistency (thin/ moderate/ thick, Spinnbarkeit value, arborisation pattern (typical/ atypical/ nil, pH and electrical conductivity. Artificial insemination was carried out using frozen-thawed semen by recto-vaginal method and pregnancy was confirmed by per-rectal examination after 60 days of insemination. Furthermore, the conception rates were calculated and their relationship with physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus was studied. Results: Cervical mucus was clear and thin in 85.10% and 15.96 % of estrus periods, respectively. Typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus was observed in 54.25% of the estruses. The Mean ± SEM of pH, electrical conductivity and Spinnbarkeit value of mucus were 7.82 ± 0.02, 14.00 ± 0.10 mS/cm and 14.18 ± 0.59 cm, respectively. Significantly (P< 0.05 higher conception rate (54.90% was observed in buffaloes inseminated with typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus as compared to atypical arborisation pattern (20.00% and no conception was recorded in the estruses with nil arborisation pattern. Conclusion: The results of present investigation concluded that arborisation pattern has significant relationship with conception rate thus can be used as an important criteria to predict the right time of AI for improving conception rate in Murrah buffaloes.

  10. Effect of guinea pig or monkey colonic mucus on Shigella aggregation and invasion of HeLa cells by Shigella flexneri 1b and 2a.

    OpenAIRE

    Dinari, G; Hale, T L; Washington, O; Formal, S B

    1986-01-01

    The effects of guinea pig and rhesus monkey colonic mucus preparations on Shigella aggregation and invasion of HeLa cell monolayers by Shigella flexneri serotype 1b, 2a, and 5 strains were investigated. Guinea pig mucus caused agglutination of S. flexneri serotype 1b but not of S. flexneri serotype 2a or 5. Guinea pig mucus also inhibited HeLa cell invasion by S. flexneri serotypes 1b and 2a. Monkey mucus neither agglutinated any Shigella strain nor inhibited HeLa cell invasion.

  11. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  12. Lactobacillus reuteri increases mucus thickness and ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, D; Liu, H; Schreiber, O; Roos, S; Phillipson, M; Holm, L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether two Lactobacillus reuteri strains (rat-derived R2LC and human-derived ATCC PTA 4659 (4659)) could protect mice against colitis, as well as delineate the mechanisms behind this protection. Mice were given L. reuteri R2LC or 4659 by gavage once daily for 14 days, and colitis was induced by addition of 3% DSS (dextran sulphate sodium) to drinking water for the last 7 days of this period. The severity of disease was assessed through clinical observations, histological evaluation and ELISA measurements of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines from colonic samples. Mucus thickness was measured in vivo with micropipettes, and tight junction protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Colitis severity was significantly reduced by L. reuteri R2LC or 4659 when evaluated both clinically and histologically. The inflammation markers MPO, IL-1β, IL-6 and mKC (mouse keratinocyte chemoattractant) were increased by DSS and significantly reduced by the L. reuteri strains. The firmly adherent mucus thickness was reduced by DSS, but significantly increased by L. reuteri in both control and DSS-treated mice. Expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 was significantly increased in the bottom of the colonic crypts by L. reuteri R2LC. These results demonstrate that each of the two different L. reuteri strains, one human-derived and one-rat-derived, protects against colitis in mice. Mechanisms behind this protection could at least partly be explained by the increased mucus thickness as well as a tightened epithelium in the stem cell area of the crypts. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Humoral immune response against native or {sup 60}Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: 0916@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: carlaseibert@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or {sup 60}Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  14. Bronchial Mucus as a Complex Fluid: Molecular Interactions and Influence of Nanostructured Particles on Rheological and Transport Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odziomek Marcin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport properties of bronchial mucus are investigated by two-stage experimental approach focused on: (a rheological properties and (b mass transfer rate through the stagnant layer of solutions of mucus components (mucine, DNA, proteins and simulated multi-component mucus. Studies were done using thermostated horizontal diffusion cells with sodium cromoglycate and carminic acid as transferred solutes. Rheological properties of tested liquids was studied by a rotational viscometer and a cone-plate rheometer (dynamic method. First part of the studies demonstrated that inter-molecular interactions in these complex liquids influence both rheological and permeability characteristics. Transfer rate is governed not only by mucus composition and concentration but also by hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of transported molecules. Second part was focused on the properties of such a layer in presence of selected nanostructured particles (different nanoclays and graphene oxide which may be present in lungs after inhalation. It was shown that most of such particles increase visco-elasticity of the mucus and reduce the rate of mass transfer of model drugs. Measured effects may have adverse impact on health, since they will reduce mucociliary clearance in vivo and slow down drug penetration to the bronchial epithelium during inhalation therapy.

  15. Secretory IgA is Concentrated in the Outer Layer of Colonic Mucus along with Gut Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Rogier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies of the secretory IgA (SIgA class comprise the first line of antigen-specific immune defense, preventing access of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and their secreted products into the body proper. In addition to preventing infection, SIgA shapes the composition of the gut microbiome. SIgA is transported across intestinal epithelial cells into gut secretions by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR. The epithelial surface is protected by a thick network of mucus, which is composed of a dense, sterile inner layer and a loose outer layer that is colonized by commensal bacteria. Immunofluorescence microscopy of mouse and human colon tissues demonstrated that the SIgA co-localizes with gut bacteria in the outer mucus layer. Using mice genetically deficient for pIgR and/or mucin-2 (Muc2, the major glycoprotein of intestinal mucus, we found that Muc2 but not SIgA was necessary for excluding gut bacteria from the inner mucus layer in the colon. Our findings support a model whereby SIgA is anchored in the outer layer of colonic mucus through combined interactions with mucin proteins and gut bacteria, thus providing immune protection against pathogens while maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with commensals.

  16. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  17. Efeitos de hormônios esteroides de contraceptivos orais combinados sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens (Regan, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteroides presentes em várias gerações de contraceptivos orais combinados (COC podem se apresentar como disruptores endócrinos, produzindo alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia de peixes. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de hormônios esteroides presentes em COC sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens, um peixe ornamental usado na aquariofilia e bastante agressivo. Machos adultos foram observados pelo método ad libitum para confecção do etograma e divididos em cinco grupos, controle e expostos aos hormônios: 17β-estradiol (E2; levonorgestrel e etinilestradiol (LEA - segunda geração de COC; gestodeno e etinilestradiol (GEA - terceira geração de COC; e drospirenona e etinilestradiol (DEA - quarta geração de COC. Os peixes foram expostos por 30 dias à concentração final de 10ng/L. Foram avaliados os comportamentos pelos métodos de varredura instantânea e animal-focal, bem como o consumo de ração. No método varredura, o comportamento descansar apresentou o maior valor (54,4±10,1% no grupo E2 (P<0,05. Os comportamentos agressivos de carga (16,1±3,6% e recuar e carga (16,4±5,1% apresentaram os maiores valores no grupo controle em relação aos demais grupos (P<0,05. Os animais do grupo E2 apresentaram maior frequência de comportamentos inativos (76,1% comparados aos de outros grupos. O comportamento atípico natação errática não foi observado no grupo controle, mas foi observado nos grupos experimentais. Os grupos E2, LEA, GEA e DEA apresentaram redução nos comportamentos agressivos (10% quando comparados ao grupo controle pelo método animal-focal. Não foram observadas diferenças na exibição desses comportamentos ao se compararem os animais expostos às diferentes gerações de contraceptivos e no consumo de ração. Pode-se concluir que 17β-estradiol causou mais efeitos aos peixes e que diferentes gerações de COC apresentaram efeitos t

  18. Effect of chest physiotherapy on the removal of mucus in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, C.M.; Waldes, R.; Sampson, D.; Newhouse, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effectiveness of some of the components of a physiotherapy regimen on the removal of mucus from the lungs of 6 subjects with cystic fibrosis. On 5 randomized study days, after inhalation of a 99 mTc-human serum albumin aerosol to label primarily the large airways, the removal of lung radioactivity was measured during 40 min of (a) spontaneous cough while at rest (control), (b) postural drainage, (c) postural drainage plus mechanical percussion, (d) combined maneuvers (postural drainage, deep breathing with vibrations, and percussion) administered by a physiotherapist, (e) directed vigorous cough. Measurements continued for an additional 2 h of quiet rest. Compared with the control day, all forms of intervention significantly improved the removal of mucus: cough (p less than 0.005), physiotherapy maneuvers (0.005 less than or equal to p less than 0.01), postural drainage (p less than 0.05), and postural drainage plus percussion (p less than 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between regimented cough alone and therapist-administered combined maneuvers, nor between postural drainage alone and with mechanical percussion. We conclude that in cystic fibrosis, vigorous, regimented cough sessions may be as effective as therapist-administered physiotherapy in removing pulmonary secretions. Postural drainage, although better than the control maneuver, was not as effective as cough and was not enhanced by mechanical percussion. Frequent, vigorous self-directed cough sessions are potentially as useful as more complex measures for effective bronchial toilet

  19. Metachronal waves in epithelium cilia to transport bronchial mucus in airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Julien; Sylvain, Chateau; D'Ortona, Umberto; Poncet, Sébastien

    2017-11-01

    Metachronal waves of beating cilia are an efficient mechanism to transport mucus in human airways. The numerical results we will present will shed new light on the understanding of chronic respiratory diseases, such as Asthma of COPD. A coupled lattice Boltzmann - Immersed Boundary is used to simulate the multiphase environment in which the cilia are immersed: a periciliary layer and the mucus layer. A purely hydrodynamical feedback of the fluids is taken into account, and a coupling parameter α is introduced, allowing the tuning of both the direction of the wave propagation, and the strength of the fluid feedback. The cilia, initially set in a random state, quickly synchronize with their immediate neighbors giving birth to metachronal waves. A comparative study of both antipleptic and sympleptic waves is performed by imposing the metachrony. Antiplectic waves are found to be the most efficient to transport and mix fluids compared to other random or synchronised cilia motions. The numerical results will be discussed and compared to experimental and clinical results obtained by collaborators, to progress on the understanding of the inner mechanisms of chronic respiratory diseases.

  20. Intracellular delivery of oligonucleotides in Helicobacter pylori by fusogenic liposomes in the presence of gastric mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Zagato, Elisa; Brans, Toon; Figueiredo, Céu; Raemdonck, Koen; Azevedo, Nuno F; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    The rising antimicrobial resistance contributes to 25000 annual deaths in Europe. This threat to the public health can only be tackled if novel antimicrobials are developed, combined with a more precise use of the currently available antibiotics through the implementation of fast, specific, diagnostic methods. Nucleic acid mimics (NAMs) that are able to hybridize intracellular bacterial RNA have the potential to become such a new class of antimicrobials and additionally could serve as specific detection probes. However, an essential requirement is that these NAMs should be delivered into the bacterial cytoplasm, which is a particular challenge given the fact that they are charged macromolecules. We consider these delivery challenges in relation to the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, the most frequent chronic infection worldwide. In particular, we evaluate if cationic fusogenic liposomes are suitable carriers to deliver NAMs across the gastric mucus barrier and the bacterial envelope. Our study shows that DOTAP-DOPE liposomes post-PEGylated with DSPE-PEG (DSPE Lpx) can indeed successfully deliver NAMs into Helicobacter pylori, while offering protection to the NAMs from binding and inactivation in gastric mucus isolated from pigs. DSPE Lpx thus offer exciting new possibilities for in vivo diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of chest physiotherapy on the removal of mucus in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, C.M.; Waldes, R.; Sampson, D.; Newhouse, M.T.

    1982-07-01

    We studied the effectiveness of some of the components of a physiotherapy regimen on the removal of mucus from the lungs of 6 subjects with cystic fibrosis. On 5 randomized study days, after inhalation of a /sup 99/mTc-human serum albumin aerosol to label primarily the large airways, the removal of lung radioactivity was measured during 40 min of (a) spontaneous cough while at rest (control), (b) postural drainage, (c) postural drainage plus mechanical percussion, (d) combined maneuvers (postural drainage, deep breathing with vibrations, and percussion) administered by a physiotherapist, (e) directed vigorous cough. Measurements continued for an additional 2 h of quiet rest. Compared with the control day, all forms of intervention significantly improved the removal of mucus: cough (p less than 0.005), physiotherapy maneuvers (0.005 less than or equal to p less than 0.01), postural drainage (p less than 0.05), and postural drainage plus percussion (p less than 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between regimented cough alone and therapist-administered combined maneuvers, nor between postural drainage alone and with mechanical percussion. We conclude that in cystic fibrosis, vigorous, regimented cough sessions may be as effective as therapist-administered physiotherapy in removing pulmonary secretions. Postural drainage, although better than the control maneuver, was not as effective as cough and was not enhanced by mechanical percussion. Frequent, vigorous self-directed cough sessions are potentially as useful as more complex measures for effective bronchial toilet.

  2. Relationship between bovine fertility and the number of spermatozoa penetrating the cervical mucus within straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Muzaffer; Bacinoglu, Suleyman; Cirit, Umüt; Ozdaş, Ozen Banu; Ak, Kemal

    2007-09-01

    In this study, by using a recently developed test technique, the relationship between the total spermatozoa number penetrating determined sites of bovine cervical mucus in straws and potential fertility of bulls, and other spermatological characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the effect on the test results, of two different incubation temperatures (37 and 41 degrees C) and two sperm penetration distance ranges (PDRs). Frozen semen samples of six Holstein bulls were used in the study. The bulls were divided into two fertility groups (high and low fertility) according to the "non-return rates" (NRR). For the penetration test, cervical mucus was drawn into transparent plastic straws and incubated with semen at 37 and 41 degrees C for 15 min. After the incubation, straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour and stored at -20 degrees C. On the evaluation day, concentrations of spermatozoa penetrated to the PDRs, each of which was 2.5 mm, between 32.5 and 35 mm (first penetration distance range, PDR1), and 50 and 52.5 mm (second penetration distance range, PDR2) distance in the straws from the open end, were measured. When compared with the low fertility group, bulls from the high fertility group showed a higher number of spermatozoa at the determined PDRs, and a significant positive correlation was found between the total number of spermatozoa at the penetration distances and the NRR scores of the bulls.

  3. Assessment of adhesion properties of novel probiotic strains to human intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, A C; Tuomola, E M; Tölkkö, S; Salminen, S

    2001-02-28

    Potential new probiotic strains Lactobacillus brevis PELI, L. reuteri ING1, L. rhamnosus VTT E-800 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were assessed for their adhesion properties using the human intestinal mucus model. The effect on the adhesion of exposure to acid and pepsin and to milk were tested to simulate gastric and food processing conditions, and the effect of different growth media on adhesion was tested. The properties of the four strains were compared to the well-investigated probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG. Three of the tested strains showed significant adhesion properties in the mucus model, while L. brevis PELI had intermediate adhesion and L. rhamnosus LC-705 adhered poorly. Pretreatment with different milks decreased the adhesion and low pH and pepsin treatment reduced the adhesion of all tested strains except L. rhamnosus LC-705. No competitive exclusion of pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli SfaII was observed. The results indicate that major differences exist between tested proposed probiotic strains. The growth media and the food matrix significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains. This has previously not been taken into account when selecting novel probiotic strains.

  4. Epidemiological survey of mucus extravasation phenomenon at an oral pathology referral center during a 43 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara Manoela Marinho Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Mucoceles are common benign pseudocystic lesions of the oral cavity; their main etiological factors are trauma and ductal obstruction. Two histological patterns are found: mucus retention phenomenon (MRP and mucus extravasation phenomenon (MEP. Mucus extravasation phenomenon is the more common histological subtype and it mainly affects the lower lip. The knowledge of its main clinical features and management is important to assist health professionals in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relative frequency and distribution of oral mucoceles in an oral pathology reference center. METHODS: Cross-sectional historical study that analyzed all cases pathologically diagnosed as mucus extravasation phenomenon by the department of anatomic pathology of an oral pathology referral center from June of 1970 to May of 2014, considering the clinical characteristics of the lesion and those relating to the patient. SPSS v. 20.0 software for Windows was used for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: During 43 years, 719 cases of mucus extravasation phenomenon (54.7% men and 45.3% women were registered, with the lower lip as the most commonly affected site (n = 484; 67.3%. The average age of patients was 20.8 years (SD ± 14.4 with a peak occurrence in the second decade of life. Most professionals had oral mucocele/ranula (n = 606; 84.3% as the initial clinical impression. CONCLUSION: Mucus extravasation phenomenon is a lesion that primarily affects young patients, affecting mainly the lower lip, and is commonly found in oral diagnostic services.

  5. Kaempferol Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Mucus Hypersecretion in Airway Epithelial Cells And Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Mucus hypersecretion is an important pathological feature of chronic airway diseases, such as asthma and pulmonary diseases. MUC5AC is a major component of the mucus matrix forming family of mucins in the airways. The initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated stress responses contributes to the pathogenesis of airway diseases. The present study investigated that ER stress was responsible for airway mucus production and this effect was blocked by the flavonoid kaempferol. Oral administration of ≥10 mg/kg kaempferol suppressed mucus secretion and goblet cell hyperplasia observed in the bronchial airway and lung of BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). TGF-β and tunicamycin promoted MUC5AC induction after 72 h in human bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells, which was dampened by 20 μM kaempferol. Kaempferol inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress of airway epithelial cells through disturbing the activation of the ER transmembrane sensor ATF6 and IRE1α. Additionally, this compound demoted the induction of ER chaperones such as GRP78 and HSP70 and the splicing of XBP-1 mRNA by tunicamycin. The in vivo study further revealed that kaempferol attenuated the induction of XBP-1 and IRE1α in epithelial tissues of OVA-challenged mice. TGF-β and tunicamycin induced TRAF2 with JNK activation and such induction was deterred by kaempferol. The inhibition of JNK activation encumbered the XBP-1 mRNA splicing and MUC5AC induction by tunicamycin and TGF-β. These results demonstrate that kaempferol alleviated asthmatic mucus hypersecretion through blocking bronchial epithelial ER stress via the inhibition of IRE1α-TRAF2-JNK activation. Therefore, kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting mucus hypersecretion-associated pulmonary diseases.

  6. ANSYS-MATLAB co-simulation of mucus flow distribution and clearance effectiveness of a new simulated cough device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuai; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin; Zhao, Hongmei; Zhang, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2018-03-05

    Coughing is an irritable reaction that protects the respiratory system from infection and improves mucus clearance. However, for the patients who cannot cough autonomously, an assisted cough device is essential for mucus clearance. Considering the low efficiency of current assisted cough devices, a new simulated cough device based on the pneumatic system is proposed in this paper. Given the uncertainty of airflow rates necessary to clear mucus from airways, the computational fluid dynamics Eulerian wall film model and cough efficiency (CE) were used in this study to simulate the cough process and evaluate cough effectiveness. The Ansys-Matlab co-simulation model was set up and verified through experimental studies using Newtonian fluids. Next, model simulations were performed using non-Newtonian fluids, and peak cough flow (PCF) and PCF duration time were analyzed to determine their influence on mucus clearance. CE growth rate (λ) was calculated to reflect the CE variation trend. From the numerical simulation results, we find that CE rises as PCF increases while the growth rate trends to slow as PCF increases; when PCF changes from 60 to 360 L/min, CE changes from 3.2% to 51.5% which is approximately 16 times the initial value. Meanwhile, keeping a long PCF duration time could greatly improve CE under the same cough expired volume and PCF. The results indicated that increasing the PCF and PCF duration time can improve the efficiency of mucus clearance. This paper provides a new approach and a research direction for control strategy in simulated cough devices for airway mucus clearance. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gloria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To assess and demonstrate the primary mechanism of our mucomodulators (XLs, we have built our evidence moving from basic laboratory studies to an ex-vivo model and then to an in-vivo large animal model. We exposed anesthetized dogs without hypersecretion to different dose concentrations of aerosolized XL "B", XL "D" and XL "S". We assessed: cardio-respiratory pattern, tracheal mucus clearance, airway patency, and mucus viscoelastic changes. Results Exposure of frog palate mucus to XLs did not affect the clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Dogs maintained normal cardio-respiratory pattern with XL administration. Tracheal mucociliary clearance in anesthetized dogs indicated a sustained 40% mean increase. Tracheal mucus showed increased filance, and there was no mucus retention in the airways. Conclusion The ex-vivo frog palate and the in-vivo mammalian models used in this study, appear to be appropriate and complement each other to better assess the effects that our mucomodulators exert on the mucociliary clearance defence mechanism. The physiological function of the mucociliary apparatus was not negatively affected in any of the two epithelial models. Airway mucus crosslinked by mucomodulators is better cleared from an intact airway and normally functioning respiratory system, either due to enhanced interaction with cilia or airflow-dependent mechanisms. Data obtained in this study allow us to assure that we have complied with the fundamental requirement

  8. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack, E-mail: gabiortegacoelho@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Costa, Andrea da; Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pollizeli; Galisteo Júnior, Andrés Jimenez; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de, E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br, E-mail: raquelaires@itpacporto.com.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Protozoologia; Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: seibertcs@uft.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  9. Role of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and coral mucus in the adhesion of the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi to its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, E; Israely, T; Fine, M; Loya, Y; Rosenberg, E

    2001-05-15

    Vibrio shiloi, the causative agent of bleaching the coral Oculina patagonica in the Mediterranean Sea, adheres to its coral host by a beta-D-galactopyranoside-containing receptor on the coral surface. The receptor is present in the coral mucus, since V. shiloi adhered avidly to mucus-coated ELISA plates. Adhesion was inhibited by methyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Removal of the mucus from O. patagonica resulted in a delay in adhesion of V. shiloi to the coral, corresponding to regeneration of the mucus. DCMU inhibited the recovery of adhesion of the bacteria to the mucus-depleted corals, indicating that active photosynthesis by the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae was necessary for the synthesis or secretion of the receptor. Further evidence of the role of the zooxanthellae in producing the receptor came from a study of adhesion of V. shiloi to different species of corals. The bacteria failed to adhere to bleached corals and white (azooxanthellate) O. patagonica cave corals, both of which lacked the algae. In addition, V. shiloi adhered to two Mediterranean corals (Madracis and Cladocora) that contained zooxanthellae and did not adhere to two azooxanthellate Mediterranean corals (Phyllangia and Polycyathus). V. shiloi demonstrated positive chemotaxis towards the mucus of O. patagonica. The data demonstrate that endosymbiotic zooxanthellae contribute to the production of coral mucus and that V. shiloi infects only mucus-containing, zooxanthellate corals.

