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Sample records for splendens siamese fighting

  1. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-07-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior.

  3. Histopathology and culturable bacteria associated with "big belly" and "skin nodule" syndromes in ornamental Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H T; Senapin, S; Phiwsaiya, K; Techatanakitarnan, C; Dokladda, K; Ruenwongsa, P; Panijpan, B

    2018-06-02

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the popular aquarium ornamental fish in the global trade. Large numbers of ornamental fish farmed in central Thailand suffered from two common syndromes; preliminarily named skin nodule syndrome (SNS) and big belly syndrome (BBS): they showed noticeable clinical signs of abnormal appearances resulting in depressed saleability. Since very few specifics are known about causative agents of these syndromes, this study aimed at investigating histopathological features and culturable bacteria associated with these fish infected in the process of farming. Histopathologically, SNS fish consistently exhibited necrosis and severe melanization in the muscles and multiple internal organs. Whereas BBS fish exhibited either typical granulomas or tissue damage associated with acid-fast stained bacteria and Gram negative bacteria, respectively. Six different Gram negative bacterial species were recovered from BBS fish while 23 bacterial species belonging to 14 genera were recovered from fish suffering from SNS. Most of the culturable bacteria are new to betta fish and some of them are known to be marine bacteria, suggesting possible entry route via a contaminated live feed, commercial Artemia shrimp. The true causative agents of these syndromes remain unclear. However, histopathological changes and existence of a wide range of bacteria associated with the naturally diseased fish suggest involvement of multiple bacterial infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Detection of Mycobacterium marinum in clinically asymptomatic Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens from ornamental fih shops in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anucha Sirimalaisuwan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum infections in healthy Siamese fighting fish from ornamental fish shops in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods: Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from 380 internal organs of healthy Siamese fighting fish using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H10 culture media. A 924-bp DNA fragment from mycobacterial 16S rRNA was amplified and digested with BanI and ApaI restriction enzymes to yield unique restriction patterns for each mycobacterial specie. Results: Thirty-five mycobacterial isolates (8.42% were recovered from 380 Siamese fighting fish; 21 isolates (5.5% and 11 isolates (2.29% were identified as M. marinum and Mycobacterium chelonae, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the presence of M. marinum zoonotic bacterial pathogens in healthy Siamese fighting fish, and underlined the infection risk to humans of not only exposure to infected fish, but also when they manipulate clinically asymptomatic fish.

  6. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of social environment and personality on communication in male Siamese fighting fish in an artificial network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Peake, Tom M.

    2010-01-01

    of the individuals surrounding it within a network. We investigated the effects of a change of local social environment on two behavioural types, ‘persistent' versus ‘sporadic' signaller, in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Males visually interacted for 1 day in a communication network of seven fish in tanks...... the time spent in the inner front part of their tank, from which they could observe but not interact with the neighbours. Social instability (i.e. number of changed neighbours) raised the signalling levels of individuals independently of their behavioural types. We discuss the relationship between...... information gathering in a communication network and network composition in terms of behavioural types of its members....

  8. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

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    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  9. The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

    2009-02-01

    Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size.

  10. Effect of commercial grade endosulfan on growth and reproduction of the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, A; Pandian, T J

    2014-09-01

    To study the effects of endosulfan on survival, growth and reproduction of the obligate air-breathing male heterogametic fighting fish Betta splendens, posthatchlings of the fighting fish were discretely immersed for 3 h/day during the labile period on the 2nd, 5th, and 8th day posthatching (dph) at selected concentrations of commercial grade endosulfan ranging from 175 to 1400 ng/L. The immersions at 1,400 ng/L led to 21% mortality, among the 79% of surviving fry, 80% developed into females. The endosulfan reduced the air-breathing frequency of 5- and 8-day old hatchlings, and the reduction in the frequency persisted even after a depuration period of 172 days. In the ovary of the treated females, reduced number of vitellogenic oocytes with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. In the testis of the treated males, the reduced number of spermatogonia with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. The treated male induced the female to spawn a fewer eggs, which were subsequently incubated in his smaller bubble nest. The control females attained puberty on the 138th dph and spawned 120 eggs once in every 15 days, the females, which were previously treated at 1400 ng/L, postponed puberty to the 179th dph and spawned 70 eggs once in every 32 days. During the 240-day experiment, endosulfan is found to reduce significantly the cumulative progeny production from 760 to 144, reducing significantly to 19% of the control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  11. Multiple cues produced by a robotic fish modulate aggressive behaviour in Siamese fighting fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Donato; Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Remorini, Damiano; Canale, Angelo; Stefanini, Cesare

    2017-07-05

    The use of robotics to establish social interactions between animals and robots, represents an elegant and innovative method to investigate animal behaviour. However, robots are still underused to investigate high complex and flexible behaviours, such as aggression. Here, Betta splendens was tested as model system to shed light on the effect of a robotic fish eliciting aggression. We evaluated how multiple signal systems, including a light stimulus, affect aggressive responses in B. splendens. Furthermore, we conducted experiments to estimate if aggressive responses were triggered by the biomimetic shape of fish replica, or whether any intruder object was effective as well. Male fishes showed longer and higher aggressive displays as puzzled stimuli from the fish replica increased. When the fish replica emitted its full sequence of cues, the intensity of aggression exceeded even that produced by real fish opponents. Fish replica shape was necessary for conspecific opponent perception, evoking significant aggressive responses. Overall, this study highlights that the efficacy of an artificial opponent eliciting aggressive behaviour in fish can be boosted by exposure to multiple signals. Optimizing the cue combination delivered by the robotic fish replica may be helpful to predict escalating levels of aggression.

  12. Priming effect and pre-exposure aggression in Siamese fighting fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Dabelsteen, Torben

    aggressively during subsequent disputes. This phenomenon is known as aggressive priming. The aim of our study was to investigate if this priming response follows a step function, i.e. appears only above a threshold level of aggression witnessed by a bystander. We found that bystanders behaved more aggressively...... in subsequent interactions when pre-exposed to an aggressive conspecific that was engaged in a fight whatever the level of aggression this fight reached. However, bystanders’ behaviour after pre-exposure was not correlated to the previously witnessed level of aggressiveness. These results suggest...... that individuals alter their behaviour in an aggressive social environment and indicate that priming effect follows a step function where aggression is triggered by an aggressive context. We discuss our results and the effect of pre-exposure on agonistic interactions in a communication network perspective....

  13. Vliv vybraných faktorů na reprodukci ryby Betta splendens

    OpenAIRE

    HOMOLKA, Václav

    2013-01-01

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens; order Perciformes, family Osphronemidae) is a fish occurring in the area of south east Asia. Above branchial organ (so-called labyrinth) allowes it to breath an air oxygen. It is a territorial sort of fish, males are brawling to each other. In a breeding fish take alive or frozen food and also artificial feed. The fish is bubblenest, spawns are put into a foam nest, built by a male, that takes care about the posterity for some time. The task of the ...

  14. Effects of manipulated aggressive 'interactions' on bystanding male fighting fish, Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peake, Thomas More; Matos, Ricardo Jorge; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often take place in a social environment. Third parties not involved in those interactions, bystanders, have the opportunity to extract information from such interactions and such information may direct their future behaviour towards the interactants. Studies...... occurring differences between observed interactants and have therefore lacked this degree of control. We allowed bystanding male fighting fish to observe two male conspecifics that appeared to be interacting, but in reality the two males were displaying to mirrors. The apparent interactions were manipulated...... so as to increase or decrease the aggression of one ‘interactant' while leaving that of the other male constant. When subsequently introduced to the ‘interactants' individually, bystanders responded more strongly to males whose opponents' aggression had been decreased and to the winners of control...

  15. Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, J F; Burggren, W W

    2014-03-01

    The effect of hypoxia on air-breathing onset and survival was determined in larvae of the air-breathing fishes, the three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus and the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Larvae were exposed continuously or intermittently (12 h nightly) to an oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 20, 17 and 14 kPa from 1 to 40 days post-fertilization (dpf). Survival and onset of air breathing were measured daily. Continuous normoxic conditions produced a larval survival rate of 65-75% for B. splendens and 15-30% for T. trichopterus, but all larvae of both species died at 9 dpf in continuous hypoxia conditions. Larvae under intermittent (nocturnal) hypoxia showed a 15% elevated survival rate in both species. The same conditions altered the onset of air breathing, advancing onset by 4 days in B. splendens and delaying onset by 9 days in T. trichopterus. These interspecific differences were attributed to air-breathing characteristics: B. splendens was a non-obligatory air breather after 36 dpf, whereas T. trichopterus was an obligatory air breather after 32 dpf. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Prozac Alters Reproductive Performance and Filial Cannibalism in Male Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoxetine (ProzacTM is one of the most popular antidepressant that can be released to aquatic systems via sewage-treatment effluents. It is suspected to provoke substantial effects in the aquatic environment. Methods: In spawning tanks, specimens were exposed to concentrations of 0 and 0.54 µgl-1 fluoxetine from male introduction until the larvae had hatched. Prior to spawning, nest area and time spent for nest building were measured. Also, spawning duration, number of copulations per spawning and eggs per copulation, total produced eggs and hatching rate were recorded. Results: The number of copulations, eggs per copulation and total produced eggs did not differ between the two treatments. Fluoxetine treatment significantly decreased the nest size, time spent for nest building and spawning duration. Also hatching rate was significantly lower during fluoxetine treatment than in the control condition. Notably, five fluoxetine treated males cannibalized their eggs and larvae. Conclusion: We showed that environmental exposure of fighting fish to fluoxetine potentially alters specific aspects of nest building and sexual behavior and, as a consequence, reproductive output.

  17. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour

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    Abante, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  18. Siameses: Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de siameses ocurrido en un consultorio médico y diagnosticado precozmente mediante ultrasonografía. Se realiza una revisión de la entidad.A case of conjoined twins that occurred at a family physician office and was early diagnosed by ultrasonography is presented. A review of this entity is made.

  19. Clerodendrum splendens: a potential source of antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Boota, F.

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial status of the bark and leaves of Clerodendrum splendens was evaluated.The inquisition had provided that the leaf and bark of the plant had exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential. The antibacterial activity was significant against S. aureus with the maximum effectiveness of 71 ± 0.6 mm displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of bark. Moreover, all the petroleum ether extracts exhibited maximum inhibitory effects against all the bacterial strains. The Gram negative strains, i.e. K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli had provided good to satisfactory results within the range of 20 ± 0.8 mm to 69 ± 0.9 mm. Excellent activities were exhibited by leaf and bark extracts against the fungal pathogens with the maximum potential displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of leaf i.e. 57 ± 0.5 mm against A. oryzae. The MIC assays were carried out to further authenticate the results obtained by zones of inhibitions. The MIC potential exhibited by Gram negative bacteria for K. pneumoniae was evaluated to be > 0.032 mg/mL while for the S. aureus was roughly evaluated to be > 0.088. Moreover, the MIC activity displayed against other Gram negative bacterial strains was reported > 0.112 ± 0.7 mg/mL for E. coli and > 0.059 ± 1.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa. The MIC effectiveness for the fungal strain of A. niger and A. oryzae was evaluated to be 0.118 ± 0.7 mg/mL. (author)

  20. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  1. Siamese convolutional networks for tracking the spine motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Sui, Xiubao; Sun, Yicheng; Liu, Chengwei; Hu, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Deep learning models have demonstrated great success in various computer vision tasks such as image classification and object tracking. However, tracking the lumbar spine by digitalized video fluoroscopic imaging (DVFI), which can quantitatively analyze the motion mode of spine to diagnose lumbar instability, has not yet been well developed due to the lack of steady and robust tracking method. In this paper, we propose a novel visual tracking algorithm of the lumbar vertebra motion based on a Siamese convolutional neural network (CNN) model. We train a full-convolutional neural network offline to learn generic image features. The network is trained to learn a similarity function that compares the labeled target in the first frame with the candidate patches in the current frame. The similarity function returns a high score if the two images depict the same object. Once learned, the similarity function is used to track a previously unseen object without any adapting online. In the current frame, our tracker is performed by evaluating the candidate rotated patches sampled around the previous frame target position and presents a rotated bounding box to locate the predicted target precisely. Results indicate that the proposed tracking method can detect the lumbar vertebra steadily and robustly. Especially for images with low contrast and cluttered background, the presented tracker can still achieve good tracking performance. Further, the proposed algorithm operates at high speed for real time tracking.

  2. Acoustical holographic Siamese image technique for imaging radial cracks in reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes a unique technique (i.e., ''Siamese imaging'') for imaging quasi-vertical defects in reactor pipe weldments. The Siamese image is a bi-symmetrical view of the inner surface defect. Image construction geometry consists of two probes (i.e., source/receiver) operating either from opposite sides or the same side of the defect to be imaged. As the probes are scanned across a lower surface connected defect, they encounter two images - first the normal upright image and then the inverted image. The final integrated image consists of two images connected along their baselines, thus we call it a ''Siamese image.'' The experimental imaging results on simulated and natural cracks in reactor piping weldments graphically illustrate this unique technique. Excellent images of mechanical fatique and thermal cracks were obtained on ferritic and austenitic piping

  3. Fighting Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…

  4. Lead tolerance and cellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tian, Shengke [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M.J.I.; Liao, Haibing [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elsholtzia splendens had a good ability of lead tolerance and accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was mostly restricted to the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb and Ca shared most similar distribution patterns in E. splendens. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in Elsholtzia splendens-a copper (Cu) accumulator plant using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence. According to chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, E. splendens displayed certain tolerance at 100 {mu}M Pb treatment. Lead concentration in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens reached 45,183.6, 1657.6, and 380.9 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Pb was mostly accumulated in the roots, and there were also high concentrations of Pb been transported into stems and leaves. Micro-XRF analysis of the stem and leaf cross section revealed that Pb was mostly restricted in the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues of both stem and leaf of E. splendens. The correlation between distribution of K, Ca, Zn and Pb were analyzed. There were significant positive correlations (P < 0.01) among Pb and Ca, K, Zn distribution both in stem and leaf of E. splendens. However, among the three elements, Ca shared the most similar distribution pattern and the highest correlation coefficients with Pb in both stem and leaf cross section of E. splendens. This suggests that Ca may play an important role in Pb accumulation in stem and leaf of E. splendens.

  5. The House Crow (Corvus splendens: A Threat to New Zealand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Fraser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The house crow (Corvus splendens, a native of the Indian subcontinent, has shown a rapid expansion of habitat range across Eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Europe and Asia. It is an adaptable, gregarious commensal bird which is regarded globally as an important pest species due to its impacts on livestock, agricultural and horticultural crops and indigenous fauna and as a fecal contaminator of human environments and water resources. Two Maxent (v3.3.3k models (A with presence data in Australia and (B with simulated entry data locations in New Zealand and a third ArcGIS model (C with environmental and social layers are used to determine an overall suitability index and establish a niche-based model of the potential spatial distribution for C. splendens within New Zealand. The results show that New Zealand, particularly the northern regions of North Island, has suitable environments for the establishment of the house crow. In order of suitability Model B showed highest potential land area suitability (31.84% followed by Model A (13.79% and Model C (10.89%. The potential for further expansion of this bird’s invasive range is high and, if New Zealand is invaded, impacts are likely to be significant.

  6. Semi-automated tracking of behaviour of Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durey, Maëlle; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Matessi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel software system for animal behaviour tracking is described. It is used for tracking fish filmed in aquariums using a low quality acquisition system. The tracking is based on a multiscale template matching technique that finds both the position and the orientation of the tra......In this paper, a novel software system for animal behaviour tracking is described. It is used for tracking fish filmed in aquariums using a low quality acquisition system. The tracking is based on a multiscale template matching technique that finds both the position and the orientation...... of the tracked fish. The template is matched in the background subtracted frames, where the background is estimated using a median based approach. The system is very stable and has been used in a large behavioural study design to the use of the behavioural pattern known as mate choice copying in Betta splendens....

  7. Fighting Windmills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2004-01-01

    the environmentalists) demand changes in behaviour on moral grounds. In contrast, the Bootleggers (the producers of renewable energy), who profit from the very regulation, keep a low profile. The actual heavy subsidisation of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, can be viewed as a successful policy outcome...... to be just as tough as fighting windmills and needs to be addressed in future and more rigorous empirical research. At the end of the day, transparent incentives of relevant stakeholders in the climate change issue are necessary preconditions for progress in the climate change negotiations....

  8. The HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS use for research of Ignalina NPP vicinity contamination by Cs 137 and Co 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiponas, D.; Marchiulenene, D.

    2002-01-01

    The superficial distribution of Cs 137 and Co 60 and specific activity of these radionuclides in Hylocomium splendens in Ignalina NPP vicinity was investigated. The increase of Cs 137 and Co 60 specific activity in Hylocomium splendens was linked with increasing of these radionuclides activity in atmospheric deposits

  9. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-06-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  11. Growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens Lowe 1834 in the South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens from South-West Indian Ocean seamounts were studied based on whole otolith readings. Ages of the fish under study ranged between one year and 14 years (15.5–43.5cm fork length). Age distribution was related to depth. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males were ...

  12. Toxicity and deficiency of copper in Elsholtzia splendens affect photosynthesis biophysics, pigments and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongyun; Kroneck, Peter M H; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-06-18

    Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in China. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and chlorophyll fluorescence in mesophyll of E. splendens were used to investigate the copper-induced stress from deficiency and toxicity as well as the acclimation to excess copper stress. The plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing either Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-EDDHA. Copper toxicity affected light-acclimated electron flow much stronger than nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) or dark-acclimated photochemical efficiency of PSIIRC (Fv/Fm). It also changed spectrally resolved Chl fluorescence kinetics, in particular by strengthening the short-wavelength (<700 nm) part of NPQ altering light harvesting complex II (LHCII) aggregation. Copper toxicity reduced iron accumulation, decreased Chls and carotenoids in leaves. During acclimation to copper toxicity, leaf copper decreased but leaf iron increased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels. Copper tolerance in E. splendens was inducible; acclimation seems be related to homeostasis of copper and iron in E. splendens. Copper deficiency appeared at 10 mg copper per kg leaf DW, leading to reduced growth and decreased photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII). The importance of these results for evaluating responses of phytoremediation plants to stress in their environment is discussed.

  13. Influence of temperature on Pythium splendens--induced root disease on carambola, Averrhoa carambola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2004-02-01

    A series of glasshouse and incubator studies were conducted to investigate the role played by Pythium splendens in a decline disorder of carambola, Averrhoa carambola. Plants, 4-6 months old, were grown in native calcareous soil either infested or not infested with the pathogen. Isolates recovered from atemoya, carambola and passion fruit grew optimally at 30 degrees C, and significantly (P carambola. Temperature had a profound impact on the latter relationships. Two or more times more necrosis developed at 10 and 15 degrees C than at 25 and 30 degrees C. Total biomass accumulations were over four times greater at 30 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, and were always lower in soil infested with P. splendens. When biomass totals from infested and noninfested soil were compared, relative values were lowest at 15 and 20 degrees C and were almost two times greater at 30 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Root infection by P. splendens was greatest at 15 and 20 degrees C, far below the species' optimum for growth, and at 30 degrees C was over nine times lower than at 15 and 20 degrees C. This is the first detailed report of P. splendens as a pathogen of carambola.

  14. Symplasmic and apoplasmic transport inside feather moss stems of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, K; Turzanska, M; Nilsson, M-C

    2017-11-10

    The ubiquitous feather mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens form a thick, continuous boundary layer between the soil and the atmosphere, and play important roles in hydrology and nutrient cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems. The water fluxes among these mosses and environmental factors controlling them are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether feather mosses are capable of internal transport and to provide a better understanding of species-specific morphological traits underlying this function. The impacts of environmental conditions on their internal transport rates were also investigated. Cells involved in water and food conduction in P. schreberi and H. splendens were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Symplasmic and apoplasmic fluorescent tracers were applied to the moss stems to determine the routes of internal short- and long-distance transport and the impact of air humidity on the transport rates. Symplasmic transport over short distances occurs via food-conducting cells in both mosses. Pleurozium schreberi is also capable of apoplasmic internal long-distance transport via a central strand of hydroids. These are absent in H. splendens. Reduced air humidity significantly increased the internal transport of both species, and the increase was significantly faster for P. schreberi than for H. splendens. Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens are capable of internal transport but the pathway and conductivity differ due to differences in stem anatomy. These results help explain their varying desiccation tolerance and possibly their differing physiology and autecology and, ultimately, their impact on ecosystem functioning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worarat Chaisawangwong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton is a medicinal plant found in Thailand. Youngleaves and young flowers of this plant are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. The flowers are also used fortreatment of fever. The flower extract has been reported to exhibit in vitro free radical scavenging activity and can inhibitlipid peroxidation of bronchogenic cancer cell line. Active compounds in the flowers are flavonoids such as rutin andquercetin. The content of these compounds in the crude extract depends on the method of extraction. Therefore, the appropriateextraction method promoting high yield of total flavonoids and high free radical scavenging activity was investigated inthis study. Six different extraction methods, i.e. maceration, percolation, decoction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction(UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MA were carried out for extracting dried powder of Siamese neem tree young flowers. The solvent used for maceration, percolation, and soxhlet extraction was 50% ethanol, while distilled water was used for decoction and MA, and both solvents were used for UE. The content of crude extract, free radical scavenging activity, and total flavonoids content of each extract were investigated and compared. Comparing the various extraction methods, decoction provided an extract containing a high amount of total flavonoids (17.54 mgRE/g extract and promoting the highest scavenging activity at EC50 11.36 g/ml. Decoction is also simple, cheap, and convenient and could be used in developing countries. Thus, it should be the recommended extraction method for the flowers of Siamese neem tree for furtherdevelopment of antioxidant pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Comparison of canine retraction using single and Siamese edgewise brackets: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to check the rate of canine retraction with bodily mechanics using two different pre-adjusted edgewise bracket Systems. Materials and Methods: A split mouth study with twenty patients who were randomly selected and allotted to a single operator. Duration of canine retraction, angulation of canine during its retraction, degree of Rotation, anchorage Loss, distance between canine and premolar at different time intervals were then evaluated, pre- (To, 3 months- (T1 and canine tip touches the second premolar- (T2. Descriptive statistics including mean values and standard deviations were calculated. Paired and unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate the differences between the groups. Results: Rotation and angulation of the canines did not show significant difference in both the systems. There was statistically significant difference (P<0.01 in anchorage loss between single wing and Siamese bracket being 2.65 ±1.41 mm and 1.31 ± 0.93 respectively. There was statistically significant intergroup difference (P<0.01 in canine movement i.e distance between canine and premolar was recorded as 4.72mm (15.06 ± 1.69 to 10.34 ± 1.68mm in single wing bracket and 6.25mm in Siamese (15.52 ± 1.41 to 9.27 ± 1.94. Conclusion: In cases where high anchorage is required and the rate of canine retraction is a concern, Siamese brackets pose a definite advantage over Single wing brackets.

  17. Siamese-GAN: Learning Invariant Representations for Aerial Vehicle Image Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bashmal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new algorithm for cross-domain classification in aerial vehicle images based on generative adversarial networks (GANs. The proposed method, called Siamese-GAN, learns invariant feature representations for both labeled and unlabeled images coming from two different domains. To this end, we train in an adversarial manner a Siamese encoder–decoder architecture coupled with a discriminator network. The encoder–decoder network has the task of matching the distributions of both domains in a shared space regularized by the reconstruction ability, while the discriminator seeks to distinguish between them. After this phase, we feed the resulting encoded labeled and unlabeled features to another network composed of two fully-connected layers for training and classification, respectively. Experiments on several cross-domain datasets composed of extremely high resolution (EHR images acquired by manned/unmanned aerial vehicles (MAV/UAV over the cities of Vaihingen, Toronto, Potsdam, and Trento are reported and discussed.

  18. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 μmol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with le...

  19. GROWTH AND COLOUR PERFORMANCE OF THE CROSSBREED MARBLE STRAIN Betta splendens AND Betta imbellis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Betta ornamental fish of marble strain is a strain which is prefered by the hobbyists, because of its unique color, expensive price, and difficult to obtain the fish color strains. Therefore strain marble betta fish is still dominant for export quality for national and international contests. The aim of this study was to observe the growth and color performance of the crossedbreed marble strains of wild betta, Betta imbellis crossed with Betta splendens. The hybrids of B. imbellis (f x B. splendens (m (D had a specific length and weight rate, (1,113 ± 0.04%/day; 2,531 ± 0.14%/day; 26.61 ± 2.02 mm which was better than that of the hybrids B. imbellis (m x B. splendens (f (C (1,099 ± 0.02%/day; 2,244 ± 0.13%/day; 25.97 ± 1.33 mm; and 0.0027 ± 0.0003 mm. However, the survival rate of the C hybrids (42.19 ± 11.42% was higher than those of D (33.67%-17.08%. Based on the obtained results of the color identification the hybrids had as many as 15 characters of color, homozygous strains of marble which became the target of as much as 1%.

  20. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Uvaria chamae and Clerodendoron splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Ebere Okwu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Uvaria chamae P. Beauv and Clerodendron splendens A Cheval are known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. Their anti-inflammatory and oxytocic properties were assessed in this study. The extracts and aspirin were found to inhibit carrageenan-induced paw oedema on albino rats and mice with a strong activity in aspirin having (80.43 % inhibition while U. chamae and C. splendens have 69.57% and 47.83% inhibition respectively. The plants extract exhibition and uterine contraction activity on guinea pig. Phytochemical studies on the plants revealed the presence of bioactive components comprising flavonoids (0.70 – 5.70 mg. 100 g-1, alkaloids (0.81-5.40 mg. 100 g-1, tannins (0.40 – 3.60 mg. 100 g-1, saponins (0.38 – 2.10 mg. 100 g-1 and phenols (0.08 – 0.10 mg. 100 g-1. These bioactive compounds may be responsible for the medicinal properties of U. chaemae and C. splendens that form the basis of their use in herbal medicine in Nigeria.

  1. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

    2014-03-01

    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia.

  2. Cock-fighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2018-01-01

    That Cock-fighting was extremely popular the ancient Greece, is clearly showed by the numerous depictions on vases and its symbolic and metaphorical range among the language of the Athenians. Greek comedy exploits and expands the metaphorical use of cock-fighting in both the linguistic and the pe...

  3. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  4. Deep Constrained Siamese Hash Coding Network and Load-Balanced Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Near Duplicate Image Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Fan, Yabo; Xing, Junliang; Sun, Liang; Cai, Zhaoquan; Maybank, Stephen

    2018-09-01

    We construct a new efficient near duplicate image detection method using a hierarchical hash code learning neural network and load-balanced locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) indexing. We propose a deep constrained siamese hash coding neural network combined with deep feature learning. Our neural network is able to extract effective features for near duplicate image detection. The extracted features are used to construct a LSH-based index. We propose a load-balanced LSH method to produce load-balanced buckets in the hashing process. The load-balanced LSH significantly reduces the query time. Based on the proposed load-balanced LSH, we design an effective and feasible algorithm for near duplicate image detection. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our deep siamese hash encoding network and load-balanced LSH.

  5. THE FEMALE’S MASCULINITIES AGAINST SIAMESE PATRIARCHAL SYSTEMS IN ELIZABETH HAND’S ANNA AND THE KING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sriastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available By not giving voice and value to women‘s opinions, responses and writings, men have therefore suppressed the female, define what it means to be feminine, and therefore devoiced, devalued, and trivialized what it means to be a woman. As femininity is mostly related to women for women are labeled as extensions of men, mirrors of men, devices for showing men off, and also devices for helping men get what they want, women‘s position is inferior to men. This study discusses the female‘s masculinities through the portrayal and life experiences of the main female characteristics, Anna Leonowens, as her protests against the Siamese patriarchal systems that abundant her life as a career woman and also the oppressed lives of Siamese women in Elizabeth Hand‘s novel Anna and the King. Feminism and Deconstructions approaches will be applied to analyze Leonowens‘ actions and reactions regarding to what Siamese patriarchal systems claim to be parts of masculine traits. Leonowens‘ nationality, cultural and educational backgrounds as well as positions play significant roles in the novel. By opposing Leonowens‘ ways of thinking to the King who represents the patriarchal system of Siam, Hand gives a new identity to women in struggling for gender equality in Siam.

  6. Matching of Remote Sensing Images with Complex Background Variations via Siamese Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Feature-based matching methods have been widely used in remote sensing image matching given their capability to achieve excellent performance despite image geometric and radiometric distortions. However, most of the feature-based methods are unreliable for complex background variations, because the gradient or other image grayscale information used to construct the feature descriptor is sensitive to image background variations. Recently, deep learning-based methods have been proven suitable for high-level feature representation and comparison in image matching. Inspired by the progresses made in deep learning, a new technical framework for remote sensing image matching based on the Siamese convolutional neural network is presented in this paper. First, a Siamese-type network architecture is designed to simultaneously learn the features and the corresponding similarity metric from labeled training examples of matching and non-matching true-color patch pairs. In the proposed network, two streams of convolutional and pooling layers sharing identical weights are arranged without the manually designed features. The number of convolutional layers is determined based on the factors that affect image matching. The sigmoid function is employed to compute the matching and non-matching probabilities in the output layer. Second, a gridding sub-pixel Harris algorithm is used to obtain the accurate localization of candidate matches. Third, a Gaussian pyramid coupling quadtree is adopted to gradually narrow down the searching space of the candidate matches, and multiscale patches are compared synchronously. Subsequently, a similarity measure based on the output of the sigmoid is adopted to find the initial matches. Finally, the random sample consensus algorithm and the whole-to-local quadratic polynomial constraints are used to remove false matches. In the experiments, different types of satellite datasets, such as ZY3, GF1, IKONOS, and Google Earth images

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS. We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO, using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including “oxidation reduction”, “transcription factor activity”, and “ion channel transporter”. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress.

  8. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY DSSE10 IN HEAD SQUASH TOXORHYNCHITES SPLENDENS USING IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PEROXIDASE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Fiona Sari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus are transmitted from human to human by the bites of infective female Aedesmosquitoes from subgenus Stegomyia. One of the way to detect Dengue virus antigen is by usingimmunohistochemical technique. This method was reported to detect dengue vims antigen in lowlevels. The aims of this study is to measure sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal antibodyDSSE10 using SBPC to detect antigen Dengue virus in head squash Toxorhynchites splendenswere infected with dengue patient serum and RT-PCR as gold standart. Artificially-infected Tx.splendens mosquitoes with serum positif dengue virus were used as infectious samples and noninfectedTx. splendens mosquitoes were used as control negative. The immunohistochemichalSBPC assay using monoclonal antibody DSSE10 then applied in mosquitoes head squash todetect Dengue vims antigen. RT-PCR as a gold standart was applied in each mosquito thorax.The result were analyzed by descriptive stasistic test and 2x2 diagnostic test table. Monoclonalantibody DSSE10 using immunohistochemical SBPC assay in head squash Tx. splendens wasgave sensitivity 87,09% and specificity 92,5%. Conclussion of this study is DSSE10 Monoclonalantibodies can be used as primary antibodies for the detection of dengue vims antigen inmosquito head squashKeywords: Dengue viruses, SBPC, antibodies DSSE10, head squash, Toxorhynchitessplendens' Virus Dengue ditularkan dari orang ke orang melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes dari subgenusStegomyia. Salah satu cara untuk mendeteksi antigen vims Dengue adalah dengan menggunakanteknik imunohistokimia. Metode imunohistokimia dilaporkan dapat mendeteksi antigen vimsDengue dalam kadar yang rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan evaluasi sensitivitasdan spesifitas antibodi monoklonal DSSE10 dengan metode imunohistokimia Streptavidin BiotinPeroxidase Complex (SBPC untuk mendeteksi antigen Dengue melalui scdiaan head squashnyamuk Toxorhynchites splendens yang diinfeksi dengan scrum penderita

  9. Molecular structures of centromeric heterochromatin and karyotypic evolution in the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) (Crocodylidae, Crocodylia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Nishida, Chizuko; Ota, Hidetoshi; Kumazawa, Yoshinori; Endo, Hideki; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Crocodilians have several unique karyotypic features, such as small diploid chromosome numbers (30-42) and the absence of dot-shaped microchromosomes. Of the extant crocodilian species, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) has no more than 2n = 30, comprising mostly bi-armed chromosomes with large centromeric heterochromatin blocks. To investigate the molecular structures of C-heterochromatin and genomic compartmentalization in the karyotype, characterized by the disappearance of tiny microchromosomes and reduced chromosome number, we performed molecular cloning of centromeric repetitive sequences and chromosome mapping of the 18S-28S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGGG)( n ) sequences. The centromeric heterochromatin was composed mainly of two repetitive sequence families whose characteristics were quite different. Two types of GC-rich CSI-HindIII family sequences, the 305 bp CSI-HindIII-S (G+C content, 61.3%) and 424 bp CSI-HindIII-M (63.1%), were localized to the intensely PI-stained centric regions of all chromosomes, except for chromosome 2 with PI-negative heterochromatin. The 94 bp CSI-DraI (G+C content, 48.9%) was tandem-arrayed satellite DNA and localized to chromosome 2 and four pairs of small-sized chromosomes. The chromosomal size-dependent genomic compartmentalization that is supposedly unique to the Archosauromorpha was probably lost in the crocodilian lineage with the disappearance of microchromosomes followed by the homogenization of centromeric repetitive sequences between chromosomes, except for chromosome 2.

  10. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F.L. Pivetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens, uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro quantidades de palha de arroz (0, 4, 6 e 8 t ha-1 combinadas com três doses do herbicida oxyfluorfen (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1. Observou-se que os tratamentos que levaram à veiculação do herbicida (nas duas doses testadas e nas três quantidades de palha apresentaram controle de plantas daninhas sem que efeitos fitotóxicos severos fossem observados nas plantas de sálvia. A pulverização direta do herbicida sobre o solo e as plantas de sálvia não se mostrou viável. O tratamento que proporcionou controle satisfatório de plantas daninhas sem causar danos às plantas de sálvia e que, por isso, pode ser recomendado foi o que recebeu o herbicida na dose de 2 L ha-1, veiculado a 4 t ha-1 de palha de arroz.Weed control is one of the main constrains to flower garden maintenance. This work aimed to study the possibility of translocating oxyfluorfen to rice straw and of selectivity of Salvia splendens, one of the main ornamental species produced and commercialized in Brazil, to the herbicide. A randomized block design was used in the factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of four amounts of rice straw (0, 4, 6 and 8 t ha-1 combined with three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 1 and 2 L ha-1. The results showed that the treatments that led to translocation of the herbicide to rice straw showed great weed control, without any high phytotoxicty damage to the salvia plants. The treatment receiving g 4 L ha-1 of herbicide in 2

  11. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...

  12. Flavonoids Fight Diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Flavonoids Fight Diseases. G Nagendrappa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/02/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  13. Assessment of (Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora Cell Cultures Response Under to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Angélica Guerrero Zúñiga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures are homogenous experimental systems, highly controllable that allow the study of short and large water stress adaptations without the interference of the different tissues and development of plants. An approach to understand these adaptations is through the presence of induced proteins; as a result of changes in genetic expression. This work analyze the response of Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora cell cultures exposed to abscisic acid (ABA, through the electrophoretic characterization of quantity and quality of stress induced proteins. There were recorded low molecular weight polypeptides (< 35kDa, common in experiments under ABA 10mM, followed by the association with 20 and 30mM ABA conditions, with a particularly response of cell cultures without the stress agent.

  14. Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer among Siamese Ethnic Group in Tumpat, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Nur Karyatee; Adnan, Munirah Mohd; Wern, Chew Wei; Ru, Lim Zheng; Hanafi, Muhammad Hafiz; Yusoff, Azizah

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer is a life-threatening disease. Lack of public awareness is a potent barrier for the early detection of oral cancer, especially for high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the awareness and knowledge of the signs, symptoms and risk factors of oral cancer among a Siamese ethnic group in Tumpat, Kelantan. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using a guided questionnaire on sociodemography, habits, awareness and knowledge of the signs, symptoms and risk factors of oral cancer. Individuals under 18 years old and who had been diagnosed with oral cancer were excluded from this study. A total of 195 respondents participated, 61.5% were female and the mean age was 46 (1.64). About 41% of the respondents had received secondary education and 35.4% were illiterate. Most respondents were self-employed (21.5%), followed by farmers (19.5%) and housewives (20%). The majority of them had a monthly income that fell below the poverty level of RM 830 (76.9%). Among the respondents, 22.6% had the habit of smoking, 25.6% consumed alcohol, 8.2% were betel quid chewers and 2.6% chewed tobacco. Out of 195 respondents, only 6.7% were aware of oral cancer. About 16.9% of the respondents correctly answered all of the questions regarding the signs and symptoms of oral cancer and only 4.1% knew the risk factors of oral cancer. The awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in this targeted population were unsatisfactory. Future effective health promotion programs and education should be emphasised.

  15. Uncertain population dynamic and state variables of alfonsino (Beryx splendens Dinámica poblacional incierta y variables de estado en alfonsino (Beryx splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Wiff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfonsino (Beryx splendens is a species associated with seamounts, with an important fishery in Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile (33°40'S, 79°00'W. Since 2004, this resource has been managed by catch quotas estimated from stock assessment models. The alfonsino model involves high levels of uncertainty for several reasons including a lack of knowledge of aspects of the population dynamics and poorly informative time-series that feed the proposed evaluation models. This work evaluated three hypotheses regarding population dynamics and their influence on the main state variables (biomass, recruitment of the model using age-structured and dynamic biomass models. The hypotheses corresponded to de-recruitment of older individuals, non-linearity between standardized catch per unit effort, and population abundance as well as variations of the relative importance of length structures. According to the results, the depletion of the spawning biomass between 1998 and 2008 varied between 9 and 56%, depending on the combination of hypotheses used in the model. This indicates that state variables in alfonsino are not robust to the available information; rather, they depend strongly on the hypothesis of population dynamics. The discussion is focused on interpreting the causes of the changes in the state variables in light of a conceptual model for population dynamics in alfonsino and which pieces of information would be necessary to reduce the associated uncertainty.El alfonsino (Beryx splendens es una especie asociada a montes submarinos. En Chile sustenta una importante pesquería en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (33°40'S, 79°00'W. Desde el año 2004, este recurso es administrado a través de cuotas anuales de capturas, las cuales son estimadas desde un modelo de evaluación de stock. La modelación de la población de alfonsino se caracteriza por una alta incertidumbre, debido a diversas fuentes, como son desconocimiento de aspectos de su din

  16. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [Agricultural College, Henan University of Science and Technology, 70 Tianjin Road, Luoyang, Henan Province 471003 (China) and Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)]. E-mail: wfy1975@163.com; Lin Xiangui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China); Yin Rui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens.

  17. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fayuan; Lin Xiangui; Yin Rui

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens

  18. Effects of CaCl2 solutions to alleviate drought stress effects in potted ornamentals Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jędrzejuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedding plants are often subjected to soil water deficit – either after planting and/or during the market chain. Methods to alleviate the negative water stress effects are sought for to preserve ornamental values of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of two bedding plants, Ageratum houstonianum Mill. and Salvia splendens Sellow ex Scult., to water stress and treatments with calcium chloride aimed to alleviate drought effects. Plants were subjected either to 45 days of periodical stress (five cycles when watering was off for 5 consecutive days, followed by four cycles on for 5 consecutive days or 10 days of radical drought (complete water withdrawal. On the first day, before the onset of drought, plants were watered with 0.5% Ca or 1% Ca w/v as a solution of calcium chloride (5 g or 10 g Ca per 1 dm3 of the growing substrate. The similarly Ca-treated but routinely watered plants provided controls to evaluate the water shortage effects. Plant height, inflorescence length/number, leaf number, leaf area (in Salvia splendens only, aboveground plant part weight, and root weight (in Salvia splendens only as well as leaf relative water content (RWC were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiments. Water withdrawal during 10 days of growth (radical drought reduced by half RWC in leaves of withering Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum plants. Its effects on the growth parameters were less pronounced and mitigated by Ca applications. Also in the periodically stressed plants of both species, RWC and most growth parameters were reduced by water shortage but Ca applications alleviated the negative stress effects.

  19. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant ...