  10. Mucus interactions with liposomes encapsulating bioactives: Interfacial tensiometry and cellular uptake on Caco-2 and cocultures of Caco-2/HT29-MTX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Arranz, Elena; Guri, Anilda; Corredig, Milena

    2017-02-01

    Structuring of delivery matrices in foods aquires careful designing for optimal delivery and subsiquent absorption of the beneficial compounds in the gut. There has been quite improvement in mimicking digestion and absorption in vitro but as of yet little is understood on mucus interference in nutrient absorption Therefore in this study interactions of human intestinal mucus with milk and soy phospholipids liposomes carring hydrophilic (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) or hydrophobic (β-carotene) bioactive molecules were investigated. Liposomes of about 100nm were obtained using microfluidization and their behaviour with the human intestinal mucus were evaluated using drop shape tensiometry. The chemistry of the liposomes (milk or soy) and the encapsulated bioactive structure can affect the viscoelastic behaviour of the complex itself. Empty or loaded liposomes were differently interacting with the mucus at the interface. Mucus-liposomes interactions were also studied using cell cultures, Caco-2 (without mucus) and cocultures Caco-2/HT29-MTX (mucus producing). The interaction of mucus layer with liposomes was at some extent aligned with rheological studies. This work demonstrated that delivery systems may interact with the mucosal surface of intestinal cells, and in vitro approaches allow for screening of such interactions. These highlights could help us in carefully designing the delivery systems and moreover choosing the right carrier and/or bioactive that does not jeopardize the optimal delivery of the bioactive structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mucin dispersions as a model for the oromucosal mucus layer in in vitro and ex vivo buccal permeability studies of small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Mosgaard, Mette Dalskov; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-01-01

    The mucus layer is believed to play a part in drug permeation across the oral mucosa. Human freeze-dried saliva (HFDS) and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was evaluated as model for mucus layer per se or in conjunction with in vitro and ex vivo buccal permeability models. Four small molecules (nicoti...

  12. Effect of fish skin mucus on the soluble proteome of Vibrio salmonicida analysed by 2-D gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Inger Lin Uttakleiv; Paulsen, Steinar M; Smalås, Arne O; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio salmonicida is the causative agent of cold-water vibriosis in farmed marine fish species. Adherence of pathogenic bacteria to mucosal surfaces is considered to be the first steps in the infective processes, and proteins involved are regarded as virulence factors. The global protein expression profile of V. salmonicida, grown with and without the presence of fish skin mucus in the synthetic media, was compared. Increased levels of proteins involved in motility, oxidative stress responses, and general stress responses were demonstrated as an effect of growth in the presence of mucus compared to non-mucus containing media. Enhanced levels of the flagellar proteins FlaC, FlaD and FlaE indicate increased motility capacity, while enhanced levels of the heat shock protein DnaK and the chaperonin GroEL indicate a general stress response. In addition, we observed that peroxidases, TPx.Grx and AhpC, involved in the oxidative stress responses, were induced by mucus proteins. The addition of mucus to the culture medium did not significantly alter the growth rate of V. salmonicida. An analysis of mucus proteins suggests that the mucus layer harbours a protein species that potentially possesses catalytic activity against DNA, and a protein with iron chelating activity. This study represents the first V. salmonicida proteomic analysis, and provides specific insight into the proteins necessary for the bacteria to challenge the skin mucus barrier of the fish.

  13. Previous 60-Co radiation from Paratrygon aiereba mucus induces the production of highly responsive antibodies and a better immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Turíbio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, André Moreira; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Jácome, Larissa Barros Silvestre; Spencer, Patrick Jack

    2017-01-01

    Wounds from stinging freshwater stingrays are painful, difficult to heal and cause extensive necrosis and systemic phenomena. The treatment is symptomatic, of low efficiency and there is no therapy, which causes more suffering to the injured. This study aimed to evaluate the immune response induced by the native or irradiated by 60-Co gamma from Paratrygon aiereba mucus. IPEN’s Committee on Ethics in the Use of Animals (n.º126/2013) and lanes captured under license from the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (n.º6781-1/2014) approved this research. For the assays, sera from Swiss mice previously immunized against native or irradiated mucus were used. The proliferation of splenic B cells in response to mucus was evaluated by the In Vitro Induced Antibody Production method and serum and splenic cytokines were also quantified. Our data demonstrate that the irradiated mucus of P. aiereba induces greater production of antibodies and more immunological memory in the mice. Spleen cells from animals immunized against irradiated mucus produced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10, and serum TNF-α (immunized group against irradiated mucus) and IL-6 and IL-17 (immunized group against native mucus). The results corroborate the use of ionizing radiation, with production of highly responsive antibodies and better immune response, besides proving that Paratrygon aiereba mucus is capable of stimulating cellular and humoral adaptive immune response, contributing to the continuity of associated investigations. (author)

  14. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex Avaliação da estabilidade temporal, estacional e geográfica da ação moluscicida do latex da Euphorbia splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Torres Schall

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscicidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring, 1.02 ppm (fall, 1.09 ppm (winter, and 1.07 ppm (summer that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador, demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12ºC (lyophilized product. A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasisTestes de laboratório com soluções aquosas do látex da Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii demonstraram uma estabilidade estacional da atividade moluscicida do produto coletado na Ilha do Governador - RJ, encontrando-se as seguintes DL90: 1,14 ppm (primavera; 1,02 ppm (outono; 1,09 ppm (inverno e 1,07 ppm (verão sobre Biomphalaria tenagophila de campo. Ensaios com o látex da planta coletado em Belo Horizonte e Recife, identificaram DL90 semelhantes aos da substância de referência coletada no Rio, demonstrando uma estabilidade geográfica do efeito moluscicida. Usando diluições aquosas do latex in natura, centrifugado

  15. Rendimientos, estructuras de tallas y madurez sexual del alfonsino (Beryx splendens capturado en el cordón submarino de Juan Fernández, Chile Fishing yields, size structures, and sexual maturity of alfonsino (Beryx splendens caught on Juan Fernandez seamounts, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Guerrero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la información recopilada en lances comerciales para la captura de alfonsino (Beryx splendens realizados en montes submarinos del archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, entre los años 2001 y 2003, que corresponden a la etapa de desarrollo inicial de esta pesquería. En dicho período se efectuaron 187 lances, de los cuales en 121 se obtuvo la especie objetivo, capturándose 525,1 ton, que constituyeron el 99,2% de la captura total. Por la configuración irregular de los fondos, los lances de pesca se caracterizaron por su corta duración (0,26-0,50 h, a profundidad media de 469,7 m. En este periodo se analizaron 14.773 ejemplares, 6.064 machos (41% y 8.709 hembras (59%, evidenciando un predominio de hembras. La proporción sexual estructurada a la talla mostró un predominio de machos a tallas inferiores a 24 cm de longitud de horquilla (LH. En machos el tamaño medio fluctuó entre 34,6 y 36,8 cm de LH y en hembras entre 36,2 y 38,4 cm LH. Para determinar la madurez de las gónadas, se utilizó la escala macroscópica propuesta por Lehodey et al. (1997 y se estableció que los machos alcanzaron la primera madurez (TMS50% a 34,3 cm LH y las hembras a los 33,3 cm LH. Los rendimientos promedio en el período analizado correspondieron entre 0,2 y 6,6 ton lance-1 y entre 1,8 y 19,0 ton h.a.-1 , con medias de 4,3 ton lance-1 y 9,2 ton h.a.-1 .We analyzed information collected during commercial hauls targeting alfonsino (Beryx splendens on seamounts of the Juan Fernández Archipelago (Chile from the early stages of the fishery (2001-2003. Of the 187 hauls carried out in this period, 121 were successful; alfonsino catches reached 525.1 ton, constituting 99.2%> of the total catch. Due to the irregularity of the sea bottom, short (0.26-0.50 h fishing hauls were performed at mid-depth (469.7 m. We analyzed 14,773 specimens during the study period: 6,064 males (41% and 8,709 females (59%, the latter being predominan! The size structure was

  16. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Methods: Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient’s dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). Results: A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Conclusions: Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this. PMID:27706028

  17. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...

  18. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...

  19. Effect of pheromone induction on transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in intestinal mucus ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2001-01-01

    The effect of synthetic sex pheromone on pheromone-inducible conjugation between the isogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains OG1RF and OG1SS was investigated in (i) Todd-Hewitt broth medium and (ii) intestinal mucus isolated from germ-free rats. In broth, the presence of synthetic pheromone cCF10...

  20. Effect of fenspiride, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, on neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, A M; Liu, Y C; Rogers, D F

    1999-01-01

    Neural mechanisms contribute to control of mucus secretion in the airways. Fenspiride is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent which has a variety of actions, including inhibition of neurogenic bronchoconstriction. The effect of fenspiride on neurally-mediated mucus secretion was investigated in vitro in electrically-stimulated ferret trachea, using(35)SO(4)as a mucus marker. Cholinergic secretory responses were isolated using adrenoceptor and tachykinin receptor antagonists. Tachykinin responses were isolated using cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor antagonists. Electrical stimulation increased cholinergic secretion by;90% and tachykininergic secretion by;40%. Fenspiride (1 microM-1 mM) tended to inhibit cholinergic secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, although only at 1 mM was inhibition (by 87%) significant. Inhibition by fenspiride of tachykininergic secretion was not concentration-dependent, and again significant inhibition (by 85%) was only at 1 mM. Inhibition was not due to loss of tissue viability, as assessed by restitution of secretory response after washout. Fenspiride also inhibited secretion induced by acetylcholine, but did not inhibit substance P-induced secretion. Histamine receptor antagonists increased basal secretion by 164%, whereas fenspiride did not affect basal secretion. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, fenspiride inhibits neurally-mediated mucus secretion, with antimuscarinic action the most plausible mechanism of action, but not necessarily the only mechanism. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Colorectal mucus binds DC-SIGN and inhibits HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stax, Martijn J.; Mouser, Emily E. I. M.; van Montfort, Thijs; Sanders, Rogier W.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Dekker, Henk L.; Herrera, Carolina; Speijer, Dave; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM) also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and

  2. Effect of butyrate and fermentation products on epithelial integrity in a mucus-secreting human colon cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Jensen, Bent Borg; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2018-01-01

    . This was associated with regulation of different genes involved in epithelial integrity, mucus secretion, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and butyrate transport. In conclusion, butyrate in concentrations that can be achieved by dietary intervention in vivo enhanced the epithelial barrier function in vitro. B...

  3. Changes in the reproductive system of the snail Helix aspersa caused by mucus from the love dart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, J M; Chase, R.

    The function of the love dart in certain species of terrestrial snails is unknown. In Helix aspersa, the dart is a sharp calcareous structure that is used to pierce the partner's skin during courtship. When expelled, the dart is covered with a thick mucus. The hypothesis tested here is that the

  4. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-09-30

    The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this.

  5. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Pastorova, B.

    1982-01-01

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  6. STOMATOLOGIC ASPECTS IN THERAPY OF LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED CANCER OF ORAL CAVITY MUCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Matyakin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to improve prophylaxis of dental complications during the therapy in the patients with locally distributed cancer of oral cavity mucus.Materials. Results of sanation of oral cavity in 305 patients with cancer of oral and pharyngeal area are analyzed.Results. The best results are noted in the patients given surgical sanation before chemo-radial therapy. The most number of complications is observed when teeth were extracted after chemical therapy in the period of radial therapy at summary focal dose above 20 Gy as well as in the late periods after radial therapy.Conclusion. A complex of preventive measures with using haemostatic sponge with canamycin in such patients decreases the number of complications and the terms of healing of alveoli of extracted teeth.

  7. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  8. Reversible effect of dextran sodium sulfate on mucus secreting intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, V

    2016-01-01

    provide valuable insight into a possible mechanism for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)–induced colitis of importance for the design of subsequent in vivo studies. To develop a new in vitro IBD model with DSS-induced inflammation in human mucus-secreting intestinal epithelial cells (HT29-MTX-E12), we first...... differentiated in trans-well inserts and DSS solutions were added for 6 d before measuring integrity by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–dextran. Then, medium with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) was added and TEER and FITC-dextran permeability...... were measured after 8 d of treatment. A biphasic response in cell viability was observed with increased viability at low doses and decreased viability at high doses of DSS. Viability was decreased to 29% at the highest dose of DSS (10% vol/wt) for 48 h (P Dextran sodium sulfate significantly...

  9. Transport of mucoid mucus in healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize and compare the in vitro transport properties of respiratory mucoid secretion in individuals with no lung disease and in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchiectasis. Methodology: Samples of mucus were collected from 21 volunteers presenting no lung disease who had undergone surgery, from 10 patients presenting chronic COPD, and from 16 patients with bronchiectasis. Mucociliary transport (MCT, transport by cough (SCM, and contact angle (CAM were evaluated. Results: MCT was found to be greater in healthy individuals (1.0 ± 0.19 than in COPD (0.91 ± 0.17 and bronchiectasis (0.76 ± 0.23 patients (p < 0.05, whereas SCM was greater in COPD patients (16.31 ± 7.35 cm than in patients with bronchiectasis (12.16 ± 6.64 cm and healthy individuals (10.50 ± 25.8 cm (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding CAM. Conclusion: Mucus from healthy individuals allows better mucociliary transport compared to that from patients with lung diseases. However, the mucus from COPD patients allows a better transport by coughing, demonstrating that these individuals have adapted to a defence mechanism compared to patients with bronchiectasis, who have impairment in their ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar e comparar as propriedades de transporte in vitro da secreção respiratória de aspeto mucoide (M de indivíduos sem doença respiratória e de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC e bronquiectasias estáveis. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 21 amostras de indivíduos sem doença pulmonar submetidos a processos cirúrgicos, 10 amostras de pacientes com DPOC e 16 amostras de pacientes com bronquiectasias quanto ao transporte mucociliar (TMC, deslocamento na máquina simuladora de tosse (MST e ângulo de contacto (AC. Resultados: Maior TMC das amostras de indivíduos sem doença respiratória (1,0

  10. Members of native coral microbiota inhibit glycosidases and thwart colonization of coral mucus by an opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Alagely, Ali; Teplitski, Max

    2013-05-01

    The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients. Both commensals and pathogens employ glycosidases and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to utilize components of coral mucus. This study tested the hypothesis that specific glycosidases were critical for the growth of S. marcescens on mucus and that their inhibition by native coral microbiota reduces fitness of the pathogen. Consistent with this hypothesis, a S. marcescens transposon mutant with reduced glycosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities was unable to compete with the wild type on the mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata, although it was at least as competitive as the wild type on a minimal medium with glycerol and casamino acids. Virulence of the mutant was modestly reduced in the Aiptasia model. A survey revealed that ∼8% of culturable coral commensal bacteria have the ability to inhibit glycosidases in the pathogen. A small molecular weight, ethanol-soluble substance(s) produced by the coral commensal Exiguobacterium sp. was capable of the inhibition of the induction of catabolic enzymes in S. marcescens. This inhibition was in part responsible for the 10-100-fold reduction in the ability of the pathogen to grow on coral mucus. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms of commensal interference with early colonization and infection behaviors in opportunistic pathogens and highlight an important function for the native microbiota in coral health.

  11. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  12. Catabolite regulation of enzymatic activities in a white pox pathogen and commensal bacteria during growth on mucus polymers from the coral Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Teplitski, Max

    2009-11-16

    Colonization of host mucus surfaces is one of the first steps in the establishment of coral-associated microbial communities. Coral mucus contains a sulfated glycoprotein (in which oligosaccharide decorations are connected to the polypeptide backbone by a mannose residue) and molecules that result from its degradation. Mucus is utilized as a growth substrate by commensal and pathogenic organisms. Two representative coral commensals, Photobacterium mandapamensis and Halomonas meridiana, differed from a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100 in the pattern with which they utilized mucus polymers of Acropora palmata. Incubation with the mucus polymer increased mannopyranosidase activity in S. marcescens, suggestive of its ability to cleave off oligosaccharide side chains. With the exception of glucosidase and N-acetyl galactosaminidase, glycosidases in S. marcescens were subject to catabolite regulation by galactose, glucose, arabinose, mannose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. In commensal P. mandapamensis, at least 10 glycosidases were modestly induced during incubation on coral mucus. Galactose, arabinose, mannose, but not glucose or N-acetyl-glucosamine had a repressive effect on glycosidases in P. mandapamensis. Incubation with the mucus polymers upregulated 3 enzymatic activities in H. meridiana; glucose and galactose appear to be the preferred carbon source in this bacterium. Although all these bacteria were capable of producing the same glycosidases, the differences in the preferred carbon sources and patterns of enzymatic activities induced during growth on the mucus polymer in the presence of these carbon sources suggest that to establish themselves within the coral mucus surface layer commensals and pathogens rely on different enzymatic activities.

  13. Utilization of Mucus from the Coral Acropora palmata by the Pathogen Serratia marcescens and by Environmental and Coral Commensal Bacteria▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Cohen, Matthew; Lipp, Erin K.; Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Teplitski, Max

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, diseases of corals caused by opportunistic pathogens have become widespread. How opportunistic pathogens establish on coral surfaces, interact with native microbiota, and cause disease is not yet clear. This study compared the utilization of coral mucus by coral-associated commensal bacteria (“Photobacterium mandapamensis” and Halomonas meridiana) and by opportunistic Serratia marcescens pathogens. S. marcescens PDL100 (a pathogen associated with white pox disease of Acroporid corals) grew to higher population densities on components of mucus from the host coral. In an in vitro coculture on mucus from Acropora palmata, S. marcescens PDL100 isolates outgrew coral isolates. The white pox pathogen did not differ from other bacteria in growth on mucus from a nonhost coral, Montastraea faveolata. The ability of S. marcescens to cause disease in acroporid corals may be due, at least in part, to the ability of strain PDL100 to build to higher population numbers within the mucus surface layer of its acroporid host. During growth on mucus from A. palmata, similar glycosidase activities were present in coral commensal bacteria, in S. marcescens PDL100, and in environmental and human isolates of S. marcescens. The temporal regulation of these activities during growth on mucus, however, was distinct in the isolates. During early stages of growth on mucus, enzymatic activities in S. marcescens PDL100 were most similar to those in coral commensals. After overnight incubation on mucus, enzymatic activities in a white pox pathogen were most similar to those in pathogenic Serratia strains isolated from human mucosal surfaces. PMID:19395569

  14. The rat IgGFcγBP and Muc2 C-terminal domains and TFF3 in two intestinal mucus layers bind together by covalent interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    Full Text Available The secreted proteins from goblet cells compose the intestinal mucus. The aims of this study were to determine how they exist in two intestinal mucus layers.The intestinal mucosa was fixed with Carnoy solution and immunostained. Mucus from the loose layer, the firm layer was gently suctioned or scraped, respectively, lysed in SDS sample buffer with or without DTT, then subjected to the western blotting of rTFF3, rIgGFcγBP or rMuc2. The non-reduced or reduced soluble mucus samples in RIPA buffer were co-immunoprecipitated to investigate their possible interactions. Polyclonal antibodies for rTFF3, the rIgGFcγBP C-terminal domain and the rMuc2 C-terminal domain confirmed their localization in the mucus layer and in the mucus collected from the rat intestinal loose layer or firm layer in both western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments. A complex of rTFF3, which was approximately 250 kDa, and a monomer of 6 kDa were present in both layers of the intestinal mucus; rIgGFcγBP was present in the complex (250-280 kDa under non-reducing conditions, but shifted to 164 kDa under reducing conditions in both of the layers. rMuc2 was found mainly in a complex of 214-270 kDa under non-reducing conditions, but it shifted to 140 kDa under reducing conditions. The co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that binding occurs among rTFF3, rIgGFcγBP and rMuc2 in the RIPA buffer soluble intestinal mucus. Blocking the covalent interaction by 100 mM DTT in the RIPA buffer soluble intestinal mucus disassociated their binding.Rat goblet cell-secreted TFF3, IgGFcγBP and Muc2, existing in the two intestinal mucus layers, are bound together by covalent interactions in the soluble fraction of intestinal mucus and form heteropolymers to be one of the biochemical mechanisms of composing the net-like structure of mucus.

  15. Enzymatically structured emulsions in simulated gastrointestinal environment: impact on interfacial proteolysis and diffusion in intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macierzanka, Adam; Böttger, Franziska; Rigby, Neil M; Lille, Martina; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mills, E N Clare; Mackie, Alan R

    2012-12-18

    Fundamental knowledge of physicochemical interactions in the gastrointestinal environment is required in order to support rational designing of protein-stabilized colloidal food and pharmaceutical delivery systems with controlled behavior. In this paper, we report on the colloidal behavior of emulsions stabilized with the milk protein sodium caseinate (Na-Cas), and exposed to conditions simulating the human upper gastrointestinal tract. In particular, we looked at how the kinetics of proteolysis was affected by adsorption to an oil-water interface in emulsion and whether the proteolysis and the emulsion stability could be manipulated by enzymatic structuring of the interface. After cross-linking with the enzyme transglutaminase, the protein was digested with use of an in vitro model of gastro-duodenal proteolysis in the presence or absence of physiologically relevant surfactants (phosphatidylcholine, PC; bile salts, BS). Significant differences were found between the rates of digestion of Na-Cas cross-linked in emulsion (adsorbed protein) and in solution. In emulsion, the digestion of a population of polypeptides of M(r) ca. 50-100 kDa was significantly retarded through the gastric digestion. The persistent interfacial polypeptides maintained the original emulsion droplet size and prevented the system from phase separating. Rapid pepsinolysis of adsorbed, non-cross-linked Na-Cas and its displacement by PC led to emulsion destabilization. These results suggest that structuring of emulsions by enzymatic cross-linking of the interfacial protein may affect the phase behavior of emulsion in the stomach and the gastric digestion rate in vivo. Measurements of ζ-potential revealed that BS displaced the remaining protein from the oil droplets during the simulated duodenal phase of digestion. Diffusion of the postdigestion emulsion droplets through ex vivo porcine intestinal mucus was only significant in the presence of BS due to the high negative charge these

  16. High-resolution Mass Spectrometry of Skin Mucus for Monitoring Physiological Impacts in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Effluent at a Great Lakes AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promela...

  17. High‐resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    High‐resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales pr...

  18. Estradiol-induced vaginal mucus inhibits antigen penetration and CD8(+) T cell priming in response to intravaginal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Matthew M; Mosmann, Tim R

    2009-04-14

    Although vaginal immunization has been explored as a strategy to induce mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract, this site displays unique immunological features that probably evolved to inhibit anti-paternal T cell responses after insemination to allow successful pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that estradiol, which induces an estrus-like state, prevented CD8(+) T cell priming during intravaginal immunization of mice. We now show that estradiol prevented antigen loading of vaginal antigen presenting cells (APCs) after intravaginal immunization. Histological examination confirmed that estradiol prevented penetration of peptide antigen into the vaginal wall. Removal of the estradiol-induced mucus barrier by mucinase partially restored antigen loading of vaginal APC and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vivo. The estradiol-induced mucus barrier may thus prevent exposure to antigens delivered intravaginally, supplementing additional estradiol-dependent mechanism(s) that inhibit CD8(+) T cell priming after insemination or vaginal vaccination.

  19. Estradiol-induced vaginal mucus inhibits antigen penetration and CD8+ T cell priming in response to intravaginal immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Matthew M.; Mosmann, Tim R.

    2010-01-01

    Although vaginal immunization has been explored as a strategy to induce mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract, this site displays unique immunological features that probably evolved to inhibit anti-paternal T cell responses after insemination to allow successful pregnancy. We previously demonstrated that estradiol, which induces an estrus-like state, prevented CD8+ T cell priming during intravaginal immunization of mice. We now show that estradiol prevented antigen loading of vaginal antigen presenting cells (APC) after intravaginal immunization. Histological examination confirmed that estradiol prevented penetration of peptide antigen into the vaginal wall. Removal of the estradiol-induced mucus barrier by mucinase partially restored antigen loading of vaginal APC and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vivo. The estradiol-induced mucus barrier may thus prevent exposure to antigens delivered intravaginally, supplementing additional estradiol-dependent mechanism(s) that inhibit CD8+ T cell priming after insemination or vaginal vaccination. PMID:19428849

  20. Mechanism of Human Influenza Virus RNA Persistence and Virion Survival in Feces: Mucus Protects Virions From Acid and Digestive Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Ryohei; Nakaya, Takaaki; Naito, Yuji; Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-07-01

    Although viral RNA or infectious virions have been detected in the feces of individuals infected with human influenza A and B viruses (IAV/IBV), the mechanism of viral survival in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. We developed a model that attempts to recapitulate the conditions encountered by a swallowed virus. While IAV/IBV are vulnerable to simulated digestive juices (gastric acid and bile/pancreatic juice), highly viscous mucus protects viral RNA and virions, allowing the virus to retain its infectivity. Our results suggest that virions and RNA present in swallowed mucus are not inactivated or degraded by the gastrointestinal environment, allowing their detection in feces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Lactobacillus reuteri Surface Mucus Adhesins Upregulate Inflammatory Responses Through Interactions With Innate C-Type Lectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, Krisztián P; Kavanaugh, Devon W; Leclaire, Charlotte; Gunning, Allan P; MacKenzie, Donald A; Wittmann, Alexandra; Young, Ian D; Kawasaki, Norihito; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri exhibits strain-specific adhesion and health-promoting properties. Here, we investigated the role of the mucus adhesins, CmbA and MUB, upon interaction of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 strains with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We showed that mucus adhesins increased the capacity of L. reuteri strains to interact with moDCs and promoted phagocytosis. Our data also indicated that mucus adhesins mediate anti- and pro-inflammatory effects by the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 cytokines. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 were exclusively able to induce moDC-mediated Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We further showed that purified MUB activates moDCs and induces Th1 polarized immune responses associated with increased IFNγ production. MUB appeared to mediate these effects via binding to C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), as shown using cell reporter assays. Blocking moDCs with antibodies against DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or Dectin-2 did not affect the uptake of the MUB-expressing strain, but reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-6 by moDCs significantly, in line with the Th1 polarizing capacity of moDCs. The direct interaction between MUB and CLRs was further confirmed by atomic force spectroscopy. Taken together these data suggest that mucus adhesins expressed at the cell surface of L. reuteri strains may exert immunoregulatory effects in the gut through modulating the Th1-promoting capacity of DCs upon interaction with C-type lectins.

  2. DNA Supercoiling Regulates the Motility of Campylobacter jejuni and Is Altered by Growth in the Presence of Chicken Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Shortt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but relatively little is known about the global regulation of virulence factors during infection of chickens or humans. This study identified DNA supercoiling as playing a key role in regulating motility and flagellar protein production and found that this supercoiling-controlled regulon is induced by growth in chicken mucus. A direct correlation was observed between motility and resting DNA supercoiling levels in different strains of C. jejuni, and relaxation of DNA supercoiling resulted in decreased motility. Transcriptional analysis and Western immunoblotting revealed that a reduction in motility and DNA supercoiling affected the two-component regulatory system FlgRS and was associated with reduced FlgR expression, increased FlgS expression, and aberrant expression of flagellin subunits. Electron microscopy revealed that the flagellar structure remained intact. Growth in the presence of porcine mucin resulted in increased negative supercoiling, increased motility, increased FlgR expression, and reduced FlgS expression. Finally, this supercoiling-dependent regulon was shown to be induced by growth in chicken mucus, and the level of activation was dependent on the source of the mucus from within the chicken intestinal tract. In conclusion, this study reports for the first time the key role played by DNA supercoiling in regulating motility in C. jejuni and indicates that the induction of this supercoiling-induced regulon in response to mucus from different sources could play a critical role in regulating motility in vivo.

  3. Adhesion to brown trout skin mucus, antagonism against cyst adhesion and pathogenicity to rainbow trout of some inhibitory bacteria against Saprolegnia parasitica .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-González, M T; Fregeneda-Grandes, J M; González-Palacios, C; Aller-Gancedo, J M

    2013-04-29

    Biological control of saprolegniosis with bacteria might be an alternative to the use of chemical compounds. Among criteria for the selection of such bacteria are their absence of pathogenicity to fish and their ability to prevent adhesion of the pathogen to the skin mucus. The pathogenicity to rainbow trout of 21 bacterial isolates with in vitro inhibitory activity against Saprolegnia parasitica was studied. Fifteen of the isolates, identified as Aeromonas sobria, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia fonticola, Xanthomonas retroflexus and Yersinia kristensenii, were non-pathogenic when injected into rainbow trout. Their capacity to adhere to the skin mucus of male and female brown trout and to reduce the adhesion of S. parasitica cysts under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions was tested. The 15 bacterial isolates showed a low adhesion rate, ranging between 1.7% (for an A. sobria isolate) and 15.3% (a P. fluorescens isolate). This adhesion was greater in the case of mucus from male brown trout than from females. Similarities in the adhesion to male mucus and other substrates and correlation to that observed to polystyrene suggest that adhesion to skin mucus does not depend on the substrate. A high percentage (88.9%) of the S. parasitica cysts adhered to the skin mucus of male brown trout. Almost all of the bacteria reduced this adhesion ratio significantly under exclusion and competition conditions. However, only half of the isolates displaced cysts from skin mucus, and more bacterial cells were necessary for this effect. A novel method to study the adhesion of S. parasitica cysts to skin mucus of trout and their interactions with inhibitory bacteria is described.

  4. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Hadaidi, Ghaida Ali Hassan

    2017-03-31

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata.

  5. The influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies from cows sera and cervical mucus on bull sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies (ASA from the sera and cervical mucus of cows on bulls sperm motility. A total of 64 cows was included in the study and samples of sera and cervical mucus were collected on the day of artificial insemination. Cows were of Busha breed or mix breed with Simmental. The presence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence method and according to these results, cows were divided in groups as follows: cows with high or low ASA titer in their sera and cows with high or low ASA titer in the cervical mucus. Influence of antisperm antibodies on sperm motility was further estimated by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA. Results demonstrated a significant difference in the influence of antisperm antibodies depending on their origin and titer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molecular genetic and ecophysiological researches on the protection of autochthonous animal resources, sustaining domestic animals’ welfare, health and reproduction, and safe food production

  6. Culture of uterine flushings, cervical mucus, and udder secretions collected post-abortion from heifers artificially exposed to Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, D A; Scanlan, C M; Hannon, S S; Panangala, V S; Gray, B W; Galik, P A

    1983-07-01

    Uterine flushings, cervical mucus swabs and udder secretions collected at weekly intervals from five mixed breed beef cows (four Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccinates, and 1 non-vaccinate) were cultured for Brucella abortus . Prior to sampling, four of the five had aborted 7-to 8-month-old fetuses and one gave brith to a weak calf. The fetuses and/or udder secretions from the cows were culture positive for B. abortus at the time of parturition. Three of the cows developed persistent udder infections. Two of these cows were also shown to have brucellae in their cervical mucus for 10 and 20 days and in their uterine flushings for 17 and 41 days after parturition, respectively. One other cow had brucellae in the cervical mucus for 16 days and in the uterine flushings for up to 36 days post-abortion. All attempts to isolate the organism from this cow's udder secretions in culture were negative. In two cows with culture-positive uterine flushings, isolations of brucellae were made subsequent to normal postpabortion return to estrus.

  7. The spatiotemporal organization of cilia activity drives multiscale circular flows of mucus in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Etienne; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2017-11-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The bronchial epithelium is the first barrier to protect the respiratory tract via an innate mechanism called mucociliary clearance. It consists in the active transport of a sticky fluid, the mucus, via a myriad of cilia at the epithelial surface of the airways. The mucus traps inhaled pathogens and the protective role of the mucociliary clearance relies on the ability of the cilia to self-organize and coordinate their beating to transport the mucus over the full bronchial tree till its elimination through swallowing or expectoration. Despite a rich corpus of clinical studies, chronic respiratory diseases remain poorly understood and quantitative biophysical studies are still missing. Here we will present the physical mechanisms underlying the mucociliary transport. We will show how the cilia self-organize during the ciliogenesis and how the coordination of their beating direction leads to the formation of fluid flow patterns at the macroscopic scale. Finally, we will discuss the role of long range hydrodynamics interactions in this intricate coupled system. ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 and European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant agreement n. PCOFUND-GA-2013-609102.

  8. Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special reference to estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, R; Archunan, G

    2004-07-30

    The present investigation was carried out with a view to evaluate the frequency of Flehmen behaviour in bull in response to body fluids of cows in various stages of the estrous cycle, in the context of estrus detection. The study was performed on free moving bulls under natural conditions. Samples of vaginal mucus, saliva, faeces and milk of pro-estrus, estrus and di-estrus stages collected from donor cows were rubbed individually onto the genital regions of non-estrus animals (dummy cows) and the bulls were observed for 30 min for assessment of Flehmen behaviour. The duration of Flehmen behaviour shown by bulls was maximum towards the dummy cows receiving estrus sample. Such Flehmen behaviour, however, did not occur in bulls in response to the cows receiving samples of other stages. The statistical significance was higher (P mucus may act as an additional/secondary source along with urine in eliciting copulatary behaviour and executing coitus in bulls during estrus. The results further suggest that in addition to vaginal mucus, other body fluids like saliva, faeces and milk have estrus-related odours and are probably involved in bovine bio-communication.

  9. Ca 125 and Ca 19-9: two cancer-associated sialylsaccharide antigens on a mucus glycoprotein from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, F G; Uhlenbruck, G; Dienst, C; Stottrop, M; Hippauf, E

    1985-06-03

    The cancer-associated antigens Ca 125 and Ca 19-9 were demonstrated by radioimmunoassay to form structural units of a mucus glycoprotein in human milk taken from healthy women four days after parturition. The glycoprotein precipitated with the casein fraction at pH 4.6 and was completely absent in the whey as judged from Ca 19-9 assay. It could be effectively enriched by phenol-saline extraction from soluble milk proteins and further purified by gel filtration on Sephacryl S300 and Sephacryl S400. The active component with a bouyant density of 1.41 g/ml in isopycnic density gradient centrifugation (CsCl) shared common physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of mucus glycoproteins. Carbohydrates representing about 68% by weight were conjugated to protein by alkali-labile linkages, exclusively and were essentially free of D-mannose. Activities of Ca 125 and Ca 19-9 were both destroyed by treatment with periodate, mild alkali or neuraminidase suggesting the antigens are sialylated saccharides bound to protein by alkali-labile linkages. The fraction of monosialylated saccharide alditols isolated after reductive beta-elimination from the mucus glycoprotein was shown to inhibit monoclonal antibodies anti-(Ca 125) and anti-(Ca 19-9) in radioimmunoassay.

  10. Common skate (Raja kenojei) secretes pentraxin into the cutaneous secretion: The first skin mucus lectin in cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Motoki; Hirasawa, Ai; Nakamura, Osamu; Watanabe, Tasuku

    2009-08-01

    A lactose-specific lectin with a molecular mass of about 25 kDa was purified from the skin mucus of a cartilaginous fish-the common skate (Raja kenojei). The complementary DNA sequence of the lectin was 1540 bp long and contained a reading frame encoding 226 amino acids, which showed approximately 38% identity to pentraxins of mammals and teleosts. Gene expression was observed in the skin, gill, stomach and intestine in the healthy skate. We also identified an isotype gene from the liver whose deduced amino-acid sequence shared 69.0% identity with the skin type gene. The antiserum detected protein in the skin, where the lectin is localized in the epidermal cells, and in the blood plasma. The lectin genes are multicopied in the common skate genome. Although pentraxins are acute phase proteins, mRNAs of both the isotypes were not upregulated after the in vivo challenge with formalin-killed Escherichia coli, which suggests that they are constantly present in the skin mucus and blood plasma to protect against pathogenic invasion. This lectin is the fifth type of lectin found in the cutaneous secretions of fish, demonstrating that skin mucus lectins have evolved with marked molecular diversity in fish.

  11. Effect of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced mucus secretion in the rat

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    Groneberg David A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activating factor and tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B are important mediators contributing to increased airway secretion in the context of different types of respiratory diseases including acute and chronic asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are recommended as add-on therapy for this disease. The cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist montelukast has been used in clinical asthma therapy during the last years. Besides its inhibitory action on bronchoconstriction, only little is known about its effects on airway secretions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Methods The effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity in the rat were assessed by quantification of secreted 35SO4 labelled mucus macromolecules using the modified Ussing chamber technique. Results Platelet activating factor potently stimulated airway secretion, which was completely inhibited by the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2086 and montelukast. In contrast, montelukast had no effect on tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Conclusion Cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonism by montelukast reverses the secretagogue properties of platelet activating factor to the same degree as the specific platelet activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 but has no influence on treacheal secretion elicited by tachykinins. These results suggest a role of montelukast in the signal transduction pathway of platelet activating factor induced secretory activity of the airways and may further explain the beneficial properties of cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonists.

  12. PPARγ as a Potential Target to Treat Airway Mucus Hypersecretion in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases

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    Yongchun Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway mucus hypersecretion (AMH is a key pathophysiological feature of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AMH contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases, and it is associated with reduced lung function and high rates of hospitalization and mortality. It has been suggested that AMH should be a target in the treatment of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence suggests that a key regulator of airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is expressed in structural, immune, and inflammatory cells in the lung. PPARγ is involved in mucin production, and PPARγ agonists can inhibit mucin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that PPARγ is a novel target in the treatment of AMH and that further work on this transcription factor may lead to new therapies for chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  13. A novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from the mucus of the snail of Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Wang, Wenhong; Yang, Xiaomei; Yan, Xiuwen; Liu, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immunity. Many antimicrobial peptides have been found from marine mollusks. Little information about AMPs of mollusks living on land is available. A novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide (mytimacin-AF) belonging to the peptide family of mytimacins was purified and characterized from the mucus of the snail of Achatina fulica. Its cDNA was also cloned from the cDNA library. Mytimacin-AF is composed of 80 amino acid residues including 10 cysteines. Mytimacin-AF showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Among tested microorganisms, it exerted strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal peptide concentration (MIC) of 1.9 μg/ml. Mytimacin-AF had little hemolytic activity against human blood red cells. The current work confirmed the presence of mytimacin-like antimicrobial peptide in land-living mollusks. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial peptide from mucus of Andrias davidianus: screening and purification by magnetic cell membrane separation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinjin; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Andrias davidianus, the Chinese giant salamander, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many decades. However, no antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been described from A. davidianus until now. Here we describe a novel AMP (andricin 01) isolated from the mucus of A. davidianus. The peptide was recovered using an innovative magnetic cell membrane separation technique and was characterised using mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Andricin 01 is comprised of ten amino acid residues with a total molecular mass of 955.1 Da. CD spectrum analysis gave results similar to the archetypal random coil spectrum, consistent with the three-dimensional rendering calculated by current bioinformatics tools. Andricin 01 was found to be inhibitory both to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, the peptide at the minimal bacterial concentration did not show cell cytotoxicity against human hepatocytes or renal cells and did not show haemolytic activity against red blood cells, indicating that is potentially safe and effective for human use. Andricin 01 shows promise as a novel antibacterial that may provide an insight into the development of new drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of Flutter®VRP1 components on mucus transport of patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambascio, Joana; de Souza, Léa Tatiana; Lisboa, Roberta M; Passarelli, Rita de Cássia V; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2011-09-01

    The Flutter(®)VRP1 combines high frequency oscillation and positive expiratory pressure (PEP). To separately evaluate the effect of the Flutter(®)VRP1 components (high frequency oscillation and PEP) on mucus transportability in patients with bronchiectasis. Eighteen patients with bronchiectasis received sessions with the Flutter(®)VRP1 or PEP for 30 min daily in a randomized, crossover study. The treatment duration was four weeks with one of the therapies, one week of a "wash-out" period and followed by four more weeks with the other treatment. Weekly secretion samples were collected and evaluated for mucociliary relative transport velocity (RTV), displacement in a simulated cough machine (SCM) and contact angle measurement (CAM). For the proposed comparisons, a linear regression model was used with mixed effects with a significance level of 5%. The Flutter(®)VRP1 treatment resulted in greater displacement in SCM and lower CAM when comparing results from the first (9.6 ± 3.4 cm and 29.4 ± 5.7°, respectively) and fourth weeks of treatment (12.44 ± 10.5 cm and 23.28 ± 6.2°, respectively; p component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estratégia de coalimentação na sobrevivência e no crescimento de larvas de Betta splendens durante a transição alimentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Fosse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do período de coalimentação na sobrevivência e no crescimento de larvas de Betta splendens. As larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia durante sete dias e, posteriormente, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: jejum contínuo; ração contínua; quatro dias de coalimentação + 14 dias de ração; oito dias de coalimentação + 10 dias de ração; 12 dias de coalimentação + seis dias de ração; náuplios de Artemia durante todo o período experimental. Os valores das variáveis de desempenho das larvas do tratamento 12 dias de coalimentação + seis dias de ração e do tratamento náuplios de Artemia foram superiores aos demais tratamentos, exceto para sobrevivência, em que não houve diferença significativa com o tratamento oito dias de coalimentação + 10 dias de ração. Considerando-se apenas o tempo de oferta de Artemia (em dias, obteve-se a equação de regressão para as variáveis analisadas. A sobrevivência e a taxa de crescimento específico (TCE apresentaram efeito quadrático, e as demais variáveis apresentaram efeito linear. O ponto de máxima para sobrevivência foi de 21,7 dias (88,92% e para TCE foi de 26,2 dias (23,47% dia-1. O período de co-feeding influencia no crescimento e na sobrevivência de larvas de Betta splendens. Após o período de 19 dias de oferta de alimento vivo, com 12 dias de coalimentação, as larvas estão aptas a aproveitar de maneira eficiente o alimento inerte sem prejuízos ao crescimento e à sobrevivência.