  20. BI VULPECULAE: A SIAMESE TWIN WITH TWO VERY SIMILAR COOL STARS IN SHALLOW CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, N.-P.; He, J.-J.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; Wang, J.-J.; Li, L.-J.; Jiang, L.-Q. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P. O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Li, K., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)

    2013-11-01

    BI Vul is a cool eclipsing binary star (Sp. = K3 V) with a short period of 0.2518 days. The first charge-coupled device (CCD) light curves of the binary in the BVRI obtained on 2012 August 21 are presented and are analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is discovered that BI Vul is a marginal contact binary system (f = 8.7%) that contains two very similar cool components (q = 1.037). Both the marginal contact configuration and the extremely high mass ratio suggest that it is presently evolving into contact with little mass transfer between the components and it is at the beginning stage of contact evolution. By using all available times of minimum light, the variations in the orbital period are investigated for the first time. We find that the observed – calculated (O – C) curve of BI Vul shows a cyclic change with a period of 10.8 yr and an amplitude of 0.0057 days, while it undergoes a downward parabolic variation. The cyclic oscillation is analyzed for the light-travel time effect that arises from the gravitational influence of a possible third stellar object. The mass and orbital separation of the third body are estimated as M {sub 3} ∼ 0.30 M {sub ☉} and ∼4.9 AU, respectively. The downward parabolic change reveals a long-term period decrease at a rate of P-dot = -9.5 x 10{sup -8} days yr{sup –1}. The period decrease may be caused by angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind and/or it is only a part of a long-period (longer than 32 yr) cyclic variation, which may reveal the presence of another stellar companion in a wider orbit. These observational properties indicate that the formation of the Siamese twin is driven by magnetic braking and the third stellar companion should play an important role by removing angular momentum from the central binary.

  1. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  2. The impact of weather conditions on dynamics of Hylocomium splendens annual increment and net production in forest communities of forest-steppe zone in Khakassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Goncharova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of annual increments of green moss Hylocomium splendens (Hedw. Schimp. in B.S.G. in the Khakassia forest-steppe zone has been studied. The values of the moss linear and phytomass increments were investigated in different habitats for 6 years. The aboveground annual production of the H. splendens in phytocenosis was estimated. Linear increments of the H. splendens growing under the tree canopy and opening between trees were not significantly different. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are significantly higher than in the openings between trees. The density of moss mats, proportion between leaves and stems were calculated. It was revealed that climatic factors have a different degree and duration influence on the moss increments in different habitats. Linear increments of H. splendens in different habitats synchronously respond to weather factor changes. The air temperature was the most important at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period; the amount of precipitation was more important in the middle of the growth period. Phytomass increments of H. splendens in different habitats respond differently to influence of weather conditions. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are not sensitive to air temperature, and more sensitive to precipitations in the middle of growth period than one of opening between trees. The specificity of the climatic factors’ influence on the biomass growth depends on habitat conditions.

  3. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Pontes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, natural products with antifungal and antioxidant activities are being increasingly researched for a more sustainable alternative to the chemicals currently used for the same purpose. The plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata is a causative agent of diseases in citrus, leading to huge economic losses. Antioxidants are important for the production of medicines for various diseases that may be related to the presence of free radicals, such as cancer, and in the cosmetic industry as an anti-aging agent and the food industry as preservatives. This study evaluated the antifungal and antioxidant potential of extracts of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens, a tree species that occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by an assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, and the antifungal activity was assessed through the evaluation of mycelial growth. Majority of the extracts exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, especially the acetonic extract (4A. The antioxidant activity may be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the extracts showed no inhibitory activity of mycelial growth of the fungus tested, with the exception of dichloromethanic extract (2B, which had an inhibitory effect (10.2% at the end of testing.

  5. Fighting for the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    ‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good......The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...... deployment and the processes of militarization at home. Drawing on ethnographic examples from recent fieldwork among women, children, and soldiers at different stages of deployment, the article demonstrates how soldiers and their families attempt to live up to ideals about parenthood and family by creating...

  6. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactive effects of copper stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorphyl fluorescence parameters of elsholtzia splendens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Jin, Z.; Li, J.

    2017-01-01

    To determine interactive effects of added copper (Cu) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the photosynthesis of Elsholtzia splendens, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted. Four treatments were used, including -Cu-AMF (no Cu addition and no AMF inoculation), +Cu-AMF (Cu addition but no AMF inoculation), -Cu+AMF (no Cu addition and AMF inoculation), and +Cu+AMF (Cu addition and AMF inoculation). Cu addition did not change diurnal variation curves of the net photosynthetic rate(PN), the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci), the stomatal conductance (gs), or the transpiration rate (E); however, it significantly decreased the daily mean PN, gs, E, light-use efficiency (LUE), and carboxylation efficiency (CE). Furthermore, AMF inoculation significantly increased the daily mean PN, gs, LUE, and CE of E. splendens. In response to light, Cu addition significantly decreased the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (PNmax), the light saturation point (LSP), the light compensation point (LCP), and the apparent quantum yield (AQY), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax and AQY. In response to the CO/sub 2/ concentration, Cu addition significantly decreased PNmax and the CO/sub 2/ saturation point (CSP), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax. Both Cu addition and AMF inoculation significantly decreased the relative chlorophyll content. Compared to the negative control treatment (-Cu-AMF), Cu addition significantly increased the minimal fluorescence, but significantly decreased maximal fluorescence, variable fluorescence,and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. These results suggest that AMF inoculations alleviate the inhibitory effect of copper stress on E. splendens plants by weakening its toxic effects on the photosynthetic apparatus and pigments. (author)

  8. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  9. Leaf litter is essential for seed survival of the endemic endangered tree Pouteria splendens (Sapotaceae from central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Sotes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouteria splendens (A.DC. Kuntze, the Chilean lúcumo, is an endemic tree and the only member of the Sapotaceae family in Chile. It is considered an endangered species as a consequence of its restricted distribution and small population size. Currently, individuals of P. splendens are immersed in a heterogeneous landscape with rocky mounds and plains located in areas densely populated by humans. Natural regeneration in the species seems to be low, despite the fact that plants are able to produce fruits. The species produces brightly colored fleshy drupes. There is no information about the dispersal pattern and the fate of the seeds. In this work we investigate (i the seed dispersal pattern and (ii the effect of tree canopy and the presence of leaf litter on seed survival, both in rocky mounds and plains. Results indicated an extremely low distance of seed dispersal, with most of the seeds falling down under the canopy. Seed survival under the canopy without leaf litter was very low and even zero in rocky mounds. Nevertheless, the presence of leaf litter covering the seeds increased survival in both habitats. Outside the canopy, seed survival only increased in plains. We suggest that future conservation programs should focus on protecting both adult plants and leaf litter under trees.

  10. Survival of Betta splendens fish (Regan, 1910) in domestic water containers and its effectiveness in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae (Linnaeus, 1762) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    In Northeast Brazil, large domestic containers used to store water are important breeding sites of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Betta splendens (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) fish in domestic containers in Fortaleza (Ceará State), as well as its effectiveness in the control of premature A. aegypti stages. The use of B. splendens was compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in domestic containers. In a first home visit, B. splendens or Bti were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 and 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. Betta splendens fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. When the fish was present, the infestation rate was significantly higher (P containers, but that appropriate measures should be taken to assure prolonged survival and the presence of fish in the containers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Cardiorespiratory physiological phenotypic plasticity in developing air-breathing anabantid fishes (Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, Jose F; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-08-01

    Developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology in response to chronic hypoxia is poorly understood in larval fishes, especially larval air-breathing fishes, which eventually in their development can at least partially "escape" hypoxia through air breathing. Whether the development air breathing makes these larval fishes less or more developmentally plastic than strictly water breathing larval fishes remains unknown. Consequently, developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology was determined in two air-breathing anabantid fishes ( Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus ). Larvae of both species experienced an hypoxic exposure that mimicked their natural environmental conditions, namely chronic nocturnal hypoxia (12 h at 17 kPa or 14 kPa), with a daily return to diurnal normoxia. Chronic hypoxic exposures were made from hatching through 35 days postfertilization, and opercular and heart rates measured as development progressed. Opercular and heart rates in normoxia were not affected by chronic nocturnal hypoxic. However, routine oxygen consumption M˙O2 (~4  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour in normoxia in larval Betta ) was significantly elevated by chronic nocturnal hypoxia at 17 kPa but not by more severe (14 kPa) nocturnal hypoxia. Routine M˙O2 in Trichopodus (6-7  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour), significantly higher than in Betta , was unaffected by either level of chronic hypoxia. P Crit , the PO 2 at which M˙O2 decreases as ambient PO 2 falls, was measured at 35 dpf, and decreased with increasing chronic hypoxia in Betta , indicating a large, relatively plastic hypoxic tolerance. However, in contrast, P Crit in Trichopodus increased as rearing conditions grew more hypoxic, suggesting that hypoxic acclimation led to lowered hypoxic resistance. Species-specific differences in larval physiological developmental plasticity thus emerge between the relatively closely related Betta and Trichopodus Hypoxic rearing increased hypoxic tolerance in

  12. Siameses toracópagos: presentación de caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G.I. González Cortés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de gemelos unidos (siameses toracópagos atendidos en el Hospital General de Ecatepec “Las Américas”. El caso fue detectado al nacimiento, que se presentó a las 33 semanas de gestación. La malformación no fue diagnosticada de forma oportuna, a pesar de haberse efectuado estudios ultrasonográficos obstétricos durante la gestación. Ante la dificultad de ofrecer una separación quirúrgica exitosa, así como por el grado de malformación, es de gran importancia el diagnóstico precoz para así ofrecer una mejor atención a los neonatos y la protección de la fertilidad futura de la madre. Se realizó una revisión en la literatura sobre los aspectos relacionados con la etiopatogenia y diagnóstico de esta malformación.

  13. Methods and means of sodium fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemskij, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Methods and means for coaling sodium fire fighting are analyzed. Their advantages and drawbacks are considered. Comparative data on sodium fire fighting using some of considered compositions are presented. High efficiency of self-expanding compositions (Grafeks SK-23 and RS) is noted. Properties of MGS new composition for sodium fire fighting are considered. High fighting ability of the composition independent of burning metal layer width is shown. It is noted that fire fighting MGS efficiency decreases with growth of time of free fire burning which affects fire fighting methods. Technical means of powder delivery to burning sodium are reported

  14. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  15. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  16. Fight Bac! | Partnership for Food Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Fight Bac! Partnership for Food Safety Education Supporting consumers to & Symptoms Food Safety Glossary Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing Spanish Resources Food Safety Education Food Safety Education Month 2017 Don't Wing It The Story of Your

  17. Factores de interés referentes a la colonización de Haemagogus Splendens para experimentos de transmisión con virus de fiebre amarilla en el Laboratorio Factores de interés referentes a la colonización de Haemagogus Splendens para experimentos de transmisión con virus de fiebre amarilla en el Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorno-Mesa Ernesto

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available 1 o Se amplia la distribución geográfica de Haemagogus splendens, conocida hasta hoy, anotando su papel importante como probable vector en la naturaleza. 2 o H. splendens es la especie del genero Haemagogus que biológicamente representa el eslabón entre este genero y Aedes, por la gran similitud de su comportamiento en el laboratorio, con A. aegypti. 3 o Es la especie de más fácil determinación por las hembras. 4 o Se da una técnica para el transporte y posturas de huevos de las hembras de mosquitos. 1o The known geographic distribution of Haemagogus splendens is extended, and its role as a probable vector in natural conditions is established. 2 o H. splendens of all the species of Haemaqogus, is the one that seems to constitute a biological link between that genus and the genus Aedes. (Based on the great similarity of behavior with Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. 3 o The identification of females is most easy. 4 o A technique for egg laying and transportation of the adults is described.

  18. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...

  19. Morfofunctional parameters in judo's fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Sérgio Lopes Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of judo and the ample energy and neuromuscular demands, a whole process of competitive preparation must be directed to different physical capacities allowing the athlete to perform his combat actions with the best suitability possible. Mapping the  behaviour of a judo athlete from observations of behaviour units  in a real fighting situation would be a way of trying to identify the best topography or the best "aptitude" to achieve victory. The present investigation analysed the judo from the interactions of a real competition situation, aiming to verify, between winners and losers, possible differences or correlations between anthropometric parameters, motor performance and functional behaviours in a competitive situation. The results showed that: a the experience is decisive between winning or losing; b leg techniques are the most used between winners and losers, and losers use them more frequently; c there are different strategies between fights; d The energy cost in judo depends on the configuration of the fights. It is believed that such results can help coaches and athletes in guiding and rationalizing the training process in relation to performance determinants in judo.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF EUPHORBIA MILLI VAR. SPLENDENS (BOJER EX HOOK. URSCH & LEANDRI AND EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA WILLD. EX KLOTZSCH SPECIES LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study concerning the leaf structure of two Euphorbia species belonging to Euphorbiaceae family: Euphorbia milli var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook. Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch. Anatomically, the leaves of the studied species are quite similar in the basic structure. The petiole has a single-layered epidermis, a collenchyma tissue – hypodermis - and three collateral bundles embedded in a basic tissue. Differences occur concerning the relationship between the collateral bundles. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract petiole has almost the same structure as those of the leaf petiole. The blade is amphistomatic for Euphorbia milli var. splendes and hipostomatic for E. pulcherrima. The heterogeneous mesophyll is isobilateral in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade and bifacial in E. pulcherrima. The vascular system of the mid rib is represented by one collateral bundle for both species, more developed in Euphorbia milli var. splendens blade. Differences appear concerning the epidermal cells cuticle thickness, the type of mesophyll, the abundance of the non-articulated laticifers and the development of the vascular system. The Euphorbia pulcherrima bract has the same organization plan structure as the leaf blade but some features differences occur.

  1. Breaking Terrorists’ Will To Fight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    guillotine spreads in all of France and brings to justice all the traitors. There is no other means to inspire the...the end, we shall fight in France , we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we...deprivation: “Any ideology—even the very best, even Marxism -Leninism itself—is ineffective unless it is linked with objective realities, meets

  2. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  3. Female-Specific Specialization of a Posterior End Region of the Midgut Symbiotic Organ in Plautia splendens and Allied Stinkbugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Meng, Xian-Ying; Koga, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Many stinkbugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are associated with bacterial symbionts in a posterior region of the midgut. In these stinkbugs, adult females excrete symbiont-containing materials from the anus for transmission of the beneficial symbionts to their offspring. For ensuring the vertical symbiont transmission, a variety of female-specific elaborate traits at the cellular, morphological, developmental, and behavioral levels have been reported from diverse stinkbugs of the families Plataspidae, Urostylididae, Parastrachiidae, etc. Meanwhile, such elaborate female-specific traits for vertical symbiont transmission have been poorly characterized for the largest and economically important stinkbug family Pentatomidae. Here, we investigated the midgut symbiotic system of a pentatomid stinkbug, Plautia splendens. A specific gammaproteobacterial symbiont was consistently present extracellularly in the cavity of numerous crypts arranged in four rows on the midgut fourth section. The symbiont was smeared on the egg surface upon oviposition by adult females, orally acquired by newborn nymphs, and thereby transmitted vertically to the next generation and important for growth and survival of the host insects. We found that, specifically in adult females, several rows of crypts at the posterior end region of the symbiotic midgut were morphologically differentiated and conspicuously enlarged, often discharging the symbiotic bacteria from the crypt cavity to the main tract of the symbiotic midgut. The female-specific enlarged end crypts were also found in other pentatomid stinkbugs Plautia stali and Carbula crassiventris. These results suggest that the enlarged end crypts represent a female-specific specialized morphological trait for vertical symbiont transmission commonly found among stinkbugs of the family Pentatomidae. PMID:25636847

  4. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    OpenAIRE

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness gains for left-handers when involved in fights with right-handers, as being a minority would generate a surprise effect increasing the chance of winning. The finding that left-handers are overrepresen...

  5. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Allergies with Research and Information Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Director An interview with Anthony S. Fauci Are seasonal allergies on the rise? If so, why? There has ...

  6. Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Celebrities Gather to Fight Heart Disease Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Kit to offer community education programs on women's heart disease. Organize heart-health screening events and health fairs ...

  7. FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY IN THE OTOLITH WIDTH AND LENGTH OF ADULT TELEOST (Beryx splendens LOWE, 1834 (FAMILY: BERCIDAE COLLECTED FROM THE ARABIAN SEA COASTS OF SULTANATE OF OMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Albusaidi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry was described for the otolith width and length of adult teleost Beryx splendens. The results showed that the level of asymmetry of the otolith width was the highest among the two asymmetry values obtained for the otolith of B. splendens. For the otolith width character, the results showed that the level of asymmetry at its highest value in fish ranging in length between 191–200 mm and in its lowest value in fish ranging in length between 121–180 mm. For the otolith length, the highest value of asymmetry is noticed in fish ranging in length between 231–244 mm and the lowest value in fish within the length of 121–190 mm. The possible cause of the asymmetry in this species has been discussed in relation to different pollutants and their presence in the area. No trend of increase in the asymmetry values with the fish length was noticed for the otolith width, but there is a weak trend of increase with the fish length in case of otolith length character.

  8. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  9. Effects of nitrate on the diurnal vertical migration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and the photosynthetic capacity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, J.J.; Horrigan, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    A non-thecate dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium splendens, was studied in a 12 d laboratory experiment in 2.0 x 0.25 m containers in which light, temperature, and nutrients could be manipulated. Under a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, the dinoflagellates exhibited diurnal vertical migrations, swimming downward before the dark period began and upward before the end of the dark period. This vertical migration probably involved geotaxis and a diel rhythm, as well as light-mediated behavior. The vertical distribution of nitrate affected the behavior and physiology of the dinoflagellate. When nitrate was present throughout the container, the organisms resembled those in exponential batch culture both in C:N ratios and photosynthetic capacity (P/sub max/); moreover, they migrated to the surface during the day. In contrast, when nitrate was depleted, C:N ratios increased, P/sub max/ decreased, and the organisms formed a subsurface layer at a depth corresponding to the light level at which photosynthesis saturated. When nitrate was present only at the bottom of the tank, C:N ratios of the population decreased until similar to those of nutrient-saturated cells and P/sub max/ increased; however, the dinoflagellates behaved the same as nutient-depleted cells, forming a subsurface layer during the light period. Field measurements revealed a migratory subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer dominated by G. splendens. It was just above the nitracline during the day, and in the nitracline during the night, which concurs with our laboratory observations.

  10. Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

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    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in

  11. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  12. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed.

  13. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Fukushima

    Full Text Available The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus, two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr and barium (Ba showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed.

  14. Development of a HS-SPME-GC/MS protocol assisted by chemometric tools to study herbivore-induced volatiles in Myrcia splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Silva, Érica A; Saboia, Giovanni; Jorge, Nina C; Hoffmann, Camila; Dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary; Soares, Geraldo L G; Zini, Claudia A

    2017-12-01

    A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed and optimized for extraction and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of leaves and galls of Myrcia splendens. Through a process of optimization of main factors affecting HS-SPME efficiency, the coating divivnilbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/Car/PDMS) was chosen as the optimum extraction phase, not only in terms of extraction efficiency, but also for its broader analyte coverage. Optimum extraction temperature was 30°C, while an extraction time of 15min provided the best compromise between extraction efficiencies of lower and higher molecular weight compounds. The optimized protocol was demonstrated to be capable of sampling plant material with high reproducibility, considering that most classes of analytes met the 20% RSD FDA criterion. The optimized method was employed for the analysis of three classes of M. splendens samples, generating a final list of 65 tentatively identified VOC, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, phenol derivatives, as well as mono and sesquiterpenes. Significant differences were evident amongst the volatile profiles obtained from non-galled leaves (NGL) and leaf-folding galls (LFG) of M. splendens. Several differences pertaining to amounts of alcohols and aldehydes were detected between samples, particularly regarding quantities of green leaf volatiles (GLV). Alcohols represented about 14% of compounds detected in gall samples, whereas in non-galled samples, alcohol content was below 5%. Phenolic derived compounds were virtually absent in reference samples, while in non-galled leaves and galls their content ranged around 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Likewise, methyl salicylate, a well-known signal of plant distress, amounted for 1.2% of the sample content of galls, whereas it was only present in trace levels in reference samples. Chemometric analysis based on Heatmap associated

  15. Relationship between number and intensity of fighting: evidence from cow fighting tournaments in Valdostana cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle establish firm dominance relationships through ritualised fights. This study aimed at investigating behaviours involved in dominance relationships and effect of factors such as weight, age and repeated fighting experience in fighting dynamics. Subject of the study was the Valdostana breed, whose cows assess dominance relationships in traditional competitions. Tournaments consist in rounds in which cows interact in pairs to assess dominance. Only winners participate in subsequent rounds. An amount of 120 fights involving 145 cows was retained, and winners (51 cows were considered as focal individuals. An ethogram of agonistic interactions was established, including behaviours of different agonistic intensity as physical interactions (pushes, clashes, displays (threats, vocalisations, and non agonistic approaches. A transition diagram of behaviours showed a tendency to express firstly non agonistic approaches and lastly more aggressive clashes. A mixed linear model analysis on traits like competition intensity, duration, and type of behaviours expressed showed a significant effect of age difference on behaviours. However, the most important factor was the number of rounds performed: from the first to subsequent fights agonistic intensity and physical contacts increased, and displays reduced. This may be due either to the fact that more aggressive individuals were likely to be the winners, or that in higher rounds the opponents were more similar regarding fighting ability or aggressiveness and thus more intense fights occurred. The increased aggressiveness after repeated situations of competition suggests suggests that careful attention should be paid to welfare when animals are exposed to situations of high competition, like regrouping.

  16. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights : left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  17. Born to win? Testing the fighting hypothesis in realistic fights: left-handedness in the Ultimate Fighting Championship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, T.V.; Stulp, G.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the heritability of human left-handedness and its purported associations with fitness-lowering traits, the persistence of the minority of left-handedness in human populations is an evolutionary puzzle. The fighting hypothesis proposes that these negative fitness costs are offset by fitness

  18. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs.

  19. Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. (syn. M. fallax (Rich. DC. (Myrtaceae Essential Oil from Amazonian Ecuador: A Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scalvenzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we performed the chemical characterization of Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. (Myrtaceae essential oil from Amazonian Ecuador and the assessment of its bioactivity in terms of cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity as starting point for possible applicative uses. M. splendens essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID: the major components were found to be trans-nerolidol (67.81% and α-bisabolol (17.51%. Furthermore, we assessed the cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (breast, A549 (lung human tumor cell lines, and HaCaT (human keratinocytes non-tumor cell line through 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT test: promising results in terms of selectivity and efficacy against the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 of 5.59 ± 0.13 μg/mL at 48 h were obtained, mainly due to α-bisabolol. Furthermore, antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria were performed through High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC bioautographic assay and microdilution method: trans-nerolidol and β-cedren-9-one were the main molecules responsible for the low antibacterial effects against human pathogens. Nevertheless, interesting values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were noticeable against phytopathogen strains. Radical scavenging activity performed by HPTLC bioautographic and spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH approaches were negligible. In conclusion, the essential oil revealed a good potential for plant defense and anti-cancer applications.

  20. Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice A.; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.; Minkoua N., Jules R.; Asongu, Ndemaze; Tchamyou, Nina P.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of policy harmonization in the fight against terrorism in 53 African countries with data for the period 1980-2012. Four terrorism variables are used, namely: domestic, transnational, unclear and total terrorism dynamics. The empirical evidence is based on absolute beta catch-up and sigma convergence estimation techniques. There is substantial absence of catch-up. The lowest rate of convergence in terrorism is in landlocked countries for regressions pertaining to unclear terrorism (3.43% per annum for 174.9 years) while the highest rate of convergence is in upper-middle-income countries in domestic terrorism regressions (15.33% per annum for 39.13 years). After comparing results from the two estimation techniques, it is apparent that in the contemporary era, countries with low levels of terrorism are not catching-up their counterparts with high levels of terrorism. As a policy implication, whereas some common policies may be feasibly adopted for the fight against terrorism, the findings based on the last periodic phase (2004-2012) are indicative that country-specific policies would better pay-off in the fight against terrorism than blanket common policies. Some suggestions of measures in fighting transnational terrorism have been discussed in the light of an anticipated surge in cross-national terrorism incidences in the coming years.

  1. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  2. Date Fighting and Sexual Risk Behaviours among Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...

  3. High genetic diversity and demographic history of captive Siamese and Saltwater crocodiles suggest the first step toward the establishment of a breeding and reintroduction program in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorravis Lapbenjakul

    Full Text Available The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis and Saltwater crocodile (C. porosus are two of the most endangered animals in Thailand. Their numbers have been reduced severely by hunting and habitat fragmentation. A reintroduction plan involving captive-bred populations that are used commercially is important and necessary as a conservation strategy to aid in the recovery of wild populations. Here, the genetic diversity and population structure of 69 individual crocodiles, mostly members of captive populations, were analyzed using both mitochondrial D-loop DNA and microsatellite markers. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.924-0.971 and the mean expected heterozygosity across 22 microsatellite loci was 0.578-0.701 for the two species. This agreed with the star-like shaped topology of the haplotype network, which suggests a high level of genetic diversity. The mean ratio of the number of alleles to the allelic range (M ratio for the populations of both species was considerably lower than the threshold of 0.68, which was interpreted as indicative of a historical genetic bottleneck. Microsatellite markers provided evidence of introgression for three individual crocodiles, which suggest that hybridization might have occurred between C. siamensis and C. porosus. D-loop sequence analysis detected bi-directional hybridization between male and female individuals of the parent species. Therefore, identification of genetically non-hybrid and hybrid individuals is important for long-term conservation management. Relatedness values were low within the captive populations, which supported their genetic integrity and the viability of a breeding and reintroduction management plan. This work constitutes the first step in establishing an appropriate source population from a scientifically managed perspective for an in situ/ex situ conservation program and reintroduction of crocodile individuals to the wild in Thailand.

  4. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  5. How to pick a good fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, Saj-nicole A; Beyer, Damon

    2009-12-01

    Peace and harmony are overrated. Though conflict-free teamwork is often held up as the be-all and end-all of organizational life, it actually can be the worst thing to ever happen to a company. Look at Lehman Brothers. When Dick Fuld took over, he transformed a notoriously contentious workplace into one of Wall Street's most harmonious firms. But his efforts backfired--directors and managers became too agreeable, afraid to rock the boat by pointing out that the firm was heading into a crisis. Research shows that the single greatest predictor of poor company performance is complacency, which is why every organization needs a healthy dose of dissent. Not all kinds of conflict are productive, of course -companies need to find the right balance of alignment and competition and make sure that people's energies are pointed in a positive direction. In this article, two seasoned business advisers lay down ground rules for the right kinds of fights. First, the stakes must be worthwhile: The issue should involve a noble purpose or create noticeable--preferably game-changing--value. Next, good fights focus on the future; they're never about placing blame for the past. And it's critical for leaders to keep fights sportsmanlike, allow informal give-and-take in the trenches, and help soften the blow for the losing parties.

  6. EU’s Role in Fighting Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Maftei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International terrorism, a phenomenon with constant development, is today acertainty and has dramatically marked the beginning of this century and millennium. Thisproblem has reached a global dimension and it represents a concern to the entire internationalcommunity. Over the time, numerous international and regional regulations have been framed, inorder to prevent and combat terrorism. The European Union condemns terrorist acts andrecognizes the central role of the United Nations, in fighting against terrorism and promotingsecurity, as well as the contribution of the new NATO in what concerns the defense and securitypromotion. Europe has to act more firmly in order to consolidate the defense against terrorismand the European Union’s borders. At the same time, the European Union considers that only aconcerted and firm action from all the states and the major actors on the international scenewould lead to the identification of the solutions which can contribute to the efficient fight againstterrorism and, by these means, provide for the international peace and security. The proportion ofthe danger terrorism represents has turned the fight against this phenomenon in an internationalcommunity’s desideratum.

  7. Learning fire-fighting lessons after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Fire protection measures in Soviet nuclear power plants were set out in November 1987, in the Nuclear Power Plant Design Fire Protection Standards (VSN 01-87, USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy). The most important of these measures are. Avoiding as far as possible the use of combustible materials in plant structures and equipment. Dividing buildings and areas into suitable fire-fighting zones. Ensuring reliable fire protection of the control and safety systems. Protecting technical personnel from the dangers of a fire while they are performing essential accident-repair work and facilitating evacuation procedures (providing at least two evacuation routes and exits, anti-smoke protection of evacuation routes and control panel areas etc). Installing automatic fire-extinguishing and fire alarm systems. Providing various stationary facilities and equipment to assist the use of mobile fire-fighting appliances. In addition, a special fire-fighting division is being set up in every nuclear power plant while the first unit is still being constructed. These divisions work in close co-operation with the technical personnel management of the plant and with the bodies responsible for monitoring nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Overestimating Resource Value and Its Effects on Fighting Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan; Dugatkin, Aaron David

    2011-01-01

    Much work in behavioral ecology has shown that animals fight over resources such as food, and that they make strategic decisions about when to engage in such fights. Here, we examine the evolution of one, heretofore unexamined, component of that strategic decision about whether to fight for a resource. We present the results of a computer simulation that examined the evolution of over- or underestimating the value of a resource (food) as a function of an individual's current hunger level. In ...

  9. Book Review of Fight Club Written by Chuck Palahniuk

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Adityo Widhi

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this writing is to review Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. The writer will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this novel . The writer decided to choose Fight Club as final project because it is his favorite novel. Fight Club is a very interesting novel although it is hard to understand and disturbing because by showing the consumerism behaviour in this novel, Chuck Palahniuk tries to convey the message that the consumerism behaviour of society nowadays has become worse ...

  10. Fire fighting capability assessment program Darlington NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on the completion of work relating to the assessment of the capability of Darlington NGS to cope with a large fire incident. This included an evaluation of an exercise scenario that would simulate a large fire incident and of their fire plans and procedures which became the subject of interim reports as part of the process of preparing for the fire fighting and rescue exercise. Finally the execution of fire plans by Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS), as demonstrated by their application of human and material resources during a simulated large fire, was observed. 1 tab., 1 fig

  11. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  12. The fight against Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper strikes the balance of the fight against organic volatile compounds emissions in France and in Europe. The first part describes the influence of VOC on production of Ozone in troposphere and gives numerical data on permissive emission values in atmosphere. The second part describes french and european policy and regulations. The third part gives the principle methods and devices for COV measurement in the atmosphere. In the last part, effluents treatment is given: thermal incineration, catalytic incineration, adsorption on active carbon, biologic purification, condensation and separative processes on membrane

  13. Rapid weight gain in professional boxing and correlation with fight decisions: analysis from 71 title fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.

  14. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2014-10-07

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male-male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons.

  15. Fight against fuel poverty. Levers, stakes and expectations of the fight against fuel poverty in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payen, Luc; Pamart, Isabelle; Lacroix, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    'Is in fuel poverty a person who feels in his particular housing difficulties have the necessary energy supply to the satisfaction of basic needs due to the inadequacy of resources or its habitat conditions'. The rising cost of energy commodities in the late 2000's, added to the poor thermal quality an important part of French homes, has led to the emergence of fuel poverty in the public debate. Legislative recognition of these situations with the law 'Grenelle II' (from which is extracted the definition above) marked a decisive step in the fight against this complex problem. Affecting nearly 5 million households in France, fuel poverty is a major challenge for societies wishing to successfully achieve their energy transition. In this new publication, ENEA reports on the main levers of the fight against fuel poverty, the obstacles encountered and the needs for new solutions

  16. Zika virus: Can India win the fight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of public health importance transmitted by Aedes mosquito which also transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The disease has been spreading at an alarming rate in Africa, Pacific Islands, and the Americas. Given the expansion of environments where mosquitoes can live and breed, facilitated by urbanization and globalization, there is potential for major urban epidemics of Zika virus disease to occur globally. World Health Organization (WHO has declared Zika virus disease to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. Our failed attempts to control dengue epidemics in the past call for concern and we need to be to prepared to fight Zika virus before it arrives at our doors.

  17. Conjoined (Siamese) Twins in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year-old Zambian multiparous mother gave birth to a set of twins with two heads ... (symmetric or mirror image) but one twin attached with an incomplete foetus is known as hetropagtrs. (asymmetrical). Thoracopagus twins (joined at the chest).

  18. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when the karateka practiced the attack in fight zone. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA verified significant difference between the fight zone with points, H (10 = 29,49, p = 0,001. The Mann Whitney U test detected significant difference between the zone 5 with waza-ari versus all the zone. The greatest number of points in the fight zone was in agreement with the size of the fight zone. The central zone or zone 5 has 6x6 m, during the female kumite occurred more points, total of 68 waza-aris and 5 ippons. The study on the fight zone with points of the female kumite permits that the karateka has knowledge about the combat zones and guides the karateka before, during and after the female kumite. However, more studies should be done to confirm these findings.

  19. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  20. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs.

  1. Genome editing technologies to fight infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2017-11-01

    Genome editing by programmable nucleases represents a promising tool that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight infectious diseases. These nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and homing endonucleases, are molecular scissors that can be targeted at predetermined loci in order to modify the genome sequence of an organism. Areas covered: By perturbing genomic DNA at predetermined loci, programmable nucleases can be used as antiviral and antimicrobial treatment. This approach includes targeting of essential viral genes or viral sequences able, once mutated, to inhibit viral replication; repurposing of CRISPR-Cas9 system for lethal self-targeting of bacteria; targeting antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in bacteria, fungi, and parasites; engineering arthropod vectors to prevent vector-borne infections. Expert commentary: While progress has been done in demonstrating the feasibility of using genome editing as antimicrobial strategy, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as the risk of off-target mutations, the raising of escape mutants, and the inefficiency of delivery methods, before translating results from preclinical studies into clinical applications.

  2. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host’s metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC, a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  3. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  4. Your help is appreciated to fight Spam

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Service

    2004-01-01

    Spam problem constantly increases its severity: currently about 90% of e-mails received daily by CERN Mail servers are unsolicited messages - called ‘Spam' - and spammers are doing their best to bypass anti-spam filters. In these conditions, users' feedback is priceless. It allows the CERN Mail Service to improve Spam fighting performance, and of course reduce the number of received unsolicited mails. Outlook users should note the existence of ‘anti-Spam buttons': ‘Check Spam classification of an e-mail', ‘Update personal whitelist' and ‘Report Spam'. The ‘Report Spam' button is very important: it removes the selected Spam from your Inbox, and sends a copy to the CERN Mail Service. Those reports are used to build new filters nearly in real time; a new Spam might be blocked in less than 15 minutes! Therefore, every Outlook user is warmly encouraged to get rid of the Spam messages received in the Inbox folder by using the ‘Report Spam' button and not b...

  5. Microcredit -- an emerging tool for fighting poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A summit focusing on microcredit (small business, microenterprise, loans) as a means of fighting poverty was held February 3-4 in Washington; it was co-chaired by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and by Queen Sofia of Spain. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has long supported microenterprise and microfinance. The summit set a goal of reaching 100 million poor families over the next nine years. USAID Administrator Brian Atwood spoke concerning the need to involve the private sector in microfinance; previously loans had been financed outside of the mainstream financial system via nongovernmental organizations and credit unions funded mainly by governments and donors. USAID launched a Microenterprise Initiative in 1994 that has supported 150 programs in 45 countries, and that is expected to reach approximately 4 million families. Atwood said the microenterprise strategies were currently in use in nearly every country USAID supports in Latin America and Asia, and most countries in Africa; future efforts would concentrate on countries in Africa, in eastern Europe and in central Asia. Mrs. Clinton called microenterprise "an invaluable tool in alleviating poverty, promoting self-sufficiency, and stimulating the economy." Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin stated that the policy helped people help themselves by giving them the tools they needed to join the economic mainstream. Microcredit focuses on businesses with five or fewer workers; loans range from less than $100 to $10,000. More than half of the businesses are owned and operated by women.

  6. Therapeutic strategies to fight HIV-1 latency: progress and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manoto, Sello L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available —1112, 2017 Therapeutic strategies to fight HIV-1 latency: progress and challenges Sello Lebohang Manoto, Lebogang Thobakgale, Rudzani Malabi, Charles Maphanga, Saturnin Ombinda-Lemboumba, Patience Mthunzi-Kufa Abstract: The life...

  7. Fire fighting system for inflammable liquids and process using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, C.

    1988-01-01

    For fighting fires of flammable liquids, such as liquid sodium or hydrocarbons, a layer of floating spheres (cellular concrete or hollow metal) is maintained on the surface by a square or preferentially triangular-meshed metallic net [fr

  8. One Team, One Fight, One Future, Total Army Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...; and, most important, our vision for maintaining a trained and ready force. As the ideas in One Team, One Fight, One Future unfold, you will find the key themes of Total Army integration emerging again and again...

  9. Performance Evaluation of the Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalberer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ... of the location. The Combined Agent Fire Fighting System (CAFFS) employs innovations in nozzle design, lightweight composites and combination agents to design a system with extinguishment capabilities of much larger ARFF vehicles...

  10. Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deploying ICT with Entrepreneurship Culture can Fight Cyber-Crime Menace ... Again he innovates, introducing new products & technologies by the ... Keywords: Cyber-crimes, entrepreneurs, compupreneur, firewalls, computer forensics, ICT, ...

  11. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Xu; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for predicting fire frequency and burned area is developed in this paper to investigate the potential feasibility to predict fire behavior and fire-fighting expenses for the upcoming fire season using clim...