  17. A physics-based model for maintenance of the pH gradient in the gastric mucus layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Owen L; Keener, James P; Fogelson, Aaron L

    2017-12-01

    It is generally accepted that the gastric mucus layer provides a protective barrier between the lumen and the mucosa, shielding the mucosa from acid and digestive enzymes and preventing autodigestion of the stomach epithelium. However, the precise mechanisms that contribute to this protective function are still up for debate. In particular, it is not clear what physical processes are responsible for transporting hydrogen protons, secreted within the gastric pits, across the mucus layer to the lumen without acidifying the environment adjacent to the epithelium. One hypothesis is that hydrogen may be bound to the mucin polymers themselves as they are convected away from the mucosal surface and eventually degraded in the stomach lumen. It is also not clear what mechanisms prevent hydrogen from diffusing back toward the mucosal surface, thereby lowering the local pH. In this work we investigate a physics-based model of ion transport within the mucosal layer based on a Nernst-Planck-like equation. Analysis of this model shows that the mechanism of transporting protons bound to the mucus gel is capable of reproducing the trans-mucus pH gradients reported in the literature. Furthermore, when coupled with ion exchange at the epithelial surface, our analysis shows that bicarbonate secretion alone is capable of neutralizing the epithelial pH, even in the face of enormous diffusive gradients of hydrogen. Maintenance of the pH gradient is found to be robust to a wide array of perturbations in both physiological and phenomenological model parameters, suggesting a robust physiological control mechanism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This work combines modeling techniques based on physical principles, as well as novel numerical simulations to test the plausibility of one hypothesized mechanism for proton transport across the gastric mucus layer. Results show that this mechanism is able to maintain the extreme pH gradient seen in in vivo experiments and suggests a highly robust regulation

  18. Avaliação do impacto na infestação por Aedes aegypti em tanques de cimento do município de Canindé, Ceará, Brasil, após a utilização do peixe Betta splendens como alternativa de controle biológico Evaluation of the impact on Aedes aegypti infestation in cement tanks of the municipal district of Canindé, Ceará, Brazil after using the Betta splendens fish as an alternative biological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Góes Cavalcanti Pamplona

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canindé apresenta uma população de 71.235 habitantes. Em abril de 2001 iniciou a utilização de peixes larvófagos em tanques de cimento, localizados ao nível do solo, como forma de controle biológico para larvas de Aedes aegypti. Durante a visita do agente, ao invés de se tratar os tanques com larvicida, colocou-se um espécime do peixe Betta splendens por depósito. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os resultados desta intervenção. Com os levantamentos do número de imóveis e depósitos existentes, estimou-se este número mês a mês determinando então o número de depósitos existentes por imóvel. Com esta estimativa e o número de imóveis visitados mensalmente analisou-se a infestação deste tipo de depósito. Em janeiro de 2001, 70,4% dos tanques examinados apresentavam larvas; e apenas 7,4% em janeiro de 2002. Em dezembro de 2002 este índice caiu para 0,2%. Demonstrou-se com clareza a capacidade do Betta splendens como agente de controle biológico, em tanques de cimento, reduzindo 320 vezes a infestação deste tipo de recipiente de grande volume.Canindé has a population of 71,235 inhabitants. In April 2001, the city started using larvivorous fish in cement water tanks, as a means of biological control of Aedes aegypti larvae. During house-to-house visits by health agents, instead of treating the water tank with larvicide, a Betta splendens fish was introduced into each tank. The number of houses and the number of tanks was estimated by monthly surveys. Then, the number of tanks per house was determined. Taking into account this estimated number and the number of houses visited, the infestation level for each kind of deposit was analyzed. In January 2001, 70.4% of the water tanks presented mosquitoes. Following the intervention, in January 2002 only 7.4% were positive and by December 2002 the rate had dropped to 0.2%. The efficacy of Betta splendens as a biological control agent in cement water tanks was

  19. Coral microbial communities, zooxanthellae and mucus along gradients of seawater depth and coastal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, James S; Janse, Ingmar; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Sanford, Robert A; Fouke, Bruce W

    2007-05-01

    The high incidence of coral disease in shallow coastal marine environments suggests seawater depth and coastal pollution have an impact on the microbial communities inhabiting healthy coral tissues. A study was undertaken to determine how bacterial communities inhabiting tissues of the coral Montastraea annularis change at 5 m, 10 m and 20 m water depth in varying proximity to the urban centre and seaport of Willemstad, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) of 16S rRNA gene sequences show significant differences in bacterial communities of polluted and control localities only at the shallowest seawater depth. Furthermore, distinct differences in bacterial communities were found with increasing water depth. Comparisons of TRFLP peaks with sequenced clone libraries indicate the black band disease cyanobacterium clone CD1C11 is common and most abundant on healthy corals in less than 10 m water depth. Similarly, sequences belonging to a previously unrecognized group of likely phototrophic bacteria, herein referred to as CAB-I, were also more common in shallow water. To assess the influence of environmental and physiologic factors on bacterial community structure, canonical correspondence analysis was performed using explanatory variables associated with: (i) light availability; (ii) seawater pollution; (iii) coral mucus composition; (iv) the community structure of symbiotic algae; and (v) the photosynthetic activity of symbiotic algae. Eleven per cent of the variation in bacterial communities was accounted for by covariation with these variables; the most important being photosynthetically active radiation (sunlight) and the coral uptake of sewage-derived compounds as recorded by the delta(15)N of coral tissue.

  20. Interrelationship between milk constituents, serum oestradiol and vaginal mucus indicators of oestrus in Egyptian buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiel, M M M; El-Naggar, R A M; Abdel-Ghaffar, A E; Sosa, G A M; Abou El-Roos, N A

    2014-02-01

    The intensity of heat signs in buffaloes is generally low and the incidence of suboestrus varied from 15 to 73% (Buffalopedia). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of monitoring the changes in some milk constituents, oestradiol levels and electrical conductivity of vaginal mucus during peri-oestrous period in prediction of the timing of oestrus in buffaloes. Twenty-one Egyptian buffaloes aged 3-9 year, 1st-6th lactations, were examined by oestrous detector and ultrasonographically for monitoring the ovarian and uterine activity for 7 days around the time of standing oestrus. Sodium, potassium, chloride and lactose were assayed in aqueous phase of milk; besides, oestradiol was estimated in serum. Current results declared highly significant acute changes in milk constituents at the time of oestrus characterized by peaking of chloride and sodium levels and lowering of potassium and lactose values. The alternation in milk composition when arranged in decreasing order of magnitude, sodium was the highest (77.78 ± 0.69%), followed by chloride (61.60 ± 1.52%) and potassium (-58.14 ± 10.89%). Concomitantly, milk lactose decreased by 26.07 ± 7.97% compared to baseline levels. Synchronously, vaginal electrical resistance (VER) showed a significant (p milk during peri-oestrous period may be used as a practical non-invasive indicator for oestrous detection and prediction of ovulation in Egyptian buffaloes. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Nattokinase, profibrinolytic enzyme, effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue and decreases viscosity of mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Imoto, Yoshimasa; Sakashita, Masafumi; Kato, Yukinori; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kanako; Narita, Norihiko; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2017-10-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is often comorbid with asthma and resistant to therapeutic interventions. We recently reported that excessive fibrin deposition caused by impairment of fibrinolysis might play pivotal role in forming nasal polyp. Nattokinase (NK), a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis, has been reported to be a strong fibrinolytic enzyme. NK could be a promising drug candidate for use in the treatment of both CRSwNP and asthma. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NK on nasal polyp tissues from patients with CRSwNP. The nasal discharge from patients with CRSwNP and sputum from subjects with asthma were also used to investigate whether NK influences the viscosity of mucus. To examine the effects on NK on nasal polyp tissues, pieces of nasal polyps were incubated either with saline or NK (10-1000 FU/ml) at 37 °C for 24 h. We assessed the presence of fibrin in nasal polyp tissue incubated with NK by means of immunohistochemistry. To examine the effects of NK on nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, were incubated with NK solution at 37 °C for 1 h. NK effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue through fibrin degradation. We also found that the viscosity of the nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, was significantly reduced by incubation with NK solution. NK may be an effective alternative therapeutic option in patients with CRSwNP and comorbid asthma by causing fibrin degradation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Pedro R; Roll, Katharina; Bergauer, Kristin; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis) over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%). About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively) were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA) showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater), host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity.

  3. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R Frade

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%. About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater, host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity.

  4. Essential role of the electroneutral Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1 in murine duodenal acid-base balance and colonic mucus layer build-up in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anurag Kumar; Xia, Weiliang; Riederer, Brigitte; Juric, Marina; Li, Junhua; Zheng, Wen; Cinar, Ayhan; Xiao, Fang; Bachmann, Oliver; Song, Penghong; Praetorius, Jeppe; Aalkjaer, Christian; Seidler, Ursula

    2013-04-15

    Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3(-) is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport pathways involved are incompletely understood. This study investigated the significance of the electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 for duodenal defence against acid and colonic mucus release. NBCn1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of duodenal villous enterocytes and of colonic crypt cells, with predominant expression in goblet cells. Duodenal villous enterocyte intracellular pH was studied before and during a luminal acid load by two-photon microscopy in exteriorized, vascularly perfused, indicator (SNARF-1 AM)-loaded duodenum of isoflurane-anaesthetized, systemic acid-base-controlled mice. Acid-induced HCO3(-) secretion was measured in vivo by single-pass perfusion and pH-stat titration. After a luminal acid load, NBCn1-deficient duodenocytes were unable to recover rapidly from intracellular acidification and could not respond adequately with protective HCO3(-) secretion. In the colon, build-up of the mucus layer was delayed, and a decreased thickness of the adherent mucus layer was observed, suggesting that basolateral HCO3(-) uptake is essential for optimal release of mucus. The electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 displays a differential cellular distribution in the murine intestine and is essential for HCO3(-)-dependent mucosal protective functions, such as recovery of intracellular pH and HCO3(-) secretion in the duodenum and secretion of mucus in the colon.

  5. How Helicobacter pylori urease may affect external pH and influence growth and motility in the mucus environment: evidence from in-vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Ramon L; Worku, Mulugeta L; Karim, Q Najma; Dhir, Nirmal K; Baron, J Hugh

    2003-04-01

    Survival of Helicobacter pylori is dependent upon urease in the cytoplasm and at the bacterial surface. We have sought to clarify how alkaline ammonium salts, released from urea by this enzyme, might alter mucus pH and so affect growth and motility of the bacterium in the gastric mucus environment. Experiments were conducted in vitro to determine how the growth and motility of H. pylori are affected by changes in external pH, and how the bacterium, by hydrolysing urea, alters the pH of the bicarbonate buffer that occurs at the gastric mucosal surface. These data were fitted into experimental models that describe how pH varies within the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach. H. pylori was motile between pH 5 and 8, with optimal motility at pH 5. It grew between pH 6 and 8, with optimal growth at pH 6. The bacterium had urease activity between pH 2.7 and 7.4, as evidenced by pH rises in bicarbonate-buffered solutions of urea. Changes in buffer pH were dependent upon initial pH and urea concentration, with the greatest rate of pH change occurring at pH 3. Modelling experiments utilizing these data indicated that (1) in the absence of urease, H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer would be restricted severely by low mucus pH in the acid-secreting stomach, and (2) urease will sometimes inhibit H. pylori growth and motility in the mucus layer by elevating the pH of the mucus environment above pH 8. Urease is essential to the growth and motility of H. pylori in the mucus layer in the acid-secreting stomach, but, paradoxically, sometimes it might suppress colonization by raising the mucus pH above 8. This latter effect may protect the bacteria from the adverse consequences of overpopulation.

  6. SPDEF is required for mouse pulmonary goblet cell differentiation and regulates a network of genes associated with mucus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Xu, Yan; Kitzmiller, Joseph; Wert, Susan E; Maeda, Yutaka; Gregorieff, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Various acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli increase the number and activity of pulmonary mucus-producing goblet cells, and goblet cell hyperplasia and excess mucus production are central to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases. However, little is known about the transcriptional programs that regulate goblet cell differentiation. Here, we show that SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) controls a transcriptional program critical for pulmonary goblet cell differentiation in mice. Initial cell-lineage-tracing analysis identified nonciliated secretory epithelial cells, known as Clara cells, as the progenitors of goblet cells induced by pulmonary allergen exposure in vivo. Furthermore, in vivo expression of SPDEF in Clara cells caused rapid and reversible goblet cell differentiation in the absence of cell proliferation. This was associated with enhanced expression of genes regulating goblet cell differentiation and protein glycosylation, including forkhead box A3 (Foxa3), anterior gradient 2 (Agr2), and glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 3, mucin type (Gcnt3). Consistent with these findings, levels of SPDEF and FOXA3 were increased in mouse goblet cells after sensitization with pulmonary allergen, and the proteins were colocalized in goblet cells lining the airways of patients with chronic lung diseases. Deletion of the mouse Spdef gene resulted in the absence of goblet cells in tracheal/laryngeal submucosal glands and in the conducting airway epithelium after pulmonary allergen exposure in vivo. These data show that SPDEF plays a critical role in regulating a transcriptional network mediating the goblet cell differentiation and mucus hyperproduction associated with chronic pulmonary disorders.

  7. The inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 activity by crude and purified human pregnancy plug mucus and mucins in an inhibition assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeman Leann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female reproductive tract is amongst the main routes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission. Cervical mucus however is known to protect the female reproductive tract from bacterial invasion and fluid loss and regulates and facilitates sperm transport to the upper reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pregnancy plug mucins and determine their anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Methods Pregnancy plug mucins were purified by caesium chloride density-gradient ultra-centrifugation and characterized by Western blotting analysis. The anti-HIV-1 activities of the crude pregnancy plug mucus and purified pregnancy plug mucins was determined by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells. Results The pregnancy plug mucus had MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified pregnancy plug mucins inhibit HIV-1 activity by approximately 97.5%, the crude pregnancy plug mucus failed to inhibit HIV-1 activity. Conclusion Although it is not clear why the crude sample did not inhibit HIV-1 activity, it may be that the amount of mucins in the crude pregnancy plug mucus (which contains water, mucins, lipids, nucleic acids, lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins and ions, is insufficient to cause viral inhibition or aggregation.

  8. Studies quantifying modulatory effects of inhaled NO2 and SO2 on tracheal mucus secretion, proliferative activity of airway epithelium and architecture of lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.; Barth, P.J.; Bredenbroeker, D.; Haase, H.; Locher, A.; Janssen, P.; Yu, F.; Wichert, P. von

    1995-10-01

    The following studies were designed to quantify changes in tracheal mucus secretion and epithelial proliferation of peripheral airways induced by inhaled NO 2 and SO 2 . Groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed alternatively to 1, 5, 10 and 20 ppm NO 2 and SO 2 the exposure-time being 3 or 25 days (d) respectively. Studies of tracheal mucus secretion radiolabelling mucins with 35 S clearly demonstrated a concentration dependant modulation of mucus secretion. We were able to demonstrate for the first time a significant increase of mucus secretion due to submucosal application of the peptide hormone GLP-1(7-36)amide. We were able to demonstrate amylin to be a potent secretagogue, dose-dependently stimulating mucus secretion. Our morphologic data reveal the effects caused by concentrations between 4-5 ppm NO 2 to be so small, that they are hardly detectable at light microscopic level. The assessment of proliferative activity, however, clearly demonstrates an increased proliferation due to even lower concentrations indicating, that even 1 ppm is able to cause epithelial impairment with consecutive regeneration. Double-labelling techniques of proliferation markers and the 10 kD Clara cell specific antigen reveal the Clara cell to be the only source for epithelial regeneration in peripheral airways under the reported experimental conditions of this study. (orig.) [de

  9. Relationship between physical characteristics and ionic content of cervical mucus pregnancy status to inseminate heifers detected in estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savia CL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of zeal tends to be one of them factors multiple that affect the rate of pregnancy in dairy farms; because females are inseminated outside the most appropriate time to reach fertilization. The objective of the present study was to analyze macroscopic characteristics(quantity, appearance and consistency, crystallization phenomenon, pH, level of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chlorine in the cervical mucus of heifers in order to relatethese properties with the periovulatory period. Be used 20 Holstein heifers. Mucus was obtained prior to insemination and it was picked up by suction from the cervix. pH was determined using reactive tape (6-7,9 and the degree of crystallization (0-4 was evaluated according to typical and atypical fern leaf formations. It was determined pH test (6-7,9 tape and evaluate the degree of crystallization (0 - 4 according to the typical and atypical formations of fern leaves. Ionic content was determined using commercial kits (Wiener SAIC laboratories. Pregnancy was detected in 60 days post insemination. Each variable was described by its mean and deviation standard and by ANOVA established significant differences between means. It showed that the pregnancy was related to a mucus contains a concentration significantly less than K and Mg, compared with empty heifers (K, P:7,76 V: 12,97; Mg, P:2, 80 V:3,93; p<0,05 t=2,16. pH was significantly higher in the pregnant females, and the crystallization grade significantly lower (pH P:7, 60 V: 6, 23; crystallization P: 1,31 V2, 21; p<0,01 t=3,01. The results allow concluding that the optimum to inseminate was associated with cervical mucus observed macroscopically liquid, transparent and generous; with a pH above 7.0 and that it was forming atypical leaves of fern with an average of 1.31. Probably, the liquid consistency or liquid facilitates the transport of sperm and an osmotic active, responsible for the retention force is not related to content perhaps

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili: Evidence for a Novel and Heterospecific Probiotic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections. Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful clinical application of

  11. Strain-specific diversity of mucus-binding proteins in the adhesion and aggregation properties of Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Donald A; Jeffers, Faye; Parker, Mary L; Vibert-Vallet, Amandine; Bongaerts, Roy J; Roos, Stefan; Walter, Jens; Juge, Nathalie

    2010-11-01

    Mucus-binding proteins (MUBs) have been revealed as one of the effector molecules involved in mechanisms of the adherence of lactobacilli to the host; mub, or mub-like, genes are found in all of the six genomes of Lactobacillus reuteri that are available. We recently reported the crystal structure of a Mub repeat from L. reuteri ATCC 53608 (also designated strain 1063), revealing an unexpected recognition of immunoglobulins. In the current study, we explored the diversity of the ATCC 53608 mub gene, and MUB expression levels in a large collection of L. reuteri strains isolated from a range of vertebrate hosts. This analysis revealed that the MUB was only detectable on the cell surface of two highly related isolates when using antibodies that were raised against the protein. There was considerable variation in quantitative mucus adhesion in vitro among L. reuteri strains, and mucus binding showed excellent correlation with the presence of cell-surface ATCC 53608 MUB. ATCC 53608 MUB presence was further highly associated with the autoaggregation of L. reuteri strains in washed cell suspensions, suggesting a novel role of this surface protein in cell aggregation. We also characterized MUB expression in representative L. reuteri strains. This analysis revealed that one derivative of strain 1063 was a spontaneous mutant that expressed a C-terminally truncated version of MUB. This frameshift mutation was caused by the insertion of a duplicated 13 nt sequence at position 4867 nt in the mub gene, producing a truncated MUB also lacking the C-terminal LPxTG region, and thus unable to anchor to the cell wall. This mutant, designated 1063N (mub-4867(i)), displayed low mucus-binding and aggregation capacities, further providing evidence for the contribution of cell-wall-anchored MUB to such phenotypes. In conclusion, this study provided novel information on the functional attributes of MUB in L. reuteri, and further demonstrated that MUB and MUB-like proteins

  12. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  13. Supply Cain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  14. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  15. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  16. Mucus and microbiota as emerging players in gut nanotoxicology: The example of dietary silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier-Bonin, Muriel; Despax, Bernard; Raynaud, Patrice; Houdeau, Eric; Thomas, Muriel

    2018-04-13

    Given the growing use of nanotechnology in many common consumer products, including foods, evaluation of the consequences of chronic exposure to nanoparticles in humans has become a major public health issue. The oral route of exposure has been poorly explored, despite the presence of a fraction of nanosized particles in certain food additives/supplements and the incorporation of such particles into packaging in contact with foods. After their ingestion, these nanoparticles pass through the digestive tract, where they may undergo physicochemical transformations, with consequences for the luminal environment, before crossing the epithelial barrier to reach the systemic compartment. In this review, we consider two examples, nanosilver and nanotitanium dioxide. Despite the specific features of these particles and the differences between them, both display a close relationship between physicochemical reactivity and bioavailability/biopersistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Few studies have focused on the interactions of nanoparticles of silver or titanium dioxide with the microbiota and mucus. However, the microbiota and mucus play key roles in intestinal homeostasis and host health and are undoubtedly involved in controlling the distribution of nanoparticles in the systemic compartment.

  17. Detection of Bioactive Compounds in the Mucus Nets of Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Prosobranch Gastropod Vermetidae, Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sessile suspension-feeding wormsnail Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Vermetidae secretes a mucus net to capture planktonic prey. The nets are spread out over the corals and often have remarkable deleterious effects on them like changes in growth form and pigmentation shifts not uncommonly resulting in tissue necrosis. Until now, there is no explanation for this phenomenon although the indication as well as theories about its genesis is mentioned in several publications. Vermetids are well studied concerning the intraspecific competition with neighboring individuals but not in their interaction with other taxa like corals or fish. We did extensive in situ video recording and observed that fish avoided the plankton-load nets although several specialized taxa are known to be molluscivores, mucivores, and/or feed on plankton. As many molluscs use chemical weapons to combat feeding pressure and to defend themselves against predators, we screened empty and plankton-load mucus nets for potential bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity testing was performed with a recently developed system based on a chromatographic separation (high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC and a bioassay with luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Thus, we found at least two active compounds exclusively accumulated by the wormsnails themselves. This is the first record of bioactive properties in the whole family of Vermetidae.

  18. Case Report: Mucus plug in bronchus mimicking a bronchial solid foreign body obstruction [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Devkota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial foreign body obstruction is common in all clinical settings. Obstruction of the airway due to foreign bodies and foreign body aspiration are major causes of childhood mortality and morbidity, which are a big challenge to manage. Occasionally, bronchial obstruction may be due to mucus plugs or other endogenous factors. Here we describe a case of bronchial obstruction caused by mucus plug formation that was managed conservatively in a one-year old boy. The patient was suffering from a cough and noisy breathing for 2 days prior to coming to our hospital, when he experienced sudden onset of difficulty in breathing and a severe cough. At the time of presentation his vital sign readings were:- HR 186 bpm, RR 46/min, BP 78/40 MmHg, temp 36.9°C and SPO2 68%. He was given oxygen immediately and nebulization was started. Chest CT scan was performed that suggested the presence of a right bronchial foreign body with right sided obstructive emphysema. The patient was stable with oxygenation and nebulization with ipratropium bromide, albuterol, normal saline and budesonide before the CT scan. Therefore, we conclude that symptoms resembling foreign body obstruction are not always aspirated or inhaled, and sometimes secreted sputum forms a plug, which mimics the symptoms of foreign body obstruction.

  19. THE UTILIZATION OF ACHATINA FULICA MUCUS IN ALGINATE MEMBRANE AS WOUND HEALING ACCELERATOR AND ANTI- INFECTION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatkhunisa Rahmawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound should be covered with bandage that is called wound dressing. Most people use synthetic materials such as gauze dressing. Gauze has high absorption of NaCl, which is often used to cleanse the wound. However, discomfort and pain arise since the gauze becomes sticky on the wound. Therefore, we need other alternatives instead of gauze to cover wound. One such alternative is the alginate membrane. This study used alginate membrane with mixture of mucous of the snail Achatina fulica, which contain proteins such as proline, serine asparagine, glycosaminoglycan, hydroxylysine, trionin and so forth, to activate the growth factor. Alginate powder and carboxymethl cellulose (CMC was dissolved in distilled water mixed with mucus of the snail Achatina fulica in four variations (4:0; 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 through a magnetic stirrer, and casted on a baking sheet covered with sterile gauze. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC test showed that the glycosaminoglycan content was found on the mucous of Achatina fulica. This was indicated by the appearance of peak at 325–350 second. The most optimum alginate and mucus composition was in ratio of 4:2. This ratio resulted in a wound dressing that was still able to absorb the exudate and optimally accelerated wound healing.

  20. Spatial Homogeneity of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus Layer of the Reef-Building Coral Acropora palmata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin W Kemp

    Full Text Available Coral surface mucus layer (SML microbiota are critical components of the coral holobiont and play important roles in nutrient cycling and defense against pathogens. We sequenced 16S rRNA amplicons to examine the structure of the SML microbiome within and between colonies of the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys. Samples were taken from three spatially distinct colony regions--uppermost (high irradiance, underside (low irradiance, and the colony base--representing microhabitats that vary in irradiance and water flow. Phylogenetic diversity (PD values of coral SML bacteria communities were greater than surrounding seawater and lower than adjacent sediment. Bacterial diversity and community composition was consistent among the three microhabitats. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Proteobacteria, respectively were the most abundant phyla represented in the samples. This is the first time spatial variability of the surface mucus layer of A. palmata has been studied. Homogeneity in the microbiome of A. palmata contrasts with SML heterogeneity found in other Caribbean corals. These findings suggest that, during non-stressful conditions, host regulation of SML microbiota may override diverse physiochemical influences induced by the topographical complexity of A. palmata. Documenting the spatial distribution of SML microbes is essential to understanding the functional roles these microorganisms play in coral health and adaptability to environmental perturbations.

  1. Spatial Homogeneity of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus Layer of the Reef-Building Coral Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dustin W; Rivers, Adam R; Kemp, Keri M; Lipp, Erin K; Porter, James W; Wares, John P

    2015-01-01

    Coral surface mucus layer (SML) microbiota are critical components of the coral holobiont and play important roles in nutrient cycling and defense against pathogens. We sequenced 16S rRNA amplicons to examine the structure of the SML microbiome within and between colonies of the threatened Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys. Samples were taken from three spatially distinct colony regions--uppermost (high irradiance), underside (low irradiance), and the colony base--representing microhabitats that vary in irradiance and water flow. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) values of coral SML bacteria communities were greater than surrounding seawater and lower than adjacent sediment. Bacterial diversity and community composition was consistent among the three microhabitats. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Proteobacteria, respectively were the most abundant phyla represented in the samples. This is the first time spatial variability of the surface mucus layer of A. palmata has been studied. Homogeneity in the microbiome of A. palmata contrasts with SML heterogeneity found in other Caribbean corals. These findings suggest that, during non-stressful conditions, host regulation of SML microbiota may override diverse physiochemical influences induced by the topographical complexity of A. palmata. Documenting the spatial distribution of SML microbes is essential to understanding the functional roles these microorganisms play in coral health and adaptability to environmental perturbations.

  2. A radiolabeled antiglobulin assay to identify human cervical mucus immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antisperm antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, G.G. Jr.; D'Cruz, O.J.

    1989-01-01

    Antisperm immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antibodies in human cervical mucus (CM) were identified by a radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Cervical mucus samples from fertile and infertile women were exposed to a 1:3,200 dilution of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), and 5 micrograms of the solubilized CM protein were assayed for the presence of IgA and IgG antisperm and anti-Candida activity by the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Purified human secretory IgA and IgG exposed to 2-ME retained the molecular integrity and functional activity of the untreated antibody molecules. CM aliquots collected after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation were assessed for antisperm antibody activity; antisperm antibody activity was retained in the appropriate IgA or IgG CM fractions. The incidence of CM antisperm antibodies was minimally affected when the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay was performed with a motile sperm population. Approximately 70% of the CM IgA antisperm antibodies were of the IgA1 subclass; CM IgG was primarily of the IgG4 subclass. When Candida antigen was substituted for sperm in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay, the CM antisperm antibodies were found to be exclusively sperm-specific. These data indicate that the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay using 2-ME to extract CM antibodies is a specific method for the assay of antisperm antibodies in CM

  3. Effects of irradiated Ergosan on the growth performance and mucus biological components of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Chehrara, Fatemeh; Heidarieh, Marzieh; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Effects of irradiated and non-irradiated Ergosan extract (alginic acid) on rainbow trout growth performance and skin mucosal immunity were compared. Ergosan was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. A total of 252 fish (128.03±9.4 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups, given the basal diet either unsupplemented with Ergosan (control group) or supplemented with crude Ergosan (5 g/kg), ethanol-extracted Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) or irradiated Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) according to this protocol: basal diet for 15 days, treatment diet for 15 days, basal diet for 10 days and treatment diet for 15 days. Highest growth performance was observed in fish fed irradiated Ergosan ( P <0.05). Dietary administration of different Ergosan types did not cause any changes in mucus protein level, but improved alkaline phosphatase level and hemagglutination titer compared with the control (basal diet without Ergosan) on day 55 of feeding trial ( P <0.05). Furthermore, the highest value of lysozyme activity was observed in gamma-irradiated Ergosan on day 55. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated Ergosan at 0.33 g/kg was found to improve growth performance and mucus biological components significantly in comparison with the control group (basal diet without Ergosan).

  4. High-resolution mass spectrometry of skin mucus for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fathead minnows exposed to wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Jonathan D; Ekman, Drew R; Cavallin, Jenna E; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Collette, Timothy W

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to control water or treated wastewater effluent at 5, 20, and 100% levels for 21 d, using an on-site, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. Both sex-specific and non-sex-specific responses were observed in the mucus metabolome, the latter suggesting the induction of general compensatory pathways for xenobiotic exposures. Altogether, 85 statistically significant treatment-dependent metabolite changes were observed out of the 310 total endogenous metabolites that were detected (156 of the 310 were annotated). Partial least squares-regression models revealed strong covariances between the mucus metabolomes and up-regulated hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts reported previously for these same fish. These regression models suggest that mucus metabolomic changes reflected, in part, processes by which the fish biotransformed xenobiotics in the effluent. In keeping with this observation, we detected a phase II transformation product of bisphenol A in the skin mucus of male fish. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the utility of mucus as a minimally invasive matrix for simultaneously assessing exposures and effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:788-796. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  5. Lipid shell-enveloped polymeric nanoparticles with high integrity of lipid shells improve mucus penetration and interaction with cystic fibrosis-related bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Nylander, Tommy; Klodzinska, Sylvia Natalie

    2018-01-01

    , we describe facile methods to prepare Lipid@NPs with high integrity of lipid shells and demonstrate the potential of Lipid@NPs in effective mucus penetration and interaction with cystic fibrosis-related bacterial biofilms. Lipid shell-enveloped polystyrene NPs with high integrity of lipid shells (c...... mediated layer-by layer approach. Our results suggest that the integrity of the lipid envelopes is crucial for enabling the diffusion of Lipid@PSNPs into the mucus layer and promoting the interaction of Lipid@PSNPs with a bacterial biofilm....

  6. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  7. The role of cytokines in cervical ripening: correlations between the concentrations of cytokines and hyaluronic acid in cervical mucus and the induction of hyaluronic acid production by inflammatory cytokines by human cervical fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M; Hirano, H; Tsubaki, H; Kodama, H; Tanaka, T

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of our study was (1) to explain the relationship between levels of inflammatory cytokines and levels of hyaluronic acid in cervical mucus of pregnant women and (2) to investigate whether cytokines promote hyaluronic acid production by human cervical fibroblasts in vitro. The concentration of hyaluronic acid, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-8 were measured in cervical mucus of pregnant women, and hyaluronic acid production by cytokine-treated (interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8) cultured fibroblasts was measured. Hyaluronic acid concentrations in the mucus of pregnant women with threatened premature labor were higher than in mucus of normal pregnant women (P hyaluronic acid concentrations and interleukin-1beta (P = .018) and interleukin-8 (P = .003) concentrations in cervical mucus. Cytokines (especially interleukin-8) stimulated hyaluronic acid production by cultured cervical fibroblasts. Cytokines induce hyaluronic acid production by human cervical fibroblasts, which may promote cervical ripening.

  8. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  9. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  10. Evaluation of ram semen quality using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, M; Ordás, L; Chamorro, C A; Martinez-Pastor, F; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2012-05-01

    Fertility is a very complex biological function that depends on several properties of the spermatozoa, including sperm motility. Two objectives are analyzed in this study: (1) Replace the cervical mucus by a synthetic medium in a sperm penetration test, and (2) evaluating the results of this test objectively analyzing the sperm number that migrates. In experiment 1, we have tested eight concentrations of acrylamide (1%-2%). Rheological properties of media were analyzed. The plastic straws, loaded with acrylamide, were placed vertically on the semen sample tube for 15 min at 39 °C. After, the acrylamides were placed, by segments of 5 mm, into wells of a 24-well plate, dyed with Hoechst 33342 and the number of spermatozoa were calculated by automated microscopy analysis. The 1.55% and 1.6% acrylamide gel showed a number of spermatozoa emigrating closer to that seen with natural mucus. In experiment 2, we applied the sperm penetration in acrylamide 1.6% and 1.55% using fresh semen and cooled semen at 15 °C and 5 °C. The spermatozoa counts were performed for each segment of 10 mm. Semen chilled at 15 °C presented intermediate values of sperm counts in comparison with fresh semen (higher) and 5 °C chilled semen. The sperm counts do not differ between acrylamides but the rheological properties of acrylamide 1.6% were more similar to those of the natural cervical mucus. In experiment 3, we have observed significant correlations between the number of spermatozoa and several sperm quality parameters (positive: progressive motility and velocity according to the straight path; negative: damaged acrosomes and apoptotic cells) in 1.6% acrylamide media. We conclude that the size of the cell subpopulation, objectively calculated, that migrate beyond 20 mm in 0.5-mL straws filled with acrylamide is a useful parameter in ram sperm quality assessment and further studies are needed to evaluate its relationship with field fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  12. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  13. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  14. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  15. Perspectives of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  16. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  17. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  18. D. C. power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M

    1978-04-01

    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  19. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Zarin Keihani; Shariat, Mamak; Zabandan, Neda; Tabrizi, Aidin; Tehrani, Fatemeh

    2016-07-01

    Childhood masturbation (CM) is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation of seizure or movement disorders were studied between 2008 and 2011. Totally, 359 children were found to have masturbatory behaviors (Group A) and the rest (264) were assigned to Group B. CM was diagnosed by direct observation. Collected data comprised demographic characteristics, clinical and neurodevelopmental examinations, laboratory findings (particularly urine analysis), and electrocardiography. The age of the children with CM was below 12 years old, and the girl-to-boy ratio was 7:1. Mucus in urine was positive in 357 (99.44%) children in Group A and 22 (8.3%) in Group B (P<0.001). A significant correlation was found between the presence of mucus in urine and masturbatory behaviors (P<0.001). Our findings suggest that the presence of mucus in urine can be used as an alternative laboratory test in children with CM below 12 years old and even in infants (≤24 months old). Further studies are needed to confirm the results.

  20. Characterization of the gacA-dependent surface and coral mucus colonization by an opportunistic coral pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Carpinone, Emily M; Ritchie, Kim B; Teplitski, Max

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic pathogens rely on global regulatory systems to assess the environment and to control virulence and metabolism to overcome host defenses and outcompete host-associated microbiota. In Gammaproteobacteria, GacS/GacA is one such regulatory system. GacA orthologs direct the expression of the csr (rsm) small regulatory RNAs, which through their interaction with the RNA-binding protein CsrA (RsmA), control genes with functions in carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. The csrB gene was controlled by gacA in Serratia marcescens PDL100. A disruption of the S. marcescens gacA gene resulted in an increased fitness of the mutant on mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata and its high molecular weight fraction, whereas the mutant was as competitive as the wild type on the low molecular weight fraction of the mucus. Swarming motility and biofilm formation were reduced in the gacA mutant. This indicates a critical role for gacA in the efficient utilization of specific components of coral mucus and establishment within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer. While significantly affecting early colonization behaviors (coral mucus utilization, swarming motility, and biofilm formation), gacA was not required for virulence of S. marcescens PDL100 in either a model polyp Aiptasia pallida or in brine shrimp Artemia nauplii. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Sustained Efficacy of a Mucus Clearance Device in Ambulatory Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wolkove

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a mucus clearance device (MCD (Flutter; Axcan Scandipharm, USA could consistently improve the bronchodilator response and exercise performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD when used in an ambulatory setting over a one-week period.

  2. Anaerobic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other obligately anaerobic bacterial biofilms growing in the thick airway mucus of chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients: an emerging paradigm or "Old Hat"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Hassett, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is an ideal niche in which many bacteria can develop antibiotic- and phagocyte-resistance in unique structures known as "mode II biofilms" where bacteria are embedded within the mucus, yet unattached to airway epithelial cells. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the dominant CF pathogen, yet herein the authors provide burgeoning evidence that obligate anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Prevotella) actually thrive within the CF mucus, a paradigmatic shift that chronic CF is an "aerobic" disease. Interestingly, CF organisms repress virulence factor production (e.g., P. aeruginosa) while others (e.g., S. aureus) increase them under anaerobic conditions. The authors shed additional light on (i) the anoxic nature of the CF airway mucus, (ii) the relative commonality of anaerobic bacteria isolated from CF sputum, (iii) virulence factor production and cross-talk between obligate anaerobes and P. aeruginosa relative to disease progression/remission, (iv) the role of mucoidy in CF, and (v) the role of nitrosative stress in activation of bacteriophage and pyocins within biofilms. The authors conclude with insight as to how we might treat some CF bacteria during mode II biofilm infections that utilizes a metabolite of bacterial anaerobic respiration and an aerobic oxidation product of airway-generated NO, acidified NO(2)(-).

  3. Short communication: effect of exopolysaccharide isolated from "viili" on the adhesion of probiotics and pathogens to intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas-Madiedo, P; Gueimonde, M; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G; Salminen, S

    2006-07-01

    The strong ropy character of the Scandinavian fermented milk viili is conferred by the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactococcal strains. These biopolymers can be responsible for some health benefits. We have assessed the influence of the EPS fraction isolated from commercial viili on the adhesion of some probiotics and pathogens to human intestinal mucus. Concentrations of viili EPS greater than 0.1 mg/mL promoted a decrease in adherence of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and this effect was dose-dependent. However, no modifications were detected on the adhesion levels of the pathogenic strains tested at a concentration of 1 mg/mL of EPS. Results obtained in the present work should be considered in the design of new probiotic products.

  4. Prediction of anticancer peptides against MCF-7 breast cancer cells from the peptidomes of Achatina fulica mucus fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerasak E-kobon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have shown antimicrobial and anticancer activities of mucous glycoproteins extracted from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Anticancer properties of the snail mucous peptides remain incompletely revealed. The aim of this study was to predict anticancer peptides from A. fulica mucus. Two of HPLC-separated mucous fractions (F2 and F5 showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and normal epithelium cell line (Vero. According to the mass spectrometric analysis, 404 and 424 peptides from the F2 and F5 fractions were identified. Our comprehensive bioinformatics workflow predicted 16 putative cationic and amphipathic anticancer peptides with diverse structures from these two peptidome data. These peptides would be promising molecules for new anti-breast cancer drug development.

  5. Prediction of anticancer peptides against MCF-7 breast cancer cells from the peptidomes of Achatina fulica mucus fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E-Kobon, Teerasak; Thongararm, Pennapa; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Meesuk, Ladda; Chumnanpuen, Pramote

    2016-01-01

    Several reports have shown antimicrobial and anticancer activities of mucous glycoproteins extracted from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Anticancer properties of the snail mucous peptides remain incompletely revealed. The aim of this study was to predict anticancer peptides from A. fulica mucus. Two of HPLC-separated mucous fractions (F2 and F5) showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal epithelium cell line (Vero). According to the mass spectrometric analysis, 404 and 424 peptides from the F2 and F5 fractions were identified. Our comprehensive bioinformatics workflow predicted 16 putative cationic and amphipathic anticancer peptides with diverse structures from these two peptidome data. These peptides would be promising molecules for new anti-breast cancer drug development.

  6. Vicks VapoRub induces mucin secretion, decreases ciliary beat frequency, and increases tracheal mucus transport in the ferret trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanses, Juan Carlos; Arima, Shinobu; Rubin, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) [Proctor and Gamble; Cincinnati, OH] is often used to relieve symptoms of chest congestion. We cared for a toddler in whom severe respiratory distress developed after VVR was applied directly under her nose. We hypothesized that VVR induced inflammation and adversely affected mucociliary function, and tested this hypothesis in an animal model of airway inflammation. [1] Trachea specimens excised from 15 healthy ferrets were incubated in culture plates lined with 200 mg of VVR, and the mucin secretion was compared to those from controls without VVR. Tracheal mucociliary transport velocity (MCTV) was measured by timing the movement of 4 microL of mucus across the trachea. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using video microscopy. [2] Anesthetized and intubated ferrets inhaled a placebo or VVR that was placed at the proximal end of the endotracheal tube. We evaluated both healthy ferrets and animals in which we first induced tracheal inflammation with bacterial endotoxin (a lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Mucin secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay, and lung water was measured by wet/dry weight ratios. [1] Mucin secretion was increased by 63% over the controls in the VVR in vitro group (p < 0.01). CBF was decreased by 35% (p < 0.05) in the VVR group. [2] Neither LPS nor VVR increased lung water, but LPS decreased MCTV in both normal airways (31%) and VVR-exposed airways (30%; p = 0.03), and VVR increased MCTV by 34% in LPS-inflamed airways (p = 0.002). VVR stimulates mucin secretion and MCTV in the LPS-inflamed ferret airway. This set of findings is similar to the acute inflammatory stimulation observed with exposure to irritants, and may lead to mucus obstruction of small airways and increased nasal resistance.

  7. Arabinoxylans, inulin and Lactobacillus reuteri 1063 repress the adherent-invasive Escherichia coli from mucus in a mucosa-comprising gut model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Marzorati, Massimo; Derde, Melanie; De Weirdt, Rosemarie; Joan, Vermeiren; Possemiers, Sam; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota that colonises the intestinal mucus may particularly affect human health given its proximity to the epithelium. For instance, the presence of the adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) in this mucosal microbiota has been correlated with Crohn's disease. Using short-term screening assays and a novel long-term dynamic gut model, which comprises a simulated mucosal environment (M-SHIME), we investigated how (potential) pro- and prebiotics may repress colonisation of AIEC from mucus. Despite that during the short-term screening assays, some of the investigated Lactobacillus strains adhered strongly to mucins, none of them competed with AIEC for mucin-adhesion. In contrast, AIEC survival and growth during co-culture batch incubations was decreased by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and L. reuteri 1063, which correlated with (undissociated) lactic acid and reuterin levels. Regarding the prebiotics, long-chain arabinoxylans (LC-AX) lowered the initial mucin-adhesion of AIEC, while both inulin (IN) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) limited AIEC survival and growth during batch incubations. L. reuteri 1063, LC-AX and IN were thus retained for a long-term study with the M-SHIME. All treatments repressed AIEC from mucus without affecting AIEC numbers in the luminal content. As a possible explanation, L. reuteri 1063 treatment increased lactobacilli levels in mucus, while LC-AX and IN additionally increased mucosal bifidobacteria levels, thus leading to antimicrobial effects against AIEC in mucus. Overall, this study shows that pro- and prebiotics can beneficially modulate the in vitro mucosal microbiota, thus limiting occurrence of opportunistic pathogens among those mucosal microbes which may directly interact with the host given their proximity to the epithelium.