  12. Efeitos de hormônios esteroides de contraceptivos orais combinados sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens (Regan, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteroides presentes em várias gerações de contraceptivos orais combinados (COC podem se apresentar como disruptores endócrinos, produzindo alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia de peixes. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de hormônios esteroides presentes em COC sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens, um peixe ornamental usado na aquariofilia e bastante agressivo. Machos adultos foram observados pelo método ad libitum para confecção do etograma e divididos em cinco grupos, controle e expostos aos hormônios: 17β-estradiol (E2; levonorgestrel e etinilestradiol (LEA - segunda geração de COC; gestodeno e etinilestradiol (GEA - terceira geração de COC; e drospirenona e etinilestradiol (DEA - quarta geração de COC. Os peixes foram expostos por 30 dias à concentração final de 10ng/L. Foram avaliados os comportamentos pelos métodos de varredura instantânea e animal-focal, bem como o consumo de ração. No método varredura, o comportamento descansar apresentou o maior valor (54,4±10,1% no grupo E2 (P<0,05. Os comportamentos agressivos de carga (16,1±3,6% e recuar e carga (16,4±5,1% apresentaram os maiores valores no grupo controle em relação aos demais grupos (P<0,05. Os animais do grupo E2 apresentaram maior frequência de comportamentos inativos (76,1% comparados aos de outros grupos. O comportamento atípico natação errática não foi observado no grupo controle, mas foi observado nos grupos experimentais. Os grupos E2, LEA, GEA e DEA apresentaram redução nos comportamentos agressivos (10% quando comparados ao grupo controle pelo método animal-focal. Não foram observadas diferenças na exibição desses comportamentos ao se compararem os animais expostos às diferentes gerações de contraceptivos e no consumo de ração. Pode-se concluir que 17β-estradiol causou mais efeitos aos peixes e que diferentes gerações de COC apresentaram efeitos t

  13. Manual fire fighting tactics at Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    The general requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plant (NPP) are fire protection program, fire hazard analysis, and fire prevention features. In addition, specific fire protection requirements such as water supplies, fire detection, fire protection of safe related equipment, and safe shutdown capabilities must be provided. Particularly, manual fire fighting is required as specific requirements with the provisions to secure manual fire suppression, fire brigade and its training, and administrative controls for manual fire fighting. If a fire is alarmed and confirmed to be a real fire, the fire brigade must take manual fire fighting activities as requested at fire protection program. According to the present requirements in itself, there is not any specific manual fire fighting ways or practical strategies. In general, fire zones or compartments at NPPs are built in a confined condition. In theory, the fire condition will change from a combustible-controlled fire to a ventilation-governing fire with the time duration. In case of pool fire with the abundant oxygen and flammable liquid, it can take just a few minutes for the flash-over to occur. For the well-confined fire zone, it will change from a flame fire to a smoldering state before the entrance door is opened by the fire brigade. In this context, the manual fire fighting activities must be based on a quantitative analysis and a fire risk evaluation. At this paper, it was suggested that the fire zones at NPPs should be grouped on the inherent functions and fire characteristics. Based on the fire risk characteristics and the fire zone grouping, the manual fire fighting tactics are suggested as an advanced fire fighting solution

  14. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex Avaliação da estabilidade temporal, estacional e geográfica da ação moluscicida do latex da Euphorbia splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Torres Schall

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscicidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring, 1.02 ppm (fall, 1.09 ppm (winter, and 1.07 ppm (summer that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador, demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12ºC (lyophilized product. A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasisTestes de laboratório com soluções aquosas do látex da Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii demonstraram uma estabilidade estacional da atividade moluscicida do produto coletado na Ilha do Governador - RJ, encontrando-se as seguintes DL90: 1,14 ppm (primavera; 1,02 ppm (outono; 1,09 ppm (inverno e 1,07 ppm (verão sobre Biomphalaria tenagophila de campo. Ensaios com o látex da planta coletado em Belo Horizonte e Recife, identificaram DL90 semelhantes aos da substância de referência coletada no Rio, demonstrando uma estabilidade geográfica do efeito moluscicida. Usando diluições aquosas do latex in natura, centrifugado

  15. Rendimientos, estructuras de tallas y madurez sexual del alfonsino (Beryx splendens capturado en el cordón submarino de Juan Fernández, Chile Fishing yields, size structures, and sexual maturity of alfonsino (Beryx splendens caught on Juan Fernandez seamounts, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Guerrero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la información recopilada en lances comerciales para la captura de alfonsino (Beryx splendens realizados en montes submarinos del archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, entre los años 2001 y 2003, que corresponden a la etapa de desarrollo inicial de esta pesquería. En dicho período se efectuaron 187 lances, de los cuales en 121 se obtuvo la especie objetivo, capturándose 525,1 ton, que constituyeron el 99,2% de la captura total. Por la configuración irregular de los fondos, los lances de pesca se caracterizaron por su corta duración (0,26-0,50 h, a profundidad media de 469,7 m. En este periodo se analizaron 14.773 ejemplares, 6.064 machos (41% y 8.709 hembras (59%, evidenciando un predominio de hembras. La proporción sexual estructurada a la talla mostró un predominio de machos a tallas inferiores a 24 cm de longitud de horquilla (LH. En machos el tamaño medio fluctuó entre 34,6 y 36,8 cm de LH y en hembras entre 36,2 y 38,4 cm LH. Para determinar la madurez de las gónadas, se utilizó la escala macroscópica propuesta por Lehodey et al. (1997 y se estableció que los machos alcanzaron la primera madurez (TMS50% a 34,3 cm LH y las hembras a los 33,3 cm LH. Los rendimientos promedio en el período analizado correspondieron entre 0,2 y 6,6 ton lance-1 y entre 1,8 y 19,0 ton h.a.-1 , con medias de 4,3 ton lance-1 y 9,2 ton h.a.-1 .We analyzed information collected during commercial hauls targeting alfonsino (Beryx splendens on seamounts of the Juan Fernández Archipelago (Chile from the early stages of the fishery (2001-2003. Of the 187 hauls carried out in this period, 121 were successful; alfonsino catches reached 525.1 ton, constituting 99.2%> of the total catch. Due to the irregularity of the sea bottom, short (0.26-0.50 h fishing hauls were performed at mid-depth (469.7 m. We analyzed 14,773 specimens during the study period: 6,064 males (41% and 8,709 females (59%, the latter being predominan! The size structure was

  16. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  17. Genetic relatedness among wild, domestic and Brazilian fighting roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for the meat- and egg-type strains used in commercial poultry farms in Brazil, there are no scientific reports about the origin of birds from the genus Gallus that have been introduced in this country with domestication or fighting purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the position of the Brazilian Game Bird in the phylogenetic tree of the genus Gallus by nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. The results indicate that fighting roosters comprise two different clusters within the species Gallus gallus domesticus. One of the clusters is related to the wild ancestors, while the other one is more related to the birds raised by the poultry industry. In conclusion, Brazilian fighting roosters have originated from the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and belong to the subspecies Gallus gallus domesticus.

  18. Inclusion of people with disabilities through fights and martial arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carvalho da Silva Mocarzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating how the fights / martial arts were adapted for inclusion of people with disabilities in the social sphere as well as for rehabilitation and sports-competition. The analysis was initially made at the global level and later specific attention was paid to the Brazilian reality, through a narrative review of literature. The following fights / martial arts were considered: fencing, judo, karate, kung fu, boxing, taekwondo and capoeira. It was concluded that the fights / martial arts can contribute to combating social exclusion, contributing to the promotion of health, beauty and leisure and new talents in parasports can be discovered too. Further studies on the subject are needed.

  19. Adolescent Physical Fighting in Ghana, Their Demographic and Social Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived from the Republic of Ghana contributions to the Global School-based Health Survey. Three thresholds of participation in a physical fight during a 12-month recall period were compared against several independent sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analyses were used to screen for statistically significant associations and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine significant relationships while adjusting for covariates. Within the recall period, 32% of adolescents had reported being involved in two or more physical fights. Those involved in a physical fight during three or more days during the recall period were more likely to have been bullied (relative risk ratios (RRR = 1.86; 99% confidence intervals (CI: 1.38–2.52, have had a troubled experience with alcohol (RRR = 2.202; CI = 1.55–2.64, and miss days of school (RRR = 2.02; CI = 1.39–2.92. When adjusted only for age and sex, having understanding parents was protective (RRR = 0.64; CI = 0.53–0.78 as was having a positive school environment (RRR = 0.73; CI = 0.55–0.97. Our findings suggest that school-based programming which simultaneously targets multiple risk behaviors and conflict resolution may be helpful in interventions to reduce rates of physical fighting.

  20. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari) or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when ...

  1. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.

  2. Fighting Spam on the Sender Side: A Lightweight Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wouter Willem; Moreira Moura, Giovane; Pras, Aiko; Aagesen, Finn Arve; Knapskog, Svein Johan

    2010-01-01

    Spam comprises approximately 90 to 95 percent of all e-mail traffic on the Internet nowadays, and it is a problem far from being solved. The losses caused by spam are estimated to reach up to \\$87 billion yearly. When fighting spam, most of the proposals focus on the receiver-side and are usually

  3. Domestic Terrorism: Fighting the Local Threat with Local Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the game of fighting against a terrorism plot, waiting for an indication of a crime may be too late, the argument ran. Law enforcement needed more...such has a beauty salon selling chemicals or an Internet café with computers that have a browsing history of radical websites, those establishments

  4. Fighting poverty in developing countries: Should the focus be on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-23

    Feb 23, 2011 ... A first implication of these findings for the fight against poverty follows from the fact ... strategy should include policies aimed at ensuring women's income is ... but also by promoting their rights, whether by legalizing divorce or ...

  5. Overestimating resource value and its effects on fighting decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Alan Dugatkin

    Full Text Available Much work in behavioral ecology has shown that animals fight over resources such as food, and that they make strategic decisions about when to engage in such fights. Here, we examine the evolution of one, heretofore unexamined, component of that strategic decision about whether to fight for a resource. We present the results of a computer simulation that examined the evolution of over- or underestimating the value of a resource (food as a function of an individual's current hunger level. In our model, animals fought for food when they perceived their current food level to be below the mean for the environment. We considered seven strategies for estimating food value: 1 always underestimate food value, 2 always overestimate food value, 3 never over- or underestimate food value, 4 overestimate food value when hungry, 5 underestimate food value when hungry, 6 overestimate food value when relatively satiated, and 7 underestimate food value when relatively satiated. We first competed all seven strategies against each other when they began at approximately equal frequencies. In such a competition, two strategies--"always overestimate food value," and "overestimate food value when hungry"--were very successful. We next competed each of these strategies against the default strategy of "never over- or underestimate," when the default strategy was set at 99% of the population. Again, the strategies of "always overestimate food value" and "overestimate food value when hungry" fared well. Our results suggest that overestimating food value when deciding whether to fight should be favored by natural selection.

  6. Money Laundering and International Efforts to Fight It

    OpenAIRE

    David Scott

    1996-01-01

    According to one estimate, US$300 billion to US$500 billion in proceeds from serious crime is laundered each year. Left unchecked, money laundering could criminalize the financial system and undermine development efforts in emerging markets. The author reviews efforts by international bodies to fight it.

  7. Fighting Downtown: A Training Necessity for the Heavy Brigade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Concept Technology Demonstration, and the Army Transformation Urban Franchise exploration of future operations.”57 CAMTF has identified three...fighting in a downtown area with tall buildings and underground sewers and or subways , but it must also apply to the outlying urban sprawl that is now

  8. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, Darusalam; Janssen, Marijn; Baldoni, Matteo; Baroglio, Cristina; Micalizio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper we

  9. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, D.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper

  10. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  11. The fight against terrorism. The lists and the gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tappeiner, I.U.

    2005-01-01

    Although not a new issue, the fight against terrorism did not rise to the top of the agenda of the European Union (EU) and its Member States until after September 11. Interesting in this context is the phenomenon of blacklisting. Persons, organizations and ‘entities’ were put on several

  12. Fire fighting capability assessment program Bruce B NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This is a report on the completion of work relating to the assessment of the capability of Bruce B NGS to cope with a large fire incident. This included an evaluation of an exercise scenario that would simulate a large fire incident and of their fire plans and procedures. Finally the execution of fire plans by Bruce B NGS, as demonstrated by their application of human and material resources during a simulated large fire, was observed. The fire fighting equipment and the personal protective clothing and associated equipment that was in use was all of good quality and in good condition. There had also been notable improvement in communications equipment. Similarly, the human resources that had been assigned to fire fighting and rescue crews and that were available were more than adequate. Use of a logical incident command system, and the adoption of proper policy and procedures for radio communications were equally significant improvements. Practice should correct the breakdowns that occurred in these areas during the exercise. As well, there remains a need for the development of policy on fire fighting and rescue operations with more depth and clarity. In summary, the key point to be recognized is the degree of improvement that has been realized since the previous evaluation in 1990. Clearly the Emergency Response Teams organization of Bruce B NGS is evolving into an effective fire fighting force. Providing that the deficiencies identified in this report are addressed satisfactorily, Fire Cross is confident that the organization will have the capability to provide rescue and fire fighting services that will satisfy the need. 2 figs

  13. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  14. Fighting Human Trafficking in the European Union: A master’s thesis on the ability of EU law to fight trafficking in women for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Stine Piilgaard Porner

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery. The EU continuously seeks to strengthen its fight against this crime, latest with the Directive on Prevention, Combat and Protection adopted in April 2011. But to what extent is the EU able to fight human trafficking through law? Human trafficking is a complex problem which can be assessed from different perspectives. The EU primarily addresses the fight against human trafficking through criminal law, and this thesis investigates the e...

  15. Perceived aggressiveness predicts fighting performance in mixed-martial-arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebicky, Vít; Havlícek, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Accurate assessment of competitive ability is a critical component of contest behavior in animals, and it could be just as important in human competition, particularly in human ancestral populations. Here, we tested the role that facial perception plays in this assessment by investigating the association between both perceived aggressiveness and perceived fighting ability in fighters' faces and their actual fighting success. Perceived aggressiveness was positively associated with the proportion of fights won, after we controlled for the effect of weight, which also independently predicted perceived aggression. In contrast, perception of fighting ability was confounded by weight, and an association between perceived fighting ability and actual fighting success was restricted to heavyweight fighters. Shape regressions revealed that aggressive-looking faces are generally wider and have a broader chin, more prominent eyebrows, and a larger nose than less aggressive-looking faces. Our results indicate that perception of aggressiveness and fighting ability might cue different aspects of success in male-male physical confrontation.

  16. Estratégia de coalimentação na sobrevivência e no crescimento de larvas de Betta splendens durante a transição alimentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Fosse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do período de coalimentação na sobrevivência e no crescimento de larvas de Betta splendens. As larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia durante sete dias e, posteriormente, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: jejum contínuo; ração contínua; quatro dias de coalimentação + 14 dias de ração; oito dias de coalimentação + 10 dias de ração; 12 dias de coalimentação + seis dias de ração; náuplios de Artemia durante todo o período experimental. Os valores das variáveis de desempenho das larvas do tratamento 12 dias de coalimentação + seis dias de ração e do tratamento náuplios de Artemia foram superiores aos demais tratamentos, exceto para sobrevivência, em que não houve diferença significativa com o tratamento oito dias de coalimentação + 10 dias de ração. Considerando-se apenas o tempo de oferta de Artemia (em dias, obteve-se a equação de regressão para as variáveis analisadas. A sobrevivência e a taxa de crescimento específico (TCE apresentaram efeito quadrático, e as demais variáveis apresentaram efeito linear. O ponto de máxima para sobrevivência foi de 21,7 dias (88,92% e para TCE foi de 26,2 dias (23,47% dia-1. O período de co-feeding influencia no crescimento e na sobrevivência de larvas de Betta splendens. Após o período de 19 dias de oferta de alimento vivo, com 12 dias de coalimentação, as larvas estão aptas a aproveitar de maneira eficiente o alimento inerte sem prejuízos ao crescimento e à sobrevivência.

  17. University Mathematics Education, Competencies and the Fighting of Syllabusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Syllabusitis is a name for a disease that consists of identifying the mastering of a subject with proficiency related to a syllabus. In this paper I argue that using a set of mathematical competencies as the hub of mathematics education can be a means to fight syllabusitis. The introduction and t...... proven to be a crucial element when attempting to put the competency idea into educational practice, and exemplify how that can be done when it comes to mathematics education at university level.......Syllabusitis is a name for a disease that consists of identifying the mastering of a subject with proficiency related to a syllabus. In this paper I argue that using a set of mathematical competencies as the hub of mathematics education can be a means to fight syllabusitis. The introduction...

  18. Fighting for and losing or gaining control in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T

    1997-01-01

    In JP Henry's work, fighting for and losing control were important concepts in the interpretation of energy mobilization in psychosocial conditions. Attachment and support were important protective and salutogenic factors. These concepts have been applied in a series of epidemiological and psychophysiological real life studies. Job conditions which force the worker to mobilize energy and concomitantly inhibit anabolism could be identified at least partly by means of the demand-control-support model originally proposed by Karasek. The most adverse conditions at work arise when psychological demands are high and at the same time the decision latitude is low. This combination is associated with changes in the regulation of endocrine parameters as well as with increased morbidity--heart disease, functional gastrointestinal symptoms and musculoskeletal disorders. Examples of studies of physiological correlates of psychosocial processes leading to fight for control are also described from outside work activities.

  19. A new Spam fighting rule: Reverse SMTP Connect

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Service Team

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Mail Service is constantly improving Spam Fighting rules to minimize the number of Spams (unsolicited mails) delivered to the Inbox. On Wednesday 6th October, a new rule will be activated, the "Reverse SMTP Connect": if we cannot connect to the sender's mail server, we will not accept the mail (see http://cern.ch/mmms/Help/?kbid=171030 for details). According to intensive tests, we expect to reject 25% of mails that we currently accept, without generating false positives. Currently, around 90% of the mails received by CERN Mail gateways are Spams, 85% of these Spams are automatically rejected, using basic rules. As usual, statistics on Spam fighting, Mail traffic and Help pages can be found on the Mail Service site: http://cern.ch/mmm, and don't hesitate to report any problem that could be related to this new rule to Helpdesk@cern.ch (phone 78888). CERN Mail Service Team

  20. Avaliação do impacto na infestação por Aedes aegypti em tanques de cimento do município de Canindé, Ceará, Brasil, após a utilização do peixe Betta splendens como alternativa de controle biológico Evaluation of the impact on Aedes aegypti infestation in cement tanks of the municipal district of Canindé, Ceará, Brazil after using the Betta splendens fish as an alternative biological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Góes Cavalcanti Pamplona

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canindé apresenta uma população de 71.235 habitantes. Em abril de 2001 iniciou a utilização de peixes larvófagos em tanques de cimento, localizados ao nível do solo, como forma de controle biológico para larvas de Aedes aegypti. Durante a visita do agente, ao invés de se tratar os tanques com larvicida, colocou-se um espécime do peixe Betta splendens por depósito. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os resultados desta intervenção. Com os levantamentos do número de imóveis e depósitos existentes, estimou-se este número mês a mês determinando então o número de depósitos existentes por imóvel. Com esta estimativa e o número de imóveis visitados mensalmente analisou-se a infestação deste tipo de depósito. Em janeiro de 2001, 70,4% dos tanques examinados apresentavam larvas; e apenas 7,4% em janeiro de 2002. Em dezembro de 2002 este índice caiu para 0,2%. Demonstrou-se com clareza a capacidade do Betta splendens como agente de controle biológico, em tanques de cimento, reduzindo 320 vezes a infestação deste tipo de recipiente de grande volume.Canindé has a population of 71,235 inhabitants. In April 2001, the city started using larvivorous fish in cement water tanks, as a means of biological control of Aedes aegypti larvae. During house-to-house visits by health agents, instead of treating the water tank with larvicide, a Betta splendens fish was introduced into each tank. The number of houses and the number of tanks was estimated by monthly surveys. Then, the number of tanks per house was determined. Taking into account this estimated number and the number of houses visited, the infestation level for each kind of deposit was analyzed. In January 2001, 70.4% of the water tanks presented mosquitoes. Following the intervention, in January 2002 only 7.4% were positive and by December 2002 the rate had dropped to 0.2%. The efficacy of Betta splendens as a biological control agent in cement water tanks was

  1. Drugs offshore: companies stepping up fight against hidden adversary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redden, J.

    1986-01-01

    Oil companies worldwide are effectively fighting a growing nemesis, drug and alcohol abuse on offshore installations. It is estimated that companies are losing millions of dollars in lost productivity, accidents, and thefts caused by on-the-job use of illegal drugs. Some of the measures being employed to combat the use of such drugs, e.g., tight control, better communications, diversions for employees, and the use of sniffer dogs, are discussed.

  2. Lanchester's attrition models and fights among social animals

    OpenAIRE

    Eldridge S. Adams; Michael Mesterton-Gibbons

    2003-01-01

    Lanchester's models of attrition during warfare have served as the basis for several predictions about conflicts between groups of animals. These models and their extensions describe rates of mortality during battles as functions of the number and fighting abilities of individuals in each group, allowing analysis of the determinants of group strength and of the cumulative numbers of casualties. We propose modifications to Lanchester's models to improve their applicability to social animals. I...

  3. Choosing Fighting Competitors Among Men: Testosterone, Personality, and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Rantala, Markus J; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity. Participants completed three personality questionnaires and donated two saliva samples (pre-test and post-test sample) to quantify their testosterone levels. We found that the probability of choosing high-dominant masculine men as rivals increased with higher aggressiveness scores. In Study 2, the task of choosing rivals was accompanied by motivations to fight (pictures of women with high or low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). In this context, we observed that the probability of choosing dominant masculine men as rivals depended on the WHR of the women. Overall, average levels of post-test testosterone, aggressiveness, and high self-esteem increased the probability to fight for women with low WHR independently of the dominance masculinity of the rivals. Our results indicate that human decisions, in the context of intrasexual competition and mate choice, are regulated by physiological and psychological mechanisms allowing men to increase their biological fitness. We discuss our results in the light of the plasticity of human behavior according to biological and environmental forces.

  4. Human trafficking: fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Louise; Bain, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and lead...

  5. Fighting software piracy: Which governance tools matter in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio R. Andrés; Simplice A. Asongu

    2012-01-01

    This article integrates previously missing components of government quality into the governance-piracy nexus in exploring governance mechanisms by which global obligations for the treatment of IPRs are effectively transmitted from international to the national level in the battle against piracy. It assesses the best governance tools in the fight against piracy and upholding of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs). The instrumentality of IPR laws (treaties) in tackling piracy through good gover...

  6. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  7. Fighting Networks: The Defining Challenge of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    fighting networks, different skills allow for increased operational complexity. Lawrence and Lorsch found that organizations in more uncertain...Uncertainty in the Face of Risk,” in Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior, ed. Robert Hindle and Jo Groebel (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991...simplistic to describe al-Qaeda as a guerrilla organization as they have transcended traditional practices by their skilled utilization of the network form

  8. Fighting Software Piracy: Some Global Conditional Policy Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A; Singh, Pritam; Le Roux, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the efficiency of tools for fighting software piracy in the conditional distributions of software piracy. Our paper examines software piracy in 99 countries for the period 1994-2010, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. The intuition for modelling distributions contingent on existing levels of software piracy is that the effectiveness of tools against piracy may consistently decrease or increase simultaneously with increasing levels of software pir...

  9. Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

  10. African-American and Latino Parents��� Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents��� perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, t...

  11. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PLAY FIGHTING TO THE EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan TRIFA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Play fighting is a form of behavior in which partners compete with each other to gain an advantage. Behavior during play fighting largely resembles the behavior in a real fight, where partners encounter, push and pull down onto the ground, trying to get into a position whereby to control or to dominate the opponent. In the play, unlike the fight, movements are exaggerated and performed at a lower intensity, muscles being somewhat less tensed, and certain actions that can cause injury to the partner are inhibited or modified, while offensive-defensive roles will be reversed quite frequently. Play fighting can be considered a type of evolutionary adaptation designed to facilitate those experiences that will shape the cognitive and emotional development necessary for living in social communities. Research undertaken on different mammal species shows that play fighting offers many opportunities for expression and decoding emotions, improves emotional regulation and contributes to the development of coping mechanisms.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these docume...

  13. Nuclear war-fighting strategy for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation concerns a strategy for fighting and winning a nuclear war. Despite the conventional wisdom that nuclear war is suicidal and occurs only as a result of irrationality, this study analyzes nuclear war as a rational policy option. It is necessary to suggest the radical proposition that nuclear war, like traditional military campaigns, is a political action. Thus, nuclear war can be in the national interest. Further, the countervalue strategy of Mutually Assured Destruction is questioned because city destruction serves no conceivable political or military objective

  14. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  15. Fire fighting precautions at Bohunice Atomic Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Some shortcomings are discussed of the project design of fire protection at the V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. The basic shortcoming of the system is insufficient division of the units for fire protection. Fire fighting measures are described for cable areas, switch houses and outside transformers, primary and secondary circuits and auxiliary units. Measures are presented for increasing fire safety in Jaslovske Bohunice proceedi.ng from experience gained with a fire which had occurred at a nuclear power plant in Armenia. (E.S.)

  16. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastari, Plinio Mario

    1993-01-01

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country

  17. Application of tracers in the fight against hydrological pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.; Margrita, R.

    1978-01-01

    A statement is made on the laboratory know-how in the field of the applications of tracers in the fight against hydrological pollution. In surface hydrology it concerns the determination of the self-purifying powers of watercourses and the treatment of a certain number of problems relating to the transfer of polluting substances to the hydrographical system. In hydrogeology, the various studies made and being made deal with the transfer of water, a vector of pollution, with the interaction of polluting agents with the porous environment, and thus with the general problem of the protection of underground water catchments [fr

  18. Gender and Poverty Fight: the Family Donation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian social assistance policy is guided by the perspective of poverty fight efforts, which prioritize the conditioned income transfer. These programs privilege the income transfer to women and involve them in a net of obligations and conditions, as it is done in the Family Donation Program. The practice within Family Donation Program highlights some contradictions between the State actions and the feminist demands, especially those concerning the motherhood problem. This is thus a core question for the dialogue between the feminism and the social policies sponsored by the State.

  19. Computer-aided system for fire fighting in an underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiek, F; Sikora, M; Urbanski, J [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa

    1989-01-01

    Discusses structure of an algorithm for computer-aided planning of fire fighting and rescue in an underground coal mine. The algorithm developed by the Mining Institute of the Wroclaw Technical University consists of ten options: regulations on fire fighting, fire alarm for miners working underground (rescue ways, fire zones etc.), information system for mine management, movements of fire fighting teams, distribution of fire fighting equipment, assessment of explosion hazards of fire gases, fire gas temperature control of blower operation, detection of endogenous fires, ventilation control. 2 refs.

  20. Army Attack Aviation Returning to the Close Fight: Impact of the MOUT Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tate, Frank

    2001-01-01

    .... attack helicopters and their employment, an analysis of the modern threat environment which indicates a strong likelihood of fighting in urban environments, a review of existing aviation doctrine...

  1. [MPOWER--strategy for fighting the global tobacco epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that tobacco use may cause death of 5 million people in 2008, which is higher than the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria taken together. By 2030, the number of deaths related to the tobacco epidemic could exceed annually even 8 million. Despite many difficulties, a growing number of countries undertake intensive actions aimed at tobacco control. The objective of this paper was to discuss the major objectives of the MPOWER Report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The MPOWER package consists a set of six key and most effective strategies for fighting the global tobacco epidemic: 1) Monitoring tobacco consumption and the effectiveness of preventive measures; 2) Protect people from tobacco smoke; 3) Offer help to quit tobacco use; 4) Warn about the dangers of tobacco; 5) Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and 6) Raise taxes on tobacco. It is proven that these strategies implemented in the compatible way, effectively decreases tobacco use. In addition, MPOWER comprises epidemiological data, information on implemented tobacco control measures and their efficiency. MPOWER is the only one document of a somewhat strategic nature that is a source of information on the spread of tobacco epidemic, as well as of suggestions concerning specific actions for supporting the fight against this epidemic.

  2. Medicine and science in the fight against doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, D H; Fitch, K D; Ljungqvist, A

    2008-08-01

    The fight against doping in sports commenced as a result of the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games in 1960. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) established a Medical Commission (IOC-MC) which had the task of designing a strategy to combat the misuse of drugs in Olympic Sport. Some International Sport Federations (IF) and National Sports Federations followed suit, but progress was modest until the world's best male sprinter was found doped with anabolic steroids at the Olympic Games in Seoul in 1988. Further progress was made following the cessation of the cold war in 1989 and in 1999 public authorities around the world joined the Olympic Movement in a unique partnership by creating WADA--the 'World Anti-Doping Agency'. The troubled history of the anti-doping fight from the 1960s until today is reviewed. In particular, the development of detection methods for an ever increasing number of drugs that can be used to dope is described, as are the measures that have been taken to protect the health of the athletes, including those who may need banned substances for medical reasons.

  3. African-American and Latino Parents’ Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents’ perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial. PMID:27186064

  4. African-American and Latino Parents' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents' perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial.

  5. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed... specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire extinguishing equipment. * * * * * * * * * * * This Halon 1211 has subsequently been used to fill certain FFE [Fire Fighting Enterprises] portable...

  6. The effect of a 10-week Zulu stick fighting intervention programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on the study that investigated the influence that traditional martial arts of Zulu stick fighting has on body composition of prepubescent males. A sample of fortyfive children were divided into an experimental group (n=22) which underwent a ten week stick fighting intervention programme facilitated by two ...

  7. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)......Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)...

  8. Private Satisfactions and Public Disorders: "Fight Club," Patriarchy, and the Politics of Masculine Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the narrative structure of the film "Fight Club," addressing its critique of consumerism and its celebration of masculinity. Addresses the representational politics that structure the movie, especially its deeply conventional views of violence, gender relations, and masculinity. Considers the role that "Fight Club" and other cultural…

  9. Liegnitzer, Hundsfeld or Lew? The question of authorship of popular Medieval fighting teachings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquet Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In numerous 15th and 16th century Fightbooks several sets of teachings appear alongside the glosses of Liechtenauer’s Epitome on armoured fighting and fighting on horseback (Harnischfechten and Rossfechten often enough to be considered auctoritas on these subjects. However, their authorship from various witnesses are attributed to different authorial figures - Andreas Liegnitzer, Martin Hundsfeld, Jud Lew.

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30...

  11. Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cardinale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LA concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01 from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01 at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  12. Equality of sexes would help AIDS fight. Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Women in many countries have no control over their sexual and reproductive lives. As such, they are at great risk of exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and AIDS. AIDS experts who met before the UN's World Population Day on July 11, 1996, called for a broad-based campaign to fight the disease, and argued that greater effort should be made to change imbalances between the sexes and to persuade the corporate sector to become more involved. AIDS rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa where prostitution is widespread and women are traditionally seen as husbands' property. Since a medical cure for AIDS remains some way off, women in developing countries need to have more power to control their own lives. Improving women's status will require education among and employment for women, as well as education and a change in attitude in the general public.

  13. Masculinity and violence in David Fincher’s "Fight Club"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Ituarte Pérez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address a hermeneutic approach to David Fincher’s Fight Club. Inspired by some of the methodological principles of Psychoanalysis and Queer Theory the study tries to thresh the details of the representation of Masculinity in the film. Departing from the hypothesis that such representation in the film is closely linked to the masculine castration anxiety, the essay traces the recurrent and more or less parodic, more or less subliminal allusions to emasculation as well as the fetishistic compensatory strategies displayed. The analysis concludes that the overwhelming mise en scène of the masculine Oedipal scenario in the film pursues to underpin an hegemonic discourse of Masculinity threatened by the taboo of Homosexuality. Hence, the prominent erotisization of masculine masochism reveals itself, in all its ambivalence, as a performative strategy to institutionalise a heteronormative sexual regime.

  14. From the art of war to fight with art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    systems theory with art. Martin Nore through his visual art develops and activistic form of system theory, where therapeutic intervention turns into societal self-therapy for broken meaning horizons and unintended consequences of the current massage of the form peace/war. The activistic systems...... theoretical art, the "artivistic" perspective developed from the broken minds of war experiences, diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury. Since then, it has broadened the perspective to demonstrate its capacity to work with the distinction between civil society and its...... outside. This is the fight with art, where the predominant selfdescriptions in western societies are questioned on their selflimitations and insufficient strategies of deparadoxation. In Martins art, the paradox of the structural coupling of body, mind and society as both distinct from each other...

  15. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS IN FIGHTING ORGANISED CRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminal activities and organised crime became the main generators of social and state instability in the recent years, much more that the wars. They generate significant illegal money and need to launder this money so that they can be integrated into the legitimate financial system. Economic and financial crimes that called white collar crimes, typically has diffuse costs to society and concentrated benefits for the perpetrators. The social expectations are that the auditors should play an effective role in reducing, if not eliminating, these crimes.New auditing standards require auditors to take a proactive approach to assessing whether management has in place appropriate systems and controls to manage the risk of fraud.This paper shed light on nature, impacts and types of economic and financial crimes, and then the role of auditing profession in fighting against them.

  16. Fighting against VOC emissions; Lutter contre les emissions de COV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines d' Ales, 30 (France); Puech, G. [APAVE, 75 - Paris (France); Patoux, R. [Rhodia Rhoditech (France)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    This document brings together 15 testimonies of experts about the processes used in the industry for the abatement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The different points approached concern: the first industrial experiments of fight against VOC emissions, how to audit the facilities, how to make a diagnosis, to hierarchized and to measure continuously VOC emissions, how to anticipate the explosion risks linked with VOC treatment processes, the techniques of VOC abatement at the source implemented by industrialists, the implementation of an emission mastery scheme by Crow Cork and Seal company, the implementation of a solvent management plan by Turbomeca company and of a paints strategy by Renault car-making company, the combination of VOC abatement techniques implemented by industrialists, the classification of destruction and recovery processes: the experience feedback of Sanofi Synthelabo and of Air Liquide companies, the combination of upstream and downstream techniques implemented by Pechiney Rhenalu, Ashland Polyester and Quebecor companies. (J.S.)

  17. Embodying 'health citizenship' in health knowledge to fight health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Groleau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wishes to contribute to the debate around citizen participation in health system decision-making that has been present internationally for the last 30 years. I argue that if we aim to change health inequalities, health professionals and planners need to understand the illness and health service experience of citizens. The concept of 'health citizenship' introduced here refers to health knowledge that integrates the lay knowledge of patients and that this integration is translated into health actions such as clinical communication and the planning of health care, programs, and policy. We illustrate our argument with the two cases: health literacy and the promotion of breastfeeding in a Canadian population living in context of poverty. This paper then concludes by addressing the leadership role, Brazilian graduate nursing schools can play in promoting 'health citizenship' and by doing so, contribute to fight health inequalities.

  18. Monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke

    2010-10-01

    With the high demand of fire control in spacious buildings, computer vision is playing a more and more important role. This paper presents a new monitoring system of multiple fire fighting based on computer vision and color detection. This system can adjust to the fire position and then extinguish the fire by itself. In this paper, the system structure, working principle, fire orientation, hydrant's angle adjusting and system calibration are described in detail; also the design of relevant hardware and software is introduced. At the same time, the principle and process of color detection and image processing are given as well. The system runs well in the test, and it has high reliability, low cost, and easy nodeexpanding, which has a bright prospect of application and popularization.

  19. Foam formation in low expansion fire fighting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Lucy Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the foam generation mechanisms involved in producing foam from a low expansion fire fighting branchpipe. The investigation was carried out using scale models of branchpipes, and a high-speed video camera was used to study the formation of the foam. The experiments provided evidence of three possible methods of bubble formation within this type of system: Stage 1 - Mixing within the branchpipe; Stage 2 - Air entrainment and bubble growth during the flight of the jet; Stage 3 - Aeration produced from the collision of the high speed jet onto a surface. Each stage is described in detail and the mechanism which has the greatest effect on the expansion ratio of the foam produced has been determined. The relevance of these findings to the design of branchpipes is discussed. (author)

  20. Performance Evaluation Facility for Fire Fighting Thermal Imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Chan; Amon, Francine; Hamins, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the characteristics of obscuring media inside an optical smoke cell, which is a bench-scale testing facility for the evaluation of thermal imaging cameras used by fire fighters. Light extinction coefficient and visibility through the smoke cell is characterized by the measured laser transmittance. The laser transmittance along the axial direction of the smoke cell is relatively uniform at upper and lower part for various air/fuel volume flow rate. Contrast level based image quality of visible CCD camera through the smoke cell is compared with that of thermal imaging camera. The optical smoke cell can be used as well-controlled and effective laboratory-scale test apparatus to evaluate the performance of thermal imaging camera for fire fighting application

  1. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  2. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  3. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  4. Global prevention, funding, accountability debated in fight against HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-18

    World leaders, physicians, economists, governmental health organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers attended the Third International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-threatening Illnesses in Vienna, Austria. The conference participants discussed the economic, ethical, and human rights issues underlying health care resource allocation. Some highlights of the meeting included: the prevention strategies in fighting AIDS virus; the use of high medical ethical standards; the affordability and accessibility of essential therapies; the economic aspects affecting the medical assistance mechanisms; the need to improve the pharmaceutical industry; the need to improve HIV/AIDS care access in developing countries; promoting the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines; and developing rapid diagnosis of HIV.

  5. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioflan, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  6. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  7. Aerial wildfire fighting: history, current situation, problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bryukhanov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays aviation is among the most effective ways of early detection and suppression of wildfires. At the moment for the aerial wildfire fighting a few dozen models of aircraft are used worldwide, which are regularly modernized and renewed. In this article, authors give information about the history of fighting wildfires from the air, as well as analyze the current state of the issue with the use of aircraft and helicopter airtankers for firefighting, both at international level and in the territory of the Russian Federation. It is revealed that the most popular in the world still are the ground-based firefighting aircraft (regardless of the class of the carrying capacity. Amphibious firefighting aircraft now exist only in light (carrying capacity up to 5 tons and in medium type (capacity up to 15 tons. Among the helicopter aviation, heavy firefighting helicopters are mostly widely spread, as well as medium multipurpose helicopters, which are, apart from suppression, involved into delivery of people and goods to forest fire sites. The article is devoted to the main directions, according to which the development of aircraft tanker equipment abroad and in Russia occurs. The attention is directed to the most promising developments, and specific recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the fire aviation usage in Russia are given. Based on the studies carried out, a conclusion is drawn that for different countries there can be promising different types of firefighting aircraft, considering their landing field infrastructure, characteristics of forests and hydro systems, as well as the total area of the forest fund.

  8. Redistribution and Education Subsidies are Siamese Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Jacobs, B.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a model of human capital formation with endogenous labor supply and heterogeneous agents to explore the optimal level of education subsidies along with the optimal progressive schedule of the labor income tax and optimal capital income taxes.Subsidies on education ensure efficiency in

  9. Siamese crocodile plasma synergizes with ceftazidime against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sent for review: 27 April 2017 ... Methods: Protein fractions were from crocodile plasma and tested them on CREnC strains. ... viability curves, membrane permeability assays, enzyme assays, and transmission electron microscopy. ... This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or ...

  10. How Do Siamese Cats Get Their Color?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Amber; Kenyon, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    When asked about protein, students often mention meat, protein bars, and protein's role in building muscles. Many students are not aware of the most basic function of protein: linking genes and traits. Because of its importance in molecular genetics, protein function is included in the life sciences section of the "Next Generation Science…

  11. Immobilization of fish chromatophores for use as a micro-biosensor for biological toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojović Ljiljana V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatophores isolated from the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens represent a class of living cells that provide a vivid color response to microbial pathogens and environmental toxins. The selection of the most appropriate microcarrier and the development of the optimal technique for the chromatophore immobilization in order to enable directed transport of the sensor cells throughout microchannels of the biosensor, as well to preserve the cell survival and its functionality was studied. Microcarriers derived from glass, polystyrene and gelatin (collagen were tested as substrates for chromatophore attachement. Gelatin microcarriers were found to be the most suitable, due to high attachment efficiency (95% of attached cells, preservation of the cell viability and enhanced cell sensitivity. The optimum conditions for fish cell immobilization on collagen microcarriers were determined based on the cell-to-microcarrier bead ratio and the pH of the solution. The rate of cell attachment to the gelatin microcarrier followed first-order kinetics. Pretreatment of the gelatin beads with fibronectin, known as a cell attachment-promoting agent, resulted in a 10% higher attachment rate constant (k.

  12. Perfection of technical and tactical preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryak V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of innovative hike is considered to upgrading preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight. 58 sportsmen of section of hand-to-hand fight took part in research. Age of sportsmen are from 17 to 22 years. Developed and approved the most effective technical and tactical charts of construction of duel with the opponents of different styles of single combats. It is well-proven that offered approach instrumental in development of operative thought and adaptation to sparring of hand-to-hand fight.

  13. Being involved in an everlasting fight - a life with postnatal faecal incontinence. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johanne; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2010-01-01

    fight was identified. Three main categories Fighting to be like others, Fighting against attitudes and Striving for confirmation with six sub categories depict the constant struggle to not only keep up an appearance of a normal, healthy person, but also to feel like one. The women described feelings...... of shame and marginalization and expressed a strong need of support and confirmation from husbands and private network in order to cope better with their lives. Conclusions and clinical implications: Health care professionals must inform women at risk about the effects of the injury and inform them about...

  14. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. How to fight terrorism? Political and strategic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vad, Erich

    2018-04-01

    "Fighting terrorism is like eating soup with a fork" (Shimon Peres). Peres's quote symbolically captures the key problem of countering terrorism. 9/11 proved to be a hallmark in the global perception of modern terrorism. The following questions form the framework of the present essay: What is the essence of modern terrorism? How did it develop during the past two decades? Who are the key players within the terror framework? What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately with the global phenomenon of terrorism? Are there any solutions (short-, medium-, long-term) to terrorism? If yes, where do we have to look for them? The underlying essay provides a strategic overview of antiterrorism policy that is based on the author's years-long experience as a high-level expert and advisor within the security policy framework. For this reason, citations are expressly not included. The key target audience comprises laypersons interested in the phenomenon of global terrorism and its social interplay.

  16. Fighting Child Pornography: A Review of Legal and Technological Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Eggestein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our digitally connected world, the law is arguably behind the technological developments of the Internet age.  While this causes many issues for law enforcement, it is of particular concern in the area of child pornography in the United States.  With the wide availability of technologies such as digital cameras, peer-to-peer file sharing, strong encryption, Internet anonymizers and cloud computing, the creation and distribution of child pornography has become more widespread. Simultaneously, fighting the growth of this crime has become more difficult.  This paper explores the development of both the legal and technological environments surrounding digital child pornography.  In doing so, we cover the complications that court decisions have given law enforcement who are trying to investigate and prosecute child pornographers.  We then provide a review of the technologies used in this crime and the forensic challenges that cloud computing creates for law enforcement.  We note that both legal and technological developments since the 1990s seem to be working to the advantage of users and sellers of child pornography.  Before concluding, we provide a discussion and offer observations regarding this subject.