  8. De novo assembly of mud loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus skin transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity and epidermal mucus secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long

    Full Text Available Fish skin serves as the first line of defense against a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological stressors. Secretion of mucus is among the most prominent characteristics of fish skin and numerous innate immune factors have been identified in the epidermal mucus. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the mucus secretion and immune activities of fish skin remain largely unclear due to the lack of genomic and transcriptomic data for most economically important fish species. In this study, we characterized the skin transcriptome of mud loach using Illumia paired-end sequencing. A total of 40364 unigenes were assembled from 86.6 million (3.07 gigabases filtered reads. The mean length, N50 size and maximum length of assembled transcripts were 387, 611 and 8670 bp, respectively. A total of 17336 (43.76% unigenes were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology mapping assigned a total of 108513 GO terms to 15369 (38.08% unigenes. KEGG orthology mapping annotated 9337 (23.23% unigenes. Among the identified KO categories, immune system is the largest category that contains various components of multiple immune pathways such as chemokine signaling, leukocyte transendothelial migration and T cell receptor signaling, suggesting the complexity of immune mechanisms in fish skin. As for mucin biosynthesis, 37 unigenes were mapped to 7 enzymes of the mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis pathway and 8 members of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase family were identified. Additionally, 38 unigenes were mapped to 23 factors of the SNARE interactions in vesicular transport pathway, indicating that the activity of this pathway is required for the processes of epidermal mucus storage and release. Moreover, 1754 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected in 1564 unigenes and dinucleotide repeats represented the most abundant type. These findings have laid the foundation for further understanding

  9. De novo assembly of mud loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity and epidermal mucus secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yong; Li, Qing; Zhou, Bolan; Song, Guili; Li, Tao; Cui, Zongbin

    2013-01-01

    Fish skin serves as the first line of defense against a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological stressors. Secretion of mucus is among the most prominent characteristics of fish skin and numerous innate immune factors have been identified in the epidermal mucus. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the mucus secretion and immune activities of fish skin remain largely unclear due to the lack of genomic and transcriptomic data for most economically important fish species. In this study, we characterized the skin transcriptome of mud loach using Illumia paired-end sequencing. A total of 40364 unigenes were assembled from 86.6 million (3.07 gigabases) filtered reads. The mean length, N50 size and maximum length of assembled transcripts were 387, 611 and 8670 bp, respectively. A total of 17336 (43.76%) unigenes were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology mapping assigned a total of 108513 GO terms to 15369 (38.08%) unigenes. KEGG orthology mapping annotated 9337 (23.23%) unigenes. Among the identified KO categories, immune system is the largest category that contains various components of multiple immune pathways such as chemokine signaling, leukocyte transendothelial migration and T cell receptor signaling, suggesting the complexity of immune mechanisms in fish skin. As for mucin biosynthesis, 37 unigenes were mapped to 7 enzymes of the mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis pathway and 8 members of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase family were identified. Additionally, 38 unigenes were mapped to 23 factors of the SNARE interactions in vesicular transport pathway, indicating that the activity of this pathway is required for the processes of epidermal mucus storage and release. Moreover, 1754 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in 1564 unigenes and dinucleotide repeats represented the most abundant type. These findings have laid the foundation for further understanding the secretary

  10. Effects of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures on rheology of gum tragacanth - possible application for surfactant action on mucus gel simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R; Puniyani, R R

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of specialised biomaterials consisting of clove oil- phospholipid mixtures as possible substitute surfactants in diseases of altered mucus viscosity by studying their effect on the viscosity of mucus gel simulants in vitro. Test surfactants consisting of phospholipid-clove oil mixtures in the ratio of 1 part of oil to 9 parts of phospholipid were prepared. The phospholipids used were dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and binary mixtures of PC: PE and PC: PG in the ratio of 2 parts of PC to 3 parts of PE or PG. The effects of the phospholipid-clove oil mixtures on the viscosity of mucus gel simulant (MGS: a polymeric gel consisting predominantly of gum tragacanth and simulating respiratory mucus), was studied by application of steady shear rates ranging from 0.512 to 51.2/s in a concentric cylinder viscometer at 37 degrees C. The change in MGS viscosity, after incubation with surfactants, was found to have a non-Newtonian character and to follow the power law model with R2 values >0.8. The addition of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity when compared with the effect of the phospholipid alone at low shear rates in case of PC, PG and PCPG. The combination of PC : PG with clove oil caused ratios of change in MGS viscosity < 1 i.e., caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity. PC: PG with clove oil was capable of lowering MGS viscosity and should be further researched as possible therapies for diseases of altered mucus rheology.

  11. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  12. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  13. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  14. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  15. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  16. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  17. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  18. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  19. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  20. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  1. Estimation of the potential fertility based upon non-return rates of bulls: using polyacrylamide gel instead of cervical mucus in the sperm penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, M; Bacinoglu, S; Cirit, U; Ozgümüş, S; Kaşgöz, H; Pabuccuoğlu, S

    2007-10-15

    In the present study, we aimed to develop a polyacrylamide gel that could be used instead of bovine cervical mucus in the cervical mucus penetration test (CMPT) to obtain coherent and replicable results in bulls. The frozen semen samples of six Holstein bulls, which were divided into two fertility groups as low and high according to their non-return rate (NRR), were used. In this study, the modified CMPT (mCMPT) was carried out within 0.25 mL transparent plastic straws with an inner diameter 1.7 mm. The penetration ability of spermatozoa to bovine cervical mucus and to polyacrylamide gels swollen with two different solutions [NaCl (G1) and PBS (G2)] was compared. For the penetration test, the straws filled with cervical mucus and both gels were dipped into thawed semen samples and incubated at 37 degrees C for 15 min. After the incubation, straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour and stored at -20 degrees C. On the evaluation day, the frozen straws were cut at 1.5-1.75 cm (penetration distance range=PDR1), 3.25-3.5 cm (PDR2) and 5.0-5.25 cm (PDR3), beginning from open-end of the straws. The separated frozen parts were then immediately transferred onto special counting slides by pushing with a mandrel and left to thaw. Thawed samples were covered with cover glass and penetrated spermatozoa in these parts were counted. The relation between the results and fertility of bulls was determined. In the tests performed using mucus, the number of spermatozoa determined in the high fertility group was found to be higher at PDR3 (p<0.0001) compared to the low fertility group, while in G1 spermatozoa number was significantly higher at PDR1 and PDR3 (p<0.0001). However, in G2 medium, no significant difference was observed between either of the fertility groups with respect to spermatozoa number determined at all distance ranges. In the study, we have determined that the gel swollen with NaCl produces better results and this gel can be used instead of bovine cervical mucus

  2. Gastrointestinal cell lines form polarized epithelia with an adherent mucus layer when cultured in semi-wet interfaces with mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabi, Nazanin; McGuckin, Michael A; Lindén, Sara K

    2013-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large quantities by mucosal epithelia and cell surface mucins are a prominent feature of the glycocalyx of all mucosal epithelia. Currently, studies investigating the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier use either animal experiments or non-in vivo like cell cultures. Many pathogens cause different pathology in mice compared to humans and the in vitro cell cultures used are suboptimal because they are very different from an in vivo mucosal surface, are often not polarized, lack important components of the glycocalyx, and often lack the mucus layer. Although gastrointestinal cell lines exist that produce mucins or polarize, human cell line models that reproducibly create the combination of a polarized epithelial cell layer, functional tight junctions and an adherent mucus layer have been missing until now. We trialed a range of treatments to induce polarization, 3D-organization, tight junctions, mucin production, mucus secretion, and formation of an adherent mucus layer that can be carried out using standard equipment. These treatments were tested on cell lines of intestinal (Caco-2, LS513, HT29, T84, LS174T, HT29 MTX-P8 and HT29 MTX-E12) and gastric (MKN7, MKN45, AGS, NCI-N87 and its hTERT Clone5 and Clone6) origins using Ussing chamber methodology and (immuno)histology. Semi-wet interface culture in combination with mechanical stimulation and DAPT caused HT29 MTX-P8, HT29 MTX-E12 and LS513 cells to polarize, form functional tight junctions, a three-dimensional architecture resembling colonic crypts, and produce an adherent mucus layer. Caco-2 and T84 cells also polarized, formed functional tight junctions and produced a thin adherent mucus layer after this treatment, but with less consistency. In conclusion, culture methods affect cell lines differently, and testing a matrix of methods vs. cell lines may be important to develop better in vitro models. The methods developed herein create in vitro mucosal surfaces suitable for studies

  3. Gastrointestinal cell lines form polarized epithelia with an adherent mucus layer when cultured in semi-wet interfaces with mechanical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Navabi

    Full Text Available Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large quantities by mucosal epithelia and cell surface mucins are a prominent feature of the glycocalyx of all mucosal epithelia. Currently, studies investigating the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier use either animal experiments or non-in vivo like cell cultures. Many pathogens cause different pathology in mice compared to humans and the in vitro cell cultures used are suboptimal because they are very different from an in vivo mucosal surface, are often not polarized, lack important components of the glycocalyx, and often lack the mucus layer. Although gastrointestinal cell lines exist that produce mucins or polarize, human cell line models that reproducibly create the combination of a polarized epithelial cell layer, functional tight junctions and an adherent mucus layer have been missing until now. We trialed a range of treatments to induce polarization, 3D-organization, tight junctions, mucin production, mucus secretion, and formation of an adherent mucus layer that can be carried out using standard equipment. These treatments were tested on cell lines of intestinal (Caco-2, LS513, HT29, T84, LS174T, HT29 MTX-P8 and HT29 MTX-E12 and gastric (MKN7, MKN45, AGS, NCI-N87 and its hTERT Clone5 and Clone6 origins using Ussing chamber methodology and (immunohistology. Semi-wet interface culture in combination with mechanical stimulation and DAPT caused HT29 MTX-P8, HT29 MTX-E12 and LS513 cells to polarize, form functional tight junctions, a three-dimensional architecture resembling colonic crypts, and produce an adherent mucus layer. Caco-2 and T84 cells also polarized, formed functional tight junctions and produced a thin adherent mucus layer after this treatment, but with less consistency. In conclusion, culture methods affect cell lines differently, and testing a matrix of methods vs. cell lines may be important to develop better in vitro models. The methods developed herein create in vitro mucosal surfaces

  4. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  5. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  6. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  7. Tuning magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  8. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  9. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  10. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  11. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  12. Experimental investigations on the influence of the contrast medium Iopamiro 300 mixed with vegetal mucus on the nasolacrimal system and external eye tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubaj, B.; Koper, S.; Wolski, T.; Toczowski, J.; Wolski, J.; Langwinska-Wosko, E.

    1994-01-01

    Using low osmolality, nonionized contrast medium Iopamiro-300, Bracco mixed with the mucus prepared from the seed flax (''Linum usitatissimum, L.''), a dacryocistorhinography was performed experimentally on 8 healthy mongrel dogs. Assessing the occurrence of local and general complications was the aim of the investigation. On the basis of a radiographic examination it has been shown that the mixture of the contrast medium and seed flax mucus appeared to be a very useful compound for dacryocistorhinography, especially for the evaluation of nasolacrimal duct system course and its patency. Clinical observations and a histological examination proved that this compound of the contrast medium was well tolerated by the mucous membrane of the nasolacrimal system and the external eye tissues. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs

  13. A mucus adhesion promoting protein, MapA, mediates the adhesion of Lactobacillus reuteri to Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Uchimura, Tai; Satoh, Eiichi

    2006-07-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is one of the dominant lactobacilli found in the gastrointestinal tract of various animals. A surface protein of L. reuteri 104R, mucus adhesion promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor of this strain. We investigated the relation between MapA and adhesion of L. reuteri to human intestinal (Caco-2) cells. Quantitative analysis of the adhesion of L. reuteri strains to Caco-2 cells showed that various L. reuteri strains bind not only to mucus but also to intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, purified MapA bound to Caco-2 cells, and this binding inhibited the adhesion of L. reuteri in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on these observations, the adhesion of L. reuteri appears due to the binding of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. Further, far-western analysis indicated the existence of multiple receptor-like molecules in Caco-2 cells.

  14. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarin Keihani Doust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood masturbation (CM is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. Methods: A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation of seizure or movement disorders were studied between 2008 and 2011. Totally, 359 children were found to have masturbatory behaviors (Group A and the rest (264 were assigned to Group B. CM was diagnosed by direct observation. Collected data comprised demographic characteristics, clinical and neurodevelopmental examinations, laboratory findings (particularly urine analysis, and electrocardiography. Results: The age of the children with CM was below 12 years old, and the girl-to-boy ratio was 7:1. Mucus in urine was positive in 357 (99.44% children in Group A and 22 (8.3% in Group B (P<0.001. A significant correlation was found between the presence of mucus in urine and masturbatory behaviors (P<0.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of mucus in urine can be used as an alternative laboratory test in children with CM below 12 years old and even in infants (≤24 months old. Further studies are needed to confirm the results.

  15. Pleural Effusion or Main Left Bronchus Mucus Obstruction: To Drain or Not to Drain? Decision-Making for Young Surgeon on Call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Coco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucous plugs occur in a number of pulmonary conditions. Central right or left bronchus mucus plug causes complete pulmonary collapse making it an emergency life-threatening case. We describe the case of an 80-year-old man that, in postoperative period after a urological intervention, has had a progressive tachypnea and dyspnea during hospitalization for urological problems. Young surgeon on call was called.

  16. Detection and Specific Enumeration of Multi-Strain Probiotics in the Lumen Contents and Mucus Layers of the Rat Intestine After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Ji; Orlovich, David A; Tagg, John R; Fawcett, J Paul

    2009-12-01

    Although the detection of viable probiotic bacteria following their ingestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been well documented, their mucosal attachment in vivo is more difficult to assess. In this study, we investigated the survival and mucosal attachment of multi-strain probiotics transiting the rat GIT. Rats were administered a commercial mixture of the intestinal probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus LA742, Lactobacillus rhamnosus L2H and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 every 12 h for 3 days. Intestinal contents, mucus and faeces were tested 6 h, 3 days and 7 days after the last dose by strain-specific enumeration on selective media and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. At 6 h, viable cells and DNA corresponding to all four probiotics were detected in the faeces and in both the lumen contents and mucus layers of the ileum and colon. Viable probiotic cells of B. lactis and L. rhamnosus were detected for 7 days and L. acidophilus for 3 days after the last dose. B. lactis and L. rhamnosus persisted in the ileal mucus and colon contents, whereas the retention of L. acidophilus appeared to be relatively higher in colonic mucus. No viable cells of S. salivarius K12 were detected in any of the samples at either day 3 or 7. The study demonstrates that probiotic strains of intestinal origin but not of oral origin exhibit temporary colonisation of the rat GIT and that these strains may have differing relative affinities for colonic and ileal mucosa.

  17. Oxygen With Cold Bubble Humidification Is No Better Than Dry Oxygen in Preventing Mucus Dehydration, Decreased Mucociliary Clearance, and Decline in Pulmonary Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Michelle Lisidati; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Carreirão-Neto, Waldir; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Rubin, Bruce K; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of long-term nasal low-flow oxygen (NLFO) on mucus and symptoms and how this variable is affected by dry or cold humidified gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dry-NLFO and cold bubble humidified-NLFO on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucus properties, inflammation, and symptoms in subjects with chronic hypoxemia requiring long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy. Eighteen subjects (mean age, 68 years; 7 male; 66% with COPD) initiating NLFO were randomized to receive dry-NLFO (n = 10) or humidified-NLFO (n = 8). Subjects were assessed at baseline, 12 h, 7 days, 30 days, 12 months, and 24 months by measuring nasal MCC using the saccharin transit test, mucus contact angle (surface tension), inflammation (cells and cytokine concentration in nasal lavage), and symptoms according to the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. Nasal MCC decreased significantly (40% longer saccharin transit times) and similarly in both groups over the study period. There was a significant association between impaired nasal MCC and decline in lung function. Nasal lavage revealed an increased proportion of macrophages, interleukin-8, and epidermal growth factor concentrations with decreased interleukin-10 during the study. No changes in the proportion of ciliated cells or contact angle were observed. Coughing and sleep symptoms decreased similarly in both groups. There were no outcome differences comparing dry vs cold bubble humidified NLFO. In subjects receiving chronic NLFO, cold bubble humidification does not adequately humidify inspired oxygen to prevent deterioration of MCC, mucus hydration, and pulmonary function. The unheated bubble humidification performed no better than no humidification. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02515786; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Supply of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Any large-scale atomic energy programme is inherently dependent on the availability of materials that can be used as fuel in reactors, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, at its inception, was intended to act as a bank for the flow of materials between Member States. According to its Statute, one of its primary functions is to provide materials 'to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including the production of electric power, with due consideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. If the Agency is to fulfil its Statutory function, it would be essential for it to have not only some ready sources of supply, but also an established framework of general terms and conditions on which it could secure the supplies. The latter would eliminate the need for going through elaborate procedural formalities whenever the Agency receives a new request for materials. Such a framework has now been established with the signing of broad agreements with three countries which had offered to supply various quantities of special fissionable materials to the Agency. These agreements, signed in Vienna on 11 May 1959, with the USSR, the UK and the USA, lay down the basic terms and conditions on which these three countries will make nuclear materials available when needed by the Agency. The USSR has agreed to make available to the Agency 50 kg of uranium-235, the UK 20 kg and the USA 5 000 kg. The material will be supplied in the form of enriched uranium in any concentration up to 20 per cent; the amounts mentioned relate to the 235-isotope content of the materials. The UK and the USA have agreed that the parties to a particular supply agreement may decide on higher enrichment of uranium to be used for research reactors, material testing reactors or for other research purposes. The USA has also agreed to make available to the Agency such additional supplies as would match in amount

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  2. Analysis of coral mucus as an improved medium for detection of enteric microbes and for determining patterns of sewage contamination in reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Erin K.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional fecal indicator bacteria are often subject to a high degree of die-off and dilution in tropical marine waters, particularly in offshore areas such as coral reefs. Furthermore, these microbes are often not associated with human waste, and their presence may not be indicative of health risk. To address the offshore extent of wastewater contamination in the Florida Keys reef tract, we assayed coral surfaces for the presence of human-specific enteric viruses. The overlying water column and surface mucopolysaccharide (mucus) layers from scleractinian corals were sampled from three stations along a nearshore-to-offshore transect beginning at Long Key in the middle Florida Keys, USA. Samples were assayed for standard bacterial water quality indicators (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci) and for human enteroviruses by direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The concentration of the bacterial indicators was greatest at the nearshore station in both the water column and corals, and decreased with distance from shore; no indicator bacteria were detected at the offshore station. Whereas human enteroviruses were not detected in any of the water column samples, they were detected in 50–80% of coral mucus samples at each station. These data provide evidence that human sewage is impacting the reef tract up to ~6.5 km from shore in the middle Florida Keys and that coral mucus is an efficient trap for viral markers associated with anthropogenic pollution.

  3. Assessment of litter prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in preweaned piglets utilizing an antemortem tracheobronchial mucus collection technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Karriker, Locke; Main, Rodger; Christianson, Eric; Marsteller, Thomas; Hammen, Kristin; Bates, Jessica; Thomas, Paul; Ellingson, Josh; Harmon, Karen; Abate, Sarah; Crawford, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    The swine industry currently lacks validated antemortem methods of detecting baseline herd prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The focus of our study was to evaluate alternative antemortem detection techniques and to determine baseline litter prevalence in preweaned pig populations utilizing the selected technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Preliminary data was analyzed on weaned piglets with evidence of respiratory disease (n = 32). Five sample types (antemortem nasal swab, tracheobronchial mucus, postmortem deep airway swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue) were collected from each pig. Individual samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae using qPCR. Compared to nasal swabs, tracheobronchial mucus demonstrated higher test sensitivity (P hyopneumoniae. Two out of 180 litters revealed a positive result (1.1%). Individual qPCR assays were run on the samples collected from sow farm 4. Five out of 30 samples revealed a positive result (16.7%). Tracheobronchial mucus collection in combination with qPCR is a sensitive antemortem sampling technique that can be used to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in preweaned pigs, thus providing insight into the infection dynamics across the entire farrow-to-finish process. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Enhanced Trapping of HIV-1 by Human Cervicovaginal Mucus Is Associated with Lactobacillus crispatus-Dominant Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Kenetta L.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Harit, Dimple; Humphrys, Michael S.; Ma, Bing; Cone, Richard; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) can provide a barrier that precludes HIV and other sexually transmitted virions from reaching target cells in the vaginal epithelium, thereby preventing or reducing infections. However, the barrier properties of CVM differ from woman to woman, and the causes of these variations are not yet well understood. Using high-resolution particle tracking of fluorescent HIV-1 pseudoviruses, we found that neither pH nor Nugent scores nor total lactic acid levels correlated significantly with virus trapping in unmodified CVM from diverse donors. Surprisingly, HIV-1 was generally trapped in CVM with relatively high concentrations of d-lactic acid and a Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant microbiota. In contrast, a substantial fraction of HIV-1 virions diffused rapidly through CVM with low concentrations of d-lactic acid that had a Lactobacillus iners-dominant microbiota or significant amounts of Gardnerella vaginalis, a bacterium associated with bacterial vaginosis. Our results demonstrate that the vaginal microbiota, including specific species of Lactobacillus, can alter the diffusional barrier properties of CVM against HIV and likely other sexually transmitted viruses and that these microbiota-associated changes may account in part for the elevated risks of HIV acquisition linked to bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal microbiota. PMID:26443453

  5. Retrospective analysis of serum and nasal mucus from cattle in Northern Ireland for evidence of infection with influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D A; Calvert, V; McLaren, E

    2002-02-16

    Eighty-four pairs of acute and convalescent serum samples collected in 1998 and 1999 from 17 outbreaks of respiratory disease, milk drop syndrome or diarrhoea in cattle were tested by haemagglutination inhibition against human influenza viruses A/Eng/333/80 (HIN1) and A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2). Antibodies to these viruses were present in the convalescent sera of 56.5 per cent and 58.8 per cent cattle tested, respectively, with 56 per cent of the animals seroconverting to one or both viruses. Titres were typically higher to A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2). Further testing of a subset of 21 of these serum pairs against the predominant H1N1 and H3N2 human and porcine strains circulating when the samples were collected revealed that the highest reactivity, in terms of both the magnitude of the recorded titres and the number of positive sera, was to human H3N2 strains. The titres to human H1N1 strains and to both porcine subtypes were low or absent. Attempts to isolate influenza A virus from nasal mucus or swab samples from 142 cattle from 46 cases of respiratory disease and/or milk drop syndrome by passage in embryonated specific pathogen-free eggs were unsuccessful.

  6. Identification and biological activity of potential probiotic bacterium isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kiňová Sepov��

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid bacterium E isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb was identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA fragment and species-specific PCR as Lactobacillus reuteri. Its potential antimicrobial activity and ability to modulate immune system in vitro and in vivo was determined. The growth inhibition of potential pathogens decreased from Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Minnesota to Escherichia coli. The lowest inhibition activity was observed in the case of Candida albicans. The ability of L. reuteri E to modulate biological activities of human and mouse mononuclear cells was estimated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The production of IL-1β by monocytes in vitro was significantly induced by L. reuteri E (relative activity 2.47. The ability to modulate biological activities of mononuclear cells by living L. reuteri E cells in vitro in comparison to disintegrated L. reuteri E cells in vivo differed. For example lysozyme activity in vitro was inhibited while in vivo was stimulated (relative activities 0.30 and 1.83, respectively. The peroxidase activity in vitro was stimulated while in vivo was inhibited (relative activities 1.53 and 0.17, respectively. Obtained results indicate that L. reuteri E is potential candidate to be used in probiotic preparations for animals and/or human.

  7. A unique epidermal mucus lectin identified from catfish (Silurus asotus): first evidence of intelectin in fish skin slime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Komatsu, Yukie; Sugiura, Takaya; Araki, Kyosuke; Nakamura, Osamu

    2011-11-01

    The present study reports a new type of skin mucus lectin found in catfish Silurus asotus. The lectin exhibited calcium-dependent mannose-binding activity. When mannose eluate from chromatography with mannose-conjugated agarose was analysed by SDS-PAGE, the lectin appeared as a single 35-kDa band. Gel filtration showed that the lectin forms monomers and dimers. A 1216-bp cDNA sequence obtained by RACE-PCR from the skin encoded a 308 amino acid secretory protein with homology to mammalian and fish intelectins. RT-PCR demonstrated that the lectin gene was expressed in the gill, kidney and skin. Subsequent sequencing revealed the presence of an isoform in the gills. Antiserum detected the intelectin protein in club cells in the skin and gill, renal tubules and blood plasma. Although intelectin gene expression was not induced by in vivo bacterial stimulation, the intelectin showed agglutination activity against the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, suggesting that the lectin plays an important role in self-defence against bacteria in the skin surface of the catfish. These findings represent one of the few examples of characterization and functional analysis of a fish intelectin protein.

  8. Relationships among the cervical mucus urea and acetone, accuracy of insemination timing, and sperm survival in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, J; Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Okrouhlá, M; Doležalová, M; Kadlecová, V; Ptáček, M

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships among urea and acetone content in cows' cervical mucus (CM), its crystallization type (CT) and sperm survival (SS) after timed AI. Samples of CM were collected from 192 Holstein cows treated by Ovsynch(®) protocol. Analysis of the urea and acetone content for identification of the metabolic status, the arborization test for evaluation of insemination timing and the short-term heat test of SS for assessment of its suitability as a biological matrix were performed. The data set was analyzed by the GLM procedure using SAS(®). The results documented the existence of substantial differences in individual response to the Ovsynch(®) protocol causing insemination of 55.2% cows at an inappropriate time. The urea content was found as a possible indicator of a cow's metabolism and/or of insemination timing, concentrations of less than 500 mg/L corresponded (Pacetone content on SS were determined. The greatest values of SS were detected in cows with an expected response to precisely timed oestrus documented by the corresponding CT. Greater values of urea (>260 mg/L) and acetone (>5mg/L) negatively affected SS as well (P<0.05-0.01). The results confirmed that the accuracy of insemination timing can be affected by the metabolism intensity, just as CM quality directly influences sperm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Specific degradation of the mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA) of Lactobacillus reuteri to an antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhle, Liv Anette; Brede, Dag Anders; Diep, Dzung B; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F

    2010-11-01

    The intestinal flora of mammals contains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that may provide positive health effects for the host. Such bacteria are referred to as probiotic bacteria. From a pig, we have isolated a Lactobacillus reuteri strain that produces an antimicrobial peptide (AMP). The peptide was purified and characterized, and it was unequivocally shown that the AMP was a well-defined degradation product obtained from the mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA); it was therefore termed AP48-MapA. This finding demonstrates how large proteins might inherit unexpected pleiotropic functions by conferring antimicrobial capacities on the producer. The MapA/AP48-MapA system is the first example where a large protein of an intestinal LAB is shown to give rise to such an AMP. It is also of particular interest that the protein that provides this AMP is associated with the binding of the bacterium producing it to the surface/lining of the gut. This finding gives us new perspective on how some probiotic bacteria may successfully compete in this environment and thereby contribute to a healthy microbiota.

  10. Specific Degradation of the Mucus Adhesion-Promoting Protein (MapA) of Lactobacillus reuteri to an Antimicrobial Peptide ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhle, Liv Anette; Brede, Dag Anders; Diep, Dzung B.; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal flora of mammals contains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that may provide positive health effects for the host. Such bacteria are referred to as probiotic bacteria. From a pig, we have isolated a Lactobacillus reuteri strain that produces an antimicrobial peptide (AMP). The peptide was purified and characterized, and it was unequivocally shown that the AMP was a well-defined degradation product obtained from the mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA); it was therefore termed AP48-MapA. This finding demonstrates how large proteins might inherit unexpected pleiotropic functions by conferring antimicrobial capacities on the producer. The MapA/AP48-MapA system is the first example where a large protein of an intestinal LAB is shown to give rise to such an AMP. It is also of particular interest that the protein that provides this AMP is associated with the binding of the bacterium producing it to the surface/lining of the gut. This finding gives us new perspective on how some probiotic bacteria may successfully compete in this environment and thereby contribute to a healthy microbiota. PMID:20833791

  11. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  13. Intelligent power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  14. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  15. Fuel supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    Stable fuel supply is a prerequisite for any nuclear power program including ISER-PIUS. It encompasses procurement of uranium ore, enriched uranium and fuel elements. Uranium is different from oil in that it can be stockpiled for more than a decade besides the fact that the core residence time is as long as six years, for example in the case of ISER-PIUS. These basic fuel characteristics are favoring nuclear fuel over others in terms of supply security. The central concern will be a gradual increase in prices of uranium and enrichment. Under the present glut situation with the worldwide prevalence of LWRs, fuel supply security seems ensured for the time being till the middle of 21st century. It is estimated that by the turn of the century, the free world will have roughly 450 GWe capacity of nuclear power. If 10 % is supplied for ISER-PIUS, more than 200 modules of 200 MWe ISER-PIUS may be deployed all over the world probably starting around 2000. As part of the fuel supply security consideration, heavy water reactor (HWR) may seem interesting to such a country as Indonesia where there is uranium resources but no enrichment capability. But it needs heavy water instead and the operation is not so easy as of LWR, because of the positive void coefficient as was seen at the Chernobyl-4. Safeguarding of the fuel is also difficult, because it lends itself to on line refueling. The current and future situation of the fuel supply security for LWR seem well founded and established long into the future. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  17. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  18. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger.......Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger....

  19. Power supply and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 'Power Supply and Ethics' workshop was designed on the basis of a recommendation by the Nuclear Technology Committee (FA-KT) of VDI-GET. The topic is part of a series of events and publications by VDI in an area where engineering and the humanities converge. The Workshop comprised presentations and thorough discussions of seven papers on 'Power Supply and Ethics', reflecting a variety of contents and points of view of the different disciplines participating. The Workshop offered another opportunity to take the initiative and influence the public, especially politics. Other activities are planned which also the participants increasingly consider an obligation to the public. (orig.) [de

  20. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  1. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  2. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  3. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  4. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  5. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  6. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  7. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  8. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  9. Ethics of Information Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  10. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...

  11. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  12. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  13. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  14. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  15. The design of supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature study Abstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, lead time and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design, identifies methods, theories and objectives in the existing literature. Describes the concept external specificity and how it’s used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream, archetypes of risk minimal and maximal desi...

  16. Colorectal mucus binds DC-SIGN and inhibits HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn J Stax

    Full Text Available Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and replication. CM from a number of individuals was collected and tested for the capacity to bind DC-SIGN and inhibit HIV-1 cis- or trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. To this end, a DC-SIGN binding ELISA, a gp140 trimer competition ELISA and HIV-1 capture/ transfer assays were utilized. Subsequently we aimed to identify the DC-SIGN binding component through biochemical characterization and mass spectrometry analysis. CM was shown to bind DC-SIGN and competes with HIV-1 gp140 trimer for binding. Pre-incubation of Raji-DC-SIGN cells or immature dendritic cells (iDCs with CM potently inhibits DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes with CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains, while no effect on direct infection is observed. Preliminary biochemical characterization demonstrates that the component seems to be large (>100kDa, heat and proteinase K resistant, binds in a α1-3 mannose independent manner and is highly variant between individuals. Immunoprecipitation using DC-SIGN-Fc coated agarose beads followed by mass spectrometry indicated lactoferrin (fragments and its receptor (intelectin-1 as candidates. Using ELISA we showed that lactoferrin levels within CM correlate with DC-SIGN binding capacity. In conclusion, CM can bind the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and block HIV-1 trans-infection of both CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains. Furthermore, our data indicate that lactoferrin is a DC-SIGN binding component of CM. These results indicate that CM has the potential to interfere with pathogen transmission and modulate immune responses at the colorectal mucosa.

  17. Profiling inflammatory biomarkers in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) postpartum: Potential early indicators of bovine clinical endometritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, Mounir; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Kaidi, Rachid; Meade, Kieran G; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2017-11-01

    Endometritis significantly impacts fertility and milk yield, thus reducing profitability of the dairy production. In cows that develop endometritis, normal postpartum endometrial inflammation is dysregulated. Here, we propose that endometrial inflammation is reflected in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) which could therefore be used as a prognostic tool. CVM was collected from 20 dairy cows (10 with clinical endometritis and 10 healthy) 7 and 21 days postpartum (DPP). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), mononuclear leukocyte and epithelial cells were counted, total protein levels were estimated and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C5b were analyzed by ELISA in CVM. PMN were consistently high in CVM from 7 to 21 DPP, but were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis 21 DPP compared with healthy cows. In contrast, there were more epithelial cells in healthy cows 21 DPP than in clinical endometritis animals. Total protein levels decreased significantly in CVM from healthy cows between days 7 and 21 postpartum. All inflammatory biomarkers except C5b, remained high in cows with clinical endometritis from 7 to 21 DPP, indicating sustained and chronic endometrial inflammation. IL1, IL-6, IL-8 and Hp levels were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis compared to healthy cows 21 DPP. Interestingly IL-1β levels were raised in CVM from clinical endometritis but not in healthy cows 7 DPP suggesting that early measurement of IL-1β levels might provide a useful predictive marker of clinical endometritis. In contrast, SAA and C5b levels were increased in healthy cows 21 DPP, compared to cows with clinical endometritis suggesting that these acute phase proteins might have an anti-inflammatory role. Our results show that CVM is convenient for profiling disease-associated changes in key inflammatory molecules postpartum and reaffirms that sustained inflammation is a key feature of clinical endometritis in the dairy cow. Copyright

  18. Colorectal mucus binds DC-SIGN and inhibits HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stax, Martijn J; Mouser, Emily E I M; van Montfort, Thijs; Sanders, Rogier W; de Vries, Henry J C; Dekker, Henk L; Herrera, Carolina; Speijer, Dave; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A

    2015-01-01

    Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM) also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and replication. CM from a number of individuals was collected and tested for the capacity to bind DC-SIGN and inhibit HIV-1 cis- or trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. To this end, a DC-SIGN binding ELISA, a gp140 trimer competition ELISA and HIV-1 capture/ transfer assays were utilized. Subsequently we aimed to identify the DC-SIGN binding component through biochemical characterization and mass spectrometry analysis. CM was shown to bind DC-SIGN and competes with HIV-1 gp140 trimer for binding. Pre-incubation of Raji-DC-SIGN cells or immature dendritic cells (iDCs) with CM potently inhibits DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes with CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains, while no effect on direct infection is observed. Preliminary biochemical characterization demonstrates that the component seems to be large (>100kDa), heat and proteinase K resistant, binds in a α1-3 mannose independent manner and is highly variant between individuals. Immunoprecipitation using DC-SIGN-Fc coated agarose beads followed by mass spectrometry indicated lactoferrin (fragments) and its receptor (intelectin-1) as candidates. Using ELISA we showed that lactoferrin levels within CM correlate with DC-SIGN binding capacity. In conclusion, CM can bind the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and block HIV-1 trans-infection of both CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains. Furthermore, our data indicate that lactoferrin is a DC-SIGN binding component of CM. These results indicate that CM has the potential to interfere with pathogen transmission and modulate immune responses at the colorectal mucosa.

  19. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  20. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  1. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  2. Electricity supply in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  3. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  4. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  5. Trends in uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  6. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  7. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  8. Switched mode power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The power supply comprises an oscillator arranged to drive the primary winding of a transformer. A nuclear impulse detector is arranged to discontinue drive to the primary winding in response to detection of a nuclear impulse. The detector comprises a monostable circuit which has its state changed for a predetermined time by photocurrents induced in response to gamma radiation. In this changed state the detector disables the oscillator. (author)

  9. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  10. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  11. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  12. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role,

  13. Dynamics of changes in trypsin-inhibiting activity (TIA) in cervical mucus blood and histomorphological structure of uterus in sheep following X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Tokos, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the reproductive organs of sheep was studied after a single local irradiation of ovaries with different X-ray doses. 22 sheep of the Slovak Merino breed, two years old, weighing an average of 30 kg, divided into four groups were irradiated as follows: group I n=6, 4.78 Gy (500 R), group II n=6, 9.67 Gy (1000 R), group III n=6, 19.14 Gy (2000 R). The sheep in the fourth (control) group were not irradiated but underwent laparotomy. Trypsin inhibition activity of the blood plasma and of the cervical mucus was determined from the decreased rate of hydrolysis of the low-molecular substrate (TAPA); the thickness of the epithelium of the cervix and body of the uterus was measured microscopically following fixation and colouring. The dynamics of TIA changes in the cervical mucus differed in the individual groups in the course of days 10, 30 and 100. The dynamics of changes in the thickness of the epithelium of the endometrium, the cervix and the uterus horns had a different character. On day 100 after irradiation the values differed only very little. The dynamics of TIA of the blood plasma (total and low-molecular fraction) differed between the groups and on day 100 of the experiment the values were significantly lower than on day 1. A comparison of the values in irradiated and control sheep showed that the values of TIA of the cervical mucus increased between days 10 and 30 while the values of low-molecular TIA of the plasma decreased. (author)

  14. Supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 prevents Decline of Mucus Barrier in Colon of Accelerated Aging Ercc1-/Δ7 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan A Van Beek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-wk bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20wk, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (<10µm mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum – but not with L. casei and B. breve – prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly.

  15. Acidic Conditions in the NHE2-/- Mouse Intestine Result in an Altered Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Population with Changes in Mucus Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Engevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically advantageous for diseases that involve an altered gut microbiota, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, obesity and diabetes. In human and mouse intestine, the apical Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 affect luminal Na+, water, and pH. Loss of NHE2 results in acidic luminal pH. Since acid resistance systems in gram-positive bacteria are well documented, we hypothesize that gram-positive bacteria would increase in representation in the acidic NHE2-/- intestine. Methods: Intestinal ion composition was measured by fame photometry and chloridometry and pH measured electrochemically. DNA extracted from intestinal flushes or from mucosal scrapings was analyzed by qRT-PCR to examine luminal and mucosa-associated bacterial populations. Epithelial mucus oligosaccharide patterns were examined by histology with FIT-C labeled lectins. Results: Although total luminal and mucosa-associated bacteria were unchanged in NHE2-/- intestine, gram-positive bacterial phyla were increased in the mucosa-associated bacterial population in a region-specific manner. The genera Clostridium and Lactobacillus were increased in the cecum and colon which corresponded to changes in NHE2-/- mucus oligosaccharide composition of mannose, N-acetyglucosamine, N-acetygalactosamine and galactose. Conclusions: Together these data indicate that changes in ion transport induce region-specific bacterial changes, which alter host mucus oligosaccharide patterns. These host-bacterial interactions provide a possible mechanism of niche-development and shed insight on how certain groups proliferate in changing environments and maintain their proliferation by altering the host.

  16. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  17. Relationships between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition, acetone and urea content in milk and cervical mucus and sperm survival

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Beran; Luděk Stádník; Jaromír Ducháček; Monika Okrouhlá

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between changes in Holstein cow’s body condition score (BCS), acetone and urea content in the milk and cervical mucus (CM) and sperm survival in CM. At insemination, samples of milk and CM were collected from 64 Holstein cows. Content of acetone and urea were determined. Sperm motility was assessed subjectively at the beginning and after 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the short-term heat test in CM. Data about evaluation of cow’s BCS we...

  18. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  19. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  20. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  1. Detox fashion supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This first volume on detox fashion discusses various interesting topics including a Toxic-Free Supply Chain for Textiles and Clothing; Environmental Issues in Textiles; Global Regulations, Restrictions & Research; Making the Change: Consumer Adoption of Sustainable Fashion; and Strategies for Detoxing Your Wardrobe. It provides an overview of the chemical-related issues confronting the fashion sector, summarizes global regulations, and discusses how to make the change by changing consumers’ attitude towards adopting sustainable fashion, as well as the best strategies for detoxing our wardrobes.

  2. EEC's: natural uramium supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The demand for nuclear fuel to supply the nuclear plants within the ECC (31,200 MW at the end of last year) totalled nearly 9,600 tons of natural uranium and 4,900 of separation work units (SWU). Once reactors currently under construction come into service, the demand for natural uranium will reach 13,200 tons by 1985 and that for SWUs to 8,600. If one takes the years 1981 to 1985, total natural uranium needs during this period will be 56,300 tons and those for SWUs 35.100 [fr

  3. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  4. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  5. Nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    When the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up nearly three years ago, it was widely believed that it would soon become a world bank or broker for the supply of nuclear fuel. Some observers now seem to feel that this promise has been rather slow to come to fruition. A little closer analysis would, however, show that the promise can be fulfilled only in a certain objective context, and to the extent that this context exists, the development of the Agency's role has been commensurate with the actual needs of the situation

  6. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  7. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  8. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  9. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung...... von Nicht-Kernprozessen auf vorgelagerte Stufen der Supply Chain oder auf Supply-Chain-Dienstleister sowie die Internationalisierung der Beschaffung. Dieser Paradigmenwechsel hat traditionelles Denken in den Schranken des Systems „Unternehmen“ abgelöst und zum Supply- Chain-Denken geführt, das vor......- und nachgelagerte Stufen des Systems „End-to-End-Supply-Chain“ einbezieht, etwa auch die Lieferanten von Lieferanten....

  10. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  11. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    it is a structural premise. We also know that logistics costs generally are estimated 15-20% of total product costs. Accordingly, it stands to reason that a company can reduce costs, and thereby gain an edge on its competitors, by tailoring the supply chain in question to an individual product or product family; i.......e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...... and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  12. Evaluating manta ray mucus as an alternative DNA source for population genetics study: underwater-sampling, dry-storage and PCR success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Elisabeth A.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Christensen, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing. PMID:26413431

  13. Evaluating manta ray mucus as an alternative DNA source for population genetics study: underwater-sampling, dry-storage and PCR success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kashiwagi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing.

  14. First evidence of the pore-forming properties of a keratin from skin mucus of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, formerly Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Virginie; Campagna, Sylvie; Bessin, Yannick; Ebran, Nathalie; Saint, Nathalie; Molle, Gérard

    2008-04-01

    The epidermis of fish is covered with a layer of mucus, which contributes to the defence of the species against parasites, bacteria and fungi. We have previously extracted glycoproteins from various mucus samples from fish and have shown that they present pore-forming activities well correlated with strong antibacterial properties [Ebran, Julien, Orange, Saglio, Lemaitre and Molle(2000) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1467, 271-280]. The present study focuses on the 65 kDa glycoprotein, Tr65, from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, formerly Salmo gairdneri).Enzymatic digestion of Tr65 yielded a fragment pattern with strong homology with that of trout type II cytokeratin. Sequence analysis of the cDNA clone obtained by PCR confirmed this homology. We thus constructed a plasmid to overproduce the recombinant Tr65. We extracted and purified this recombinant Tr65, using it for multichannel and single-channel experiments in azolectin bilayers. Our results with recombinant Tr65 confirmed the pore-forming properties already shown with native antibacterial Tr65. These findings offer new insights into the function of keratin proteins present in various mucosal surfaces of animals and human beings.