  17. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemenz, G J; Hu, W; Wereley, N M

    2009-01-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  18. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for the expeditionary fighting vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemenz, G J [Techno-Sciences, Inc., 11750 Beltsville Dr. Ste. 300, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Hu, W; Wereley, N M [Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20712 (United States)], E-mail: greg@technosci.com, E-mail: wereley@umd.edu

    2009-02-01

    The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) is an amphibious vehicle designed to operate through harsh conditions and at much higher speeds than its predecessors. These unique capabilities and broadly varying operational conditions lead to a complex design and human factors scenario for the forward seating positions that cannot be solved using conventional passive seat suspension systems. Injurious shock loads transmitted to the occupants when traversing over water in high sea states and/or at high speeds, as well as harmful shock and vibration transmitted to the occupants when the vehicle is travelling over land, pose a threat to occupant health and significantly limit mission duration. In this study, a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) seat suspension is developed which adapts to broadly varying operational conditions, as well as occupant weight, to provide optimal protection of EFV occupants. It is shown that this MR seat suspension system will reduce the shock and vibration transmitted to the occupant by up to 33% and 65%, respectively, as compared to the existing passive suspension.

  19. Fighting African Capital Flight: Empirics on Benchmarking Policy Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With earthshaking and heartbreaking trends in African capital flight provided by a new database, this paper complements existing literature by answering some key policy questions on the feasibility of and timeframe for policy harmonization in the battle against the economic scourge. The goal of the paper is to study beta-convergence of capital flight across a set of 37 African countries in the period 1980-2010 and to discuss the policy implications. Three main findings are established. (1 African countries with low capital flight rates are catching-up their counterparts with higher rates, implying the feasibility ofpolicy harmonization towards fighting capital flight. (2 Petroleum-exporting and conflict-affected countries significantly play out in absolute and conditional convergences respectively. (3 Regardless of fundamental characteristics, a genuine timeframe for harmonizing policies is within a horizon of 6 to 13 years. Inother words, full (100% convergence within the specifiedhorizon is an indication that policies and regulations can be enforced without distinction of nationality or locality.

  20. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Tsvetkova

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  1. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  2. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  3. Organizing for Emergencies - Issues in Wildfire Fighting in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia's accession to the European Union implies inevitable changes in the national emergency management system. New requirements for adjustment in accordance with the EU standards and practices also apply to the fire-services organization. Harmonious functioning of a large number of relatively autonomous organizations related to the National Protection and Rescue Directorate necessitates clear decision-making authority and coordination mechanisms as well as a high level of interoperability and core competencies development. This paper gives an overview of the Croatian fire protection organization along with its accompanying legislation, followed by an analysis of identified problems, especially those concerning fighting of wildfire. In our research a survey questionnaire comprised of Likert-scale items was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of trained fire department members. The respondents reported a relatively low evaluation of effectiveness and appropriateness of the following key fire service attributes: organizational structure, legislation and firefighting logistics support. From the obtained results guidelines can be drawn for possible redesign of the emergency management organization, especially those concerning the fire protection service.

  4. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Fight Against Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussed and written on the benefits of entrepreneurship education, as well as the importance of early access to this type of learning. But how can entrepreneurship education train and inspire the next generation of anti-trafficking leaders? How can entrepreneurship also be a driver for prevention and a source of economic stability for those at-risk and survivors of human trafficking? At present, there are entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs-in-training at multiple age levels coming from a variety of backgrounds, incomes, and circumstances who will develop groundbreaking strategies and solutions in the fight against trafficking. These current and future entrepreneurs can also provide fresh perspectives to those in government and business while building more effective tri-sector coalitions and partnerships that address human trafficking. This article explores how and why entrepreneurship can be a key vehicle for social change and innovations in combating human trafficking, along with providing a multi-ingredient recipe of prosperity for those most vulnerable.

  5. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT: Improved Planning Will Help Agencies Better Identify Fire-Fighting Preparedness Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Each year, wildland fires on federal lands burn millions of acres of forests, grasslands, and desert, and federal land management agencies expend hundreds of millions of dollars to fight these fires...

  6. Fight against the greenhouse effect. From the local to the international action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the fight against the greenhouse gases emissions, the local government are directly concerned. This sheet aims to explain the greenhouse effect, the kyoto protocol, the french national policy and to orientate the local actions. (A.L.B.)

  7. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these documents is to ensure the required level of  fire safety. On the basis of the obtained results concerning  economic analysis of efficiency optimization directions are defined for selection of technical means of fire-fighting protection at objects of industrial purpose.

  8. Florence Nightingale would have taken on the political fight, and so should we.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Michael

    2016-05-11

    I agree with Mike Travis' comments (letters April 20) about the role and responsibilities of the trade union movement, and those of the RCN in caring for and fighting politically on behalf of nurses at all levels.

  9. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  10. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie D Walsh

    Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  11. Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption-control levels matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across African countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To assess these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Design/methodology/approach – The panel quantile regression technique enables us to investigate if ...

  12. Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential in the Fight against Soil Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-28

    Soil Loss Equation ( USLE ) and Wind Erosion Equation can be used with a reasonable degree of accuracy. It is the intention of ASCS to expand VC/SL to...HD-R37 495 AGRICULTURE’S SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAMS MISS FULL i/i POTENTIAL IN THE FIGHT.(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC RESOURCES...GENERAL Report To The Congress OF THE UNITED STATES Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential In The Fight Against Soil Erosion

  13. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  14. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tobacco industry's ITGA fights FCTC implementation in the Uruguay negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary

    2012-11-01

    To illustrate how the tobacco industry' front group, the International Tobacco Growers Association (ITGA), mobilised tobacco farmers to influence the fourth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP4) negotiations and defeat the adoption of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Articles 9 and 10 Guidelines and Articles 17 and 18 progress report. A review of COP4 documents on Articles 9, 10, 17 and 18 was triangulated with relevant information from tobacco industry reports, websites of British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International and ITGA, presentations by tobacco industry executives and internal industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website. Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco rejected Articles 9 and 10 draft Guidelines claiming that banning ingredients in cigarettes will render burley leaf less commercially viable making tobacco growers in many countries suffer economic consequences. They claimed the terms 'attractiveness' and 'palatability' are not appropriate regulatory standards. The ITGA launched a global campaign to mobilise farmers to reject the draft Guidelines at COP4 in Uruguay. Tobacco producers, Brazil, Philippines, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe, sent large delegations to COP4 and participated actively in the negotiation on the draft Guidelines. Partial Guidelines on Articles 9 and 10 on product regulation and disclosure were adopted. COP4's work on Article 17 provides guidance on viable alternatives, but the ITGA is opposed to this and continues fight crop substitution. Despite ITGA's international campaign to thwart the Guidelines on Articles 9 and 10 and a strong representation from tobacco-growing countries at COP4, the outcome after intense negotiations was the adoption of Partial Guidelines and work on Articles 17 and 18 to proceed.

  16. B-cell-mediated strategies to fight chronic allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Dalloul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after one year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of tolerant vs effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic

  17. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  18. Law Enforcement Against Fighting Group By Native In West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Indira Ratih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental research conducted by looking at the phenomenon of group fights and how ethnocentrism and conflict influence each other indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua. This study used descriptive qualitative method, through field studies (in-depth interviews and literature study. The results showed that with a low level of understanding of the history of the conflict supported ever experienced by the perpetrators of communication, there is a trend of negative information transformation process to be effective. So as to absorb the negative information, aspects of ethnocentrism group members appear. The emergence of these aspects lead to the awareness and solidarity groups to join forces in-group. Other findings also showed that the factors causing conflict among indigenous ethnic groups in West Papua can be summarized in two points, namely; The first tendency puts another group at a level lower social interaction, and the second is the attempt appointment of existence itself by an ethnic group seeking recognition coupled behavior (respect from inside and outside the group by scapegoating other groups. In the indigenous ethnic group communication, attitude and behavior aspects play a role in the formation of a negative message, based on the main factors. The tendency of formation of the group because of its frequency along the occurring hereditary. Related conflict and ethnocentrism, can be drawn that the results of the analysis found the substance also major causal relationship. Where, a communal conflict can result from the manifestation of ethnocentrism aspects into forms of behavior conflict. In contrast with the presence of conflict can also strengthen or weaken ethnocentrism.

  19. The fight against terrorism. The lists and the gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Tappeiner

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although not a new issue, the fight against terrorism did not rise to the top of the agenda of the European Union (EU and its Member States until after September 11. Interesting in this context is the phenomenon of blacklisting. Persons, organizations and ‘entities’ were put on several international lists for the main purpose of freezing their financial assets and prosecuting them. At the start of the chain are the lists compiled by the Security Council of the United Nations (UN which are followed by those of the European Union. The Member States have an obligation to comply with these UN and EU measures at national level and to implement them against the persons listed. The position of individuals who are so unfortunate as to have been named and therefore marked as terrorists is weak, especially when they appear on EU lists. Weak, in the first place, due to a lack of delisting procedures which could lead to the removal of one’s name from the list in case it becomes clear that an error has been made. Weak, in the second place, due to the particular system of division of competences between the first, second and third pillar laid down in the legislative instruments used by the EU Council. And weak, finally, due to the mechanisms of judicial protection, both at national and European level, which seem to fail whenever individuals in some way challenge measures adopted against them as a result of the appearance of their name on a list or because of being named in the first place.

  20. Multi-stream face recognition for crime-fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2007-04-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) is a challenging task that is increasingly becoming the preferred biometric trait for identification and has the potential of becoming an essential tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras have increasingly been used over the last few years for surveillance in public places such as airports, train stations and shopping centers. They are used to detect and prevent crime, shoplifting, public disorder and terrorism. The work of law-enforcing and intelligence agencies is becoming more reliant on the use of databases of biometric data for large section of the population. Face is one of the most natural biometric traits that can be used for identification and surveillance. However, variations in lighting conditions, facial expressions, face size and pose are a great obstacle to AFR. This paper is concerned with using waveletbased face recognition schemes in the presence of variations of expressions and illumination. In particular, we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for a multi-stream face recognition using various wavelet subbands as different face signal streams. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face veri.cation scheme for implementation on mobile devices. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of face databases including a new AV database recorded on a PDA. By analyzing the various experimental data, we shall demonstrate that the multi-stream approach is robust against variations in illumination and facial expressions than the previous single-stream approach.

  1. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-04-01

    A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.

  2. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    To fight the looming cancer crisis in Africa, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is assembling many of the world's leading cancer experts in Cape Town on 11-16 December. Cancer is a disease that is spreading very fast in the developing world and the IAEA has come to realize that we need to do much more to combat cancer in this part of the world, says IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in a video address to the conference. I hope this event will be the first of many events that would enable us to work together - national governments, international organisations, civil society - to help combat this dreadful disease and provide quality of life to our fellow human beings. With the support of African Nobel Laureates Nelson Mandela, Archbishop Desmond Tutu and F.W. de Klerk, this unprecedented gathering will bring together senior representatives from major national and international cancer organisations. Together with leading public figures and specialists they will assess the growing cancer burden in Africa and focus on building effective cancer control programmes at the national and regional levels. The IAEA is sponsoring the intensive workshops using funds awarded for the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize. The IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy, or 'PACT', was established in 2004 to help achieve these goals. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT aims to help get more cancer treatment facilities up and running in the world's developing regions, along with the trained personnel to operate them. 'PACT' is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level. This includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis and palliation, and more importantly education and training of professionals, says PACT Head Massoud Samiei. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed in the next 10 to 15 years if the

  3. Sufficient Social Support as a Possible Preventive Factor against Fighting and Bullying in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Vaičiūnas, Tomas; Lukoševičiūtė, Justė; Malinowska-Cieślik, Marta; Melkumova, Marina; Movsesyan, Eva; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2018-04-26

    Background: This study aims to explore how sufficient social support can act as a possible preventive factor against fighting and bullying in school-aged children in 9 European countries. Methods : Data for this study were collected during the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. The sample consisted of 9 European countries, involving 43,667 school children in total, aged 11, 13 and 15 years. The analysed data focus on social context (relations with family, peers, and school) as well as risk behaviours such as smoking, drunkenness, fighting and bullying in adolescents. The relationships between social support and violent behaviour variables were estimated using multiple regression models and multivariate analyses. Results : Bullying, across 9 countries, was more prevalent than fighting, except for Armenia, Israel, and Poland. The prevalence among countries differed considerably, with fighting being most expressed in Armenia and bullying—in Latvia and Lithuania. The strongest risk factors for bullying and fighting were male gender (less expressed for bullying), smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, for bullying the social support was similarly strong factor like above-mentioned factors, while for fighting—less significant, but still independent. All forms of social support were significantly relate with lower violent behaviour of school children, and family support was associated most strongly. Regardless the socioeconomic, historical, and cultural differences among selected countries, the enhancement and reinforcement of the social support from possible many different resources should be taken into consideration in prevention programs against school violence behaviours.

  4. Psychophysiological states and special performance of boxers with different styles of fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Aksutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The style of the fight is one of the important factors that affect the quality of the arts in boxing. Particularly important factor in the modern boxing are the mental processes that are involved in forecasting and analyzing the situation that arises in the ring and are associated with cognitive functions. Purpose - to examine the psychophysiological state and a special performance for skilled boxers with different styles of input match. Material : 22 highly qualification boxer aged 18-23 years were studies. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Definition of special performance and power strokes performed on a special simulator. Recorded the absolute and relative strength of serial and single strikes. Results : The results show that the attacking style of the fight in boxing is accompanied by the presence of a high level of efficiency, reduction of fatigue, anxiety, and depending on the condition of vegetative functions. Showed a reduction in the growth of autonomy and heteronomy in the structure of psycho-physiological state of boxers with the attacking style of the fight, which indicates the presence of compromise and avoidance of external failures. Conclusions : Boxers with attacking style of fight characterized by high values of the left side impact forces and reduce the values of the right direct strike force, compared with boxers protective style of fight.

  5. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  6. Pushing through evolution? Incidence and fight records of left-oriented fighters in professional boxing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    The fighting hypothesis proposes that left-oriented athletes enjoy a negative frequency-dependent advantage in combat sports such as boxing. Supporting evidence, however, is restricted to cross-sectional frequency data from small samples. Here, we examined the incidence and fight records of 2,403 left- and right-oriented fighters who were listed in the annual ratings of professional boxing from 1924 to 2012. Unexpectedly, left-oriented boxers were overrepresented in no more than 7 of the 89 years considered, their percentages varied up to 30% and increased over the entire period, and frequencies varied substantially between weight divisions. In support of the fighting hypothesis, lose-win ratios indicated larger fighting strength in left- compared to right-oriented boxers, which, however, was not reflected in different proportions of wins and losses by knockout. Our findings are partly consistent with an assumed left-oriented fighters' advantage in combat sports. Such advantage could be explained by negative frequency-dependent selection mechanisms; however, our study also revealed potential limits of the fighting hypothesis such that alternative explanations cannot be fully excluded. We propose that interference by factors not related to performance could also limit the suitability of data from elite sporting competition for testing evolutionary models of human handedness.

  7. 'Fighting for care': parents' perspectives of children's palliative care in South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Philip; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Lochner, Lukas; Messerschmidt-Grandi, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    Children's palliative care in Italy develops comparatively slowly. Recent legislation is enabling, but foundational research exploring parental experiences and perceptions is lacking. To investigate the experiences and perceptions of parents in South Tyrol, Italy regarding caring for a child with a life-threatening or life-limiting illness. A mixed qualitative design incorporated both an online survey and parent interviews. Using purposive sampling, 13 parents undertook 9 interviews and 7 parents completed the survey. The authors highlight a major parental theme describing difficult relationships with health services requiring them to 'fight the system' for services. The authors raise a disturbing possibility that such 'fighting the system' is now so widely recognised worldwide that it cannot be considered to be accidental. The authors recommend the establishment of a specialist, dedicated paediatric palliative care service in South Tyrol with the international recognised values and operating standards that would render such parental 'fighting' unnecessary.

  8. A WebGIS-based command control system for forest fire fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianyu; Ming, Dongping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Haitao

    2006-10-01

    Forest is a finite resource and fire prevention is crucial work. However, once a forest fire or accident occurs, timely and effective fire-fighting is the only necessary measure. The aim of this research is to build a computerized command control system based on WEBGIS to direct fire-fighting. Firstly, this paper introduces the total technique flow and functional modules of the system. Secondly, this paper analyses the key techniques for building the system, and they are data obtaining, data organizing & management, architecture of WebGIS and sharing & interoperation technique. In the end, this paper demonstrates the on line martial symbol editing function to show the running result of system. The practical application of this system showed that it played very important role in the forest fire fighting work. In addition, this paper proposes some strategic recommendations for the further development of the system.

  9. You Do Not Talk about Fight Club if You Do Not Notice Fight Club: Inattentional Blindness for a Simulated Real-World Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Chabris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inattentional blindness—the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else—has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.

  10. You do not talk about Fight Club if you do not notice Fight Club: Inattentional blindness for a simulated real-world assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabris, Christopher F; Weinberger, Adam; Fontaine, Matthew; Simons, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness-the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else-has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.

  11. Brazil's fight against AIDS and its implications for global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogart, J P; Calcagnotto, G

    2006-01-01

    The paper traces Brazil's efforts to fight AIDS in the last 20 years. The analysis concentrates on the efforts to combat and prevent the deadly infectious disease through ingenious efforts of private citizens, government agencies, national and international NGOs, which challenged multinational companies, international organizations and foreign governments. While the investigation led to a positive evaluation of the joint efforts in managing the threat, it is made clear that the fight against the HIV/AIDS virus is far from over in Brazil and will have to be strengthened on the local, national and international level.

  12. Skizofrenia Tokoh Utama Dalam Novel Fight Club Karya Chuck Palahniuk (Sebuah Analisis Psikologis)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, Robert Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study entitled “Schizophrenia of the Main Character in the Novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. A Psichological Approach.” The objective of this research is to identify, classify and to analyze the mental dissorder namely ‘Schizophrenia' of the main character in the novel entitled Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk. The study is based on Psikological approach generally, and specifically on ‘Schizophrenia'. ‘Schizophrenia' of the main character then will be classified and categorized by its sy...

  13. Hip-Hop Fight Club: Radical Theory, Education, and Practice in and beyond the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A. Ball

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hip-hop remains a viable method for the teaching of radical theory, emancipatory journalism and Africana Media Theory.  Fight Club is an emergent model that builds from existing hip-hop traditions of freetyle battling where critical thought and intellectual challenges of hueristic norms are upended.  This article argues in favor of bringing the Fight Club model into the classroom which allows for heightened student engagement and the inclusion of radical theoretical approaches to the study of mass media, communication and journalism.

  14. Improving Reliability of a fire-fighting pump set with Axiomatic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcidiacono Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a case study featuring Axiomatic Design and Multi-Level Hierarchical model (MLH applied to redesign a fire-fighting pump set. In particular, two different design concepts are presented to be applied to the supporting frame of the system to limit a vibration problem that can arise during potential malfunctioning of the fire-fighting pump. The selection of the best design has been carried out through reliability evaluation process and through the cost of failure based on the MLH model.

  15. Fight-fitness in the program of student's physical education in higher educational institutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntian V.S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is introduced the new author 's program / new area of physical, technical, tactical, moral and volitional and aesthetic development - Fight-fitness. It is singled out the basic components: martial arts / self-defence, physical training, kick- boxing aerobics, special moral and volitional / psychological training. Justified by the positive influence of employment Fight-fitness on the organism involved, the effectiveness of the impact on the development of physical and intellectual qualities (using suggestive method of teaching and special sports terminology in English, the need for education of practical skills / practical skills.

  16. Diffusion measures indicate fight exposure-related damage to cerebral white matter in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, W; Mahmoud, S Y; Sakaie, K; Banks, S J; Lowe, M J; Phillips, M; Modic, M T; Bernick, C

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury is common in fighting athletes such as boxers, given the frequency of blows to the head. Because DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes in white matter, this technique is often used to investigate white matter integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury. We hypothesized that previous fight exposure would predict DTI abnormalities in fighting athletes after controlling for individual variation. A total of 74 boxers and 81 mixed martial arts fighters were included in the analysis and scanned by use of DTI. Individual information and data on fight exposures, including number of fights and knockouts, were collected. A multiple hierarchical linear regression model was used in region-of-interest analysis to test the hypothesis that fight-related exposure could predict DTI values separately in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Age, weight, and years of education were controlled to ensure that these factors would not account for the hypothesized effects. We found that the number of knockouts among boxers predicted increased longitudinal diffusivity and transversal diffusivity in white matter and subcortical gray matter regions, including corpus callosum, isthmus cingulate, pericalcarine, precuneus, and amygdala, leading to increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the corresponding regions. The mixed martial arts fighters had increased transversal diffusivity in the posterior cingulate. The number of fights did not predict any DTI measures in either group. These findings suggest that the history of fight exposure in a fighter population can be used to predict microstructural brain damage.

  17. Fighting trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayzrakhmanov, N F

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products is a global socio-economic problem, which poses a serious threat to economy and health of populations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. To identify the main achievements and challenges in the fight against trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in the Russian Federation, to formulate possible solutions to these problems. The study of criminal cases and statistical information about the level of crime in the Russian Federation; legal analysis of regulatory legal acts in the sphere of criminal law and turnover of medicinal products; review of scientific and practical publications. The problem of trafficking of falsified and substandard medicinal products in the Russian Federation was publicly discussed in the late 1990s - early 2000-ies, first in the media and special editions, later this phenomenon was the subject of extensive discussions at international conferences, in public authorities and public circles. However, the most significant results in tackling this problem were achieved only in the last 5 years.Thus, in 2010, the Russian Federation first joined the annual international police operation under the code name Pangaea, held since 2008 on the initiative of Interpol and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency of the World Health Organization (MHRA WHO). From year to year, the special operation Pangea unites the efforts of many countries from different continents and aims to eliminate transnational criminal groups operating through a global network the Internet. In 2010, as a result of large-scale international inspections 1 200 Internet sites were revealed, through which the fake medicines were spread and 10,000 boxes of medicines were seized, making more than a million falsified tablets in the amount of 2.6 million USA dollars. In 2011, in a special operation Pangea IV was attended by 165 different organizations from 81 countries

  18. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate them in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer

  19. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate them in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer

  20. The making of a nation-wide campaign fighting the nursing caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden-Stoelinga, van M.S.E.; Koelen, M.A.; Hielkema-de Meij, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although, in the Netherlands, the fight against tooth decay has been successful over the past decades, in 1994, the incidence of nursing caries made the Ivory Cross*, the Dutch National Association for the Promotion of Oral Hygiene, decide to develop and implement a campaign to address the

  1. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact.

  2. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  3. Improving Interactions: The Effects of Implementing the Fight-Free Schools Violence Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Allison J.; Luce, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Fight-Free Schools violence prevention process had an effect on the frequency of aggressive acts of elementary school students. Participants included approximately 600 students ranging from Kindergarten to 5th grade in a suburban school in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected over…

  4. The role of research in molecular entomology in the fight against malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Torre, A; Arca, B; Favia, G; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    2008-06-01

    The text summarizes the principal current fields of investigation and the recent achievements of the research groups presently contributing to the Molecular Entomology Cluster of the Italian Malaria Network. Particular emphasis is given to the researches with a more direct impact on the fight against malaria vectors.

  5. [Predictors of fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in people with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pok-Ja; Lee, Yeon-Joo

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to identify predictors of the fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in the patients' mental adjustment to cancer. Cancer patients' characteristics like performance status, metastasis and duration of diagnosis with demographic factors, spiritual support and social support were used as predictors of a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness. A total of 124 ambulatory cancer patients completed the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale and responded in a structured instrument about their characteristics, spiritual and social support. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that confidence in the supporter (R(2)=.114, p=.000), duration of cancer diagnosis (R(2)=.041, p=.000) and faith (R(2)=.030, p=.000) were predictive of a fighting spirit (R(2)=.185, p=.000); whereas, education (R(2)=.074, p=.001), performance status (R(2)=.055, p=.000), satisfaction with social support (R(2)=.046, p=.000), and metastasis (R(2)=.037, p=.000) were predictive of helplessness/hopelessness (R(2)=.202, p=.000). Social support, spiritual support and disease related factors like metastasis, performance status, and duration of cancer diagnosis need to be considered in a psychosocial nursing intervention for a fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness.

  6. 'Tone at the top': Fighting military corruption in Latin America | Klaus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military ...

  7. PROBLEMATIC ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CYBERCRIME

    OpenAIRE

    MAKUSHEV DMITRY IVANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to topical issues of international cooperation of the Russian Federation and foreign countries in combating cybercrime. The author offers measures in international law on the improvement of cooperation between law enforcement agencies of foreign countries in the fight against computer crimes.

  8. Wanted : Partners The Challenges of Pioneering a Novel Approach to Fighting Human Trafficking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; De Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Public Prosecution Service has embarked on a journey to find better ways to fight trafficking in human beings. This case follows special prosecutors Gert Veurink and Warner ten Kate as they develop and implement an unorthodox approach focused on weakening the ‘enablers’ of sexual

  9. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Québécois and Beninese researchers collaborate in the fight ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... Québécois and Beninese researchers collaborate in the fight against AIDS ... disabled" — vulnerable groups less able to make the right choices ... Less is more: Improving yields for Sahelian women with tiny dozes of fertilizer.

  11. Making Socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the Fight for Knowledge and Power, 1855-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Making socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the fight for knowledge and power, 1855-1939," by Jane Martin. Jane Martin has explored the history of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century-British women educational activists in numerous publications over the past two decades. Her first book,…

  12. Giving Women the Vote: Using Primary Source Documents to Teach about the Fight for Women's Suffrage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students use primary sources to learn about the organizing strategies used in the fight for women's suffrage. These sources will provide insights into the past and help students develop appreciation for the hardships suffragists endured. Includes objectives, procedures, and suggestions for activities. (LS)

  13. The European fight against terrorism financing: Professional fields and new governing practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combating the financing of terrorism has been a core component of the global War on Terror that began after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. This book shows how the fight against terrorism financing has taken shape and become important in Europe. An examination of two case studies - the EU’s Third

  14. Asymmetric forceps increase fighting success among males of similar size in the maritime earwig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Nicole E.; Zink, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme asymmetric morphologies are hypothesized to serve an adaptive function that counteracts sexual selection for symmetry. However direct tests of function for asymmetries are lacking, particularly in the context of animal weapons. The weapon of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima, exhibits sizeable variation in the extent of directional asymmetry within and across body sizes, making it an ideal candidate for investigating the function of asymmetry. In this study, we characterized the extent of weapon asymmetry, characterized the manner in which asymmetric weapons are used in contests, staged dyadic contests between males of different size classes and analyzed the correlates of fighting success. In contests between large males, larger individuals won more fights and emerged as the dominant male. In contests between small males, however, weapon asymmetry was more influential in predicting overall fighting success than body size. This result reveals an advantage of asymmetric weaponry among males that are below the mean size in the population. A forceps manipulation experiment suggests that asymmetry may be an indirect, correlate of a morphologically independent factor that affects fighting ability. PMID:22984320

  15. Keeping Children Active: What You Can Do to Fight Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about childhood obesity and explores ways to fight this condition. The author shares some activities to get children moving to positively impact childhood obesity. These include: "Stand Up/Sit Down;" "Quick Clean-Up;" and "Get Ready Spaghetti."

  16. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of

  17. The Impact of Cultural Practices on Fighting against or for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... etc.,34 but this is not enough. Investigations show that only 10% of the population use condoms for protection. Why the resistance? This article analyzes the alternative of cultural practices which are not always considered where the education of the people is concerned. Key words: AIDS/HIV, culture, propagation, fight ...

  18. Patriarchy and the "Fighting Sioux": A Gendered Look at Racial College Sports Nicknames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Native American nicknames and symbols by US college athletics is a long-standing practice that embodies various forms of authoritarian oppression. One type of authoritarianism is that of patriarchy and it has been present in the struggle over the nickname at the University of North Dakota, the "Fighting Sioux". This article…

  19. Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    then it should be disposed of by recycling or land-filling. This material should not be burned due to the formation of carbon dioxide and carbon...and 2-192). A top spreader bar Chapter 2 Laboratory Testing and Evaluation of Expedient Flood-fighting Barriers 135 Figure 2-189

  20. The Use Value of "Fight Club" in Teaching Theories of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Teaching theories and methods for the academic study of religion poses certain challenges, especially when first-year students are the primary targeted audience. In the following note from the classroom, the author describes a model for successfully employing the film "Fight Club" as a case study for exploring some of the theoretical concepts of…

  1. Fire fighting. Measures to guarantee the safety of the radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orta Aguilera, R.

    1993-01-01

    The work relates the incidence of the aspects related to the fire prevention and fighting as well as the activities of rescue and saving in the radioactive facilities, with the objective of guaranteeing a strict safety regime of all installations along the country so as to reduce to the minimum the risk for the personnel, the population and the environment

  2. Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

    In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems…

  3. Training Effectiveness Evaluation (TEE) of the Advanced Fire Fighting Training System. Focus on the Trained Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Curtis C.; And Others

    A training effectiveness evaluation of the Navy Advanced Fire Fighting Training System was conducted. This system incorporates simulated fires as well as curriculum materials and instruction. The fires are non-pollutant, computer controlled, and installed in a simulated shipboard environment. Two teams of 15 to 16 persons, with varying amounts of…

  4. Career or Family? The Fight of Two Prominent Scandinavian Feminist Politicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, J.C.A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, in the twentieth century, women in higher and managerial occupations were confronted with barriers because they had to fight prejudices concerning their ability to maintain themselves in traditionally male occupations. This was the case for instance, with women politicians in the

  5. Social Studies Education in the 21st Century, a Tool for Fighting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Studies Education in the 21st Century, a Tool for Fighting Corruption in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... The thrust of the paper is that corruption and indiscipline exemplified in social and political vices constitute obstacles for integrated national development, and that social studies as a subject has a role to play ...

  6. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, S.

    2007-06-01

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  7. Sufficient Social Support as a Possible Preventive Factor against Fighting and Bullying in School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastytis Šmigelskas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore how sufficient social support can act as a possible preventive factor against fighting and bullying in school-aged children in 9 European countries. Methods: Data for this study were collected during the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. The sample consisted of 9 European countries, involving 43,667 school children in total, aged 11, 13 and 15 years. The analysed data focus on social context (relations with family, peers, and school as well as risk behaviours such as smoking, drunkenness, fighting and bullying in adolescents. The relationships between social support and violent behaviour variables were estimated using multiple regression models and multivariate analyses. Results: Bullying, across 9 countries, was more prevalent than fighting, except for Armenia, Israel, and Poland. The prevalence among countries differed considerably, with fighting being most expressed in Armenia and bullying—in Latvia and Lithuania. The strongest risk factors for bullying and fighting were male gender (less expressed for bullying, smoking and alcohol consumption. In addition, for bullying the social support was similarly strong factor like above-mentioned factors, while for fighting—less significant, but still independent. All forms of social support were significantly relate with lower violent behaviour of school children, and family support was associated most strongly. Regardless the socioeconomic, historical, and cultural differences among selected countries, the enhancement and reinforcement of the social support from possible many different resources should be taken into consideration in prevention programs against school violence behaviours.

  8. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. The outcome studied was involvement in fights with firearms and/or cold weapons in the 30 days prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. The analyses were stratified by sex. Results Fifty seven thousand and eighty nine female students and 52,015 male students were included; the prevalence of their involvement in fights with weapons was 7.2 (95 % CI 6.9–7.5 and 13.8 (95 % CI 13.4–14.3, respectively. In the adjusted analysis the factors associated with male student involvement in fights with weapons were: being older, working, having smoked a cigarette, consumed alcoholic beverages and illicit drugs recently, insomnia, not having any close friends, skipping classes without parental supervision, having suffered aggression from a family member, reporting feeling unsafe on the way to or from school and/or at school. The same associated factors were found among female students in addition to not living with their father and/or mother and having suffered bullying. There was no association with type of school in either sex. Conclusion Involvement in fights with weapons was greater among older male students. Health-risk behaviors, mental health characteristics, parental supervision and context of violence also showed association with the outcomes.

  9. [How to fight anti-vaccinists prejudices: the viewpoint of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Cinzia; Gallone, Maria Serena; Tafuri, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, growing numbers of parents in the industrialized world are choosing not to have their children vaccinated. The re-emergence of the anti-vaccination movements has been theorized as an important determinant of this phenomenon. The crisis of the «vaccination system» and the resurgence of the anti-vaccination movements is related both, to the increased accessibility to the information from the general population and to the decreased credibility and authority of health professionals. Another critical element in the fight against anti-vaccination movements, in Italy, is the system of assessing the damage from the vaccine, both in pharmacovigilance activities and in the procedures for the compensation of biological damage provided by law. The contrast in these bugs, along with the strengthening of communication skills of the health care workers and to an investment on communication in the mass media, is not to postpone for fighting the anti-vaccination movements.

  10. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and the fight against deforestation: the Senegal example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubacar, B.

    1993-01-01

    Domestic LPG consumption in Senegal is over 40,000 tonnes in 1992, thus preserving more than 33,000 hectares of forest. Three reasons explain the success of the 'butanization' policy implemented by the country in its fight against deforestation: political desire, constant cooperation between the public authorities and distributors, but also a supply of gas and inexpensive cookers. The penetration of these butane cookers on the market occurred mainly in urban areas (it is the leading household appliance of urban families in Senegal), but it is also quite visible in rural areas as well, explained Mr. Boubacar Barry General Manager of Totalgaz Senegal in his speech 'How to fight the Growing Desert with Simple Means and a little imagination' during the 6th World LPG Meeting last October in Marrakech. 2 figs., 3 photos

  11. Male fighting and ``territoriality'' within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend “territories” against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  12. Male fighting and "territoriality" within colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla venustula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by a bizarre male polymorphism with wingless fighter males and winged disperser males. Winged males have been lost convergently in several clades, and in at least one of them, wingless males have evolved mutual tolerance. To better understand the evolutionary pathways of reproductive tactics, we investigated Cardiocondyla venustula, a species, which in a phylogenetic analysis clusters with species with fighting and species with mutually tolerant, wingless males. Wingless males of C. venustula use their strong mandibles to kill freshly eclosed rival males and also engage in short fights with other adult males, but in addition show a novel behavior hitherto not reported from social insect males: they spread out in the natal nest and defend "territories" against other males. Ant males therefore show a much larger variety of reproductive tactics than previously assumed.

  13. Fighting in women’s clothes The pictorial evidence of Walpurgis in Ms. I.33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gräf Julia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ms. I.33 is not only the oldest of the known fencing treatises in European context, it is also the only one showing a woman fighting equally with contemporary men. The author presents her research about the garments this female fencer wears, including her shirt, dress and overdress, hairstyle and footwear. Special consideration is given to the questions whether Walpurgis wears a belt, the length and hem circumference of her garments as well as the methods of draping them in the way depicted. The results of the analysis are compared with contemporary pictorial and archaeological sources of the early 14th century. Some personal insights gathered by the author while fighting in this kind of clothes shed light on the possibilities of moving without being disturbed by them. The clothes and hairstyle worn by Walpurgis, give clues about her social status and thus help to understand the context and dating of the whole manuscript.

  14. Fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuefeng; Zhang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires will cause not only personnel injury, severe economic loss, but also serious environmental pollution. For the moment, nuclear power is in a position of rapid development in China. Considering the earthquake-prone characteristics of our country, it is of great engineering importance to investigate the nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires. This article analyzes the cause, influential factors and development characteristics of nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires in details, and summarizes the three principles should be followed in fighting and preventing nuclear power plant post-earthquake fires, such as solving problems in order of importance and urgency, isolation prior to prevention, immediate repair and regular patrol. Three aspects were pointed out that should be paid attention in fighting and preventing post-earthquake fires. (authors)

  15. Development of calibration factors of moss (Hylocomium splendens); Utvikling av kalibreringsfaktorer for mose (Hylocomium splendens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T

    1996-01-01

    The present paper relates to atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway. These elements are mapped geographically in every fifth year by analysing bio-monitored mosses. This is a part of an original Scandinavian monitoring program which gradually expanded to other parts of Europe. In 1995, 32 countries participated in the program. The investigation of mosses in Norway has also been used as a basis for the development of special environment indicators for monitoring atmospheric long-range transported heavy metals. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Fighting blind: why US Army Divisions Need a Dedicated Reconnaissance and Security Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    the future will continue to disperse across the battlefield and will use complex terrain such as megacities to conceal its location and preserve its...cavalry fighting vehicle platoons and two tank platoons. Due to concerns about cost by senior leaders, the Division 1986 concept for the cavalry squadron... handicaps the 1st Division scout detachments overcame is the lack of training for the tasks they were

  17. National program of fight against the climate change. 2. annual evaluation and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This conference discussed the actions realized in the framework of the National Plan of Fight against the Climatic Change (PNLCC). The first part presents the problem, the evaluation of the PNLCC application and the control tools. the second part is devoted to the transport sector and the second to the buildings and the electric power demand control. The last part deals with the prospective and the challenges of the PNLCC. (A.L.B.)

  18. Creating Memorable Experiences: How hotels can fight back against Airbnb and other sharing economy providers

    OpenAIRE

    Makarand Mody

    2016-01-01

    No one can deny that the hotel industry has a fight on its hands when it comes to the peer-to-peer accommodation market. Following a series of acquisitions, Airbnb is the undoubtedly the hotel industry's biggest competitor. While much of the discussion that follows uses Airbnb as an example, the underlying logic applies to the broader concept of the sharing economy and its implications for the hotel industry.

  19. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, B W

    2015-12-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator-prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk-dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for fighting is constant per fighting event. The strategy of the predator-population is quantified by a trait being the proportion of the number of predator-individuals playing hawk tactics. The dynamics of the trait is described by two models of adaptation: the replicator dynamics (RD) and the adaptive dynamics (AD). In the RD-approach a variant individual with an adapted trait value changes the population's strategy, and consequently its trait value, only when its payoff is larger than the population average. In the AD-approach successful replacement of the resident population after invasion of a rare variant population with an adapted trait value is a step in a sequence changing the population's strategy, and hence its trait value. The main aim is to compare the consequences of the two adaptation models. In an equilibrium predator-prey system this will lead to convergence to a neutral singular strategy, while in the oscillatory system to a continuous singular strategy where in this endpoint the resident population is not invasible by any variant population. In equilibrium (low prey carrying capacity) RD and AD-approach give the same results, however not always in a periodically oscillating system (high prey carrying-capacity) where the trait is density-dependent. For low costs the predator population is monomorphic (only hawks) while for high costs dimorphic (hawks and doves). These results illustrate that intra-specific trait dynamics matters in predator-prey dynamics.

  20. [Efficacy observation of nonspecific low back pain treated with the dragon-tiger fighting needling method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Cao, Dong-bo; Yuan, Yi-qin; Luo, Jian; Wen, Yan-yun; Wang, Yue; Yu, Jie

    2012-06-01

    To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on nonspecific low back pain (NLBP) treated with the dragon-tiger fighting needling method, the uniform reinforcing-reducing method and the intermediate frequency physiotherapy. Ninety cases of NLBP were randomly divided into a dragon-tiger fighting needling group (group A), an uniform reinforcing-reducing needling group (group B) and an intermediate frequency physiotherapy group (group C), 30 cases in each one. In the group A, the dragon-tiger fighting needling method was used. In the group B, the uniform reinforcing-reducing method was applied. Two groups of acupoints were prescribed. One group included Shenshu (BL 23), Dachangshu (BL 25), Weizhong (BL 40) and Ashi points. The other group included Qihaishu (BL 24), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Kunlun (BL 60), Yaoyangguan (GV 3). These two groups of acupoints were used alternatively in the above two groups. In the group C, the intermediate frequency physiotherapy was adopted in the pain area of the lumbar region. The treatment was given once per day in each group. Six treatments made one session. Totally, 2 sessions were required. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODD and the clinical efficacy were observed in each group. The scores of VAS and ODI were reduced obviously after treatment in each group (P dragon-tiger fighting needling method achieves the much better efficacy on NLBP compared with either the uniform reinforcing-reducing method or the intermediate frequency physiotherapy. It is one of the more effective needling method for analgesia.

  1. How Should The US Adapt Its Military Doctrine To Be Able TO Fight A Peer Competitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    the American Way of War (New York: Colombia University Press, 2008), 195. 8. Quoted in Colonel Gian Gentile, Wrong Turn: America’s Deadly Embrace of...the American Way of War . New York: Colombia University Press, 2008. Mearsheimer, John J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, New York: W. W. Norton...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW SHOULD THE US ADAPT ITS MILITARY DOCTRINE TO BE ABLE TO FIGHT A PEER COMPETITOR? by Paul Kendall

  2. 'When the skies fight': HIV, violence and pathways of precarity in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence....

  3. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Garcia, Leila Posenato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. T...

  4. Návrh marketingové strategie Fight Club, z.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasničáková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The target of this thesis is to evaluate current marketing strategy of the Fight Club association. It is a non-profit organization focused on providing karate and fitness classes. Upgrade of the current strategy will be based on the results of SWOT analysis, Porter's competition model and the questionnaire. The result of SWOT analysis is WO strategy. The main weaknesses is the poor financial situation also it has a number of opportunities which can be used for benefit. Porter's model proved t...

  5. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    submarine duty could lead to sexual problems aboard ship and marital problems at home .”22 Some argue that wives do not trust women at sea with...enforces the argument that women are here to stay in submarines. While political and military experts continue to debate the roles of women in submarines...ACSC/Meyer, J/FY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States

  6. Creating Memorable Experiences: How hotels can fight back against Airbnb and other sharing economy providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarand Mody

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No one can deny that the hotel industry has a fight on its hands when it comes to the peer-to-peer accommodation market. Following a series of acquisitions, Airbnb is the undoubtedly the hotel industry's biggest competitor. While much of the discussion that follows uses Airbnb as an example, the underlying logic applies to the broader concept of the sharing economy and its implications for the hotel industry.

  7. Fire fighting at Chernobyl and fire protection at UK nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fire fighting measures undertaken by the fire crews at the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. This information highlights the need to develop engineering equipment which will give a far greater degree of personnel protection to fire crews and others in radiological accidents. The British position on fire protection at nuclear power stations is outlined. The general levels of radiation exposure which would be used as a guide to persons in the vicinity of a radiation accident are also given. (UK)

  8. An individual-oriented model on the emergence of support in fights, its reciprocation and exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte K Hemelrijk

    Full Text Available Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation, their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and 'spiteful acts' and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by

  9. Fighting alcoholism among railway workers in the light of early 20th Century Polish-language temperance publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2016-12-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The Polish-language temperance periodicals provide, among other things, valuable information referring to as yet unknown though essential problem of fighting alcoholism among railway workers in Europe, USA and the Polish territories of the Three Partitions.

  10. Suicide attempts and physical fighting among high school students--United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-11

    Violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among youths. In the United States, homicide and suicide are the second and third leading causes of death, respectively, for persons aged 13-19 years. Although suicide commonly is associated with anxiety, depression, and social withdrawal, research suggests a link between violent behaviors directed at oneself (i.e., suicidal behaviors) and violent behaviors directed at others among adolescents. Certain students who engage in extreme forms of violence, such as school shootings, exhibit suicidal ideation or behavior before or during the attack. However, suicidal behavior also might be associated with involvement in less extreme forms of violent behaviors, such as physical fighting, which might be a risk factor for more severe forms of violence. To characterize any potential association between suicide attempts and fighting, CDC analyzed self-reported 2001 data from a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The results of that analysis indicated that students who reported attempting suicide during the preceding 12 months were nearly four times more likely also to have reported fighting than those who reported not attempting suicide. Prevention programs that seek to reduce both suicidal and violent behaviors are needed. Because prevalence of this association was determined to be highest in the 9th grade, these efforts might be most effective if implemented before students reach high school.

  11. Fight and air exposure times of caught and released salmonids from the South Fork Snake River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Curtis J.; Schill, Daniel J.; Quist, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Catch-and-release regulations are among the most common types of fishing regulations. In recent years, concerns have arisen regarding the exposure of fish to air during catch-and-release angling. The purpose of our study was to quantify the length of time angled fish were exposed to air by anglers in a typical catch-and-release fishery and relate it to the lengths of time reported to produce negative effects. In total, 312 individual anglers were observed on the South Fork Snake River, Idaho, from May through August 2016. Fight time varied from 1.1 s to 230.0 s, and average fight time was 40.0 s (SD = 36.8). Total air exposure times varied from 0.0 s to 91.8 s and averaged 19.3 s (SD = 15.0). Though not statistically significant, a trend in reduced fight times was observed when anglers were guided and increased air exposure times when a net was used and a picture was taken. Results of the current study suggest that anglers expose fish to air for periods that are much less than those reported to cause mortality.

  12. Integrated method development of general and special students stamina involved in the fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Alekseev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : testing the effectiveness of methods of development of general and special endurance cadets wrestlers. Material : the experiment was attended by 20 students aged 18-20 years (10-12 years experience of employment, qualifications - candidates for the master of sports and master of sports. Classes are held 10 times a week, lasting for 120 minutes. Results : the developed methodology based on the application of a special set of exercises. Technique promotes rapid increase endurance level students. The directions of increasing endurance and performance of students. As an exercise for the development of general endurance recommended: motocross race, gymnastics, sports (rugby, soccer. As an exercise for the development of special endurance recommended: Attempted partner with high intensity (8-9 shots in 10 seconds Perform five series, consisting of 5 spurts (the maximum number of shots in 10 seconds And run shots at a moderate pace (4 -5 throws for 10 seconds ; training and educational training bout, fight quadruples (fight lasts until the transition to the fight lying down or throw up. Conclusions : the increase in special endurance cadets should be in parallel with the improvement of overall fitness.

  13. Criticality and fire-fighting - Recent developments at Westinghouse, Springfields Fuels Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D. A.; Clemson, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-fighting advice in criticality-controlled areas has traditionally presented unique challenges to the nuclear industry, primarily because of the introduction of moderators / reflectors from water and foam and the potential rearrangement of materials. In an actual emergency, the decision to use water-based fire extinguishing methods is best influenced by a consensus between the criticality and fire specialists as part of the emergency planning process. A recent review of the fire-fighting arrangements at the site operated by Springfields Fuels Limited (SFL) in Preston in the United Kingdom has identified that more detailed guidance may be valuable relating to the specific areas and materials at risk, particularly to highlight the degree of risk and provide guidance on the risk of criticality if water-based fire extinguishing methods were deemed necessary. This has prompted consideration of a criticality 'Fire Tag' system, consisting of colour coded markers in the area (an immediate visual indicator of both the degree of risk and the appropriate fire-fighting response) and single sheet cards (specific guidance for the areas and materials at risk), with the process supported by appropriate training. The approach is currently being trialled on a small scale, and initial feedback from personnel has been positive. (authors)

  14. Strategies to Fight Stigma toward People with Mental Disorders: Perspectives from Different Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Corbière

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide a more complete and exhaustive perspective on the whole range of potential strategies to fight stigma by considering the perspectives of different stakeholders. Delegates to a Canadian conference were invited to participate in a survey that focused on stigma, from which the responses to the following question were analyzed: tell us briefly what you do to reduce prejudice and stigma toward people with a diagnosis of mental disorder? From 253 participants, 15 categories of strategies to fight stigma were identified from the verbatim (e.g., sharing/encouraging disclosure. These categories fell under six main themes: education, contact, protestation, person centered, working on recovery and social inclusion, and reflexive consciousness. The occurrence of these themes was different among stakeholders (clinical, organizational, and experiential knowledge. For example, people with mental disorders (experiential knowledge often mentioned contact and person centered strategies, while mental health professionals (clinical knowledge preferred education and working on recovery and social inclusion strategies. The results from this study highlight the need to pay more attention to the concept of disclosure of mental disorders in the process for de-stigmatization. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of the emerging strategies to fight stigma in the community.

  15. Inclusion on the ground fighting techniques in the system of close combat in the Army of the Czech Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Title of thesis: Inclusion on the ground fighting techniques in the system of close combat in the Army of the Czech Republic. Aim of thesis: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of termination, the risk of injury and severity of selected techniques of fighting on the ground in order to create a theoretical model for the incorporation of new techniques into close combat training in the Army of the Czech Republic. Methods: This thesis is processed by multivariate preferences. ...

  16. Review of Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving by Sanjoy Mahajan

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2015-01-01

    Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010). 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples ...

  17. Attacking the Body in Mixed Martial Arts: Perspectives, Opinions and Perceptions of the Full Contact Combat Sport of Ultimate Fighting

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Tobias Stenius

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in 1993 in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators. Mixed martial arts (MMA) is an evolving combat sport pitting elite athletes trained in a variety of combat arts against each other in the “Octagon”. Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and kn...

  18. The Importance of Social Movements in the Fight for the Women's Rights From the Incorporation of Speech of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Luciana Correa

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the role of social movements in the struggle for women's rights. Initially, the historical origin of the gender term and its concept will be analyzed. Subsequently, the role of social movements for the development of international protection of human rights instruments will be reviewed. Finally, the role of social movements will be analyzed in the fight for women's rights in Brazil. From this study was concluded by the importance of social movements in the fight f...

  19. Numerical assessment affects aggression and competitive ability: a team-fighting strategy for the ant Formica xerophila

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Colby J

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between numerical advantage and competitive ability is a fundamental component in contests between groups of social animals. An individual's ability to correctly assess the numerical state of its group is of vital importance. In addition to numerical dominance, the group's fighting ability also plays an important role in competitive interactions. By staging experimental fights between two Formica ant species, I show that Formica xerophila are able to assess their own group's ...

  20. Impacts of fire, fire-fighting chemicals and post-fire stabilization techniques on the soil-plant system

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, María

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires, as well as fire-fighting chemicals, greatly affect the soil-plant system causing vegetation loss, alterations of soil properties and nutrient losses through volatilization, leaching and erosion. Soil recovery after fires depends on the regeneration of the vegetation cover, which protects the soil and prevents erosion. Fire-fighting chemicals contain compounds potentially toxic for plants and soil organisms, and thus their use might hamper the regeneration of burnt ecosystems. In...

  1. “Your Kung Fu is very good, Master Fiore!” Asian and European fight books in comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzler Sixt

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of the fight book is not restricted to the European tradition. Similar artefacts, usually combining text and image to describe the techniques of close quarter combat with and without weapons, exist also in various Asian cultures, in China, Japan, Korea, and India. In the article, the question shall be raised in how far and to which end fight books of different cultures can be taken into one perspective, and be compared. To do so, similarities and dissimilarities between Europea...

  2. Fighting corruption with cultural dynamics: when legal-origins, religious-influences and existing corruption-control levels matter

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2012-01-01

    Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Our findings demonstrate that blanket corruption-control policies are unlikely to succeed equally across c...

  3. Evaluation of a wearable physiological status monitor during simulated fire fighting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Dolezal, Brett A; Cooper, Christopher B; Fehling, Patricia C

    2014-01-01

    A physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded in a fire-resistant shirt. The purpose of this research study was to examine the ability of the PSM-shirt to accurately detect heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) when worn under structural fire fighting personal protective equipment (PPE) during the performance of various activities relevant to fire fighting. Eleven healthy, college-aged men completed three activities (walking, searching/crawling, and ascending/descending stairs) that are routinely performed during fire fighting operations while wearing the PSM-shirt under structural fire fighting PPE. Heart rate and RR recorded by the PSM-shirt were compared to criterion values measured concurrently with an ECG and portable metabolic measurement system, respectively. For all activities combined (overall) and for each activity, small differences were found between the PSM-shirt and ECG (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.4 beats/min [-0.8, -0.1]; treadmill: -0.4 beats/min [-0.7, -0.1]; search: -1.7 beats/min [-3.1, -.04]; stairs: 0.4 beats/min [0.04, 0.7]). Standard error of the estimate was 3.5 beats/min for all tasks combined and 1.9, 5.9, and 1.9 beats/min for the treadmill walk, search, and stair ascent/descent, respectively. Correlations between the PSM-shirt and criterion heart rates were high (r = 0.95 to r = 0.99). The mean difference between RR recorded by the PSM-shirt and criterion overall was 1.1 breaths/min (95% CI: -1.9 to -0.4). The standard error of the estimate for RR ranged from 4.2 breaths/min (treadmill) to 8.2 breaths/min (search), with an overall value of 6.2 breaths/min. These findings suggest that the PSM-shirt provides valid measures of HR and useful approximations of RR when worn during fire fighting duties.

  4. Diplomonad flagellates of some ornamental fish cultured in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonkob Viriyapongsutee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on diplomonad flagellates infection in some ornamental fishes in the family cichlidae i.e., angelfish(Pterophyllum scalare, oscar (Astronotus ocellatus, blue mbuna (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and the family osphronemidaei.e., Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens revealed that this parasite infected three out of four ornamental fish species,angelfish, oscar and blue mbuna. The highest infection was recorded in angelfish (90% followed by oscar (75.4% and bluembuna (61%, respectively. Identification of diplomonad flagellates from angelfish by means of morphological studies underlight and electron microscopes indicated that the parasite was Spironucleus vortens. The 14–days LD50 of S. vortens inangelfish was 2.99x103 cells. Histopathological changes of infected angelfish revealed granulomatous liver, numerousnumbers of melanomacrophage in the spleen and inflammation of the intestine. Susceptibility study of S. vortens to goldfish(Carassius auratus, guppy (Poecilia reticulata and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus indicated that they were resistant toartificial infection. In vitro examination of the growth inhibition assay of S. vortens indicated that dimetridazole and metronidazolewere effective in inhibiting parasite growth after 48 hrs exposure at concentrations of >4.0 μg/ml and >6.0 μg/ml,respectively. Magnesium sulfate at a concentration of >60 mg/ml inhibited the parasite growth after 72 hrs exposure. In vivoexamination of the dimetridazole efficiency on S. vortens infection indicated that dimetridazole at 4.0 μg/ml provided thehighest efficiency which could be used for treatment of spironucleosis in angelfish.

  5. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  6. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  7. Fighting Pirates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Edward

    two centuries. Despite the considerable scholarly interest in examining how powerful states go about suppressing piracy, however, there has been little in-depth examination of why these states are willing expend resources combating piracy in the first place. When this question is addressed, counter...

  8. Greenhouse effect gases and climatic change: quantification and tools to fight against the emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizec, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    The greenhouse effect gases are considered responsible of the climatic change. Their consequences are numerous: increase of the sea level, displacement of the climatic areas, modification of the forests ecosystems, rarefaction of water, progressively decrease of glaciers... This fast modification of the climate would lead to the increase of natural hazards as hurricanes, storms, hails and so on. It is then a necessity to reduce as fast as possible the greenhouse effect gases. The author describes in a first part the methods of the greenhouse effect gases quantification and in the second part the tools to fight these gases, regulations, standards, economic tools, national tools and the projects. (A.L.B.)

  9. A study of essential elements in ancient Thai fighting swords by chemical and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janposri, K.

    1980-01-01

    Four ancient Thai fighting swords from the Bangkok National Museum and iron ore from Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi were studied by neutron activation analysis, metallography and chemical analysis. The results of these scientific studies show that all of these four swords are made of plain carbon steel, containing trace elements which have no effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the steel. The trace elements which were found in the iron ore are quite similar to those found in one of these swords. This means that the iron in one of the swords may have come from ore found at Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi

  10. Malware Analyst's Cookbook and DVD Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code

    CERN Document Server

    Ligh, Michael; Hartstein, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A computer forensics "how-to" for fighting malicious code and analyzing incidents. With our ever-increasing reliance on computers comes an ever-growing risk of malware. Security professionals will find plenty of solutions in this book to the problems posed by viruses, Trojan horses, worms, spyware, rootkits, adware, and other invasive software. Written by well-known malware experts, this guide reveals solutions to numerous problems and includes a DVD of custom programs and tools that illustrate the concepts, enhancing your skills.: Security professionals face a constant battle agains

  11. Fight Against Trafficking from/to Afghanistan within the Eco Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    This report evaluates the existing international, regional, and national legal landscape in order to identify possible legal initiatives furthering deeper regional cooperation the fight against organised crime, especially that involved in narcotics trafficking. During four extended trips to Tehran....... The experts and stakeholders consulted unanimously agreed that the legal framework in the three countries most affected by the trafficking of opium –Afghanistan as the main producer, and Iran and Pakistan as the main transit corridors– is adequate and no legal obstacles to cooperation were identified. Rather...

  12. Imaging and Diagnosis: Using Imaging to Fight the World’S Biggest Killers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine has developed techniques and cures for many of humanity’s ailments, treatments that often require early detection or frequent observations. Some of the most revolutionary advances in improving diagnosis and observation of diseases have been through the use of imaging. Radioisotope imaging techniques like SPECT, PET/CT and conventional imaging such as MRI and CT are instrumental in fighting modern diseases like cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the IAEA plays an important role in helping its Member States acquire the skills and resources for implementing these technologies

  13. Peace-time radiological training for fire fighting and paramedic staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shipment of radioactive materials over commercial highways has had a proven record of safety for many years. Accidents involving radioactive material have been rare. However, good emergency planning requires that fire protection agencies be prepared for such an incident. In an effort to provide this preparedness, the Benton County Department of Emergency Services, with the cooperation of the Washington Public Power Supply System and US Department of Energy, Richland Office, has prepared this manual for local fire fighting and paramedic staff. This manual provides a basic understanding of radioactivity and the role of these teams during an emergency involving radioactive material

  14. Farming and feasting in the Neolithic of Greece: the ecological context of fighting with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Halstead

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine Neolithic ceramics from Greece are widely interpreted in terms of ceremonial eating and drinking, while the spatial organisation of settlement suggests that such commensality played a significant role in shaping social relationships. Faunal evidence implies consumption of many domestic animals inlarge-scale commensality and supports the view that this promoted competition as well as solidarity. This paper explores the ecological context of such 'fighting with food'. Feasting, and ceremonial consumption of livestock, was enabled by and helped to reinforce domestic strategies of surplus production and labour mobilisation that were driven as much by 'economic' as 'political' imperatives.

  15. [International financial cooperation in the fight against AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Flores, René; Castillo, José Gabriel; Serván-Mori, Edson; Ballesteros, Maria Luisa Gontes; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Molina

    2014-07-01

    This study analyzed the financial contribution by the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and its relationship to eligibility criteria for funding in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2002-2010. Descriptive analysis (linear regression) was conducted for the Global Fund financial contributions according to eligibility criteria (income level, burden of disease, governmental co-investment). Financial contributions totaled US$ 705 million. Lower-income countries received higher shares; there was no relationship between Global Fund contributions and burden of disease. The Global Fund's international financing complements governmental expenditure, with equity policies for financial allocation.

  16. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-11-06

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  17. Ambiguities of fighting inflation: structure of alcohol fuel prices; Os equivocos do combate a inflacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastari, Plinio Mario [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The control of consumer prices of alcohol fuel and gasoline has been used by the Brazilian government as a tool for fighting inflation. The production of alcohol fuel from biomass and the use of its by-products is one of the few strategies that will permit economic development and environmental preservation at the same time. While the pricing policy continues to determine the energy policy, it will be almost impossible to promote the production and the use of alcohol fuel in the country 8 figs.

  18. How to understand our willingness-to-pay to fight climate change? A choice experiment approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Chaisemartin , Clément; Mahé , Thuriane

    2009-01-01

    We explore the willingness-to-pay (WTP) to fight climate change in a choice experiment. Since tree planting prevents climate change, subjects are offered to choose between receiving a high amount of money or receiving a lower amount of money plus participating to tree planting action. This allows us to get an individual interval of the WTP to prevent climate change. We also set the experiment to control for framing effects: we measure whether subjects WTP is higher not to prevent a tree plant...

  19. [Chagas's disease and deep ecology: the anti-vectorial fight in question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Rôças, Giselle; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Rubião, Eduardo Cárdenas Nogueira; Pissinatti, Alcides

    2011-02-01

    The inter-relations between man and the environment are among the main themes currently debated by the Brazilian public health. On such horizon, the questions concerning Chagas's disease are found to remain specially in the scope of the directed actions of control to the triatomine, the anti-vectorial fight , though already a century since its first description by Carlos Chagas, a major epidemiological problem in Latin America. Based on these considerations the present article will seek to discuss the main ecological aspects related to the American trypanosomiasis, emphasizing the control of the vectorial transmission in the context of the deep ecology.

  20. Fighting Smoldering Fires in Silos – A Cautionary Note on Using Carbon Dioxide to Inert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw attention to the hazards of releasing liquid carbon dioxide into environments where an ignitable atmosphere may exist. Static discharges have sufficient energy to ignite flammable vapors and an internal explosion may result when fighting smoldering fires using...... this approach. A recent article in Biomass and Bioenergy examines an explosion in a Norwegian wood pellet silo when attempting to suppress a smoldering fire with CO₂. The article argues that the electrostatic hazard of CO₂ is widely under-appreciated and incidents like this are avoidable....

  1. A regional fight against Chagas disease: lessons learned from a successful collaborative partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Rosina; Salvatella, Roberto; Issa, Julie; Anzola, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    To identify the intangible elements that characterize the successful effort to fight Chagas disease in the Americas, determine how they contributed to the overall success of the partnership, and learn lessons from the experience that could be applied to other programs. This study was based on the Partnership Assessment Tool (PAT) developed by the Nuffield Institute for Health ("the Institute") at the University of Leeds (London). The PAT draws heavily on scientific literature and the extensive experience of sociologists and health experts working for the Institute. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) modified the tool slightly to adapt it to its needs and provide a general structure for the study. The six key principles of the PAT framework were applied in the design of the research questionnaires. The findings show that a successful collaboration requires a clear objective; a good-quality pool of data; and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the problem, its dimensions, and its impact. The collaboration was elaborated from a common idea and a shared, quantified plan based on data gathered by independent scientists plus a strategy with explicit milestones. The clarity of purpose allowed for an improved synergy of efforts and made it possible to resolve differences in opinions and approaches. PAHO's experience with effective collaborations such as the joint initiative to fight Chagas disease provides a rich knowledge base for analysis of the advantages, limitations, and paradigms of community involvement, collaborative practices, and partnerships.

  2. Is the Fight against Doping in Sport a Legal Minefield like Any Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In the fight against doping, creating a level playing field across all sports is very challenging from a legal perspective. A harmonized approach presupposes first and foremost a supreme regulatory authority on a global level. This task cannot be attributed to the public sector, because there is no supranational authority of public international law capable of dealing with it. Thus, responsibility has to be assumed by a private law entity. This in turn requires complicated contractual agreements by which duties and responsibilities are transferred from the individual to the national level and from there to the top of the pyramid. In practice, this process is not only difficult and cumbersome, it also leads to an accumulation of power at the top of the sports pyramid that must be contained by organizational checks and balances, such as access to justice and the rule of law, accountability, transparency, and possibilities for the respective stakeholders to partake in the decision-making process. The weighting of all these different aspects is demanding and further complicated by the regulatory reach of the various national lawmakers. Since national laws differ considerably and a harmonized legislative approach is nowhere near in sight, a global approach in the fight against doping must push back national laws and legal concepts as much as possible. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on all these legal challenges. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Challenges and threats to implementing the fight against doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2014-05-01

    Prominent doping cases in certain sports have recently raised public awareness of doping and reinforced the perception that doping is widespread. Efforts to deal with doping in sport have intensified in recent years, yet the general public believes that the 'cheaters' are ahead of the testers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to change the antidoping strategy. For example, the increase in the number of individual drug tests conducted between 2005 and 2012 was approximately 90 000 and equivalent to an increase of about 50%, yet the number of adverse analytical findings remained broadly the same. There is also a strikingly different prevalence of doping substances and methods in sports such as a 0.03% prevalence of anabolic steroids in football compared to 0.4% in the overall WADA statistics. Future efforts in the fight against doping should therefore be more heavily based on preventative strategies such as education and on the analysis of data and forensic intelligence and also on the experiences of relevant stakeholders such as the national antidoping organisations, the laboratories, athletes or team physicians and related biomedical support staff. This strategy is essential to instigate the change needed to more effectively fight doping in sport.

  4. Molecular mechanisms and new strategies to fight stresses in egg-producing birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shatskikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Commercial egg production is associated with various stresses decreasing productive and reproductive performance of layers. A growing body of evidence indicates that most of stresses in poultry production at the cellular level are associated with oxidative stress due to excess of free radical production or inadequate antioxidant protection. Recently, a concept of the cellular antioxidant defence has been revised with a special attention paid to cell signalling. Indeed, in animals, redox signalling pathways use reactive oxygen species (ROS to transfer signals from different sources to the nucleus to regulate a number of various functions including growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The vitagene concept of fighting stresses emerged as a new direction in a nutritional research. Indeed, by improving the adaptive ability of animals to stress it is possible tosubstantially decrease negative consequences of various stresses in poultry and farm animal production. The analysis of recently published data clearly showed that the anti-stress composition developed on the vitagene concept and supplied with drinking water is an effective means in fighting stresses in poultry production.

  5. Contesting heteronormativity: the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition in India and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.

  6. Within-season variability of fighting behaviour in an Australian alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschett, Giselle; Umbers, Kate D L; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the breeding season, changing environmental and biological conditions can lead to variation in the reproductive landscape of many species. In alpine environments temperature is a key driver of behaviour for small ectotherms such as insects, but variable biotic factors such as mate quality and availability can also influence behaviour. Kosicuscola tristis is a small semelparous grasshopper of the Australian alpine region. In a rare behaviour among grasshoppers, K. tristis males engage in vigorous fights over access to females, involving mandible displays, kicking, biting and grappling. In this study we describe the variation in fighting behaviour of K. tristis throughout the breeding season and test several hypotheses related to temperature, body size, mating behaviour, and female quality. We show that K. tristis males are more aggressive toward each other at the end of the breeding season than at the beginning. This increased aggression is associated with decreased daily average temperatures (from ~20°C to ~9°C), decreased mating activity, increased female fecundity, and an unexpected trend toward an increase in female-to-male aggression. These results suggest that K. tristis is likely under increased selective pressure to time key life cycle events with favourable biological and climatic conditions. The stochastic nature of alpine environments combined with a relatively short life span and breeding season, as well as limited mating opportunities toward the end of the season may have contributed to the evolution of this extraordinary mating system.

  7. The stormy waters of the International Criminal Court: universal fight against impunity or liberal universalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Kowalski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The universalistic dimension of the International Criminal Court's (ICC nature and function is clear. Yet, this dimension must be thoroughly defined. We must ask ‘what universalism’? A rational approach to international social relations is different from an ethical one. While the rational approach may lead to universalization of localized specific moral models (e.g. the liberal Western model promoting its hegemony, the ethical approach promotes diversity through considering non-reducible differences and common human phenomena in which only a minimal common ethics is universal. This paper argues that the answer to this structural question is crucial to understand if the ICC is essentially a hegemonic tool to expand the predominant Western liberal model or rather a mechanism to fight impunity acknowledging diversity and rooted on an ethical concern. We contend that the ICC is immersed in troubled waters where it is not always possible to separate a universalizing Western liberal approach from an ethical universal approach. Nevertheless, we conclude that the Court, even if partially and at times serves as tool for hegemony, is essentially defined by the universalization of the fight against impunity through reference to a minimal common ethics.

  8. EU legal framework of fight against child pornography on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse and exploitation of children is a serious violation of the basic rights of a child and child pornography on the Internet represents specific harmful content, whose existence and expansion can not be possibly about the freedom of opinion and expression. The fight against child pornography on Internet includes criminalization of certain harmful behaviors, identification of children who are the victims, detection of the perpetrators of these crimes and their prosecution, termination of criminal networks, removal of pornographic content from the Internet or disable of access to the sites where these content are to be found. Although Internet is almost unlimited space for distribution of child pornographic material, the state's response is territorially limited, due to the fact that even if the state sets control over content on Internet sites located within its territory, users can find material on the Internet sites that are located outside the reach of the authorities of that country. For this reason, the fight against online child pornography sets requirement for the harmonization of national legislation and the establishment of effective international cooperation.

  9. WHO-IAEA join forces to fight cancer. New Joint Programme cements partnership, promotes synergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    On the 26th May 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) announced the launch of a Joint Programme on Cancer Control, aimed at strengthening and accelerating efforts to fight cancer in the developing world. WHO and the IAEA have complementary mandates when it comes to fighting cancer. WHO is the leader amongst the UN family of organizations in terms of health improvement for people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, while the IAEA's expertise in radiation medicine is a vital element of cancer diagnosis and treatment. The Joint Programme will provide the framework for the two Organizations to dovetail their work, building on their areas of expertise to create a more coordinated and robust approach to combating cancer in poor countries. In practical terms, this will mean working with Member States to integrate diagnostic and treatment-related activities into cancer control plans of the country based on WHO cancer control guidelines and strategies in each region. Efforts in the joint programme are focusing on six PACT Model Demonstration Sites (PMDS) in Albania, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Yemen. They will also respond to requests for cancer control assessment and programme development assistance in low- and middle-income countries

  10. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer—is this realistic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klement, Rainer J.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to accommodate for both the altered tumor cell metabolism and cancer-associated weight loss. In this review, I present three specific rationales for CHO restriction and nutritional ketosis as supportive treatment options for the HNC patient. These are (1) targeting the origin and specific aspects of tumor glycolysis; (2) protecting normal tissue from but sensitizing tumor tissue to radiation- and chemotherapy induced cell kill; (3) supporting body and muscle mass maintenance. While most of these benefits of CHO restriction apply to cancer in general, specific aspects of implementation are discussed in relation to HNC patients. While CHO restriction seems feasible in HNC patients the available evidence indicates that its role may extend beyond fighting malnutrition to fighting HNC itself

  11. Three-dimensional tracking for efficient fire fighting in complex situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, Moulay; Rossi, Lucile

    2009-05-01

    Each year, hundred millions hectares of forests burn causing human and economic losses. For efficient fire fighting, the personnel in the ground need tools permitting the prediction of fire front propagation. In this work, we present a new technique for automatically tracking fire spread in three-dimensional space. The proposed approach uses a stereo system to extract a 3D shape from fire images. A new segmentation technique is proposed and permits the extraction of fire regions in complex unstructured scenes. It works in the visible spectrum and combines information extracted from YUV and RGB color spaces. Unlike other techniques, our algorithm does not require previous knowledge about the scene. The resulting fire regions are classified into different homogenous zones using clustering techniques. Contours are then extracted and a feature detection algorithm is used to detect interest points like local maxima and corners. Extracted points from stereo images are then used to compute the 3D shape of the fire front. The resulting data permits to build the fire volume. The final model is used to compute important spatial and temporal fire characteristics like: spread dynamics, local orientation, heading direction, etc. Tests conducted on the ground show the efficiency of the proposed scheme. This scheme is being integrated with a fire spread mathematical model in order to predict and anticipate the fire behaviour during fire fighting. Also of interest to fire-fighters, is the proposed automatic segmentation technique that can be used in early detection of fire in complex scenes.

  12. Fire protection at hot laboratories: Prevention, surveillance and fire-fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappellier, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    After pointing out that fire in a hot laboratory can be an important factor contributing to a radioactivity accident, the author briefly recalls the items to be taken into account in a fire hazard analysis. He then describes various important aspects of prevention, detection and fire-fighting which - at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - are governed by already defined rules or by guidelines which are sufficiently advanced to give a clear idea of the final conclusions to be drawn therefrom. From the point of view protection, the concept of fire sector has been evolved, at hot laboratories, becomes the fire and contamination sector, so as to ensure under all circumstances the containment of any radioactive materials dispersed in the premises on fire. Regarding fire detection, a study should be made on the constraints specific to the facility and liable to affect detector operation. These include ventilation, radiations, neutral or corrosive atmosphere, etc. As regards fire-fighting, two particular aspects are dealt with, namely the question of using water in case of fire and action to be taken concerning ventilation. A practical example - the protection of a ventilation system - is described. In conclusion the paper refers to the need for a thorough analysis specific to each hot laboratory, and to the importance of preparing an operational plan so as to avoid any dangerous improvisations in case of an accident. (author)

  13. A regional fight against Chagas disease: lessons learned from a successful collaborative partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Salerno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the intangible elements that characterize the successful effort to fight Chagas disease in the Americas, determine how they contributed to the overall success of the partnership, and learn lessons from the experience that could be applied to other programs. Methods. This study was based on the Partnership Assessment Tool (PAT developed by the Nuffield Institute for Health ("the Institute" at the University of Leeds (London. The PAT draws heavily on scientific literature and the extensive experience of sociologists and health experts working for the Institute. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO modified the tool slightly to adapt it to its needs and provide a general structure for the study. The six key principles of the PAT framework were applied in the design of the research questionnaires. Results. The findings show that a successful collaboration requires a clear objective; a good-quality pool of data; and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the problem, its dimensions, and its impact. The collaboration was elaborated from a common idea and a shared, quantified plan based on data gathered by independent scientists plus a strategy with explicit milestones. The clarity of purpose allowed for an improved synergy of efforts and made it possible to resolve differences in opinions and approaches. Conclusions. PAHO's experience with effective collaborations such as the joint initiative to fight Chagas disease provides a rich knowledge base for analysis of the advantages, limitations, and paradigms of community involvement, collaborative practices, and partnerships.

  14. Study of special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Aksutin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the determination of tendency in boxer to a certain style of fight is important at all stages. Material : The special capacity in boxers with different styles of fight were studied. The special capacity and the impact force were studied by special training equipment among 23 boxers of higher qualification. The absolute and the relative strength of serial and single strikes were studied. Results : the results indicated that the absolutely impact force, the total tonnage and the relative strength of his right hand of strikes in boxers-“strongman” are more higher than in boxers with different styles. In boxers-“player” the power-hitting left-handed is more increasing for different styles. This fact indicates the presence among boxers-“player” the left-handed persons. Conclusions : the presented data are indicated about more higher of special endurance in boxers-“fastest”. This group of boxers differs from other of more higher development speed endurance

  15. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age......Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual...... agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action...

  16. Review of Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving by Sanjoy Mahajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Pfaff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010. 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples that will require knowledge of Physics. At the same time, there are parts of the book that don't require this much background. While the title of the book may be misleading, as it is really street-fighting mathematics for people with a fair amount of training in the subject, there is a lot to be gained from reading this book, and calculus teachers may find it to be a useful resource.

  17. Comparative estimation of efficiency of playing method at perfection of technique of fight for the capture of young judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musakhanov A.K.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of efficiency of mastering of technique of fight are considered for a capture for young judoists. Directions are selected the use of methods of the strictly regulated exercise and playing methods. In research 28 judoists took part in age 8-10 years. Duration of experiment two weeks. In one group of youths conducted game on snatching out of ribbons (clothes-pins and bandages, fastened on the kimono of opponent. In the second group work of taking of basic captures and educational meetings was conducted on a task on taking of capture. The training program contained playing methods and methods of the strictly regulated exercise. Comparison of the trainings programs defined specificity of their affecting development of different indexes of technique of fight for a capture. Recommended in training on the technique of fight for a capture the combined use of methods of the strictly regulated exercise and playing methods.

  18. “Your Kung Fu is very good, Master Fiore!” Asian and European fight books in comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetzler Sixt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the fight book is not restricted to the European tradition. Similar artefacts, usually combining text and image to describe the techniques of close quarter combat with and without weapons, exist also in various Asian cultures, in China, Japan, Korea, and India. In the article, the question shall be raised in how far and to which end fight books of different cultures can be taken into one perspective, and be compared. To do so, similarities and dissimilarities between European and early Chinese fight books will be pointed out, and preliminary areas for comparison will be introduced. The aim of the article is to raise awareness for the topic, and to lay the ground for further discussion between specialists on the respective European and Chinese fields.

  19. Physical fighting among Egyptian adolescents: social and demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Celedonia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescent interpersonal violence is a global public health problem, yet gaps remain in the epidemiologic literature on adolescent violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Prevalence rates and risk and protective factors reported in high-income countries may be different from those reported in LMICs. Culturally-relevant epidemiologic data is important in efforts aimed at addressing adolescent interpersonal violence in these countries.Methods. A cross-sectional study of Egyptian adolescent involvement in violent behavior was conducted. Data collected from a 2006 school-based survey initiative were used; participants were adolescents aged 11–17 (N = 5, 249. Some participants were excluded from the dataset due to incomplete data (N = 111 resulting in a final sample of 5,138. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were run to determine demographic and social variables associated with participation in physical fighting.Results. Thirty-one percent of adolescents reported being involved in a physical fight. Previously reported risk factors for violent behavior among adolescents such as depressive symptoms (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.11–1.50 and bullying victimization (OR = 2.44; CI = 2.12–2.83 were positively associated with violent behavior in the present study, while the more novel factor of sedentary behavior was also observed as having a positive association with violent behavior (OR = 1.43; CI = 1.21–1.69. Known protective factors such as helpful peers (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.62–0.90 and understanding parents (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.56–0.81 were found to have negative associations with violent behavior in the present study, in addition to the counterintuitive protective effect of having fewer friends (OR = 0.75; CI = 0.60–0.92.Conclusions. Prevalence rates of adolescent interpersonal violence in Egypt are similar to rates in other LMICs. The high reported rates of depressive symptomatology and bully victimization along with

  20. Psychologische functieleer en cognitieve ergonomie: een Siamese tweeling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, Willem B.

    2004-01-01

    Ooit zijn cognitieve ergonomie en psychologische functieleer samen ontstaan uit vragen naar de mentale mogelijkheden en beperkingen van de mens. Echter, deze onderzoeksgebieden blijken uit elkaar te groeien en dat is een verlies voor beide gebieden. Deze stelling wordt aan de hand van een aantal

  1. Analysis of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Eggshell Proteome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedmera, David

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2018), s. 21-37 ISSN 1572-3887 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : protein s of eggshell * eggshell pigment * crocodile Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.139, year: 2016

  2. The occurrence and development of 'Siamese twins' and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-10-21

    Oct 21, 1991 ... heart and descending body wall over the yolJcsac (bp = blood pool, ca = cavernous area, dbw ... The swimming ability of the twins seemed 10 be unhampered and ... endogenous source of energy, the yolk. and resulted in a.

  3. [The influence of the economy in the fight to save TCM in Republic of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Tang, Qiao-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2011-09-01

    Influenced by national nihilism in modern times, many people do not recognize Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Its economic value and social economic support played an important role in the victory of the fight for TCM in the period of the Republic of China. Meanwhile, the education, clinical practice and administration of TCM during the period of Republic of China were all under the constraint of economy. Analysis of the economy's impact on the development of TCM is of practical value. Related to the national economy and the people's livelihood, TCM could be considered both as an important component of national economy and as a state investment. Only when the relationship between TCM and social economy is emphasized and handled well, could the national health industry be rapidly developed.

  4. Powernext Carbon, an organized market at the service of the fight against greenhouse effect.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The European Community directive no 2003/87/CE aims at fighting against climatic change by the implementation of a greenhouse gas emissions trading system. This architecture has been precised in the European Regulation no 2216/2004 relative to the normalized and secured registers system. This document describes the principles of Powernext Carbon, the quotas trading market, launched by Powernext in partnership with Caisse des Depots and Euronext: context, size of the European CO 2 market, regulatory situation, Powernext Carbon - the European CO 2 quotas stock exchange (partnership, architecture, spot products, European members network), theory and practice of Powernext Carbon continuous market (reference electronic platform, 3-step negotiation, invoicing and added value tax, tariffing. (J.S.)

  5. Computer code structure for evaluation of fire protection measures and fighting capability at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1997-01-01

    In this work a computer code structure for Fire Protection Measures (FPM) and Fire Fighting Capability (FFC) at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is presented. It allows to evaluate the category (satisfactory (s), needs for further evaluation (n), unsatisfactory (u)) to which belongs the given NPP for a self-control in view of an IAEA inspection. This possibility of a self assessment resulted from IAEA documents. Our approach is based on international experience gained in this field and stated in IAEA recommendations. As an illustration we used the FORTRAN programming language statement to make clear the structure of the computer code for the problem taken into account. This computer programme can be conceived so that some literal message in English and Romanian languages be displayed beside the percentage assessments. (author)

  6. Organizational collaborative capacity in fighting pandemic crises: a literature review from the public management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Allen Y

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative capacity serves for organizations as the capacity to collaborate with other network players. Organizational capacity matters as collaboration outcomes usually go beyond single-shot implementation efforts or a single-minded focus on either the vertical dimension of program or the horizontal component. This review article explores organizational collaborative capacities from the perspective of public management, in particular, network theory. By applying the 5 attributes of network theory-interdependence, membership, resources, information, and learning-to the explanation of collaborative capacity in fighting pandemic crises, I argue in some ways organizational collaborative capacity is very much like an organization in its own right. Studying collaborative capacity in the battle against pandemics facilitate our understanding of multisectoral collaboration in technical, political, and institutional dimensions, and greatly advances the richness of capacity vocabulary in pandemic response and preparedness.

  7. The Periodization of Fighting on Donbass in 2014–2015 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Mityukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article based on the analysis of the data gives the attempt of the periodical press of combat actions on the territory of Donbas in 2014-2015: there are presented clearly two periods. The first is the period of the maneuvers from 7 April 2014 to 5 September 2014, characterized by the presence of fortified centres which both sides tried to get around to entering the operating room. In this period there is no clear front line, fighting was an interaction maneuverable shock groups. The second period is the period position of action from September 5 to the present time, characterized by clearly formed the front line, as a rule, deeply echeloned. Active hostilities reached a peak during the battle for Lugansk and the Donetsk airport and Debaltsevo during the operation.

  8. Fighting Windmills: The Coalition of Industrialists and Environmentalists in the Climate Change Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2004-01-01

    environmental quality. We focus on the case of international climate negotiations and the promotion of wind-based energy. Along the lines of the Ackerman and Hassler approach, we suggest that one reason for EU eagerness to push forward ambitious reduction target levels (and thereby promote new green industries......) could be a similar coalition between industrialists and environmentalists. Such a strategy can be seen in the context of the Bootleggers and Baptist theory developed by Yandle [‘Bootleggers and Baptists: the Education of a Regulatory Economist,’ Regulation, 7, 12–16], where the Baptists (in our case...... for the coalition of industrialists and environmentalists offering both market protection and improved environmental quality. Solving the current deadlock in international climate negotiations may well imply fighting the strong coalition of industrialists and environmentalists. Such a political battle may turn out...

  9. State of the fight against informal market of medicines in Togo: approaches and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnassingbe, A; Flahault, A; Geissbuhler, A; Sprumont, D; Awesso, A

    2018-02-01

    The extent of medicines sales and consumption in the informal market in Togo raises many ethical and public health issues. In order to report on the situation of public action in the fight against this practice, we conducted a qualitative survey from 15 to 25 February 2016 in the commune of Lomé and in the Maritime Region among the actors of control system and resource people in the general population. This was supplemented by an analysis of Togo's pharmaceutical and health policy documents and a literature review on the illicit drug market issues relating to public health, political science, the social sciences applied to health. In spite of the existence of national and international tools, household poverty, cultural self-medication, ignorance of the population concerning the health risks of informal market medicines, weak political commitment, weakness regulation and enforcement, corruption, constitute obstacles to the success of actions to combat this practice.

  10. The role of intelligence in the fight against Salafist jihadist terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Díaz Matey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is clear academic and political consensus on the importance of the intelligence services to the fight against the terrorist threat, but the development of so-called “global terrorism” has substantially altered the way the threat can be contained and, as a result, certain practices of the intelligence services have changed too. This article studies how the terrorist threat has changed over recent years focusing on the specific case of Salafist jihadist terrorism. It analyses the main consequences of these changes for the intelligence services both internally (processes of obtaining information and analysis and externally (in terms of cooperation. Finally, it shows the importance of reaching a proper understanding as the basis for driving measures in the medium and long term that allow the intelligence services to pre-empt the evolution of ideas based on radicalisation and the use of extreme political violence.

  11. A new approach to fight poverty and vulnerability: The redistributive enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Daneri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR has never focused on the implementation of cash transfers to vulnerable groups. The present paper intends to explore this particular option, which can be described through an analysis of 3 different phases: the production of income, the distribution of income, the choice of the vulnerable groups to be benefitted. Every phase involves new and specific features, which are linked to a new approach in the field of corporate social responsibility. An evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of this particular approach will be carried out, in each of the 3 single phases, in order to be able to evaluate the consequences of this new approach. The approach seems to be particularly promising since it can be applied to very different categories of vulnerable groups. Still, the approach is best suited if the underlying vulnerability is poverty, since the transfer of financial resources allows to fight poverty by definition.

  12. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero Baturone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  13. A portable W-band radar system for enhancement of infrared vision in fire fighting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, Mathias; Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kühn, Jutta; Schlechtweg, Michael; Hahmann, Konstantin; Kleiner, Bernhard; Ulrich, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present a millimeter wave radar system which will enhance the performance of infrared cameras used for fire-fighting applications. The radar module is compact and lightweight such that the system can be combined with inertial sensors and integrated in a hand-held infrared camera. This allows for precise distance measurements in harsh environmental conditions, such as tunnel or industrial fires, where optical sensors are unreliable or fail. We discuss the design of the RF front-end, the antenna and a quasi-optical lens for beam shaping as well as signal processing and demonstrate the performance of the system by in situ measurements in a smoke filled environment.

  14. Laurentide: The Crime Fighting Geologist, A Comic-Book Curriculum Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, A.; Gilbert, L. A.; Enright, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    When the police are just too ill informed on matters of earth science to solve the case it is up to Laurentide and her crew of geologists to bring justice to evildoers. Using every tool available, from a rock hammer to LiDAR, Laurentide fights crime while teaching her apprentice Esker about how geologists uncover mysteries everyday. This is the first of what will be a series of free teaching materials targeted at grades 5-8 based around the National Science Education Standards. Students will get the chance to practice problem solving and data analysis in order to solve mysteries with a combination of comic book style story telling and hands-on worksheets. The pilot story, "The Caper of the Ridiculously Cheap Condominiums" will cover 4 of the 9 Earth Science Literacy Principles 'Big Ideas'. Material will explore earthquakes, the hazards and risks they present, and the tools geologists use to map faults and estimate reoccurrence intervals.

  15. Applying Open Source Game Engine for Building Visual Simulation Training System of Fire Fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Diping; Jin, Xuesheng; Zhang, Jin; Han, Dong

    There's a growing need for fire departments to adopt a safe and fair method of training to ensure that the firefighting commander is in a position to manage a fire incident. Visual simulation training systems, with their ability to replicate and interact with virtual fire scenarios through the use of computer graphics or VR, become an effective and efficient method for fire ground education. This paper describes the system architecture and functions of a visual simulated training system of fire fighting on oil storage, which adopting Delat3D, a open source game and simulation engine, to provide realistic 3D views. It presents that using open source technology provides not only the commercial-level 3D effects but also a great reduction of cost.

  16. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) for Fiscal Year 2009... the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended, for... the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended by...

  17. Discussing Sexual Orientation and Gender in Classrooms: A Testimonial-Based Approach to Fighting Homophobia in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gabrielle; Vallerand, Olivier; Petit, Marie-Pier; Charbonneau, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    To fight homophobia in schools in Québec, many teachers rely on community organizations such as the Groupe de Recherche et d'Intervention Sociale (Research and Social Intervention Group) to address sexual diversity in class. This article documents major outcomes of these workshops as seen by students. Students identified topics related to…

  18. De-sportization of fighting contests. The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Heilbron; Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the recent emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests, it is argued that Norbert Elias's model of sportization provides a fruitful but insufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the development of sports and

  19. De-sportization of fighting contests : The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, M.; Heilbron, Johan

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests during the 1990s, we argue that Norbert Elias’s model of sportization represents a fruitful but not sufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the recent development of

  20. When Black Girls Fight: Interrogating, Interrupting, and (Re)Imagining Dangerous Scripts of Femininity in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jennifer; Edwards, Erica B.

    2018-01-01

    The recent death of Amy Joyner, a promising Wilmington, Delaware, high school sophomore demonstrates very clearly the ways in which Black girls are made vulnerable in urban schools. Joyner, an honor roll student, was jumped by a group of girls in the bathroom just before classes began. The alleged cause of the fight was jealousy over a boy. Black…

  1. Accepting or fighting unlicensed usage : Can firms reduce unlicensed usage by optimizing their timing and pricing strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmester, Alexa B.; Eggers, Felix; Clement, Michel; Prostka, Tim

    The rise of the Internet and new online services have led to the wide-scale illegal distribution of digital entertainment products, such as music, movies, games, and books. We analyze whether firms in the entertainment industry should fight unlicensed usage by providing specific offers that maximize

  2. Book review - Borderline justice: the fight for refugee and migrant rights by Frances Webber, London, Pluto Press, 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liempt, I.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Our leaders encourage and treat as heroes those people who are fighting for democracy and human rights, in Burma, in Libya, in Egypt and Syria…But as soon as these heroes seek sanctuary here in the ‘free world’, they are transformed into a hostile alien threat to our culture and our values, to be

  3. Issues of Security and Informational Privacy in relation to an Environmental Scanning System for Fighting Organized Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Anne; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    This paper clarifies privacy challenges related to the EU project, ePOOLICE, which aims at developing an environmental scanning system for fighting organized crime by improving law enforcement agencies opportunities for strategic proactive planning in response to emerging organized crime threats...... privacy all through the system design process....

  4. [Community-based approaches in the fight against Buruli ulcer : review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndongo, Paule Yolande; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Deccache, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infectious skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It mainly affects poor communities living close to bodies of water. In the absence of early treatment, this "neglected" disease can cause lasting deformities and may require limb amputation. It is reported in 34 countries and is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent patients. Considerable progress has been made in treatment and prevention. The Cotonou Declaration (2009) describes the recommended control strategies. Although effective, current control strategies are limited because they do not take into account all the factors that influence emergence, prevention and cure of the disease. The control of Buruli ulcer mainly depends on intervention on social, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence preventive and self-care behaviour. The health promotion approach requires collaboration with populations in order to perform simultaneous actions on BU factors in the community setting. Although effective on many health problems, health promotion is not applied in the fight against BU due to the absence of action on all factors such as poverty. This article presents a review of the literature on BU strategies and community approaches. 407 relevant articles published in 1998-2013 period were examined. Eleven programmes are based on a top-down approach, which does not include populations in decision-making processes, unlike the bottom-up participatory approaches recommended in health promotion. Three health promotion programmes and 6 community-based participatory approaches were identified and examined. Community participation and empowerment constitute the basis for a community approach in the fight against Buruli ulcer.

  5. Talks and status of the national conference of the national program of fight against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In order to fulfill its commitments in the Kyoto protocol for the abatement of greenhouse gases emissions, France has started important environmental actions: the creation of the national program of fight against climate change (validated in January 2000), the integration of the problem of climate change in government actions (collective services and state-region contracts), creation of a national laboratory of global warming effects, creation of a research council on climate change and durable development, presentation of an annual status of the actions carried out in the framework of the national program. This last point was the aim of the conference held in Paris in June 2001. Debates were organized around four main sectors: industry, energy, buildings and transportation systems. The topics approached during the round-tables raised several essential questions for the fight against climate change: which practice changes are needed in the industry and energy production activities? Which actions need to be carried out in new and existing buildings to save energy? Which consistent transportation policies need to be implemented in urban areas? Is a rail-road traffic re-balancing possible? Which importance can have the territory organizations? What are the public expectations in front of the climate change risk? This document brings together the talks of Mrs D. Voynet, Minister of national development and environment, the talk of Mr R.G. Schwartzenberg, Minister of research, the talk of Mr C. Pierret, State Secretary of Industry, and a sectoral status (transports, industry, energy, buildings and mastery of electricity demand) of the first year of the program presented by Mr M. Mousel, head of the inter-ministry mission on greenhouse effect. The document ends with a presentation of the British and European climate change programs. (J.S.)

  6. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  7. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  8. The EU’s fight against today’s organised crime: an essential challenge… but a difficult one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jiménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against organised crime generally requires a high degree of cooperation between states. In the case of the European Union, whose internal space is borderless on almost every issue, this level of cooperation is unavoidable. Being aware of this, member states have made efforts to move forward in this fight together. The creation of new cooperation tools and the use of certain agencies have been important steps, but are far from enough. To make progress on this issue, it is essential to overcome the distrust grown out of defending a sovereignty that is, today, more imaginary than real and to bring about greater harmonisation of security standards, protection of fundamental rights and guarantees of the rule of law. The resulting increase in mutual trust is crucial for more effective joint action against this type of crime.

  9. Particles that fight cancer: the use of protons and carbon ions in cancer therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Particles that fight cancer: the use of protons and carbon ions in cancer therapy Cancer is a major societal issue. A key challenge for cancer therapy is the complex and multifaceted nature of the disease, which calls for personalised treatment. Radiotherapy has been used to treat tumours for more than a century, and is still a staple in oncology: today, 50 % of cancer patients receive radiotherapy, half of them with curative intent. Hadrontherapy is one of the most technologically advanced methods of delivering radiation dose to the tumour while protecting surrounding healthy tissues. In addition, hadrontherapy can reach otherwise difficult to access deep-seated tumours and can be used for radio resistant tumours as in hypoxia. This year marks 60 years since the first patient was treated with protons in the US and 20 years since the use of carbon ions in Japan. Join us in learning about the journey of particle therapy in Japan and Europe, its challenges, clinical results and future prospects. Thursday 2...

  10. Serums and vaccines to fight the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porras Gallo, María Isabel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the renewed interest aroused in recent years by the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, and the leading role now played by research analysing the process of innovation in medicine, this paper assesses the role played by serums and vaccines —the new resources of the medical science of the time— in the fight against the influenza outbreak of 1918-1919. The paper highlights the dependence on combined scientific, social, economic and professional factors, and also shows the main consequences arising from the fine-tuning and implementation of these therapeutic and prophylactic resources.

    En el marco de la renovada actualidad alcanzada por la pandemia de gripe de 1918-1919 en los últimos años y del protagonismo logrado por los estudios que analizan el proceso de innovación en Medicina, el presente trabajo analiza el papel representado por sueros y vacunas —los nuevos recursos de la ciencia médica del momento— en la lucha contra la gripe de 1918-1919. El estudio pone de relieve su dependencia de los factores científicos, sociales, económicos y profesionales que concurrieron, y muestra también las principales consecuencias derivadas de la puesta a punto y uso de los citados recursos terapéuticos y profilácticos.

  11. Looking into the Fighting Against Terrorism from the System Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Günbeyi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the war methods that has been used individuals, groups, and even by some states for centuries. Those who used terrorism as a method might get some short term results, but in the long term they certainly harm themselves, their nations and sometimes the whole world. The PKK, which is a brutal and an international terrorist organization, has started its activities in the southeast of Turkey 35 years ago, and today it became a well-known terrorist organization around the world. Policies and strategies applied by Turkey against the PKK for years did not help to finish the PKK and its activities. Today, experts, researchers and politicians believe that it is time to find different but more effective counterterrorism policies. Systems theory offers efficient, comprehensive and unique counterterrorism methods against the PKK terrorism. In order to unearth PKK’s recruitment tactics, some conferences for high school students were organized and conducted during the last two years in Diyarbakir. The conference series made it clear that there are some different ways such as enlightening young people to fight against the PKK in the lights of systems perspective. This research shows that security agencies which are responsible of dealing with terrorist organizations need to pay attention to youth and students in the region

  12. [The fight against counterfeit medicines in Africa: experience and role of pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvé, Martine

    2008-12-01

    The counterfeiting of medicines is a global scourge, which is particularly serious in the African continent. According to WHO estimations, whereas counterfeit medicines represent 1% of the market in developed countries, up to 30% of the medicines sold in African countries are counterfeit. Several factors may explain this high rate in Africa, from the weaknesses of legislation and controls, to the lack of affordability of medicines and the attitude of governments. A counterfeit medicine represents different levels of risk, depending if the active substance is present or not, if the dosage is the right one, if the product contains toxic substances, etc. In Africa, several examples sadly showed the terrible impact the use of counterfeit medicines may have (i.e. Nigeria, 1990, Niger, 1995). Pharmacists have a crucial role to play in fighting against the penetration of counterfeit medicines, both in securing the distribution chain, and in leading some actions towards patients. The FIP has produced some guidelines on this issue by adopting a statement (which was last updated in 2003) and by providing pharmacists with useful tools on its website. Several international organizations such as the CIOPF (International conference of French-speaking Orders) produced recommendations on this issue. However, the experience and expertise gained by national organizations from countries such as Côte d'Ivoire are also worth sharing and are presented here.

  13. Human Rights and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf; Lim, Hyeyoung; Timberlake, Susan; Smith, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was created to greatly expand access to basic services to address the three diseases in its name. From its beginnings, its governance embodied some human rights principles: civil society is represented on its board, and the country coordination mechanisms that oversee funding requests to the Global Fund include representatives of people affected by the diseases. The Global Fund’s core strategies recognize that the health services it supports would not be effective or cost-effective without efforts to reduce human rights-related barriers to access and utilization of health services, particularly those faced by socially marginalized and criminalized persons. Basic human rights elements were written into Global Fund grant agreements, and various technical support measures encouraged the inclusion in funding requests of programs to reduce human rights-related barriers. A five-year initiative to provide intensive technical and financial support for the scaling up of programs to reduce these barriers in 20 countries is ongoing. PMID:29302175

  14. Plea bargaining as a third route of criminal law in the fight against organized administrative corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine whether the plea bargaining in the context of “Lava Jato” Operation is adopting a third route of criminal law against administrative corruption, in which reparation of damages is established as one of the primary objectives of criminal prosecution, in substitution or mitigation of the restrictive sentence of the collaborating defendants. Subsequent to this analysis, it is intended to reflect if the adoption of a third route of criminal law by means of these negotiating instruments could imply in the utilitarian mercantilization of the criminal process prejudicial to the principle of criminal legality, proportionality and isonomy in the application of the punishment. This is a necessary and pertinent analysis due to the protagonism that the plea-bargaining have been assuming in the discovery of great corruption schemes in Brazil and the recovery of assets. The procedural methodology is the bibliographic and the method of approach is the hypothetico-deductive one, besides the case study involving “Lava Jato” operation. The hypothesis worked out is that the award-winning collaboration agreements have externalized a third-way criminal law and that there is a viability of violations of isonomy and criminal legality in fight against administrative corruption.

  15. Ionic Liquids as Unforeseen Assets to Fight Life-Threatening Mycotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Diego O; Petkovic, Marija; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids discovery has celebrated 100 years. They consist solely of ions, one of which is typically organic and asymmetrical. Remarkable physical and chemical properties stirred their use as alternative solvents in many chemical processes. The recent demonstration of their occurrence in nature might boost their interest in biological sciences. In the search of mechanistic understandings of ionic liquids' ecotoxicological impacts in fungi, we have analyzed the proteome, transcriptome, and metabolome responses to this chemical stress. Data illuminated new hypotheses that altered our research path - exploit ionic liquids as tools for the discovery of pathways and metabolites that may impact fungal development and pathogenicity. As we get closer to solve the primary effects of each ionic liquid family and their specific gene targets, the vision of developing antifungal ionic liquids and/or materials, by taking advantage of elegant progresses in this field, might become a reality. Task-designed formulations may improve the performance of conventional antifungal drugs, build functional coatings for reducing allergens production, or aid in the recovery of antifungal plant polymers. The frontier research in this cross-disciplinary field may provide us unforeseen means to address the global concern of mycotic diseases. Pathogenic and opportunistic fungi are responsible for numerous infections, killing annually nearly 1.5 million immunocompromised individuals worldwide, a similar rate to malaria or tuberculosis. This perspective will review our major findings and current hypotheses, contextualizing how they might bring us closer to efficient strategies to prevent and fight mycotic diseases.

  16. Ionic liquids as unforeseen assets to fight life-threatening mycotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O. Hartmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids discovery has celebrated 100 years. They consist solely of ions, one of which is typically organic and asymmetrical. Remarkable physical and chemical properties stirred their use as alternative solvents in many chemical processes. The recent demonstration of their occurrence in nature might boost their interest in biological sciences. In the search of mechanistic understandings of ionic liquids’ ecotoxicological impacts in fungi, we have analyzed the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome responses to this chemical stress. Data illuminated new hypotheses that altered our research path – exploit ionic liquids as tools for the discovery of pathways and metabolites that may impact fungal development and pathogenicity. As we get closer to solve the primary effects of each ionic liquid family and their specific gene targets, the vision of developing antifungal ionic liquids and/or materials, by taking advantage of elegant progresses in this field, might become a reality. Task-designed formulations may improve the performance of conventional antifungal drugs, build functional coatings for reducing allergens production, or aid in the recovery of antifungal plant polymers. The frontier research in this cross-disciplinary field may provide us unforeseen means to address the global concern of mycotic diseases. Pathogenic and opportunistic fungi are responsible for numerous infections, killing annually nearly 1.5 million immunocompromised individuals worldwide, a similar rate to malaria or tuberculosis. This perspective will review our major findings and current hypotheses, contextualizing how they might bring us closer to efficient strategies to prevent and fight mycotic diseases.

  17. Towards Treatment of Stargardt Disease: Workshop Organized and Sponsored by the Foundation Fighting Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Avery E; Bernstein, Paul S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Hoyng, Carel; Charbel Issa, Peter; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Sadda, SriniVas; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Sparrow, Janet R; Washington, Ilyas; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of fluorescent metabolic byproducts of the visual (retinoid) cycle is associated with photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell death in both Stargardt disease and atrophic (nonneovascular) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a consequence of this observation, small molecular inhibitors of enzymes in the visual cycle were recently tested in clinical trials as a strategy to protect the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in patients with atrophic AMD. To address the clinical translational needs for therapies aimed at both diseases, a workshop organized by the Foundation Fighting Blindness was hosted by the Department of Pharmacology at Case Western Reserve University on February 17, 2017, at the Tinkham Veale University Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. Invited speakers highlighted recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Stargardt disease, in terms of its clinical characterization and the development of endpoints for clinical trials, and discussed the comparability of therapeutic strategies between atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease. Investigators speculated that reducing the concentrations of visual cycle precursor substances and/or their byproducts may provide valid therapeutic options for the treatment of Stargardt disease. Here we review the workshop's presentations in the context of published literature to help shape the aims of ongoing research endeavors and aid the development of therapies for Stargardt disease.

  18. Brazil in regional cooperation over the fight against violence and organised crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1980s, organised crime and urban violence were not considered a major political challenge in Brazil. This belief was encouraged by a great reluctance to introduce coercive police measures that might act as reminders of the repression experienced under the dictatorial government of the 1960s and 70s. At present, however, the collective strategy for the fight against transnational crime represents a fundamental challenge. Brazil’s domestic successes and its growing influence as a global actor could be tarnished if the country does not succeed in containing the presence of drug trafficking and related crime. The costs of insecurity, furthermore, are calling into question Brazil’s ability to constitute itself as a platform for South American development. The creation of Unasur and its South American Council on the World Drug Problem reflect South America’s commitment to support a forum for dialogue on the subject, and point to the way ahead: consolidating regional multilateralism. More than four years later, effective instruments are still being sought, but the successful experience of collaboration with Bolivia is being presented as a model for future actions. Strengthening coordination in Unasur will bring the added benefit of the ability to make progress in a more mature and balanced dialogue with the United States with respect to a joint hemispheric agenda.

  19. Methods and means for reducing pressure in systems for fire fighting and water spraying in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlyuk, A I; Grin' , G V; Yushchenko, Yu N

    1986-01-01

    Valves are evaluated used in water systems for fire fighting and dust suppression in underground black coal mines in the USSR. Specifications of the KR-2, the KR-3 and the R-86 pressure-reducing valves used in deep mines are analyzed. The valves are characterized by low reliability, low capacity and low pressure reducing range. Therefore groups (parallel arrangement) of pressure-reducing valves are used. Using valve groups increases equipment cost. The pressure-reducing systems should consist of no more than 2 valves. The VNIIGD Institute developed the RKGD pressure-reducing valve with the following specifications: inlet pressure 6.87 MPa, outlet pressure from 0.98 to 2.45 MPa, water discharge 100 m/sup 3//h). The RKGD valves are characterized by high reliability but extremely high weight. Therefore, the VNIIGD Institute developed a modified version of pressure-reducing valve, called the PRK (with maximum inlet pressure of 5 MPa, outlet pressure ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa, water discharge 80 m/sup 3//h and weighing 5 kg). Design of the PRK pressure-reducing valve is shown.

  20. Towards Treatment of Stargardt Disease: Workshop Organized and Sponsored by the Foundation Fighting Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Avery E.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Hoyng, Carel; Charbel Issa, Peter; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Sadda, SriniVas; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Sparrow, Janet R.; Washington, Ilyas; Scholl, Hendrik P.N.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of fluorescent metabolic byproducts of the visual (retinoid) cycle is associated with photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell death in both Stargardt disease and atrophic (nonneovascular) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a consequence of this observation, small molecular inhibitors of enzymes in the visual cycle were recently tested in clinical trials as a strategy to protect the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in patients with atrophic AMD. To address the clinical translational needs for therapies aimed at both diseases, a workshop organized by the Foundation Fighting Blindness was hosted by the Department of Pharmacology at Case Western Reserve University on February 17, 2017, at the Tinkham Veale University Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. Invited speakers highlighted recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Stargardt disease, in terms of its clinical characterization and the development of endpoints for clinical trials, and discussed the comparability of therapeutic strategies between atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease. Investigators speculated that reducing the concentrations of visual cycle precursor substances and/or their byproducts may provide valid therapeutic options for the treatment of Stargardt disease. Here we review the workshop's presentations in the context of published literature to help shape the aims of ongoing research endeavors and aid the development of therapies for Stargardt disease. PMID:28920007

  1. Dog fight: Darwin as animal advocate in the antivivisection controversy of 1875.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, David Allan

    2009-12-01

    The traditional characterization of Charles Darwin as a strong advocate of physiological experimentation on animals was posited in Richard French's Antivivisection and medical science in Victorian England (1975), where French portrayed him as a soldier in Thomas Huxley's efforts to preserve anatomical experimentation on animals unfettered by government regulation. That interpretation relied too much on, inter alia, Huxley's own description of the legislative battles of 1875, and shared many historians' propensity to foster a legacy of Darwin as a leader among a new wave of scientists, even where personal interests might indicate a conflicting story. Animal rights issues concerned more than mere science for Darwin, however, and where debates over other scientific issues failed to inspire Darwin to become publicly active, he readily joined the battle over vivisection, helping to draft legislation which, in many ways, was more protective of animal rights than even the bills proposed by his friend and anti-vivisectionist, Frances Power Cobbe. Darwin may not have officially joined Cobbe's side in the fight, but personal correspondence of the period between 1870 and 1875 reveals a man whose first interest was to protect animals from inhumane treatment, and second to protect the reputations of those men and physiologists who were his friends, and who he believed incapable of inhumane acts. On this latter point he and Cobbe never did reach agreement, but they certainly agreed on the humane treatment of animals, and the need to proscribe various forms of animal experimentation.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis: the first real rule of fight club?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kristin L

    2013-12-19

    Competition is ubiquitous among social animals. Vying against a conspecific to achieve a particular outcome often requires one to act aggressively, but this is a costly and inherently risky behavior. So why do we aggressively compete, or at the extreme, fight against others? Early work suggested that competitive aggression might stem from an innate aggressive tendency, emanating from subcortical structures. Later work highlighted key cortical regions that contribute toward an instrumental aggression network, one that is recruited or suppressed as needed to achieve a goal. Recent neuroimaging work hints that competitive aggression is upmost a cost-benefit decision, in that it appears to recruit many components of traditional, non-social decision-making networks. This review provides a historical glimpse into the neuroscience of competitive aggression, and proposes a conceptual advancement for studying competitive behavior by outlining how utility calculations of contested-for resources are skewed, pre- and post-competition. A basic multi-factorial model of utility assessment is proposed to account for competitive endowment effects that stem from the presence of peers, peer salience and disposition, and the tactical effort required for victory. In part, competitive aggression is a learned behavior that should only be repeated if positive outcomes are achieved. However, due to skewed utility assessments, deviations of associative learning occur. Hence truly careful cost-benefit analysis is warranted before choosing to vie against another.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis: the first real rule of fight club?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Louise Hillman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition is ubiquitous among social animals. Vying against a conspecific to achieve a particular outcome often requires one to act aggressively, but this is a costly and inherently risky behaviour. So why do we aggressively compete, or at the extreme, fight against others? Early work suggested that competitive aggression might stem from an innate aggressive tendency, emanating from subcortical structures. Later work highlighted key cortical regions that contribute towards an instrumental aggression network, one that is recruited or suppressed as needed to achieve a goal. Recent neuroimaging work hints that competitive aggression is upmost a cost-benefit decision, in that it appears to recruit many components of traditional, non-social decision-making networks. This review provides a historical glimpse into the neuroscience of competitive aggression, and proposes a conceptual advancement for studying competitive behaviour by outlining how utility calculations of contested-for resources are skewed, pre- and post-competition. A basic multi-factorial model of utility assessment is proposed to account for competitive endowment effects that stem from the presence of peers, peer salience and disposition, and the tactical effort required for victory. In part, competitive aggression is a learned behaviour that should only be repeated if positive outcomes are achieved. However due to skewed utility assessments, deviations of associative learning occur. Hence truly careful cost-benefit analysis is warranted before choosing to vie against another.

  4. Ionic Liquids as Unforeseen Assets to Fight Life-Threatening Mycotic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Diego O.; Petkovic, Marija; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids discovery has celebrated 100 years. They consist solely of ions, one of which is typically organic and asymmetrical. Remarkable physical and chemical properties stirred their use as alternative solvents in many chemical processes. The recent demonstration of their occurrence in nature might boost their interest in biological sciences. In the search of mechanistic understandings of ionic liquids’ ecotoxicological impacts in fungi, we have analyzed the proteome, transcriptome, and metabolome responses to this chemical stress. Data illuminated new hypotheses that altered our research path – exploit ionic liquids as tools for the discovery of pathways and metabolites that may impact fungal development and pathogenicity. As we get closer to solve the primary effects of each ionic liquid family and their specific gene targets, the vision of developing antifungal ionic liquids and/or materials, by taking advantage of elegant progresses in this field, might become a reality. Task-designed formulations may improve the performance of conventional antifungal drugs, build functional coatings for reducing allergens production, or aid in the recovery of antifungal plant polymers. The frontier research in this cross-disciplinary field may provide us unforeseen means to address the global concern of mycotic diseases. Pathogenic and opportunistic fungi are responsible for numerous infections, killing annually nearly 1.5 million immunocompromised individuals worldwide, a similar rate to malaria or tuberculosis. This perspective will review our major findings and current hypotheses, contextualizing how they might bring us closer to efficient strategies to prevent and fight mycotic diseases. PMID:26903990

  5. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: 10 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2014-02-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund or GFATM) is a private public partnership aimed at leveraging and providing funding for the three focal diseases outlined in its title. Set up in 2002, the fund was part of a new 'breed' of players in the field of global health, combining skills from bilateral and multilateral agencies with private sector and civil society. Highly innovative in its structure and funding model, the Global Fund's secretariat in Geneva provides grants directly to one or more organisations - not just governments - in recipient countries. Despite great successes, including scaling up treatment for AIDS to reach 4.2 million people, the fund has been the subject of intense debate. This includes discussion of its impact on health systems and allegations of financial irregularities among recipients in four countries. The organisation has now emerged with a new strategy, funding model and executive director. This paper charts its history, discusses some of the challenges faced, drawing on fieldwork conducted by the author in 2007-08, and reflects on recent changes and the road ahead.

  6. Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Zimmermann, Elke; Ross, Marina Davila

    2011-02-23

    Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to our knowledge, if/how non-human species respond to inequities in natural social settings. Hitting causes a naturally occurring inequity among individuals and here it was specifically assessed how the hitters and their partners engaged in play chases that followed the hitting. The results of this work showed that the hitters significantly more often moved first to run away immediately after the encounter than their partners. These findings provide evidence that non-human species respond to inequities by trying to maintain their competitive advantages. We conclude that non-human primates, like humans, may show different responses to inequities and that they may modify them depending on if they have the advantage or the disadvantage.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING EUROJUST'S CONTRIBUTION IN FIGHTING CROSS-BORDER CRIME IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, MIHALCEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the European Union enshrined in 67 alin.(1 (ex-art. 61 TCE and ex-art. 29 TUE of the consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union is to create a common European space of security and justice without internal frontiers, in which to ensure the free movement of people, corralated with appropriate measures on external border controls , asylum , immigration, and crime prevention and combating. This is a long term goal that requires active cooperation of Member States and multiple efforts by EU institutions. The institutional functioning practice has shown that the clasic forms of judicial cooperation do not have the ability to complete this objective and that is necessary to create specialized structures. In this context the First European institutional structure was established in 2002, a specialized agency of the European Union, named Eurojust, with the main objective to promote and improve coordination and cooperation between the judicial authorities of the Member States in the fight against serious cross-border crime affecting the European Union. Tasks of Eurojust and relations with other European bodies, particularly the Council and Commission are established by Decision 2002/187 / JHA amended by Decision 2009/426 / JHA Council of 16 December 2008 It is exercised by College Eurojust or through its national members.

  8. The Fight against Terrorism and Cross-Border Crime in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing an area of freedom, security and justice, an objective assumed by the European Union can only be achieved under conditions that ensure an improvement of judicial cooperation activity in criminal matters. The Council Framework Decision 2008/615/JHA of 23 June 2008 is the framework normative act that rules the Member States' cooperation in the fight against terrorism and cross-border crime. This paper is a review of the European legislative act, with critical remarks and it represents the sequel of these types of examinations, previously published. The research results consist of the presentation of some critical observations regarding the skills of the agents operating in the territory of another Member State rather than in the country from where they come, terms of keeping the data that regards people, the need to take in the records the judicial persons and the need for establishing separate accounts that would regard the natural and legal persons from other countries that are not members of the European Union. The relevant conclusions highlight the usefulness of European legislative act as a whole and the need to complete it with new provisions. The work is useful both for theorists and practitioners in the field, the essential contribution consisting of the formulation of critical remarks and sustained proposals de lege ferenda.

  9. Interferon lambda: opportunities, risks, and uncertainties in the fight against HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Stephen M; Dustin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity is key to the fight against the daily onslaught from viruses that our bodies are subjected to. Essential to this response are the interferons (IFNs) that prime our cells to block viral pathogens. Recent evidence suggests that the Type III (λ) IFNs are intimately associated with the immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms within the IFN-λ gene locus that correlate with response to IFNα-based antiviral therapy and with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. The mechanisms for these correlations are incompletely understood. Restricted expression of the IFN-λ receptor, and the ability of IFN-λ to induce IFN-stimulated genes in HCV-infected cells, suggest potential roles for IFN-λ in HCV therapy even in this era of directly acting antivirals. This review summarizes our current understanding of the IFN-λ family and the role of λ IFNs in the natural history of HCV infection.

  10. The other side of peace. The Zen lessons of Fight Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Ruiz Jiménez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the value of the individual in the discipline of peace research, which largely focuses on the social and political sphere. Irenology science has developed from wide interpretative frameworks of society, conflicts and violence, which is due to its vocation to achieve a respectable status in the academia, being systematically structured to deduce paradigms and general laws subjected to experimental tests. Even though peace research vindicates its peculiarity as science with values, it has done so almost exclusively from the political and social arena. In essence, this article realizes a modest contribution from the consideration of the importance of finding a balance between the sociopolitical and the individual work. To achieve that aim, this work will analyze and comment Fight Club, by Chuck Palahniuk. This is a singularly clever invitation to Western individuals, who largely focus on the material and the social side of life, to look at their inner side to develop their best talents. Palahniuk does so through zen philosophy, even though it looks far from the Western world. In fact, the main character is a prototype westerner who accomplishes his trip to self realization through principles such as detachment, learning through one’s own experience and self-knowledge, and the perception of the self as a mortal part of nature and humankind as a whole.

  11. PERENCANAAN DAN ANALISA SISTEM SPRINKLER OTOMATIS DAN KEBUTUHAN AIR PEMADAMAN FIRE FIGHTING HOTEL XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahesa Dwi Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dalam pembangunan sebuah gedung terdapat suatu utilitas keamanan salah satunya adalah sistem instalasi sprinkler yang dirancang sesuai dengan standar proteksi kebakaran yang disiapkan untuk mencegah, memadamkan dan menanggulangi kebakaran dalam bangunan gedung. Pada perencanaan sistem sprinkler ini bertujuan untuk memahami dan melakukan perhitungan pada kecepatan aliran dan tekanan serta merencanakan kebutuhan air pada pemadaman fire fighting gedung hotel. Penulis melakukan penganalisaan dan perhitungan dengan menentukan discharge coefficient of the sprinkler k-factor pada kecepatan aliran fluida, selanjutnya menggunakan presure loss dari Hazen-Williams dan dilakukan kebutuhan air dengan mengacu pada Azas Bernoulli, yang penulis sebut dengan metode Step by Step. Dari hasil perhitungan ini didapat bahwa hubungan antara kecepatan aliran pada sprinkler otomatis ini dengan pressure loss yang terjadi dipengaruhi oleh area yang direncanakan, diameter pipa yang digunakan serta panjang pipa. Dimana perencanaan ini mengacu pada standar yang berlaku seperti Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI dan National Fire Protection Association (NFPA yang harus dipakai dalam perencanaan siste sprinkler otomatis pada sebuah gedung.

  12. "When the skies fight": HIV, violence and pathways of precarity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence. These linked forms of violence are discussed in light of the concept of precarity. Across two sections, the findings trace the pathways through which precarity entered women's lives, drawing on verbal, visual and written accounts collected through participant observation, participatory photography and film, and journey mapping. In doing so, the ethnography articulates the intersection of structural and interpersonal violence in women's lives. It also reveals the extent to which women exert a 'constrained agency', on the one hand, to resist structural violence and reconfigure their political relationship with the state through health activism; and, on the other hand, to shift the gender dynamics that fuel interpersonal violence through a careful navigation of intimacy and independence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. “Abandon All Hope Ye Who Enter Here”: The Critique Of Consumer Society In American Psycho and Fight Club

    OpenAIRE

    Liktor, Coşkun

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the politics of two films, namely American Psycho (Mary Harron, 2000) and Fight Club (David Fincher, 1999), both of which portray a privileged, white collar protagonist suffering from a personality disorder that leads him to commit violent acts. Set in the late 20th century America characterized by rampant consumerism, stark materialism and fierce competition, both films suggest that it is the debilitating impact of the commodifed, commodity-driven consumer society that ...

  14. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  15. The Negative Impact of Social and Mass Media on People's Behaviors as Reflected in Harvey Kahn's Girl Fight

    OpenAIRE

    PUSPANINGRUM, GALUH WURI

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: media, mass media, social media, Facebook, Youtube, Socio- Psychology, behavior. Media were created to fulfill people's need of communication and information. The variety of media in this modern era makes people consider media as one of their primary need especially in their social lives. Mass media are used as tools to gain information and social media to communicate each other. This study aims to find the impact of media on people's behaviors in film entitled Girl Fight (201...

  16. Avoiding a Pilot Retention Death Spiral: The Pilot Shortage and DOD’s Challenge to Maintain an Effective Fighting Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    public oversight.”79 His comments apply equally well to the Air Force or the Navy. Anecdotal evidence provided by an anonymous survey on social media ...Master’s Thesis 31 July 2017- 09 APRIL 2018 Avoiding a Pilot Retention Death Spiral: The Pilot Shortage and DOD’s Challenge to Maintain an Effective ...DOD’S CHALLENGE TO MAINTAIN AN EFFECTIVE FIGHTING FORCE by Nathan Thompson Lieutenant Colonel, United States Air Force

  17. Prologues, Poetry, Prose and Portrayals: The Purposes of Fifteenth Century Fight Books According to the Diplomatic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deacon Jacob Henry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although by far the most popular use of fifteenth century Fight Books in recent years has been their application to the study of Historical European Martial Arts and interpretations of medieval combat, this manner of learning from them was rarely what their creators had in mind. The following paper, relying primarily on the materials produced by Fiore dei Liberi, Filippo Vadi, Hans Talhoffer, and the anonymous author of Le Jeu de la Hache, will address modern practice and its connection to the source material via a study of the diplomatics of fifteenth century Fight Books, that is to say common tropes that are definitive of the genre. This has been done through analysing the roles of three of these; the purposes of introductions, of the use of language relating to the employment of either a prose or poetic structure, and the importance of the relationships between texts and illustrations. Through this application of diplomatics to Fight Books, the paper shall demonstrate how modern claims regarding authenticity are often overstated and in need of moderation.

  18. Economic Observation in 3Q E-business Fight - According to Analysis of Resource Allocation and Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ruihu; Chen, Zeming; Kuang, Juchi

    Based on relation of resource allocation and marginal benefit of e-commence provider, both of origin and essence of the 3Q e-business fight were analyzed; and then contents of the contract between e-business company and users were elaborated. Moreover, liability for Qihoo's breach of the contract in 3Q e-business fight was discussed. Analysis of the contract indicated that blame of infringing on privacy of users from public, media or even a law professor for Tengxun Company is not exactly justicial. Some controversial rules which are not fit for usual practices in the QQ contract such as narrow definition of privacy were found out, whose reason lies in no relevant e-business standards or rules in our country. In the end, this passage points out that actions of government who intervened in market operations of Tengxun Company and QQ Company are inappropriate and unnecessary. Thus, responsibility for facing up to incomplete market rules of e-commence lies with government and government should strengthen market supervision by legislation so as to guide healthy development of e-business market, which is a key lesson we learn from the 3Q e-business fight.

  19. Numerical modelling of the work of a pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting at the ignitions of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkov, A. D.

    2009-06-01

    The work of a pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting is modelled, which is designed for fire fighting at oil storages and at the spills of oil products, whose vapors were modelled by gaseous methane. The system represents a device for separate installation, which consists of a charge of solid propellant (the gas generator) and a container with fine-dispersed powder of the flame-damper substance. The methane combustion was described by a one-stage gross-reaction, the influence of the concentration of vapors of the flame-damper substance on the combustion process was taken into account by reducing the pre-exponent factor in the Arrhenius law and was described by an empirical dependence. The computational experiment showed that the application of the pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting ensures an efficient transport of fine-dispersed aerosol particles of the flame-damping substance and its forming vapors to the combustion zone; the concentration of particles ensures the damping of the heat source.

  20. FIGHT AMONG POLITICAL ACTORS ON PRINTED MEDIA AS PART OF GENERAL ELECTION HELD TO VOTE FOR REGENT OF BANGLI REGENCY IN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ras Amanda Gelgel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of after reformation, Indonesia has developed rapidly enough in political sector and mass media freedom. In the local level such as in Bangli Regency, Bali Province, the fight among political actors on the printed mass media took place when the general election to vote for the regent was held. The general election which was held to vote for the regent was full of dynamism in which the candidates fought against one another on the longer mass media. The problems of the present study are as follows: (1 what was the fight among political actors on the printed media when the general election was held to vote the regent of Bangli Regency in 2010 like?; (2 the factors leading to it?; and (3 what was the impact and meaning of the fight among the political actors on the printed media? The theories used in the present study were the theory of discourse of relation of knowledge and power, the theory of the impact of media such as the agenda setting, the theory of framing, the theory of media text analysis, the theory of hegemony, and the theory of capital. The research method used was the qualitative approach with critical paradigm.  The forms of the fight among political actors took place in the arenas of news articles, advertorials, advertisements, and paid articles. The fight taking place in these arenas started from the fight for the self-image of the actors to the political issue. The factors leading to it was political factor, economic factor, and mass media. The fight among the political actors affected political sector, economic sector, and cultural sector. The fight among the political actors on the printed media contained pragmatic meaning of the media and political actors, the image, popular life style, and change of political culture in Bangli. 

  1. Health workforce issues and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: an analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown evidence of a direct and positive causal link between the number of health workers and health outcomes. Several studies have identified an adequate health workforce as one of the key ingredients to achieving improved health outcomes. Global health initiatives are faced with human resources issues as a major, system-wide constraint. This article explores how the Global Fund addresses the challenges of a health workforce bottleneck to the successful implementation of priority disease programmes. Possibilities for investment in human resources in the Global Fund's policy documents and guidelines are reviewed. This is followed by an in-depth study of 35 Global Fund proposals from five African countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. The discussion presents specific human resources interventions that can be found in proposals. Finally, the comments on human resources interventions in the Global Fund's Technical Review Panel and the budget allocation for human resources for health were examined. Policy documents and guidelines of the Global Fund foster taking account of human resources constraints in recipient countries and interventions to address them. However, the review of actual proposals clearly shows that countries do not often take advantage of their opportunities and focus mainly on short-term, in-service training in their human resources components. The comments of the Technical Review Panel on proposed health system-strengthening interventions reveal a struggle between the Global Fund's goal to fight the three targeted diseases, on the one hand, and the need to strengthen health systems as a prerequisite for success, on the other. In realizing the opportunities the Global Fund provides for human resources interventions, countries should go beyond short-term objectives and link their activities to a long-term development of their human resources for health.

  2. A Smart Wearable Sensor System for Counter-Fighting Overweight in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Emilio Standoli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available PEGASO is a FP7-funded project whose goal is to develop an ICT and mobile-based platform together with an appropriate strategy to tackle the diffusion of obesity and other lifestyle-related illnesses among teenagers. Indeed, the design of an engaging strategy, leveraging a complementary set of technologies, is the approach proposed by the project to promote the adoption of healthy habits such as active lifestyle and balanced nutrition and to effectively counter-fight the emergence of overweight and obesity in the younger population. A technological key element of such a strategy sees the adoption of wearable sensors to monitor teenagers’ activities, which is at the basis of developing awareness about the current lifestyle. This paper describes the experience carried out in the framework of the PEGASO project in developing and evaluating wearable monitoring systems addressed to adolescents. The paper describes the methodological approach based on the co-designing of such a wearable system and the main results that, in the first phase, involved a total of 407 adolescents across Europe in a series of focus groups conducted in three countries for the requirements definition phase. Moreover, it describes an evaluation process of signal reliability during the usage of the wearable system. The main results described here are: (a a prototype of the standardized experimental protocol that has been developed and applied to test signal reliability in smart garments; (b the requirements definition methodology through a co-design activity and approach to address user requirements and preferences and not only technological specifications. Such co-design approach is able to support a higher system acceptance and usability together with a sustained adoption of the solution with respect to the traditional technology push system development strategy.

  3. The "auto-dissemination" approach: a novel concept to fight Aedes albopictus in urban areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Caputo

    Full Text Available The main constraint to the fight against container-breeding mosquito vectors of human arboviruses is the difficulty in targeting the multiplicity of larval sources, mostly represented by small man-made water containers. The aim of this work is to assess the feasibility of the "auto-dissemination" approach, already tested for Aedes aegypti, as a possible alternative to traditional, inefficient control tools, against Ae. albopictus in urban areas. The approach is based on the possibility that wild adult females, exposed to artificial resting sites contaminated with pyriproxyfen, can disseminate this juvenile hormone analogue to larval habitats, thus interfering with adult emergence.We carried out four field experiments in two areas of Rome that are typically highly infested with Ae. albopictus, i.e. the main cemetery and a small green area within a highly urbanised neighbourhood. In each area we used 10 pyriproxyfen "dissemination" stations, 10 "sentinel" sites and 10 covered, control sites. The sentinel and control sites each contained 25 Ae. albopictus larvae. These were monitored for development and adult emergence.When a 5% pyriproxyfen powder was used to contaminate the dissemination sites, we observed significantly higher mortality at the pupal stage in the sentinel sites (50-70% than in the controls (<2%, showing that pyriproxyfen was transferred by mosquitoes into sentinel sites and that it had a lethal effect.The results support the potential feasibility of the auto-dissemination approach to control Ae. albopictus in urban areas. Further studies will be carried out to optimize the method and provide an effective tool to reduce the biting nuisance caused by this aggressive species and the transmission risk of diseases such as Dengue and Chikungunya. These arboviruses pose an increasing threat in Europe as Ae. albopictus expands its range.

  4. Fighting Back Against the Encroachment of Patriarchal Power on Female Domains in Wuthering Heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Akcesme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wuthering Heights can be read as a novel of warfare against women and women-associated spaces to be conquered to prove male superiority, authority and power. This paper aims to discuss how Emily Bronte challenged not only the established Victorian literary traditions but also the prevailing ideals of the Victorian society by subverting the hierarchically constructed power and gender relations with an emphasis on various strategies employed by Heathcliff and Edgar in the war they launch against nature, property and women to conquer, possess and control domestic households, external nature and female body. Their strategies include reductionism which includes the commodification and objectification of female body, separation of women from their female bond, family and female spaces, physical and emotional uprooting which causes the loss of independence, self-confidence and positive self-image, masculinization of nature and home, brutalization through which the female characters are exposed to male violence and oppression and destruction of a sense of security, commitment and resistance. The female characters are disconnected not only from their domestic households and nature but also from female bonds. The sense of placelessness and homelessness along with the lack of female solidarity is aggravated by transforming home and the natural world into an imprisoning, dominating and tyrannical web for women. Bronte ends the novel with a hope that subjugation and subordination does not have to be the inevitable destiny for women who can fight back to restructure the existing power relations and reclaim their bodies and home along with nature turned against them.

  5. Industry and provinces fight global warming agreement: Canada still expected to ratify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchildon, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian government is under intense pressure from the provinces, industry and the United States not to ratify the Kyoto Agreement and to abandon its international commitment to reduce green house gas emissions. Opponents of the treaty claim that it will badly harm the economy, a misconception that is also at the root of the United States government's refusal to seriously address global warming. This belief rests on refusal to accept the scientific evidence. The Suzuki Foundation, and environmental groups in general claim that it is irresponsible for industry and certain provinces to continue to fight against Kyoto. With the documented findings of the world's top climate scientists, it is high time for Ottawa to stop listening to the special interests of the polluters and to stand up on behalf of all Canadians. To refute these ill-conceived claims of polluters a study which appeared in the October 2001 issue of 'Nature' is cited, according to which Italy could save about $2.9 billion annually by cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The study found that compliance with the Kyoto protocols would require 3.1 per cent more industrial spending, but reduce other costs by 35 per cent. Similar expert analysis show comparable savings and gains for other industrialized countries such as Canada and the United States. The principal means of achieving the Kyoto targets will be through reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption and general improvement in energy efficiency. These moves not only protect the climate, they also save money and create jobs. The Foundation is convinced that it is time to make the first step in the right direction, and Kyoto is that essential first step

  6. Piper betel leaf: a reservoir of potential xenohormetic nutraceuticals with cancer-fighting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-05-01

    Plants contain a much greater diversity of bioactive compounds than any man-made chemical library. Heart-shaped Piper betel leaves are magnificent reservoirs of phenolic compounds with antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. Widely consumed in South Asian countries, the glossy leaf contains a multitude of biophenolics such as hydroxychavicol, eugenol, chavibetol, and piperols. Convincing data underscore the remarkable chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive potential of betel leaves against a variety of cancer types. The leaf constituents modulate an extensive array of signaling molecules such as transcription factors as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to control multiple nodes of various cellular proliferation and death pathways. Herein, we provide an overall perspective on the cancer-fighting benefits of the phenolic phytochemicals in betel leaves and a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms responsive to dose-driven ROS-mediated signaling cascades conscripted by bioactive phenolics to confer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive advantages. Intriguingly, these ROS-triggered responses are contextual and may either elicit a protective xenohormetic antioxidant response to premalignant cells to constitute a chemopreventive effect or generate a curative chemotherapeutic response by pro-oxidatively augmenting the constitutively elevated ROS levels in cancer cells to tip the balance in favor of selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells while sparing normal ones. In conclusion, this review provides an update on how distinct ROS levels exist in normal versus cancer cells and how these levels can be strategically modulated and exploited for therapeutic gains. We emphasize the yet untapped potential of the evergreen vine, betel leaf, for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic management of cancer.

  7. Telomerase as an emerging target to fight cancer--opportunities and challenges for nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, C; Loretz, B; Schaefer, U F; Lehr, C M

    2010-09-01

    Telomerase as an enzyme is responsible for the renewal of the chromosomal ends, the so-called telomeres. By preventing them from shortening with each cell cycle, telomerase is able to inhibit cellular senescence and apoptosis. Telomerase activity, which is detectable in the majority of cancer cells, allows them to maintain their proliferative capacity. The thus obtained immortality of those cells again is a key to their malignancy. Based on these discoveries, it is obvious that telomerase inhibitors would represent an innovative approach to fight cancer, and a variety of such candidate molecules are currently in the pipeline. Telomerase inhibitors largely fall in two classes of compounds: small synthetic molecules and nucleotide-based biologicals. For several candidates, some proof of concept studies have been demonstrated, either on cell cultures or in animal models. But the same studies also revealed that inefficient delivery is largely limiting the translational step into the clinic. The most appealing feature of telomerase inhibitors, which distinguishes them from conventional anticancer drugs, is probably seen in their intrinsic non-toxicity to normal cells. Nevertheless, efficient delivery to the target cells, i.e. to the tumor, is still required. Here, some well-known biopharmaceutical problems such as insufficient solubility, permeability or even metabolic stability are frequently encountered. To address these challenges, there is a clear need for adequate delivery technologies, for example by using nanomedicines, that would allow to overcome their biopharmaceutical shortcomings and to warrant a sufficient bioavailability at the target side. This review first briefly explains the concept of telomerase and telomerase inhibition in cancer therapy. It secondly aims to provide an overview of the different currently known telomerase inhibitors. Finally, the biopharmaceutical limitations of these molecules are discussed as well as the possibilities to overcome

  8. Breeding biology of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details of nestling growth, and fledging and post-fledging dependence periods, are provided. Breeding success was relatively poor. Early breeding attempts were more successful than late breeding attempts. Breeding failure was suspected, or known, to be associated with observer disturbance, egg breakage, failure of ...

  9. Secondary metabolites from the gorgonian Echinomuraceae splendens (Thomson and Simson)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C; Govenkar, M.B.

    Two xanthine derivatives, caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine 1) and its 2-O-methyl analog 2, N-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid 3 and a tetrahydroxysterol, 1b, 3b, 5a, 6b-tetrahydro-xycholes-ane 4 have been isolated from the methanol extract...

  10. Taekwondo Fighting in Training Does Not Simulate the Affective and Cognitive Demands of Competition: Implications for Behavior and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Michael A; Renshaw, Ian; Headrick, Jonathon; Martin, David T; Farrow, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing practice design is critical to facilitate transfer of learning. Considerable research has focused on the role of perceptual information in practice simulation, yet has neglected how affect and cognition are shaped by practice environments and whether this influences the fidelity of behavior (Headrick et al., 2015). This study filled this gap by examining the fidelity of individual (cognition, affect, and actions) and interpersonal behavior of 10 highly skilled Australian Taekwondo athletes fighting in training compared to competition. Interpersonal behavior was assessed by tracking location coordinates to analyze distance-time coordination tendencies of the fighter-fighter system. Individual actions were assessed through notational analysis and approximate entropy calculations of coordinate data to quantify the (un)predictability of movement displacement. Affect and cognition were assessed with mixed-methods that included perceptual scales measuring anxiety, arousal, and mental effort, and post-fight video-facilitated confrontational interviews to explore how affect and cognitions might differ. Quantitative differences were assessed with mixed models and dependent t -tests. Results reveal that individual and interpersonal behavior differed between training and competition. In training, individuals attacked less ( d = 0.81, p training, fighters had lower anxiety ( d = -1.26, p interpersonal behavior, with larger interpersonal distances generated by the fighter-fighter system in training ( d = 0.80, p training environment, such as reductions in pressure, arousal, and mental challenge. Findings highlight the specificity of performer-environment interactions. Fighting in training affords reduced affective and cognitive demands and a decrease in action fidelity compared to competition. In addition to sampling information, representative practice needs to consider modeling the cognitions and affect of competition to enhance transfer.

  11. Attacking the Body in Mixed Martial Arts: Perspectives, Opinions and Perceptions of the Full Contact Combat Sport of Ultimate Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Tobias Stenius

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in 1993 in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators. Mixed martial arts (MMA is an evolving combat sport pitting elite athletes trained in a variety of combat arts against each other in the “Octagon”. Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and knee as well as use grappling submission techniques to defeat opponents. Despite criticism, supporters claim that the efficiency of non-violent grappling techniques has made MMA much safer than boxing, where fighters absorb repeated blows to the head. As the sport developed, fighters adjusted their bodies in order to better utilize the positional, tactical techniques that proved more successful than brute force. The mediated representation of fighting revealed that despite of being in a state of rage, MMA was a technically challenging sport based on the sublime performance of participant’s bodies. However, MMA remains the subject of debate in popular culture and the media, and medical expertise argues that the sport is dangerous and puts participants in harm´s way. On the other hand, proponents of the sport argue that health risks are overstated and that other, far less safe sports exist. The aim of this article is to scrutinize fighters as well as the opinions of media and the medical humanities in order to achieve an overview of the image of this combat sport. Convinced that the debate needs to be more nuanced, this paper examines how MMA encounters and mitigates scientific discourse and attitudes. The results also show that MMA is an ambiguous sport, taking responsibility for the well being of its fighters while encouraging spectacle in the arena.

  12. The US Food and Drug Administration's tentative approval process and the global fight against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; Murray, Jeffrey S; Shimer, Martin; Capella, Peter; Presto, Ryan; Valdez, Mary Lou; Lurie, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    In 2004, the US government began to utilize the Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) tentative approval process (tFDA) as a basis to determine which HIV drugs are appropriate to be purchased and used in resource-constrained settings. This process permits products that are not approved for marketing in the US, including medicines with active patents or marketing restrictions in the US, to be purchased and distributed in resource-constrained settings. Although the tFDA was originally intended to support the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the USFDA list has become a cornerstone of international HIV programmes that support procurement of ARVs, such as the World Health Organization and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. Our objective in this article is to help the global HIV policy makers and implementers of HIV programmes better understand the benefits and limitations of the tFDA by providing an in-depth review of the relevant legal and regulatory processes. USFDA's dedicated tFDA process for ARVs used by the PEPFAR programme has a wide impact globally; however, the implementation and the regulatory processes governing the programme have not been thoroughly described in the medical literature. This paper seeks to help stakeholders better understand the legal and regulatory aspects associated with review of ARVs under the tFDA by describing the following: (1) the tFDA and its importance to global ARV procurement; (2) the regulatory pathways for applications under tFDA for the PEPFAR programme, including modifications to applications, review timelines and costs; (3) the role of US patents, US marketing exclusivity rights, and the Medicines Patents Pool in tFDA; and (4) an overview of how applications for PEPFAR programme are processed through the USFDA. We also provide a case study of a new ARV, tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), not yet reviewed by USFDA for PEPFAR use. In this paper, we describe the

  13. Fighting against indoor pollution; Comment lutter contre la pollution interieure des locaux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, G.; Blay, F. de; Krieger, P.; Bessot, J.C. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 67 (France)

    1998-06-01

    Two types of indoor pollution have been identified: chemical pollution and biological pollution. The principal chemical pollutants are NO{sub 2}, VOCs (volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde), ozone and SO{sub 2}. Indoor NO{sub 2} is essentially produced by gas-heaters, stoves and fire-places, at levels that can be higher than those reached outdoors. Epidemiologic studies and NO{sub 2} provocation tests in asthmatics show that indoor NO{sub 2} is capable of triggering asthma either by direct effect or by potentiating bronchial reactivity to allergens. VOCs and formaldehyde are liberated by urea-formol foams and will only have bronchial effects at levels rarely found in domestic environment. Ozone is an outdoor pollutant essentially, and the concentrations found indoors do not exceed 50% of those measured outdoors. Concentration of SO{sub 2} can reach significant levels with the use of coal heaters, yet bronchial response will only be induced at levels rarely found indoors. The first way to fight against those pollutants is to eliminate their sources (gas, coal or kerosene heaters), and to increase ventilation. In contrast, as far as ozone is concerned, it is recommended to keep windows shot during summer pollution peaks, in order to prevent it from entering the home. Biological pollution -if we except endotoxins- is mainly represented by allergenic pollution: allergens of mites, pets, cockroaches, moulds... As far as mites are concerned, the different measures suggested should often be combined: they are methods to reduce relative humidity by increasing ventilation, physical methods consisting in eliminating textiles, vacuum cleaning, using anti-mite bed covers, and chemical methods (acaricides, tannic acid..). Palliative measures are possible. For example for cat allergen: humidification of fur, limiting secondary textile reservoirs, use of vacuum cleaners and air purifiers fitted with HEPA filters. As far as cockroaches are concerned, their eviction is

  14. Law in the Labor Movement's Challenge to Wal-Mart: A Case Study of the Inglewood Site Fight

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Scott L

    2007-01-01

    This Article studies the role of law in the successful community-labor challenge to Wal-Mart’s first proposed Los Angeles-area Supercenter in the working-class city of Inglewood. It focuses on the use of legal and legislative challenges to mobilize opposition to Wal-Mart’s Inglewood initiative—a technique known as the “site fight” because of its focus on blocking Wal-Mart at a specific location. The aims of this Article are twofold. First, it seeks to understand the site fight in relation ...

  15. Risks prevention and fight against the pollutions. Publication of the practical guideline of the CO2 emissions quotas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2005 the directive on the emissions quotas exchange is applied in the 25 countries of the European Union. This text allocates emissions quotas to enterprises which generates many greenhouse gases. Hopeful these quotas, the European Union should decrease the emissions of 8% in 2010. This guide is devoted to the 1126 french sites concerned by the directive. It constitutes a reference for the quotas management and will help the enterprises to combine the fight against the climatic change with the economic competition. (A.L.B.)

  16. JOURNALISM IN POST-TRUTH ERA: fact-checking as a tool to fight against the fake news

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Egle Müller; Santos, Jéssica de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    This article intends to report how the work of the agencies of fact-checking can help informative companies in the fight against false news, with their data-checking methodologies in order to encourage the transparency of the journalistic process. A literature review addresses the impacts of post-truth and the spread of fake news in society - where objective facts are less influential in public opinion than personal emotions and beliefs. As a result, it is concluded that serious fact-finding ...

  17. Alice—A Fight for Life (1982 and the Public Perception of the Occupational Risks of Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Menéndez Navarro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to explore the historical influence of documentary films, in particular within the sphere of the public perception of the risks posed by asbestos. For this purpose, we study the British documentary Alice—A Fight for Life, the context in which it was produced, and the impact that its screening in 1982 had on British public opinion. The drama of the testimonies of some of the victims shown in the film and the visual treatment they received were determinant in heightening public awareness of asbestos risks. We also explore the effects of the documentary when it was shown in Spain in 1984.

  18. Utilisation of a new fire fighting device on board of a diesel vehicle in the underground German black coal industry; Einsatz einer neuartigen bordfesten Loeschanlage auf dieselgetriebenen Fahrzeugen im untertaegigen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetting, Dieter; Alze, Matthias [Bergwerk Ost, Hamm (Germany); Cerny, Udo [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik - DZGR

    2010-03-15

    In the German hard coal mining industry approximately since the 1970ies, automatically releasing stationary powder snow based fire fighting systems are built on diesel vehicles due to reasons of fire protection. These fire fighting systems are to recognize a developing fire by sensors and to extinguish the fire by an automatic output of a fire fighting agent with high rate (HRD = High Rate Discharge) into a closed engine compartment or within the range of hydraulics. Simultaneously with the releasing of the fire extinguishing system the engine of the vehicle is stop automatically. Due to the stationary fire fighting systems diesel vehicles are not classified with views of risk as fire load.

  19. SIMULATION OF LANDMARK APPROACH FOR WALL FOLLOWING ALGORITHM ON FIRE-FIGHTING ROBOT USING V-REP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarsih Condroayu Purbarani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robot has been implemented to assist humans in their daily activity. Autonomous robots have also contributed significantly in human safety. Autonomous mobile robot have been implemented to assist humans in their daily activity. Autonomous robots Have also contributed significantly in human safety. An example of the autonomous robot in the human safety sector is the fire fighting robot, which is the main topic of this paper. As an autonomous robot, the fire fighting robot needs a robust navigation ability to execute a given task in the shortest time interval. Wall-following algorithm is one of several navigating algorithm that simplifies this autonomous navigation problem. As a contribution, we propose two methods that could be combined to make the existing wall-following algorithm more robust. The combined wall-flowing algorithm will be compared to the original wall-following algorithm. By doing so, we could determine which method has more impact on the robot’s navigation robustness. Our goal is to see which method is more effective when combined with the wall-following algorithm.

  20. The Soleil project. Reports and analysis of a fight; Le projet Soleil. Chronique et analyse d'un combat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverse, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    The author reviews the long and winding path that has been followed to get the agreement for the construction of the Soleil synchrotron. This path took more than 10 years after the drawing of the first blueprint describing the synchrotron designed to take over the aging LURE (laboratory for the use of electromagnetic radiation) machine. The Soleil project is born in 1989 in LURE premises, it reached maturity in 1999 when it was stopped by a brutal and unexpected decision from the ministry of research. Stunned by the decision and fully aware of the usefulness of such a machine, the LURE's staff and the scientific community began a fight for the construction of Soleil. This fight took various aspects: regular information meetings, drawing a list of relevant arguments to counter those of the ministry, demonstrations in Paris, petition campaigns, press release... In 2000 a thorough assessment led by the OPECST (parliamentary office for the assessment of scientific and technological choices) recommended the construction of Soleil. The synchrotron was inaugurated in december 2006 by the French president 4 years after the beginning of the construction works. (A.C.)

  1. The predictive influence of family and neighborhood assets on fighting and weapon carrying from mid- to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L

    2014-08-01

    Using a developmental, social-ecological approach to understand the etiology of health-risk behavior and inform primary prevention efforts, we assess the predictive effects of family and neighborhood social processes on youth physical fighting and weapon carrying. Specifically, we focus on relationships among youth and their parents, family communication, parental monitoring, as well as sense of community and neighborhood informal social control, support, concerns, and disorder. This study advances knowledge through its investigation of family and neighborhood structural factors and social processes together, employment of longitudinal models that estimate effects over adolescent development, and use of self-report and observational measures. Data from 1,093 youth/parent pairs were analyzed from the Youth Assets Study using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach; family and neighborhood assets and risks were analyzed as time varying and lagged. Similar family assets affected physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas different neighborhood social processes influenced the two forms of youth violence. Study findings have implications for the primary prevention of youth violence, including the use of family-based approaches that build relationships and parental monitoring skills and community-level change approaches that promote informal social control and reduce neighborhood concerns about safety.

  2. Multi-Level Wild Land Fire Fighting Management Support System for an Optimized Guidance of Ground and Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Alexander; Schnabel, Thomas; Perko, Roland; Raggam, Johann; Köfler, Armin; Feischl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will lead to a dramatic increase in damage from forest fires in Europe by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region, the average annual area affected by forest fires has quadrupled since the 1960s (WWF, 2012). The number of forest fires is also on the increase in Central and Northern Europe. The Austrian forest fire database shows a total of 584 fires for the period 2012 to 2014, while even large areas of Sweden were hit by forest fires in August 2014, which were brought under control only after two weeks of intense fire-fighting efforts supported by European civil protection modules. Based on these facts, the improvements in forest fire control are a major international issue in the quest to protect human lives and resources as well as to reduce the negative environmental impact of these fires to a minimum. Within this paper the development of a multi-functional airborne management support system within the frame of the Austrian national safety and security research programme (KIRAS) is described. The main goal of the developments is to assist crisis management tasks of civil emergency teams and armed forces in disaster management by providing multi spectral, near real-time airborne image data products. As time, flexibility and reliability as well as objective information are crucial aspects in emergency management, the used components are tailored to meet these requirements. An airborne multi-functional management support system was developed as part of the national funded project AIRWATCH, which enables real-time monitoring of natural disasters based on optical and thermal images. Airborne image acquisition, a broadband line of sight downlink and near real-time processing solutions allow the generation of an up-to-date geo-referenced situation map. Furthermore, this paper presents ongoing developments for innovative extensions and research activities designed to optimize command operations in national and international fire-fighting

  3. Acute effect of a fight of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA on the serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Poderoso de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the serum concentrations of testosterone (T, cortisol (C, lactate (LAC, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU on mixed martial arts (MMA athletes, before and after a fight. We divided 20 MMA athletes into two groups of 10 fighters each, according to the result of a fight, and were then evaluated four times: 24 hours before (-24h, one hour before (-1h, immediately after (0h and 24 hours after the fight (+24h. It was observed: a significant decrease in T and T/C between moment -24h and 0h and a subsequent increase between the moment 0h and +24h and a reverse behaviour in variables C, LAC and GLU (p<0.0001; a decrease in CK between moment -24h and -1h and an increase between moment -1h and +24h (p<0.0001; and differences between winners and losers T levels, in moments -24h, -1h, 0h and +24h (p = 0.009 e p < 0.001, p = 0.005 e p = 0,001, T and C, respectively, in T/C in the moments -24h and 0h (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively and in GLU levels (p<0.0001 in the moment 0h. Therefore, it seems that an MMA fight leads to metabolic stress and muscle damage, regardless of the result of the fight. The coaches have now more biochemical and hormonal references and indicators in response to an MMA fight.

  4. Special event launches new partnership. IAEA and NFCR join forces to fight cancer in developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    cancer control programmes crafted to meet the specific needs of each country. 'PACT and its partners are working closely together to help low-income countries expand their cancer control and care capacities in a sustainable manner,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the PACT Programme Office. 'Our priority through these pilot projects is to demonstrate that cancer is a preventable and a curable disease. If sufficient funds were available millions of lives could be saved, even with relatively simple solutions.' PACT estimates that the implementation of all six PMDS projects will total some $28 million. The launch of the PACT Fund at NFCR will enable Americans to donate to the efforts of PACT and its partners in Africa, Asia and Latin America to meet the challenge, and thus contribute to placing cancer on the global health agenda. Founded in 1973, NFCR is internationally recognized for its leadership in cancer research and public education relating to all aspects of cancer care and control. Based in Bethesda, Maryland, NFCR is committed to innovative research and accelerating the pace at which new treatment and therapies are brought to patients who need them the most. 'Millions of lives needlessly are lost to cancer in developing countries because effective therapies all too often are not available,' says Franklin C. Salisbury, Jr., President and CEO of NFCR. 'We are committed to ending this tragic loss. We will make the PACT Fund at NFCR a stronghold in the fight against cancer in developing countries.' (IAEA)

  5. Finding peace from Hiroshima. One oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoufalos, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The article informs about one oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation. In a small town just outside Osaka, Japan, Ritsuko Komaki was born, quite literally, into the atomic age. She was just an infant in 1945 when the first atomic bomb ever detonated on a human population devastated her family's ancestral home of Hiroshima. One of her friends, Sasaki was diagnosed with leukemia, and was later hospitalized with bone marrow suppression. Her grandmother had been exposed to the same chemical radiation that Sasaki had, yet never contracted leukemia despite presenting with all the other side effects of exposure. Komaki wa wondering why her grandmother never had any leukemia, but Sadako did? She never had any cancer, but she had all the symptoms of exposure, e.g. hair loss, diarrhea and bone marrow problems. During medical school, Komaki volunteered her summers at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, the institute the United States built in Japan to examine the victims of atomic exposure. Anyone diagnosed as anemic underwent a bone marrow exam, and Komaki learned a great deal about chromosomal abnormalities by performing blood tests alongside visiting researchers from Yale University and other American hospitals. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had fostered a national paranoia about radiation and radioactivity. In Japan, they hate radiation, and for so many years, they did not want to hear about radiation therapy. Patients had an illogical fear of it that delayed offering it as treatment there. In Japan, the majority of cancer treatment culminated in surgery. Radiation oncology was not a recognized specialization; oncologists were grouped in with diagnostic radiation techs. Yet today, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, is the chief operating officer of one of the most sophisticated radiation oncology treatment facilities in the United States: the 120 million US Dollar M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. And ironically, the technical equipment that forms

  6. Sound and Music in A Mixed Martial Arts Gym: Exploring the Functions and Effects of Organized Noise as an Aid to Training and Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two distinct yet interrelated parts. First, it is a study into the sociology of sound and music—an exploration of how the phenomena of noise organizes and structures human behavior. Second, it is an auditory ethnographic excursion into the world of mixed martial arts (MMA fighting. Using a general qualitative approach grounded by the soundscape, participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we query MMA fighters’ experiences with sound and music, noting how these “sonic things” become key aids in bonding, training, and fighting. Lastly, we describe how participants use music to achieve various motivational and psychophysical outcomes.

  7. Official quality controls and the fight against fraud in the olive oil sector in Catalonia. Results 2011–2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugat, G.; Biel, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights the key aspects of the official control procedures concerning quality and in the fight against food fraud in the oil sector implemented in Catalonia by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Food of the Government of Catalonia and, more specifically, by the Subdirectorate General of Agri-food Inspection and Control. This summarized view focuses on issues related to the legality and competence framework for official controls, the goals and purpose thereof, the area’s object of investigation and technical scope, the stages of the food chain at which measures are carried out, the types of inspection and control actions and the main investigation techniques. It also presents the results of the inspections, with a summary of the types of irregularities detected in the olive oil sector over the 2011–2014 period. [es

  8. EUROPEAN UNION’S COMMITMENT TO FIGHT AGAINST THE HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING, THE MODERN FORM OF SLAVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious threats to the European Union is the organised crime. The EU is continuously adapting its response in order to best respond to the situation. Among different types of organised crime, human beings trafficking is one of the most seriously crimes worldwide, representing also a gross violation of human rights. Very often behind the human beings trafficking is the organised crime because is one of the most profitable criminal activities in the world. The numbers are very scary because it is estimated that the trafficked people to or within the EU are reaching several hundred thousands a year. The present study is intending to discover how the European Union intends to fight against the human beings trafficking, since there is a need to have a coherent action at the European level because of the criminals can easily operate across border.

  9. The fight against international terrorism and changes in the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marrero Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the the fight against international terrorism, as a new organising principle in U.S. foreign policy and security policy, has conditioned and modified the American conception of and strategy for combatting nuclear arms proliferation. On the one hand, it analyses the concepts of “axis of evil” or “rogue states” as instruments of automatic and forced connection between international terrorism and nuclear armsproliferating states. On the other hand, it also deals with the changes in American nonproliferation and disarmament strategy, characterised by a distrust towards international cooperation and a clear preference for using means of a unilateral nature, which challenge, and even scorn, international institutions and the rules of international law in this area.

  10. The disease of corruption: views on how to fight corruption to advance 21st century global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Savedoff, William D; Vogl, Frank; Lewis, Maureen; Sale, James; Michaud, Joshua; Vian, Taryn

    2016-09-29

    Corruption has been described as a disease. When corruption infiltrates global health, it can be particularly devastating, threatening hard gained improvements in human and economic development, international security, and population health. Yet, the multifaceted and complex nature of global health corruption makes it extremely difficult to tackle, despite its enormous costs, which have been estimated in the billions of dollars. In this forum article, we asked anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas that urgently need global attention in order to advance the fight against global health corruption. The views shared by this multidisciplinary group of contributors reveal several fundamental challenges and allow us to explore potential solutions to address the unique risks posed by health-related corruption. Collectively, these perspectives also provide a roadmap that can be used in support of global health anti-corruption efforts in the post-2015 development agenda.

  11. Inspection of fire protection measures and fire fighting capability at nuclear power plants. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire protection of nuclear power plants. The publication outlines practices for inspecting the fire protection measures at nuclear power plants in accordance with Safety Series No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and includes a comprehensive fire safety inspection checklist of the specific elements to be addressed when evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of the fire protection measures and manual fire fighting capability available at operating nuclear power plants. The publication will be useful not only to regulators and safety assessors but also to operators and designers. The book addresses a specialized topic and it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with Safety Guide No.50-SG-D2(Rev.1)

  12. Ademe et Vous. International Newsletter No. 39, November 2016. Civil society at the forefront of the fight against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Valerie; Seguin-Jacques, Catherine; Tappero, Denis

    2016-11-01

    The first edition of Climate Chance, the international summit for non-state actors and organisations, took place in Nantes on 26-28 September. It was the opportunity to assess the progress made by the civil society in the fight against climate change and to discuss the best way to support this action. As a long-term partner on various businesses' energy and environmental strategies, ADEME is providing small and medium-sized businesses and innovative start-ups with financial and technical support, via specific programs. The Habitat III conference, the third UN meeting on sustainable housing and development, was held from 17 to 20 October in Quito (Ecuador). Fully conscious of the major challenge that tomorrow's cities represent, ADEME took part in the discussions

  13. The Wonder and Enrichment of Teaching Wright Morris's "A Fight between a White Boy and a Black Boy in the Dusk of a Fall Afternoon in Omaha, Nebraska."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Jerrine

    2001-01-01

    Outlines a teaching method for Wright Morris's "A Fight Between a White Boy and a Black Boy in the Dusk of a Fall Afternoon in Omaha, Nebraska." Proposes that the story provides and opportunity to introduce stream-of-consciousness writing and to convey the significance of memory recall. (PM)

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATING THE ANTROPOMETRIC, MOTOR AND SPECIFIC MOTOR DIMENSIONS ON THE ELEMENTS OF THE ATTACK IN SPORT KARATE FIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Kostovski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research involved 48 participants - top male karate competitors, juniors from karate clubs from Republic of Macedonia. The subject of this research are the defining elements of karate attack in sports karate fighting, and the basic aim is to establish the influence of anthropometric, motor and specific motor dimensions on the karate elements that use in sport karate fighting. In the research were used 36 variables: 4 antropomotorical variables, 4 variables for estimate on the explosive strength, 4 variables for estimate on the segmentary speed (movement frequency, 12 variables of the specific karate elements used in the sport karate fighting and 12 variables for estimate on the specifically karate abilities in 3 motor space: 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate coordination, 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate precision and 4 variables for estimate on the specific karate balance, which are predictive system of variables. The criterion set of variables of this research are represented by 4 karate elements which define the attack in sports karate fighting. From the received results was determined existing of groups in the different spaces of the treated variables and influence of the predictive system of variables on the criterion set of variables

  15. Contribution of the conferences of the parties and the renewable energy role for the fight against climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezloun, A., E-mail: a.ghezloun@cder.dz; Oucher, N.; Merabet, H. [Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, BP 62 Route de l’Observatoire, Bouzaréah, 16340, Algiers (Algeria); Saidane, A. [Université d’Alger, Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    The Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force on 16 February 2005, commits developed countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases by 5% in 2012 compared to 1990. Due to the abstention of the United States and the absence of constraint on Southern countries, the protocol establishes obligations only to countries that represent only 33% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. All the diplomatic effort is therefore to seek the commitment of discussion for the period after 2012. The participation of the United States and emerging countries is imperative. The essential point of this second negotiation process is to search in the effort to integrate the United States and the developing countries and, more particularly, emerging economies such as China, India or Brazil, whose current emissions and / or projected should exceed those of developed countries during the first half of the twenty-first century. Real progress has been made in recent years. Indeed, a first universal historic agreement and legally binding was adopted after two weeks of intense negotiations by the Parties from 30 November to 12 December 2015, which aims to limit global warming by the end of this century well below 2 ° C while continuing efforts to not exceed 1.5 ° C. Moreover, the European Union, China and the United States have expressed their willingness to reduce their greenhouse gas. Because, one of the great hopes of the fight against the emission of greenhouse gases is the development of renewable energy, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report highlights the need to move towards renewable energy sources. The European Union, China and United States also expressed their willingness to increase the share of renewable energy. It is therefore necessary to develop the only inexhaustible energy, renewable energy, to fight against climate change.

  16. Contribution of the conferences of the parties and the renewable energy role for the fight against climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezloun, A.; Saidane, A.; Oucher, N.; Merabet, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force on 16 February 2005, commits developed countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases by 5% in 2012 compared to 1990. Due to the abstention of the United States and the absence of constraint on Southern countries, the protocol establishes obligations only to countries that represent only 33% of global CO2 emissions. All the diplomatic effort is therefore to seek the commitment of discussion for the period after 2012. The participation of the United States and emerging countries is imperative. The essential point of this second negotiation process is to search in the effort to integrate the United States and the developing countries and, more particularly, emerging economies such as China, India or Brazil, whose current emissions and / or projected should exceed those of developed countries during the first half of the twenty-first century. Real progress has been made in recent years. Indeed, a first universal historic agreement and legally binding was adopted after two weeks of intense negotiations by the Parties from 30 November to 12 December 2015, which aims to limit global warming by the end of this century well below 2 ° C while continuing efforts to not exceed 1.5 ° C. Moreover, the European Union, China and the United States have expressed their willingness to reduce their greenhouse gas. Because, one of the great hopes of the fight against the emission of greenhouse gases is the development of renewable energy, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report highlights the need to move towards renewable energy sources. The European Union, China and United States also expressed their willingness to increase the share of renewable energy. It is therefore necessary to develop the only inexhaustible energy, renewable energy, to fight against climate change.

  17. Contribution of the conferences of the parties and the renewable energy role for the fight against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezloun, A.; Oucher, N.; Merabet, H.; Saidane, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force on 16 February 2005, commits developed countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases by 5% in 2012 compared to 1990. Due to the abstention of the United States and the absence of constraint on Southern countries, the protocol establishes obligations only to countries that represent only 33% of global CO 2 emissions. All the diplomatic effort is therefore to seek the commitment of discussion for the period after 2012. The participation of the United States and emerging countries is imperative. The essential point of this second negotiation process is to search in the effort to integrate the United States and the developing countries and, more particularly, emerging economies such as China, India or Brazil, whose current emissions and / or projected should exceed those of developed countries during the first half of the twenty-first century. Real progress has been made in recent years. Indeed, a first universal historic agreement and legally binding was adopted after two weeks of intense negotiations by the Parties from 30 November to 12 December 2015, which aims to limit global warming by the end of this century well below 2 ° C while continuing efforts to not exceed 1.5 ° C. Moreover, the European Union, China and the United States have expressed their willingness to reduce their greenhouse gas. Because, one of the great hopes of the fight against the emission of greenhouse gases is the development of renewable energy, the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report highlights the need to move towards renewable energy sources. The European Union, China and United States also expressed their willingness to increase the share of renewable energy. It is therefore necessary to develop the only inexhaustible energy, renewable energy, to fight against climate change.

  18. "Fighting the system": Families caring for ventilator-dependent children and adults with complex health care needs at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of individuals with complex health care needs now receive life-long and life-prolonging ventilatory support at home. Family members often take on the role of primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of families giving advanced care to family members dependent on home mechanical ventilation. Methods Using qualitative research methods, a Grounded Theory influenced approach was used to explore the families' experiences. A total of 15 family members with 11 ventilator-dependent individuals (three children and eight adults were recruited for 10 in-depth interviews. Results The core category, "fighting the system," became the central theme as family members were asked to describe their experiences. In addition, we identified three subcategories, "lack of competence and continuity", "being indispensable" and "worth fighting for". This study revealed no major differences in the families' experiences that were dependent on whether the ventilator-dependent individual was a child or an adult. Conclusions These findings show that there is a large gap between family members' expectations and what the community health care services are able to provide, even when almost unlimited resources are available. A number of measures are needed to reduce the burden on these family members and to make hospital care at home possible. In the future, the gap between what the health care can potentially provide and what they can provide in real life will rapidly increase. New proposals to limit the extremely costly provision of home mechanical ventilation in Norway will trigger new ethical dilemmas that should be studied further.

  19. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks; Braender i driftrum - Insatsplaner, slaeckteknik, risker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-15

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  20. White Women and the Fight for Equality in the Southern United States (1920-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Stefani

    2008-09-01

    1960s that was led and popularized by charismatic male black leaders, the struggle for civil rights that preceded it was mostly led by white reformers, among whom women played a disproportionately important role, not always recognized as such. These white women, born to segregationist white families, all experienced a process of questioning that led them to challenge white supremacy and to commit themselves to the fight for racial equality. The history of this peculiar brand of activism is characterized by a steady process of radicalization, from the first efforts at interracial cooperation within the frame of segregation in the 1920s, to the building of the « beloved community » by the students of the 1960s. The present article shows that, in the context of the segregated South, white women’s activism was in many respects more radical than that of their male counterparts in their time.

  1. Fighting the Good Fight against Sweatshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that by educating young people and by setting an example, teachers and schools can play a significant part in the important crusade to eliminate sweatshops. Reports on what schools, businesses, and others are doing in this crusade. Puts forth ideas for how Catholic schools and the individual can help. (VWC)

  2. Models for fleet sizing and localization of fire-fighting for attendance to accidents in platforms; Modelos para dimensionamento de frota e localizacao de embarcacoes fire-fighting para atendimento a acidentes em plataformas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Afonso Celso; Brinati, Marco Antonio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    The increasing degree of use of maritime resources claims the establishment of a modern protection and assistance system to prevent and control maritime accidents. The usual safety systems for maritime accidents, generally, have the aid of specialized fleets in the attendance. This work presents models to determine the location and the profile of a specialized fleet for fire fighting, in order to guarantee the adequate attendance to expected accidents in a marine oil field. To modelling the problem, two means of analysis are considered: a deterministic model of integer programming and a probabilistic model. Considering the geographic location and the size of platforms as input data, the deterministic model establishes, among the available vessels, the fleet profile and location in order to minimize the fleet cost assuring the attendance to each platform within the standard requirements. The probabilistic model starts from a given solution for the fleet profile and vessel location and, by means of estimating the utilization factors of each vessel, proposes possible improvements in the fleet location, in order to maximize the probability of attending the accidents. A simulation model was elaborated to validate the results from the probabilistic model. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of every model, not only to a rational location problem solution, but also, for the analysis of the operational fleet performance. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. How a new funding model will shift allocations from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y; Glassman, Amanda; Silverman, Rachel L

    2014-12-01

    Policy makers deciding how to fund global health programs in low- and middle-income countries face important but difficult questions about how to allocate resources across countries. In this article we present a typology of three allocation methodologies to align allocations with priorities. We then apply our typology to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. We examined the Global Fund's historical HIV allocations and its predicted allocations under a new funding model that creates an explicit allocation methodology. We found that under the new funding model, substantial shifts in the Global Fund's portfolio are likely to result from concentrating resources in countries with more HIV cases and lower per capita incomes. For example, South Africa, which had 15.8 percent of global HIV cases in 2009, could see its Global Fund HIV funding more than triple, from historic levels that averaged 3.0 percent to 9.7 percent of total Global Fund allocations. The new funding model methodology is expected, but not guaranteed, to improve the efficiency of Global Fund allocations in comparison to historical practice. We conclude with recommendations for the Global Fund and other global health donors to further develop their allocation methodologies and processes to improve efficiency and transparency. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. The impact of the web and social networks on vaccination. New challenges and opportunities offered to fight against vaccine hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, J-P; Cohen, R; Denis, F; Gaudelus, J; Martinot, A; Lery, T; Lepetit, H

    2016-05-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is a growing and threatening trend, increasing the risk of disease outbreaks and potentially defeating health authorities' strategies. We aimed to describe the significant role of social networks and the Internet on vaccine hesitancy, and more generally on vaccine attitudes and behaviors. Presentation and discussion of lessons learnt from: (i) the monitoring and analysis of web and social network contents on vaccination; (ii) the tracking of Google search terms used by web users; (iii) the analysis of Google search suggestions related to vaccination; (iv) results from the Vaccinoscopie(©) study, online annual surveys of representative samples of 6500 to 10,000 French mothers, monitoring vaccine behaviors and attitude of French parents as well as vaccination coverage of their children, since 2008; and (v) various studies published in the scientific literature. Social networks and the web play a major role in disseminating information about vaccination. They have modified the vaccination decision-making process and, more generally, the doctor/patient relationship. The Internet may fuel controversial issues related to vaccination and durably impact public opinion, but it may also provide new tools to fight against vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy should be fought on the Internet battlefield, and for this purpose, communication strategies should take into account new threats and opportunities offered by the web and social networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [The economics of health care in developing countries: what the fight against the AIDS epidemics has changed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatti, Jean Paul

    2008-12-01

    Since the start of the new century, development aid targeted on health care has seen an unprecedented rise, driven by the fight against AIDS. This article shows how this struggle has been accompanied with a renewal of the economic paradigms governing international action in favour of health care in developing countries: the idea that an improvement in health care constitutes an unavoidable prerequisite to macroeconomic growth, rather than a consequence; the insistence on the founding of mechanisms for health insurance to finance the costs of health care, rather than covering the costs at the point of use by the health care users; a concern to impose price differentials for access to medicine in developing countries, and to introduce flexibility in the regulation of international intellectual property law; the priority to vertical programmes targeted on certain illnesses, thought to act as levers for a global reinforcement of health care systems. This article discusses the pertinence of these new paradigms in light of the evolution of the AIDS/HIV epidemic, and the international context.

  6. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment.

  7. Electing Not to Fight: Elections as a Mechanism of Deradicalisation after the Irish Civil War 1922–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kissane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Much research into the relationship between democratisation and conflict argues that holding elections soon after civil war, when nationalist issues still resonate, is likely to see voters elect to fight. This paper explores a case where elections had the opposite effect. Examination of the relationship between election results and political developments, as well as geographical voting patterns, demonstrates that elections were the primary mechanism for the deradicalisation of Irish politics after the civil war of 1922–23. Elections served as a mechanism for arbitration, selection, and coordination between more and less radical elites and their bases of support. Once the new state had shown its strength it had to accommodate gradual change, while electoral losers had to show they could reconcile change with stability. Elections helped establish credibility in both respects without altering the state-society relationship, suggesting that deradicalisation was dependent on state performance, and thus on some shared conception of the state. This combination of credibility, electoral legitimacy, and state performance, enabled a revolutionary elite, schooled in both constitutional and revolutionary politics, to deradicalise Irish nationalism after independence.

  8. Leveraging Visibility, Gaining Capital? Social Media Use in the Fight Against Child Abusers: The Case of The Judge Beauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Myles

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the constitutive role of mediated visibility in the emergence of contemporary vigilante initiatives. Here, visibility is conceptualized as a “heuristic device” to understand social phenomena, as well as a lever for organizations to acquire various forms of capital. The article uses the case of The Judge Beauce —a Canadian organization created in 2015 to fight against child abusers—to understand how vigilante collectives can lever mediated visibility, and online visibility in particular, to acquire specific forms of policing capital (economic, social, political, and cultural. Results show that mediated visibility was indeed crucial for raising funds, constituting vigilant/e publics, and defining vigilante identities, relations, and practices. Yet, as a “double-edged sword,” mediated visibility brought on public scrutiny that simultaneously resulted in a series of liabilities. Finally, this article contends that vigilantism in the digital age should be defined as the enactment of power im(balances through the instrumentalization of mediated visibility rather than considering force or the threat of its use as its main feature.

  9. Clinimetric quality of the fire fighting simulation test as part of the Dutch fire fighters Workers' Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Judith K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinimetric data for the fire fighting simulation test (FFST, a new test proposed for the Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS of Dutch fire fighters, were evaluated. Methods Twenty-one fire fighters took the FFST three times with one and three weeks between testing. Clinimetric quality was determined by means of reliability, agreement and validity. For reliability and agreement, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and standard error of measurement (SEM, were analysed. For construct validity, the tests from 45 fire fighters were correlated with their own and their supervisors' rated work ability. Results The ICCs were 0.56 and 0.79 at the one-week and three-week test-retest periods, respectively. Testing times ranged from 9 to 17 minutes; the SEMs were 70 s at the one-week and 40 s at the three-week test-retest periods. The construct validity was moderate (-0.47 ≤ r ≤ -0.33; p Conclusions The FFST was reliable with acceptable agreement after three weeks. Construct validity was moderate. We recommend using FFST as a part of the WHS for Dutch fire fighters. It is advised that fire fighters should perform the FFST once as a trial before judging their performance in testing time during the second performance.

  10. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagascar? A study combining a survey and a consumer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Valentin, Dominique; Arvisenet, Gaëlle

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to understand consumers' habits and belief structures concerning local food products and to develop a new snack as a way to fight against children malnutrition in Madagascar. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Madagascar, like Moringa oleifera (MO) which leaves are rich in nutrients but not consumed. First, a survey conducted in four areas of Madagascar revealed that MO leaves are known for their health benefits but infrequently consumed, probably because of their low satiating power and strong odor. In the studied areas, different levels of consumption were observed, which may be linked to varying levels of familiarity with MO by the local populations, this in turn resulting from different situations regarding geographical and historical availability. In contrary, resources such as cassava are perceived as having negative effects on health but are widely consumed because they are cheap, liked by children and satiating. The second step in the study aimed to propose products that could increase MO consumption without completely changing food practices. The acceptability of snacks associating cassava roots and MO was evaluated by means of hedonic tests performed by children. Between the snacks tested, the preferred snack contained the highest quantity of MO and was sweetened. There was no effect of area on the acceptance of the formulated snacks. This work is an evaluation of the potential of MO in the diet of malnourished population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dedicated health systems strengthening of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: an analysis of grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y; Tsai, Feng-Jen J; Shroff, Zubin C; Nakahara, Branden; Vargha, Nabil; Weathers, Scott

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to understand the determinants of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria's dedicated channel for health systems strengthening (HSS) funding across countries and to analyze their health system priorities expressed in budgets and performance indicators. We obtained publicly available data for disease-specific and HSS grants from the Global Fund over 2004-2013 prior to the new funding model. Regression analysis was employed to assess the determinants of dedicated HSS funding across 111 countries. Documents for 27 dedicated HSS grants including budgets and performance indicators were collected, and activities were analyzed by health system functions. HSS funding per capita is significantly associated with TB and HIV funding per capita, but not per capita income and health worker density. Of 27 dedicated HSS grants, 11 had line-item budgets publicly available, in which health workforce and medical products form the majority (89% or US$132 million of US$148 million) of funds. Yet these areas accounted for 41.7% (215) of total 516 performance indicators. Health worker densities were not correlated with HSS funding, despite the emphasis on health workforce in budgets and performance indicators. Priorities in health systems in line-item budgets differ from the numbers of indicators used. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fighting poor-quality medicines in low- and middle-income countries: the importance of advocacy and pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinetto, Raffaella; Vandenbergh, Daniel; Macé, Cécile; Pouget, Corinne; Renchon, Brigitte; Rigal, Jean; Schiavetti, Benedetta; Caudron, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of pharmaceutical production has not been accompanied by a strengthening and harmonization of the regulatory systems worldwide. Thus, the global market is characterized today by a situation of multiple standards, and patients in low- and middle-income countries are exposed to the risk of receiving poor-quality medicines. Among those who first raised the alarm on this problem, there were pioneering humanitarian groups, who were in a privileged position to witness the gap in quality of medicines between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. Despite an increasing awareness of the problem and the launch of some positive initiatives, the divide in pharmaceutical quality between the North and the South remains important, and insufficiently addressed. More advocacy is needed for universal access to quality-assured medicines. It should target all those who are strongly "involved" with medicines: regulators, international organizations, journalists, purchasers, prescribers, program managers, policy makers, public health actors and the patients. Advocacy should be based on evidence from research and monitoring programs, and technical concepts should be translated in lay language through communication tools that address all the stakeholders. The fight to ensure universal access to quality medicines needs the participation of all, and can only be successful if grounded in common understanding.

  13. Normalization of water flow rate for external fire fighting of the buildings in settlements with zone water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the requirements for fire safety assurance are justified for the objects, in which water is supplied with account for serial and parallel area zoning. In the process of zoning the district is segregated into such parts, for which head rate in any point of selection of water from network will not exceed 6 bar. In the current regulatory rules the requirements for the calculation of the costs of water points are stated, as well as in case of extinguishing fires at the sites with water-supply systems zones. It is recommended to analyze each zone of the system of water-supply separately, without interrelation with the common water feeders, water consumers and services of fire extinguishing. Such an approach to assign water discharge for fire extinguishing results in the decrease of fire safety of an object, deforms calculation technique of outside systems of water-supply of the similar-type objects located in different parts of the terrain. Taking the number of fires and water consumption for fire suppression by the number of residents in each zone, we thus underestimate the capacity of the pipeline system. It is offered to make changes in Norms and Standards in force on fire safety of settlements. The recommendations on regulation of the number of fires and water flow for fire fighting in residential objects with zoned systems of water-supply are formulated.

  14. "You have to keep fighting": maintaining healthcare services and professionalism on the frontline of austerity in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasidou, Angeliki; Kingori, Patricia; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-07-26

    Greece has been severely affected by the 2008 global economic crisis and its health system was, and still is, among the national institutions most shaped by its effects. In 2014, this qualitative study examined these changes through in-depth interviews with 22 frontline healthcare professionals in five different locations in mainland Greece. These interviews with nurses, doctors and pharmacists explored perceptions of austerity and how ideas of professionalism were challenged and revised by these measures. Participants reported working conditions characterised by dramatic increases in public hospital admissions alongside decreases in personnel, consumables, materials, and also many hospital closures. Many drew on analogies of war and fighting to describe the effects of healthcare reforms on their working lives and professional conduct. Despite accounts of deteriorating conditions and numerous challenges, healthcare professionals presented themselves as making every effort to meet patients' needs, while battling to resist guidelines which they perceived diminished their roles to production-line operatives. Participants considered it their duty to defend their professional ethos and serve patients without compromising standards, even if this meant liberal interpretation and implementation of regulations. These professionals regarded themselves on the frontline of healthcare provision but also the frontline defence in a war on their professional standards from austerity.

  15. Justice heals: the impact of impunity and the fight against it on the recovery of severe human rights violations' survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchfuss, Knut; Schmolze, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Case studies show that traumatized refugees, who are survivors of serious human rights violations, suffer from persisting impunity in their home countries. Ongoing impunity--the inability to overcome the legal protection of the perpetrators assured by impunity laws, incomplete truthfinding, missing integral reparation and a lack of the necessary acknowledgement by society--represents an important obstacle for the recovery of survivors of serious human rights violations. There are reports describing that a high percentage of survivors shows an elevated mental vulnerability caused by impunity. Mental health problems resulting from traumatic experiences can persist or be reactivated by certain events. In particular, family members of the forcibly disappeared suffer from an incomplete mourning due to the uncertain fate of their beloved ones. The ongoing search for the forcibly disappeared under an atmosphere of impunity puts family members under high risk of retraumatization. Studies from other continents also prove that impunity severely affects mental health. Due to the global character of impunity there can be only little evidence about a positive impact of justice on mental health. Nevertheless, a few examples, in particular from Latin America, show that the combined implementation of memory, truth and justice can have a healing impact on those who suffer from trauma. They demonstrate that the fight against impunity is not only a legitimate moral struggle for human rights, but also a basic need for the sustainable recovery of survivors.

  16. The importance of good death components among cancer patients, the general population, oncologists, and oncology nurses in Japan: patients prefer "fighting against cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mitsunori; Kawakami, Sachiko; Kato, Daiki; Yamashita, Hideomi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Kimiko; Kuroda, Yujiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the importance of components of a good death among cancer patients, the general population, oncologists, and oncology nurses, and explore which patients preferred "fighting against cancer." We conducted a cross-sectional anonymous self-reported survey of cancer patients who visited a radiation oncology outpatient clinic, oncologists, and oncology nurses at the Tokyo University Hospital and a random sample of the general population in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The outcomes were 18 previously developed components of a good death in Japanese cancer care consisting of 57 attributes. Three hundred ten patients, 353 subjects from the general population, 109 oncologists, and 366 oncology nurses participated. The desire to "fight against cancer" was highly significantly different between patients and oncologists (effect size [ES] = -1.40; P = 0.001) and patients and oncology nurses (ES = -1.12; P = 0.001). "Physical and cognitive control" was, similarly, highly significantly different between patients and oncologists (ES = -1.30; P = 0.001) and patients and oncology nurses (ES = -1.06; P = 0.001). Patients who emphasized "maintaining hope and pleasure" (P = 0.0001), "unawareness of death" (P = 0.0001), and "good relationship with family" (P = 0.004) favored "fighting against cancer." The patients, however, who emphasized "physical and psychological comfort" did not significantly favor "fighting against cancer" (P = 0.004). The importance of good death components differed between groups. Medical professionals should be aware of the diversity of values surrounding death and assess the patient's values and discuss them to support his or her quality of life. In addition, the development of care and a medical/social system to maintain hope and pleasure after failure of anticancer treatment is necessary.

  17. The diester fuel at the time of the fight against greenhouse gases; Le diester a l'heure de la lutte contre les GES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-06-01

    Diester is the current name of methylic esters of vegetal oils. The French club of 'diester towns', renamed 'diester partners' since March 2003 was created to promote the use of this fuel to fight against the emission of greenhouse gases. In 2002, the addition of diester in diesel fuels has permitted to avoid the release of about 800000 t of CO{sub 2} equivalent. (J.S.)

  18. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. The Influence of Witnessing Inter-parental Violence and Bullying Victimization in Involvement in Fighting among Adolescents: Evidence from a School-based Cross-sectional Survey in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2016-03-01

    Witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization is common for many children and adolescents. This study examines the role of witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization in involvement in physical fighting among Peruvian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,368 randomly selected adolescents in 2015. We conducted logistic regression analyses to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for involvement in fighting among male and female adolescents. Among all adolescents, 35.8% had been involved in fighting in the last 12 months, 32.9% had been victim of verbal bullying and 37.9% had been the victim of physical bullying. Additionally, 39.2% and 27.8% of adolescents witnessed violence against their mother and father, respectively, at least once in their lives. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that late adolescence, participation in economic activities, being the victim of verbal bullying, stress, and witnessing violence against the father among male adolescents, and self-rated academic performance and being the victim of physical or verbal bullying among female adolescents were associated with higher odds of being involved in fighting. Verbal bullying victimization and witnessing violence against the father in males and bullying victimization in females were associated with greater odds of adolescents being involved in fighting. Creating a non-violent environment at both home and school would be an effective strategy for reducing fighting among the adolescent population.

  20. Seroprevalence of the Newcastle disease In fighting cocks (Gallus gallus from the Municipality of Saboyá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Javier Briceño Cruspoca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Along the time, the poultry industry has become one of the pillars of the Colombian economy, as a result of its extensive influence in the national gross domestic product and in the livestock field. In fact, the poultry industry significantly contributes to the food security, due to the affordability of poultry and eggs in relation to other protein sources. Due to the current reality of greater economic integration and globalization, it is required to pursue the removal or reduction of barriers such as the health related ones, that could be an obstacle for free trade. The industrial-type poultry industry (broilers, layers, breeders, grandmothers, turkey is one of the leading sectors of the country’s livestock production. Other types of exploitation such as the breeding of fighting cocks, backyard poultry, farm ostrich and quail, among others, represent another important part of this sector. However, a big concern related to these types of practices is the movement of birds and the potential risk of these as distributors of diseases that could potentially affect the national poultry industry.The Newcastle (ENC is among the most important diseases. This is one of the easily transmitted pathologies that causes great economic impact to the poultry industry due to its costs associated to high morbidity and mortality, low in production, high costs of treatment of secondary infections and significant investments in programs targeting its control and eradication. Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies of the disease in fighting cocks (Gallus gallus in Saboyá, Boyacá. The technique of hemagglutination inhibition was used for this matter. Prior to the study, a census was conducted to determine the population of (N = 1.500 animals. The health, manipulation and biosecurity standards of the subject population were assessed through the use of an epidemiological survey. The size of the study sample which was n

  1. What are the priorities in the fight against fuel poverty? For sustainable solutions, consistent with our commitments. Report no. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, Guillaume; Guibert, Geraud

    2016-03-01

    In our country, over 5 million households find it hard to pay their energy bills. Heating, lighting and transport are nevertheless essential needs, and one cannot lead a normal life if these needs are not met. Among these households, a certain number find themselves in a genuine situation of fuel poverty. They often rent their homes from the private sector and do not have the means to cover their expenses. These situations present social, but also environmental challenges. In the fight against climate change, the priority must be to eliminate the waste resulting from situations of energy 'leakage'. If sustainable solutions are not found, rising energy prices, which are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and our carbon footprint, will be unbearably high for a growing number of households and will therefore not be implemented. The fight against fuel poverty has improved in recent years, and new measures formulated by the Energy Transition Law of 2015 are being implemented: energy cheques, energy-saving 'poverty' certificates, etc. But these initiatives are not widely used, they are not well coordinated, and most often they are only calculated on the basis of income. Yet the situation of a household with a low income but living in well-isolated social housing is very different from that of a household living in a home with high energy loss. It is now essential to introduce more clarity and coherence into this system, prioritising long-term solutions which are the only ones capable of reconciling social and environmental priorities. Urgent work needs to be done to tackle energy leakage, particularly in private-sector rental properties, and, as far as possible, we must avoid providing direct aid for fossil fuel use, since this is contrary to the aims of the Paris Climate Change Agreement. Following on from a rigorous and exhaustive assessment, this brief proposes, within the framework of current reforms as well as beyond, to: 1) Fully

  2. Hit or Run: Exploring Aggressive and Avoidant Reactions to Interpersonal Provocation Using a Novel Fight-or-Escape Paradigm (FOE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Frederike; Buades-Rotger, Macià; Claes, Marie; Krämer, Ulrike M

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal provocation presents an approach-avoidance conflict to the provoked person: responding aggressively might yield the joy of retribution, whereas withdrawal can provide safety. Experimental aggression studies typically measure only retaliation intensity, neglecting whether individuals want to confront the provocateur at all. To overcome this shortcoming of previous measures, we developed and validated the Fight-or-Escape paradigm (FOE). The FOE is a competitive reaction time (RT) task in which the winner can choose the volume of a sound blast to be directed at his/her opponent. Participants face two ostensible opponents who consistently select either high or low punishments. At the beginning of each trial, subjects are given the chance to avoid the encounter for a limited number of times. In a first experiment ( n = 27, all women), we found that fear potentiation (FP) of the startle response was related to lower scores in a composite measure of aggression and avoidance against the provoking opponent. In a second experiment ( n = 34, 13 men), we altered the paradigm such that participants faced the opponents in alternating rather than in random order. Participants completed the FOE as well as the Dot-Probe Task (DPT) and the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Subjects with higher approach bias scores in the AAT avoided the provoking opponent less frequently. Hence, individuals with high threat reactivity and low approach motivation displayed more avoidant responses to provocation, whereas participants high in approach motivation were more likely to engage in aggressive interactions when provoked. The FOE is thus a promising laboratory measure of avoidance and aggression.

  3. Hit or Run: Exploring Aggressive and Avoidant Reactions to Interpersonal Provocation Using a Novel Fight-or-Escape Paradigm (FOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederike Beyer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal provocation presents an approach-avoidance conflict to the provoked person: responding aggressively might yield the joy of retribution, whereas withdrawal can provide safety. Experimental aggression studies typically measure only retaliation intensity, neglecting whether individuals want to confront the provocateur at all. To overcome this shortcoming of previous measures, we developed and validated the Fight-or-Escape paradigm (FOE. The FOE is a competitive reaction time (RT task in which the winner can choose the volume of a sound blast to be directed at his/her opponent. Participants face two ostensible opponents who consistently select either high or low punishments. At the beginning of each trial, subjects are given the chance to avoid the encounter for a limited number of times. In a first experiment (n = 27, all women, we found that fear potentiation (FP of the startle response was related to lower scores in a composite measure of aggression and avoidance against the provoking opponent. In a second experiment (n = 34, 13 men, we altered the paradigm such that participants faced the opponents in alternating rather than in random order. Participants completed the FOE as well as the Dot-Probe Task (DPT and the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Subjects with higher approach bias scores in the AAT avoided the provoking opponent less frequently. Hence, individuals with high threat reactivity and low approach motivation displayed more avoidant responses to provocation, whereas participants high in approach motivation were more likely to engage in aggressive interactions when provoked. The FOE is thus a promising laboratory measure of avoidance and aggression.

  4. Midwives' experiences with mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after a caesarean section: 'fighting an uphill battle'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwedberg, Sofia; Blomquist, Josefin; Sigerstad, Emelie

    2015-01-01

    to explore midwives' experiences and perceptions of skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their healthy full-term infants immediately and during the first day after caesarean section. qualitative interviews with semi-structured questions. eight midwives at three different hospitals in Stockholm participated in the study. All participants provided care for mothers and their newborn infants after caesarean birth. transcribed material was analysed and interpreted using qualitative content analysis. The analysis yielded the theme 'fighting an uphill battle'. skin-to-skin contact was considered to be important, and something that midwives strove to implement as a natural element of postnatal care. However, in daily practice, midwives experienced many obstacles to such care, such as lack of knowledge among parents and other professionals about the benefits of skin-to-skin contact, the mother's condition after the caesarean section, and other organisational difficulties (e.g. collaboration with other professionals, lack of time). Introducing more skin-to-skin care was a challenge for the midwives, who sometimes felt both dismissed and disappointed when they tried to communicate the benefits of this type of care. skin-to-skin contact is not prioritised because many health care practitioners are unaware of its positive effects, and their care reflects this lack of knowledge. There is a need for education among all health care practitioners involved in caesarean procedures. Another difficulty is that many parents are unaware of the benefits of skin-to-skin contact. Maternity outpatient clinics need to inform parents about the benefits of such care, so mothers will understand the importance of skin-to-skin contact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  6. Characteristic of nicotine delivery devices – electronic cigarettes – as a tool to fight against tobacco dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ye. Bogomolov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the analysis of specialized scientific literature and the review of data about the modern views on the electronic devices of nicotine delivery – electronic cigarettes from the view of evidence-based medicine. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (EC have become widespread. More than 10 years have passed since the first batch release of electronic cigarettes, and during that time, many studies have been conducted on various aspects of their use. However, the main concern of experts is the lack of a clear unanimous opinion about their health security and the EC's effectiveness as a method of tobacco control. The review presents modern data regarding existing EC modifications, the impact of their use on the human body at the cellular and systemic levels. Attention is paid to the fact that the actual physical nicotine dependence in the vast majority of cases is combined with psychological dependence, which reduces the effectiveness of other nicotine delivery devices. Data from randomized clinical trials show that further development of methods for studying the effects of the EC on the organism is very actual. In general, such studies were made to highlight key issues regarding the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarette use, including the fight against tobacco smoking. Special cautions were made to the research results that indicate the growing of popularity of e-cigarettes among teenagers, particularly in the US, Poland, Latvia, Finland and Korea. Conclusions. The EC has proven to be effective in removing of tobacco-related complaints, but so far, the EC cannot be available as safe and effective method to completely abandon smoking. Existing production regulations do not standardize either the EC itself or the liquid for them, because of which the composition (including the content of harmful to health substances is not actually regulated. In addition, there are no data about the long-term effects of EC usage, which is a

  7. Dopamine receptor genes and evolutionary differentiation in the domestication of fighting cocks and long-crowing chickens

    KAUST Repository

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2014-07-31

    The chicken domestication process represents a typical model of artificial selection, and gives significant insight into the general understanding of the influence of artificial selection on recognizable phenotypes. Two Japanese domesticated chicken varieties, the fighting cock (Shamo) and the long-crowing chicken (Naganakidori), have been selectively bred for dramatically different phenotypes. The former has been selected exclusively for aggressiveness and the latter for long crowing with an obedient sitting posture. To understand the particular mechanism behind these genetic changes during domestication, we investigated the degree of genetic differentiation in the aforementioned chickens, focusing on dopamine receptor D2, D3, and D4 genes. We studied other ornamental chickens such as Chabo chickens as a reference for comparison. When genetic differentiation was measured by an index of nucleotide differentiation (NST) newly devised in this study, we found that the NST value of DRD4 for Shamo (0.072) was distinctively larger than those of the other genes among the three populations, suggesting that aggressiveness has been selected for in Shamo by collecting a variety of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, we found that in DRD4 in Naganakidori, there is a deletion variant of one proline at the 24th residue in the repeat of nine prolines of exon 1. We thus conclude that artificial selection has operated on these different kinds of genetic variation in the DRD4 genes of Shamo and Naganakidori so strongly that the two domesticated varieties have differentiated to obtain their present opposite features in a relatively short period of time. © 2014 Komiyama et al.

  8. Dopamine receptor genes and evolutionary differentiation in the domestication of fighting cocks and long-crowing chickens

    KAUST Repository

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Iwama, Hisakazu; Osada, Naoki; Nakamura, Yoji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chicken domestication process represents a typical model of artificial selection, and gives significant insight into the general understanding of the influence of artificial selection on recognizable phenotypes. Two Japanese domesticated chicken varieties, the fighting cock (Shamo) and the long-crowing chicken (Naganakidori), have been selectively bred for dramatically different phenotypes. The former has been selected exclusively for aggressiveness and the latter for long crowing with an obedient sitting posture. To understand the particular mechanism behind these genetic changes during domestication, we investigated the degree of genetic differentiation in the aforementioned chickens, focusing on dopamine receptor D2, D3, and D4 genes. We studied other ornamental chickens such as Chabo chickens as a reference for comparison. When genetic differentiation was measured by an index of nucleotide differentiation (NST) newly devised in this study, we found that the NST value of DRD4 for Shamo (0.072) was distinctively larger than those of the other genes among the three populations, suggesting that aggressiveness has been selected for in Shamo by collecting a variety of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, we found that in DRD4 in Naganakidori, there is a deletion variant of one proline at the 24th residue in the repeat of nine prolines of exon 1. We thus conclude that artificial selection has operated on these different kinds of genetic variation in the DRD4 genes of Shamo and Naganakidori so strongly that the two domesticated varieties have differentiated to obtain their present opposite features in a relatively short period of time. © 2014 Komiyama et al.

  9. HOMINES IN EXTREMIS: QUÉ NOS ENSEÑAN LOS FIGHTING SCHOLARS (ACADÉMICOS LUCHADORES SOBRE EL HABITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizo la colección de “etnografías carnales” de las artes marciales y los deportes de combates reunidos por Raúl Sánchez y Dale Spencer, bajo el título Fighting Scholars para poner de relieve la fecundidad de la implementación del habitus como objeto empírico (explanandum y método de investigación (modus cognitionis. El estudio encarnado de la encarnación se basa en cinco proposiciones que aclaran las persistentes ideas erróneas acerca del habitus y refuerzan la teoría disposicional de la acción de Pierre Bourdieu. 1 lejos de ser una “caja negra”, el habitus es totalmente susceptible de investigación empírica; 2 la distinción entre habitus primario (genérico y habitus secundario (específico nos permite capturar la maleabilidad de las disposiciones; 3 el habitus se compone de elementos cognitivos, conativos, volitivos y afectivos: categorías, habilidades y deseos; 4 el habitus nos permite transformar el problema de la carnalidad en un recurso para la producción de conocimiento sociológico; 5 para tener en cuenta que todos los agentes sociales, como quienes practican artes marciales, son seres que sufren y que están involucrados participan colectivamente en actividades corporalmente interiorizadas a través de escenificaciones dentro de círculos de compromisos compartidos.

  10. User Assessment of "InsuOnLine," a Game to Fight Clinical Inertia in Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Leandro Arthur; de Souza, Rodrigo Martins; Gordan, Pedro Alejandro; Esteves, Roberto Zonato; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister

    2015-10-01

    We performed a pilot study to assess usability and playability of "InsuOnLine," a serious game for education of primary care physicians on insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus. A multidisciplinary team has designed and developed "InsuOnLine," using Andragogy and Problem-Based Learning principles, with game elements to improve players' motivation. The prototype was tested by four medical doctors and two medical students, using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and a questionnaire to assess playability. These results were used to guide corrections, after which the beta version was retested by 14 medical students and 6 residents. Out of a maximum score of 100 on the SUS, the "InsuOnLine" prototype was rated 88, and some areas for improvement were identified (game instructions, controls). After corrections, the beta version was rated 92.5 on the SUS. Users have found the beta version to be fun, engaging, challenging, relevant, and realistic. Users said that the game has increased their knowledge on diabetes and insulin, that it has made them feel more confident for prescribing insulin, and that it would have impact on how they treated patients with diabetes. Most users said they have learned more from the game than they would have from a lecture. Lessons learned were the need of early piloting, preferably by users with very little or very much gaming experience, on their own computers and free patterns of use. "InsuOnLine" was rated by users as easy to play, fun, and useful for learning. Further studies will assess its educational effectiveness. "InsuOnLine" is a promising tool for large-scale continuing medical education on insulin, helping to fight clinical inertia in diabetes.

  11. Fighting stigma, promoting care: a study on the use of occupationally-based HIV services in the Free State Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Sommerland, Nina; Rau, Asta; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Kigozi, Gladys; van Rensburg, Andre Janse

    2018-05-31

    Fear of breaches in confidentiality and HIV-related stigma in the workplace have been shown to be primary concerns and potential barriers to uptake of HIV testing and treatment by health care workers (HCWs) at the Occupational Health Unit (OHU). In a context of human resource shortages, it is essential to investigate potential ways of reducing HIV-related stigma and promoting confidentially in the workplace. Using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), baseline data of the "HIV and TB Stigma among Health Care Workers Study" (HaTSaH Study) for 818 respondents has been analysed to investigate (1) whether bottom-up stigma-reduction activities already occur; and (2) whether such grassroots actions can reduce the fear of breaches in confidentiality and HIV-related stigma - and thus indirectly stimulate the uptake of HIV services at the OHU. Results (aim 1) illustrate the occurrence of existing activities aiming to reduce HIV-related stigma, such as HCWs giving extra support to HIV positive co-workers and educating co-workers who stigmatise HIV. Furthermore, results of the SEM analysis (aim 2) show that the Fighting-stigma factor has a significant negative effect on HIV-related stigma and a significant positive effect on Confidentiality. Results show that the latent fighting-stigma factor has a significant positive total indirect effect on the use of HIV testing, CD4 cell count and HIV-treatment at the OHU. The findings reveal that the fear of breaches in confidentiality and HIV-related stigma can be potential barriers to the uptake of occupationally-based HIV services. However, results also show that a bottom-up climate of fighting HIV-related stigma can stimulate confidentiality in the workplace and diminish the negative effect of HIV-related stigma - resulting in an overall positive effect on the reported willingness to access occupationally-based HIV services.

  12. Fighting Allergies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  13. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier....... Many of the German advisors to the Chinese Army had been through the war in the trenches and took the tactics they had honed there with them to Shanghai. This resulted in near-impregnable Chinese defenses in and around the city, and it also manifested itself in the introduction of shock tactics...

  14. Fight for chromallocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushko, Renata G

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the most important recent technological event and its significance to the human race: chromallocyte designed by Robert Freitas--a nanorobot that would be capable of replacing chromosomes on a cell by cell basis throughout the body in vivo. The significance of chromallocyte comes from its ability to painlessly reverse the effects of genetic disease and other accumulated damage to our genes thus preventing aging. It could reduce suffering, save lives and enhance human potential. By analogy to the successful effort to put man on the moon, we should aim at chromallocyte landing on the liver by 2039 which would commemorate 70th anniversary of man landing on the Moon. The same strategic planning principle could be applied. We should have a dream with a deadline of 2039.

  15. Fighting the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-08

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges Native peoples to know the facts about the flu.  Created: 3/8/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/8/2011.

  16. Fighting Fire with Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossetta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Advancing the concept of populism as a political style, this study compares the debate performances of two British party leaders, Nick Clegg and Nigel Farage, as they clashed in a pair of televised debates over Britain’s EU membership ahead of the 2014 European Parliament elections. The argument ...

  17. CAMEROON FIGHTING BOKO HARAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж КЖ Кума

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to retrace Boko Haram atrocities in Cameroon as well as the history of international cooperation against the Islamist sect since the declaration of the war against it in 2014. The principal internal counter-terrorist efforts are shown, including establishement of “Operational Com-mand” missions, partial reorganization of the territorial map of the army’s command, the expansion of defense policy at the subregional level and the gradual redefinition of military, the allocation of re-sources and tools adapted to these new missions. Cameroon engages in a process of multilateralization of the challenges of counter-terrorism coopera-tion, which gives a new dimension to the action of the defense and security forces as well as the multi-lateralization of the stakes of cooperation. The role of major powers and the countries of the subregion as well as the African Union and the United Nations is revealed. Cameroon is a traditional beneficiary of French military assistance. Counter-terrorist assistance also came from Russia, US, UK and Germany. The role of the Multinational Joint Task Force of Commission of the Lake Chad Basin (LCBC is shown. The author also shows that the war against Boko Haram seems to produce exceptional results that force both admiration and criticism of the Cameroonian people and the international community. The case of criticism by the NGO Amnesty International is analysed in details.

  18. Fighting phytophthora in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  19. Fighting over water values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena-Vásconez, Patricio; Vincent, Linden; Vos, Jeroen; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    Water management studies often overlook community diversity, different stakeholders’ values, and frames to claim water rights. Using a political-ecology approach, this article examines an irrigation system in Ecuador’s highlands via Fraser’s principles of justice (recognition, representation,

  20. Coal fights back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the twentieth century coal has moved from being the dominant energy hero that fueled the industrial revolution to a background role: a fuel of last choice, a supplemental resource, and sometimes a convenient villain in the environmental debate. But, as this paper points out, the other side of the coin is that coal is dependable, plentiful, and the price is right. To examine the issue as it merits, reason will have to be substituted for emotion. We are currently in what the author of this paper calls the crisis enrichment stage of the debate. In this stage, when definitive knowledge is lacking, there is a temptation to imagine the worst, overcorrect the problem, and do considerable damage to energy supply and economic needs. The environmental movement has provoked a hunt for someone to blame for the world's current environmental situation. Without a proven culprit to blame for disturbances to some of the world's lakes and forests, it has been decided that coal is the cause. This paper makes a plea for balance, urging all parties to find some acceptable middle ground between energy production and environmental protection