  15. Uranium resources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.

    1973-01-01

    The future supply of uranium has to be considered against a background of forecasts of uranium demand over the next decades which show increases of a spectacular nature. It is not necessary to detail these forecasts, they are well known. A world survey by the Joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand', completed this summer, indicates that from a present production level of just over 19,000 tonnes uranium per year, the demand will rise to the equivalent of an annual production requirement of 50,000 tonnes uranium by 1980, 100,000 by 1985 and 180,000 by 1990. Few, if any, mineral production industries have been called upon to plan for a near tenfold increase in production in a space of about 15 years as these forecasts imply. This might possibly mean that, perhaps, ten times the present number of uranium mines will have to be planned and engineered by 1990

  16. Supply chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2000-01-01

    'Logic' (Leading Oil and Gas Industry Competitiveness) is a government-industry supply chain management initiative which aims to improve the competitiveness of the UK's North Sea business by 1 billion UK pounds by 2002 and its export performance by 50% inside 5 years. Much of the article is devoted to the background and views of Logic's chief executive Chris. Freeman. Freeman makes clear that 'unlike Crine, we are not a cost-reduction initiative: that may be one of the outcomes, but we are really focusing on the co-operation side of things'. Logic aims to change the culture of the UK offshore industry through example. Freeman believes that the creation of collaborative success will flag up industry and give credence to Logics objectives

  17. Survey of gastrointestinal reactions to foods in adults in relation to atopy, presence of mucus in the stools, swelling of joints and arthralgia in patients with gastrointestinal reactions to foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, U; Hanson, L A; Ahlstedt, S

    1996-12-01

    Food intolerance in adults is mostly associated with vague symptoms and not clearly related to atopy and food allergy. A combination of different pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for the symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe patients with a history of food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in relation to the presence of mucus in the stools, joint swelling and arthralgia and to determine whether or not there is an association between the presence of these parameters, atopic disease and the presence of immune complexes in serum. Fifty-eight patients consecutively referred to our clinic with food-related gastrointestinal symptoms were investigated. Thirty-five patients (60%) had mucus in their stools, 24 patients (41%) complained about joint swelling and 41 patients (71%) had arthralgia. There were no correlations between these parameters and atopy according to Phadiatope test or skin prick test (SPT). No correlations were found between the occurrence of mucus in the stools, arthralgia and joint swelling. There were significantly higher levels of circulating immune complexes in patients with a history of arthralgia compared with patients with no such history (P mucus in the stools. However, there were significant positive correlations between food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in the following instances: chocolate-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.006), vegetable-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.002) and meat-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.003). In a group of individuals without food-related symptoms investigated separately, a very low frequency of mucus in the stools, joint swelling and arthralgia was seen (none, two and three individuals of the 20 subjects, respectively). Of 41 patients with immediate onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, 20 were atopic according to Phadiatope and SPT. Of 11 patients with late onset of symptoms 10 were negative in

  18. Food-grade TiO2 is trapped by intestinal mucus in vitro but does not impair mucin O-glycosylation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis in vivo: implications for gut barrier protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Pauline; Radziwill-Bienkowska, Joanna M; Kamphuis, Jasper B J; Steenkeste, Karine; Bettini, Sarah; Robert, Véronique; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Mayeur, Camille; Gaultier, Eric; Langella, Philippe; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Houdeau, Eric; Thomas, Muriel; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2018-06-19

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles are commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, the risk of gut barrier disruption is an increasing concern because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction. Food-grade E171 may interact with mucus, a gut barrier protagonist still poorly explored in food nanotoxicology. To test this hypothesis, a comprehensive approach was performed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo interactions between TiO 2 and intestinal mucus, by comparing food-grade E171 with NM-105 (Aeroxyde P25) OECD reference nanomaterial. We tested E171-trapping properties of mucus in vitro using HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cells. Time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed without labeling to avoid modification of the particle surface. Near-UV irradiation of E171 TiO 2 particles at 364 nm resulted in fluorescence emission in the visible range, with a maximum at 510 nm. The penetration of E171 TiO 2 into the mucoid area of HT29-MTX cells was visualized in situ. One hour after exposure, TiO 2 particles accumulated inside "patchy" regions 20 µm above the substratum. The structure of mucus produced by HT29-MTX cells was characterized by MUC5AC immunofluorescence staining. The mucus layer was thin and organized into regular "islands" located approximately 20 µm above the substratum. The region-specific trapping of food-grade TiO 2 particles was attributed to this mucus patchy structure. We compared TiO 2 -mediated effects in vivo in rats after acute or sub-chronic oral daily administration of food-grade E171 and NM-105 at relevant exposure levels for humans. Cecal short-chain fatty acid profiles and gut mucin O-glycosylation patterns remained unchanged, irrespective of treatment. Food-grade TiO 2 is trapped by intestinal mucus in vitro but does not affect mucin O-glycosylation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis in vivo, suggesting the absence of a mucus barrier impairment under "healthy gut

  19. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  20. Magnet power supply for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Frankel, R.F.; Thomas, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The power supply system which will energize the superconducting magnets in the ISABELLE machine consists of some 520 computer-programmable power supplies with outputs ranging from 50 A to 4500 A. Most of the power supplies will be used for the correction of field harmonics, orbit correction and adjustment of the machine working line. During acceleration, currents in various magnet correction coils will be controlled in real time to track the main field; all power supplies must be highly stable during the stacking and storage of the beam (in some cases current regulation must be in the order of 0.001%). PS reference programs will be stored in microprocessor based function generators embedded in each power supply. Due to the large amount of stored energy in the system, the magnets must be protected during quenches. Details of the power supply and of the magnet quench protection system are described

  1. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  2. Cholangiocytes and blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-06-14

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  3. Aggregate Supply and Potential Output

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    The New-Keynesian aggregate supply derives from micro-foundations an inflation-dynamics model very much like the tradition in the monetary literature. Inflation is primarily affected by: (i) economic slack; (ii) expectations; (iii) supply shocks; and (iv) inflation persistence. This paper extends the New Keynesian aggregate supply relationship to include also fluctuations in potential output, as an additional determinant of the relationship. Implications for monetary rules and to the estimati...

  4. Nuclear fusion power supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To use a hybrid power supply device, which comprises a thyristor power supply and a diode power supply, to decrease cost of a nuclear fusion power supply device. Structure: The device comprises a thyristor power supply connected through a closing unit and a diode power supply connected in parallel through a breaker, input of each power supply being applied with an output voltage of a flywheel AC generator. When a current transformer is excited, a disconnecting switch is turned on to close the diode power supply and a current of the current transformer is increased by an automatic voltage regulator to a set value within a predetermined period of time. Next, the current is cut off by a breaker, and when the breaker is in on position, the disconnecting switch is opened to turn on the closing unit. Thus, when a plasma electric current reaches a predetermined value, the breaker is turned on, and the current of the current transformer is controlled by the thyristor power supply. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  6. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  7. Development of calibration factors of moss (Hylocomium splendens); Utvikling av kalibreringsfaktorer for mose (Hylocomium splendens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T

    1996-01-01

    The present paper relates to atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway. These elements are mapped geographically in every fifth year by analysing bio-monitored mosses. This is a part of an original Scandinavian monitoring program which gradually expanded to other parts of Europe. In 1995, 32 countries participated in the program. The investigation of mosses in Norway has also been used as a basis for the development of special environment indicators for monitoring atmospheric long-range transported heavy metals. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by alleviating airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zibing; Geng, Wenye; Jiang, Chuanwei; Zhao, Shujun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Qin, Shucun; Li, Chenxu; Zhang, Xinfang; Si, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by tobacco smoke has been regarded as a great health problem worldwide. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline, a novel antioxidant, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and explore the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were made chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models via tobacco smoke exposure for 12 weeks and the rats were treated with 10 ml/kg hydrogen-rich saline intraperitoneally during the last 4 weeks. Lung function testing indicated hydrogen-rich saline decreased lung airway resistance and increased lung compliance and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s/forced vital capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. Histological analysis revealed that hydrogen-rich saline alleviated morphological impairments of lung in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. ELISA assay showed hydrogen-rich saline lowered the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. The content of malondialdehyde in lung tissue and serum was also determined and the data indicated hydrogen-rich saline suppressed oxidative stress reaction. The protein expressions of mucin MUC5C and aquaporin 5 involved in mucus hypersecretion were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA and the data revealed that hydrogen-rich saline down-regulated MUC5AC level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue and up-regulated aquaporin 5 level in lung tissue of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that administration of hydrogen-rich saline exhibits significant protective effect on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through alleviating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress and lessening mucus hypersecretion in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats

  9. A pilot study of the impact of high-frequency chest wall oscillation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with mucus hypersecretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravorty I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indranil Chakravorty1, Kamaljit Chahal2, Gillian Austin21St George's Hospital, London, 2East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Lister Hospital and Primary Care Trust, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UKIntroduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with mucus hypersecretion tend to demonstrate increased frequency of infective exacerbations and a steeper slope of decline in lung function. Enhanced mucociliary clearance with high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO devices previously used in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis patients may offer the opportunity for community-based, self-managed therapy to improve quality of life and lung function.Study design and methods: A randomized controlled crossover pilot study of HFCWO compared with conventional treatment was conducted in 22 patients with moderate to severe COPD and mucus hypersecretion. Patients spent 4 weeks using an HFCWO (SmartVest® device and 4 weeks in a conventional phase with a 2-week washout. Eleven patients started with HFCWO and changed to conventional treatment, whereas the other eleven patients started conventional treatment and crossed over to HFCWO.Results: The patients were elderly with a mean age of 71 (standard deviation [SD] 10 years and were at the upper end of the normal range of body mass index (25 [SD 4.2] kg/m2. The majority of patients had moderate to severe COPD with a mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 41 (SD 15.6 and percentage predicted forced vital capacity of 73 (SD 17.7. Baseline sputum production was negatively correlated to lung function and positively to St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Symptom scores and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire symptom dimension improved significantly (-8, P < 0.05. Sputum production showed a declining trend in the HFCWO phase, although not reaching statistical significance. The HFCWO device was well tolerated with good reported compliance.Conclusion: This pilot study

  10. Nuclear reactor power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector is interposed between the protection system and the control system. This selector prevents a parameter signal of a set of signals, which differs from the other parameters signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation of the sensors which produce the set, from passing to the control system. The selectors include a pair of signal selection units, one unit sending selected process signals to primary control channels and the other sending selected process signals to back-up control channels. Test signals are periodically impressed by a test unit on a selected pair of a selected unit and control channels. When test signals are so impressed the selected control channel is disabled from transmitting control signals to the reactor and/or its associated components. This arrangement eliminates the possibility that a single component failure which may be spurious will cause an inadvertent trip of the reactor during test

  11. Growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes in catfish mucus extract on four food-contact surfaces at 22°C and 10°C and their reduction by commercial disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on different food-contact surfaces at 10°C and 22°C. The second objective of this study was to eval...

  12. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  13. 600W uninterruptible power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizell, C

    1988-01-01

    Although the mains power supply in western Europe is normally reliable, power failures, transients and noise can cause loss or corruption of data held on personal computers. The design of an uninterruptible power supply system (UPS) based on well proven technology, is described.

  14. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2003 for consumption, prices of electric power, power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  15. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2000 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  16. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2002 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  17. Realities of Supply Chain Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampstra, R.P.; Ashayeri, J.; Gattorna, J.

    2006-01-01

    Successful supply chain collaboration (SCC) practices are rather exceptional, yet collaboration is believed to be the single most pressing need in supply chain management.In this paper we discuss the realities of SCC, present prerequisites for the collaboration process, indicate where the process

  18. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  19. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  20. Cyclin D1 negatively regulates the expression of differentiation genes in HT-29 M6 mucus-secreting colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Clara; Mayol, Xavier

    2009-08-28

    HT-29 M6 colon cancer cells differentiate to a mucus-secreting phenotype in culture. We found that the pattern of cyclin D1 expression in HT-29 M6 cells did not correlate with instances of cell proliferation but was specifically induced during a dedifferentiation process following disaggregation of epithelial cell layers, even under conditions that did not allow cell cycle reentrance. Interestingly, ectopic expression of cyclin D1 in differentiated cells led to the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of differentiation gene promoters, such as the mucin MUC1. We thus propose that the overexpression of cyclin D1 found in colon cancer favours tumour dedifferentiation as one mechanism of tumour progression.

  1. Acharan sulfate, the new glycosaminoglycan from Achatina fulica Bowdich 1822. Structural heterogeneity, metabolic labeling and localization in the body, mucus and the organic shell matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Tuane C R G; Costa-Filho, Adilson; Salgado, Norma C; Allodi, Silvana; Valente, Ana-Paula; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2004-02-01

    Acharan sulfate, a recently discovered glycosaminoglycan isolated from Achatina fulica, has a major disaccharide repeating unit of -->4)-2-acetyl,2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranose(1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-l-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->, making it structurally related to both heparin and heparan sulfate. It has been suggested that this glycosaminoglycan is polydisperse, with an average molecular mass of 29 kDa and known minor disaccharide sequence variants containing unsulfated iduronic acid. Acharan sulfate was found to be located in the body of this species using alcian blue staining and it was suggested to be the main constituent of the mucus. In the present work, we provide further information on the structure and compartmental distribution of acharan sulfate in the snail body. Different populations of acharan sulfate presenting charge and/or molecular mass heterogeneities were isolated from the whole body, as well as from mucus and from the organic shell matrix. A minor glycosaminoglycan fraction susceptible to degradation by nitrous acid was also purified from the snail body, suggesting the presence of N-sulfated glycosaminoglycan molecules. In addition, we demonstrate the in vivo metabolic labeling of acharan sulfate in the snail body after a meal supplemented with [35S]free sulfate. This simple approach might be applied to the study of acharan sulfate biosynthesis. Finally, we developed histochemical assays to localize acharan sulfate in the snail body by metachromatic staining and by histoautoradiography following metabolic radiolabeling with [35S]sulfate. Our results show that acharan sulfate is widely distributed among several organs.

  2. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical supply chains present considerable complexity issue for the formulation of optimal plans due to significant uncertainty in the supply chain. The primary goal of biopharmaceutical supply chain planning is to provide reliable supply to patients while coping with various supply chain risks. In chapter 1 first I discuss the key elements and basic characteristics of the biopharmaceutical supply chain . Then I present the major challenges in biopharmaceutical supply chain planning...

  3. Particle supply and recovery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kimio; Okazaki, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    This invention concerns a particle supply and recovery device suitable to the supply of fuels and exhaustion of reaction products in a tokamak device. The divertor chamber is divided into an inner side and an outer side, in which only the outer side is constituted as a tightly closed structure. Particles are supplied from the inside of main plasmas and exhausted from the outer side of the divertor chamber. In the divertor equilibrium arrangement, particles escaping from the main plasmas are conveyed mainly passing through the outer side scrape-off layer to the divertor chamber. The particle density is higher at the outer side and lower at the inner side of the scrape-off layer. By making the outer side as a tightly closed structure, the pressure is increased and the particle exhaustion efficiency is improved. Since the particle density is low in the inner scrape-layer, the particle supply efficiency to the main plasma is increased by supplying the particles from the inside. Further, particles ionized in the inner scrape-off layer are returned to the main plasma chamber and then supplied again since the inner divertor chamber is not closed. Accordingly, the particle supply efficiency can further be improved. (K.M.)

  4. "Bullwhip Effect" in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Ščukanec

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The system which connects all the elements between theproducer and the consumer is called the supply chain. This definitionof the supply chain shows its complexity, dynamics anduncertainty. Successful operation of supply chains requires thebest possible coordination of its elements, which obviously indicatesthe utmost importance of the information flow alongthem. The operation of supply chains on the whole has to bemore successful than the operation of their individual elements.It should be noted that such a complex process may give rise toa series of problems, unwanted events, as well as substantial reductionin profits and the level of service. One of such unwantedphenomena which may occur in the supply chain is the"bullwhip effect". This is a possible increase in the diversity oforders which occurs when we move along the elements of thesupply chain (from the customers' orders to the producers' orders.The work analyses the processes within the supply chainsand the occurrence of the bullwhip effect. The main causes ofthe bullwhip effect that we encounter daily in the supply chainshave been clearly defined. The paper also presents the mainnegative consequences of such a disturbance within the supplychains, and provides possible solutions for avoiding the bullwhipeffect.

  5. Status quo of supply technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Shigeo

    1987-09-01

    Problems for gas supply function, activity of the Gas Association, and technological development mainly of the presented subjects are reported. According to the materials released by the Gas Associattion, demands for city gas by the 21st Century is expected to be rather high with 3.6% annual growth rate. It is premissed on an assumption that the superior quality of the city gas satisfying customer requirements would be further upgraded. The problems confronted by the supply function for this purpose are the pursuit for less cost, improvement in security, and stable gas supply. The Gas Association carried out research, investigation, preparation of standards, etc., and published instructive materials such as guide for main and branch piping, guide for supply piping, technical standards for gas related works, etc. It also has been endeavoring to popularize the use of polyethylene pipies, and studying the evaluation method for the renewal and repair of gas conduits and house regulator supply system, etc. The supply function has been working on the cutting dowm of costs, inprovement in security, and developing technologies such as underground probing radar, inteligent pipe locator, identifier for gas and water supply tubes, estimation of ground subsidence, inspection of inside of pipes by a television camera, etc. (1 tab)

  6. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...... to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming...

  7. The Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Skitsko Volodymyr I.; Voynikov Mykola Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers current approaches of risk-management in supply chains, the main steps of the risk management process are analyzed and detailed both for a separate enterprise – participant of supply chain, for the supply chain in general, and for the Beer game, based on the international risk management standards. The article provides a way to assess the risks of the «producer» in the Beer game according to the three strategies of its behavior, which presumably can correspond to differe...

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  9. Security management of water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to present operational problems concerning the safety of the water supply and the procedures for risk management systems functioning public water supply (CWSS and including methods of hazard identification and risk assessment. Developed a problem analysis and risk assessment, including procedures called. WSP, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as a tool for comprehensive security management of water supply from source to consumer. Water safety plan is a key element of the strategy for prevention of adverse events in CWSS.

  10. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flöthmann, Christoph

    to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified personnel, companies are facing a significant undersupply of talent (Cottrill, 2010). Moreover, organizations appear......While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies......-based dissertation is to address the research gap between human resource management (HRM) and supply chain management (SCM)....

  11. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  12. The 3He Supply Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  13. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  14. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  15. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  16. 10 CFR 600.324 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unused supplies. If the inventory of unused supplies exceeds $5,000 in total aggregate value and the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplies. 600.324 Section 600.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Supplies. (a) Title vests in the recipient upon acquisition of supplies acquired with Federal funds under...

  17. 32 CFR 34.24 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall retain any unused supplies. If the inventory of unused supplies exceeds $5,000 in total aggregate... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies. 34.24 Section 34.24 National Defense... § 34.24 Supplies. (a) Title shall vest in the recipient upon acquisition for supplies acquired with...

  18. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    OpenAIRE

    Flöthmann, Christoph H.

    2017-01-01

    While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified ...

  19. European energy supplies; some considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2009-01-01

    European leaders are increasing conscious of their heavy dependence on energy supplies from Russia. In an attempt to articulate a strategy to improve energy security and Solidarity Action Plan in november 2008. This essay examines the E U-Russia energy partnership and argues that despite a number of supply-interruptions, of threats of interruptions, the interdependence between Brussels and Moscow is likely to endure, at least the foreseeable future. [it

  20. Supply strategy for SMR deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccagna, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a description of Babcock and Wilcox's deployment strategy for the mPower™ Small Modular Reactor from the perspective of Supply Chain and Manufacturing. A desirable future state of readiness is described as one which leverages and revitalizes an existing supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure, as well as leveraging an existing workforce of engineering, construction, and project management employees. B and W's mPower™ SMR value proposition offers many desired design and operating advantages to the SMR market. (author)

  1. Estimation of Energy Not Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenek Medvec; Lukas Prokop

    2008-01-01

    Damages in industrial company are raising during electrical interruption of power supply. These damages have usually different character and financial damages are most usual. Value of damage is nearly pertinent to type of industrial branch and working load of production line. Total value of customer costs depends on time of interruption. The paper refers to cost calculation based on public sources for industrial company during interruption of electrical power supply.

  2. A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent

    2011-01-01

    A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...

  3. Intermodal Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maslarić, Marinko; Brnjac, Nikolina; Bago, Drago

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and secure global supply chains contribute to the Improvement of the competitiveness of the products traded on international markets by reducing their costs and delivery time while increasing the reliability and security. Global supply chains are unthinkable without transport integration, which is usually accomplished through the form of intermodal transport systems. Intermodal transport systems are much more complex than the unimodal ones due to the number of stakeholders, included...

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  5. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  6. CHALLENGES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia GALANTON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the basic characteristics of the supply chain, specific to changes in the business environment of companies at the beginning of the 21st century. Supply chain activities turn natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product, which is then delivered to the final customer. The supply chain incorporates the production process alongside the raw material acquisition and distribution of finished products, encompassing all the existing process responsible for transforming the materials taken from the supplier to the finished products delivered to customers. Today, competitiveness and performance of an organization are dependent on belonging to an efficient and effective supply-delivery chain where synergies exist due to the establishment and implementation of common goals and strategies by partners. Competition does not take place between independent organizations or between small groups of organizations, but between supply and delivery chains, made up of interconnected networks of producers, distributors and logistics providers. Under these circumstances, supply chain managers must seek solutions to respond promptly to the most important challenges in the field.

  7. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  8. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, J.; Wong, C. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...... are required for such extreme volatility and seasonality are proposed. Originality/value - It reveals actual SCM practices in a volatile and seasonal supply chain, such that theoretical and practical gaps are identified. Also, it proposes a model to match manufacturing SCM-practices with retailer SCM-practices....

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Problems of natural uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huwyler, S [Eidgenoessisches Inst. fuer Reaktorforschung, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1977-11-01

    The estimated uranium reserves in the Western World and the forecast uranium requirement in this region make the supply of nuclear power stations appear guaranteed well beyond the turn of the century. At least in the next decade it will be possible to exploit the advantageous uranium reserves in low price category, provided that prospection activities are stepped up soon and production capacities are expanded in time which are not even fully utilized today. However, difficulties could arise earlier in those countries which have no uranium reserves of their own. There is an increasing tendency among uranium producing countries to link supplies of their uranium with restrictive conditions. This makes long term contractual uranium supply guarantees a most pressing matter for those countries which have no uranium of their own. Even if the delays in the addition of new nuclear power plants are likely to improve the supply situation in the next few years, supply shortages will have to be anticipated at least from the nineties onward, unless exploitation and dressing activities are expanded considerably and also low grade ores are included in the production. At the same time it appears that the use of plutonium fueled fast breeder reactors will be unavoidable in the nineties.

  12. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  15. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  16. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  17. Energy supply today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is the synthesis of two lectures on the energy market in the FRG and the problems of the future energy supply. The main point of the explanations is nuclear energy and power supply the basic thoughts of which are explained in detail. A general view at the present situation on the individual energy sections shows that by using regenerative energy sources and energy savings only the increasing energy need cannot be met. Also in the case of coal, when having used it for a long time through the technologies of gasification and liquidation, its quantitative limits will be seen sooner than it would be the case otherwise. For long terms, nuclear energy is the only way to guarantee the mankind a relatively rishless supply of energy in the generation of power and process heat, especially when the fast breeders are used. (UA) [de

  18. Electricity supply in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, R; Evans, N

    1986-01-01

    This study is about future needs for electricity in the United Kingdom, the options for meeting these needs, and the issues that affect the choices between options. It examines the implications of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the problems that could arise if decisions on new power station construction continue to be delayed following the Sizewell PWR Inquiry. The book reviews the historical development of electricity supply in the UK. Alternative scenarios are outlined for future energy and electricity demand and their implications for future power station construction are deduced. Issues that are discussed include the choice of coal or nuclear power and the related political uncertainties, environmental problems such as acid rain, feasibility and costs of electricity supply options, and the likely effect on future energy import costs of alternative choices for electricity supply.

  19. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  20. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence