Sample records for splendens regan anabantoidei

  1. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi


    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  2. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910 in open pond: live and formulated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Abstract The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet; live food diet (plankton and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton. The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01 from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food, with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species’s survival (82% and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish.

  3. Sex reversal in Betta splendens Regan with emphasis on the problem of sex determination. (United States)

    Lowe, T P; Larkin, J R


    To gain insight into the sex-determining mechanism of the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, sex-reversed individuals were bred and the ratios of the spawnings were examined. Sex-reversal of 245 females was undertaken by ovariectomizing them; of these, 104 became sex-reversed. Twenty-three of these latter fish were mated to normal females and eleven spawnings were raised to maturity. These spawnings resulted in all female broods or mixed broods. Were the male fish heterogametic, a view currently held by some authors, no males would be produced in these spawnings. Thus, male heterogamety was not substaintiated in this study. Contrary to other studies, the experimental sex reversal of females is not a rare event since nearly two-thirds of the fish that survived the surgery became sex-reversed. Gross dissection and histological observation of sex-reversed fish revealed a regenerated, unpaired duct which remained after the ovaries had been removed. The tissue of the regenerate was testicular and contained active spermatogenesis. Some alterative methods of sex determination which may apply to the Betta are examined. These include the possibility of two different sex-determining races, the effects of exogenous factors, and a polygenic system of sex determination.

  4. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture. (United States)

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya


    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  5. Efeitos de hormônios esteroides de contraceptivos orais combinados sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens (Regan, 1909)


    B.D. Santos; M.C.G. Silva; T.P. Santos; S.C.B.L. Silva; M.R.S. Cadena; P.G. Cadena


    Os hormônios esteroides presentes em várias gerações de contraceptivos orais combinados (COC) podem se apresentar como disruptores endócrinos, produzindo alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia de peixes. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de hormônios esteroides presentes em COC sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens, um peixe ornamental usado na aquariofilia e bastante agressivo. Machos adultos foram observados pelo método ad libitum para conf...

  6. Efeitos de hormônios esteroides de contraceptivos orais combinados sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens (Regan, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Santos


    Full Text Available Os hormônios esteroides presentes em várias gerações de contraceptivos orais combinados (COC podem se apresentar como disruptores endócrinos, produzindo alterações no comportamento e na fisiologia de peixes. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de hormônios esteroides presentes em COC sobre os parâmetros comportamentais de Betta splendens, um peixe ornamental usado na aquariofilia e bastante agressivo. Machos adultos foram observados pelo método ad libitum para confecção do etograma e divididos em cinco grupos, controle e expostos aos hormônios: 17β-estradiol (E2; levonorgestrel e etinilestradiol (LEA - segunda geração de COC; gestodeno e etinilestradiol (GEA - terceira geração de COC; e drospirenona e etinilestradiol (DEA - quarta geração de COC. Os peixes foram expostos por 30 dias à concentração final de 10ng/L. Foram avaliados os comportamentos pelos métodos de varredura instantânea e animal-focal, bem como o consumo de ração. No método varredura, o comportamento descansar apresentou o maior valor (54,4±10,1% no grupo E2 (P<0,05. Os comportamentos agressivos de carga (16,1±3,6% e recuar e carga (16,4±5,1% apresentaram os maiores valores no grupo controle em relação aos demais grupos (P<0,05. Os animais do grupo E2 apresentaram maior frequência de comportamentos inativos (76,1% comparados aos de outros grupos. O comportamento atípico natação errática não foi observado no grupo controle, mas foi observado nos grupos experimentais. Os grupos E2, LEA, GEA e DEA apresentaram redução nos comportamentos agressivos (10% quando comparados ao grupo controle pelo método animal-focal. Não foram observadas diferenças na exibição desses comportamentos ao se compararem os animais expostos às diferentes gerações de contraceptivos e no consumo de ração. Pode-se concluir que 17β-estradiol causou mais efeitos aos peixes e que diferentes gerações de COC apresentaram efeitos t

  7. Melilotoside Derivatives from Artemisia splendens (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar


    Full Text Available A combination of solid-phase-extraction (SPE and reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia splendens (common name: “Asia Minor Wormwood”, an endemic Iranian species, afforded Z- and E-melilotosides (1 and 2, Z- and E-4-methoxy-melilotosides (3 and 4, and a new dimer, bis-ortho-Z-melilotoside (5, named: splendenoside. Whilst the structures of these compounds (1-5 were elucidated unequivocally by spectroscopic means, the in vitro free-radical-scavenging property of 1-5 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. This is the first report on the occurrence of any melilotoside derivatives in the genus Artemisia. Artemisia splendens, Asteraceae, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, free-radical scavenger, melilotoside, splendenoside

  8. On the record with Judge Kate O'Regan | van der Spuy | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In August 2012 Kate O'Regan, a former judge of the South African Constitutional Court, was appointed by the premier of the Western Cape to head the Commission of Inquiry into Allegations of Police Inefficiency and a Breakdown in Relations between SAPS and the Community in Khayelitsha. Two years later, on 25 August ...

  9. Morphometric variation and osteological analysis in Ramnogaster arcuata (Jenyns) and Platanichthys platana (Regan) (Teleostei, Clupeidae)


    Campello, Fernando Dantas; Bemvenuti, Marlise de Azevedo


    Ramnogaster arcuata (Jenyns, 1842) and Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917), found at the estuary of Lagoa dos Patos and coastal lagoon (Lagoa Mirim) at the South of Brazil, are two sympatric clupeid fishes with very similar features. In order to clarify their taxonomic and geographical situation, delimiting its occurrence in fresh waters, a comparative study of the bony structures of the head, anal and dorsal fins and ventral scutes of these two sardines was developed. The osteological study ...

  10. Interspecific aggression and character displacement in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. (United States)

    Tynkkynen, K; Rantala, M J; Suhonen, J


    Problems in species recognition are thought to affect the evolution of secondary sexual characters mainly through avoidance of maladaptive hybridization. Another, but much less studied avenue for the evolution of sexual characters due to species recognition problems is through interspecific aggression. In the damselfly, Calopteryx splendens, males have pigmented wing spots as a sexual character. Large-spotted males resemble males of another species, Calopteryx virgo, causing potential problems in species recognition. In this study, we investigate whether there is character displacement in wing spot size and whether interspecific aggression could cause this pattern. We found first that wing spot size of C. splendens in populations decreased with increasing relative abundance of C. virgo. Secondly, C. virgo males were more aggressive towards large- than small-spotted C. splendens males. Thirdly, in interspecific contests C. virgo males had better territory holding ability than C. splendens males. These results suggest that interspecific aggression may have caused character displacement in wing spot size of C. splendens, because the intensity of aggression towards large-spotted males is likely to increase with relative abundance of C. virgo males. Thus, interspecific aggression may be an evolutionarily significant force that is able to cause divergence in secondary sexual characters. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  11. Clerodendrum splendens: a potential source of antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Boota, F.


    The antimicrobial status of the bark and leaves of Clerodendrum splendens was evaluated.The inquisition had provided that the leaf and bark of the plant had exhibited maximum antimicrobial potential. The antibacterial activity was significant against S. aureus with the maximum effectiveness of 71 ± 0.6 mm displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of bark. Moreover, all the petroleum ether extracts exhibited maximum inhibitory effects against all the bacterial strains. The Gram negative strains, i.e. K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli had provided good to satisfactory results within the range of 20 ± 0.8 mm to 69 ± 0.9 mm. Excellent activities were exhibited by leaf and bark extracts against the fungal pathogens with the maximum potential displayed by the petroleum ether extracts of leaf i.e. 57 ± 0.5 mm against A. oryzae. The MIC assays were carried out to further authenticate the results obtained by zones of inhibitions. The MIC potential exhibited by Gram negative bacteria for K. pneumoniae was evaluated to be > 0.032 mg/mL while for the S. aureus was roughly evaluated to be > 0.088. Moreover, the MIC activity displayed against other Gram negative bacterial strains was reported > 0.112 ± 0.7 mg/mL for E. coli and > 0.059 ± 1.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa. The MIC effectiveness for the fungal strain of A. niger and A. oryzae was evaluated to be 0.118 ± 0.7 mg/mL. (author)

  12. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  13. Multiple phosphoglucomutase alleles in Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culcidae). (United States)

    Yong, H S; Chan, K L; Dhaliwal, S S; Burton, J J; Cheong, W H; Mak, J W


    Multiple phosphoglucomutase (E.C. alleles are found in the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens. The sample studied reveals 3 Pgm alleles whose frequencies are in good accord with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The most frequent allele is that controlling a phenotype with an intermediate electrophoretic mobility. Each Pgm allele determines a two-band electrophoretic pattern.

  14. Semi-automated tracking of behaviour of Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durey, Maëlle; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Matessi, Giuliano


    In this paper, a novel software system for animal behaviour tracking is described. It is used for tracking fish filmed in aquariums using a low quality acquisition system. The tracking is based on a multiscale template matching technique that finds both the position and the orientation...... of the tracked fish. The template is matched in the background subtracted frames, where the background is estimated using a median based approach. The system is very stable and has been used in a large behavioural study design to the use of the behavioural pattern known as mate choice copying in Betta splendens....

  15. Cannibalism and carnivory in Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K


    Laboratory reared larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens, which were previously starved for 24 hours, cannibalized eggs of their own kind or preyed upon the eggs of other species (Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi) present on the surface of water in small containers. Second and third instars consumed eggs faster than first and fourth instars. The first instar consumed larvae of its own kind faster than the other instars, in the absence of other prey. However, when prey larvae were provided, there was a significant fall in the rate of cannibalism.

  16. Lead tolerance and cellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tian, Shengke [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M.J.I.; Liao, Haibing [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elsholtzia splendens had a good ability of lead tolerance and accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was mostly restricted to the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb and Ca shared most similar distribution patterns in E. splendens. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in Elsholtzia splendens-a copper (Cu) accumulator plant using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence. According to chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, E. splendens displayed certain tolerance at 100 {mu}M Pb treatment. Lead concentration in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens reached 45,183.6, 1657.6, and 380.9 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Pb was mostly accumulated in the roots, and there were also high concentrations of Pb been transported into stems and leaves. Micro-XRF analysis of the stem and leaf cross section revealed that Pb was mostly restricted in the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues of both stem and leaf of E. splendens. The correlation between distribution of K, Ca, Zn and Pb were analyzed. There were significant positive correlations (P < 0.01) among Pb and Ca, K, Zn distribution both in stem and leaf of E. splendens. However, among the three elements, Ca shared the most similar distribution pattern and the highest correlation coefficients with Pb in both stem and leaf cross section of E. splendens. This suggests that Ca may play an important role in Pb accumulation in stem and leaf of E. splendens.

  17. The House Crow (Corvus splendens: A Threat to New Zealand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Fraser


    Full Text Available The house crow (Corvus splendens, a native of the Indian subcontinent, has shown a rapid expansion of habitat range across Eastern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Europe and Asia. It is an adaptable, gregarious commensal bird which is regarded globally as an important pest species due to its impacts on livestock, agricultural and horticultural crops and indigenous fauna and as a fecal contaminator of human environments and water resources. Two Maxent (v3.3.3k models (A with presence data in Australia and (B with simulated entry data locations in New Zealand and a third ArcGIS model (C with environmental and social layers are used to determine an overall suitability index and establish a niche-based model of the potential spatial distribution for C. splendens within New Zealand. The results show that New Zealand, particularly the northern regions of North Island, has suitable environments for the establishment of the house crow. In order of suitability Model B showed highest potential land area suitability (31.84% followed by Model A (13.79% and Model C (10.89%. The potential for further expansion of this bird’s invasive range is high and, if New Zealand is invaded, impacts are likely to be significant.

  18. Novo hospedeiro e habitat para Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidade no Brasil New host and habitat for Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori


    Full Text Available Os Figitinae são parasitóides primários de larvas de dípteros. Na região Neotropical, poucos estudos têm sido realizados com esse grupo. Neste trabalho é relatado o novo hospedeiro e o habitat de Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae coletadas em Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker, 1849 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, utilizando armadilhas com iscas de fezes humanas na Fazenda do Curso de Agronomia, em Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil, em fevereiro de 2005. Foram coletados 9 espécimens do parasitóide N. splendens que emergiram de 50 pupas de O. thornax. A taxa de parasitismo obtida foi de 18,0%.The Figitinae are the primary parasitoids of dipterous larvae. Few studies have been done on this group in Neotropical region. This paper reports a new host and habitat of Neralsia splendens (Borgmeier, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae. The parasitoid was collected from Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker, 1849 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae on traps containing feces humans baits, in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil, at February 2005. A total of 9 specimens of the parasitoid N. splendens emerged from 50 pupae of O. thornax was collected. The parasitism rate was 18.0 %. This is a new record of the host (O. thornax and habitat (feces humans for N. splendens in Brazil.

  19. Time to death from starvation and compulsive killing by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K


    Time to death from starvation and compulsive killing without eating of the prey by larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens were studied in the laboratory. The first and second instars survived without food for 3 days while third and fourth instars survived for 7.8 and 14 days, respectively. When the corresponding instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi or Culex quinquefasciatus were offered, the number of prey killed but not eaten ranged from 0 to 15 per 40 prey larvae. Compulsive killing of Ae. aegypti was mainly at its third instar by 9- and 10-day old T. splendens. Compulsive killing of An. stephensi was mainly at its second and third instars by young and older ages of T. splendens but older T. splendens also killed fourth instar of An. stephensi. Compulsive killing of Cx. quinquefasciatus was of all its instars and mainly by young T. splendens. There was a significant negative correlation between the amount of food eaten per predator and the number of prey killed compulsively. The number of larvae killed and eaten were much larger than number killed compulsively, except in the case of third instar Ae. aegypti and 9-10-day old T. splendens.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) for predation of Aedes albopictus mosquito larvae. (United States)

    Toma, T; Miyagi, I


    Biology of the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) was studied in the laboratory to provide baseline data for using the predatory larvae of this species against those of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a biological control programme. The mean incubation time of Tx.splendens eggs was 43.8 h and the time required for newly-hatched larvae to initiate predation was 2.5 h. Mean numbers of prey larvae consumed and killed by each Tx.splendens larva totalled 389 and 345 respectively. The larval period of Tx.splendens was not significantly different for rearing individually or in groups of nine, with equal prey density, and duration of larval development was proportional to prey density. In mass rearing, larval cannibalism was usually observed during days 1-3 post-eclosion. The incidence of cannibalism decreased sharply on the fourth day after hatching when some larvae became fourth-instar. Adult female Tx.splendens usually commenced oviposition on day 4 after emergence. The number of eggs laid daily increased on day 7 and the peak oviposition of 6.3 eggs/female/day occurred on day 11. When oviposition containers were provided only intermittently, gravid females of Tx.splendens scattered most of their eggs on the dry floor of the cage. Viability of eggs laid by females aged 4-14 days was high (60-90%) but decreased to less than 40% as the females aged.

  1. The HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS use for research of Ignalina NPP vicinity contamination by Cs 137 and Co 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiponas, D.; Marchiulenene, D.


    The superficial distribution of Cs 137 and Co 60 and specific activity of these radionuclides in Hylocomium splendens in Ignalina NPP vicinity was investigated. The increase of Cs 137 and Co 60 specific activity in Hylocomium splendens was linked with increasing of these radionuclides activity in atmospheric deposits

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi facilitate rapid adaptation of Elsholtzia splendens to copper. (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Liang, Huijuan; Yan, Ming; Chen, Luxi; Zhang, Huating; Liu, Jie; Wang, Suizi; Jin, Zexin


    Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO 4 in either absence or presence of AMF. In the absence of AMF, acclimation to Cu for two generations significantly decreased surface area, perimeter length, and perimeter width of E. splendens seeds, as well as seedling survival rate and fresh weight of the radicle of seedlings. However, in the presence of AMF, both the germination rate and the germination index of E. splendens seeds as well as the fresh weights of hypocotyl and radicle significantly increased. These results revealed that after Cu acclimation treatment, seeds and seedlings that had been inoculated with AMF outperformed those without AMF inoculation under Cu addition, indicating that AMF can facilitate rapid adaptation of E. splendens to Cu stress. In addition, two generations of Cu acclimation under AMF absence significantly increased radicle length, while amplitude increased under AMF presence, indicating that the direct adaptive plasticity response of radicle length to Cu stress helps with the Cu stress adaptation of E. splendens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Betta splendens embryos and larvae reveals variation in pigmentation patterns. (United States)

    Carey, Alexis N; Lyvers, Benjamin H; Ferrill, Rachel N; Johnson, Rachel L; Dumaine, Anne Marie; Sly, Belinda J


    Vertebrate pigmentation provides an ideal system for studying the intersections between evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Teleost fish, with their accessible developmental stages and intense and diverse colours produced by chromatophores, are an ideal group for study. We set out to test whether Betta splendens is a good model organism for studying the evolution and development of diverse pigmentation. Our results demonstrate that B. splendens can be bred to produce large numbers of offspring with easily visualized pigment cells. Depending on the colour of the parents, there was variation in larval pigmentation patterns both within and between breeding events. In juveniles the developing adult pigmentation patterns showed even greater variation. These results suggest that B. splendens has great potential as a model organism for pigmentation studies.

  4. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens (United States)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.


    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  5. Laboratory observations on Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann in Thailand. (United States)

    Chowanadisai, L; Benjaphong, N; Phanthumachinda, B


    The biology of Toxorhynchites splendens predaceous larvae which breed in domestic containers like Aedes aegypti was studied. Egg stage lasts 52.64 +/- 0.13 hours. There are four larval instars lasting 2.38 +/- 0.04, 1.24 +/- 0.26, 8.09 +/- 1.6 and 28.78 +/- 5.39 days respectively. Pupal development lasts 5.18 +/- 1.06 days. The adult life span is 29.55 +/- 8.06 days. Growth increment was by measuring the size of head capsule. Number of second instar prey larvae consumed by 1 to 4 instars predaceous larvae were 9.32 +/- 1.77, 5.94 +/- 1.11, 37.03 +/- 7.05 and 273.06 +/- 50.69 respectively. The fourth instar was very aggressive especially 2-3 days before pupation when it killed without eating them. The construction of biological life table indicated net reproductive of increase (R0) of 16.3, capacity for increase (rc) of 0.094, finite rate of increase (lambda) of 1.08 and mean duration of a generation (Tc) of 44.445 days. The mortality at the first and second larval instar was high and the calculated population index (I) was 14.81.

  6. Susceptibility of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to malathion, naled and resmethrin. (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Schreiber, E T; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R


    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to measure the response of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to commonly used mosquito adulticides: malathion, naled and resmethrin. The concentrations of pesticide causing 50% mortality (LC50) after 24 h was 2.87, 69.1 and 623 ppb for resmethrin, malathion and naled, respectively. Naled was determined to be the least toxic of the 3 compounds tested for integrated use with Tx. splendens. The latter assessments were based on comparisons between laboratory-derived dose-response curves and maximum concentrations reached in standing water calculated using standard application rates.

  7. A new mutant, White larva, of the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens: genetics and cannibalism. (United States)

    Horio, M; Tsukamoto, M; Miyagi, I


    A strain of a new body-color mutant, white larva (wl), was established from a field-collected wild-type strain of Toxorhynchites splendens. The mutant can be distinguished from the wild type in both the larval and pupal stages, but not in the adult. Crossing experiments confirmed its mode of inheritance to be a single recessive system. This is the first visible mutant found in Tx. splendens. Larvae of the wl phenotype seem to be recognized as prey by other individuals in mass larvae rearing.

  8. Diferenciação morfométrica e osteológica entre Ramnogaster arcuata (Jenyns e Platanichthys platana (Regan (Teleostei, Clupeidae Morphometric variation and osteological analysis in Ramnogaster arcuata (Jenyns and Platanichthys platana (Regan (Teleostei, Clupeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dantas Campello


    Full Text Available Ramnogaster arcuata (Jenyns, 1842 and Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917, found at the estuary of Lagoa dos Patos and coastal lagoon (Lagoa Mirim at the South of Brazil, are two sympatric clupeid fishes with very similar features. In order to clarify their taxonomic and geographical situation, delimiting its occurrence in fresh waters, a comparative study of the bony structures of the head, anal and dorsal fins and ventral scutes of these two sardines was developed. The osteological study with clear and stain technique included more information about the differentiation of the groups from the bones of the supramaxilla, dentary, pterygiophore and epipleural ribs. Variations on the body shape of those species were analyzed through the multivariate morphometry, in order to obtain differentiation patterns between the groups. Thirty specimens were selected from each species. The measurements were obtained by truss network, by using 10 homologous anatomical landmarks. The analysis of the principal components, adjusted by Burnaby's orthogonal projection, indicated two main groups, separated along the PC 1. which explained 63.2% of the variation between groups. The diagnostic characters that differentiate R. arcuata from P. platana, were related to segments of distance of the head, longitudinal growth, body height and caudal peduncle. Furthermore, two groups of P. platana were found. In spite of their morphological similarities, they presented a differentiation gradient between the estuary population of the Patos Lagoon and the Mirim Lagoon, possibly resulting from two ecologically different environments.

  9. Toxicity of insecticides to Toxorhynchites splendens and three vector mosquitos and their sublethal effect on biocontrol potential of the predator. (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K


    Toxicity of six larvicides ie fenthion, temephos, malathion, deltamethrin, alphamethrin (Fendona), OMS 3031 and five adulticides ie malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, deltamethrin, permethrin to Aedes aegypti, Culex quiquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and the predator, Toxorhynchites splendens was studied for evaluating safety margin. Concentrations of alphamethrin that killed 50% larvae of T. splendens were 53 and 12 times more than that which killed Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. In case of deltamethrin, concentrations required to kill 50% larvae of T. splendens were 14 and 5 times more than that required against other two species. Other larvicides tested were equally toxic to both T. splendens and vector mosquitos. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of larvicides to T. splendens and An. stephensi. Deltamethrin was 25-132 times less toxic to adults of T. splendens in comparison to vector mosquitos. For other adulticides the range was 1-10. Immature developmental time of T. splendens was not affected by any of the insecticides tested. However, predation rate was lowered when larvae of Ae. aegypti previously exposed to fenthion and temephos were offered. Whereas, alphamethrin and OMS 3031 did not affect the feeding rate of the predator. There was a significant reduction in the pupal weight and pupation as a result of the predator feeding on the insecticide treated prey. There was a significant negative relationship between rate of pupation and dosage. The present study indicates that synthetic pyrethroids owing to their higher safety margin can be used in an integrated vector management program.

  10. [Isolation and biodiversity of copper-resistant bacteria from rhizosphere soil of Elsholtzia splendens]. (United States)

    Sun, Leni; He, Linyan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xiafang


    Isolation and characterization of rhizosphere copper-resistant bacteria from a copper accumulator plant Elsholtzia splendens were investigated. Cultivable Cu-resistant bacteria were isolated by plating and screening from rhizosphere soils of Elsholtzia splendens growing on a copper mine tailing. Bacteria were characterized regarding characteristics that may be relevant for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction--Cu tolerance, phosphate-solubilizing, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, siderophore and indoleacetic acid production, and further classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA (ARDRA). Strains that produced ACC deaminase were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Twenty-seven Cu-resistant strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of Elsholtzia splendens and classified by ARDRA in 7 different taxonomic groups at the similarity level of 60% . All strains produced IAA or their derivatives, 44.4% of the strains produced a very high level of siderophores, and five strains were able to grow on ACC as the sole nitrogen source. Strains 2EBS12, 2EBS13, 2EBS15 and 3EBS11 were identified as Acinetobacter, strain 2EBS14 was essentially consistent Alcaligenes. Cu-resistant rhizobacteria isolated from Elsholtzia splendens have abundant characteristics relative to promoting plant growth and genetic diversity, rhizobacteria Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. contained ACC deaminase activity.

  11. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species. (United States)

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady


    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens Lowe 1834 in the South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens from South-West Indian Ocean seamounts were studied based on whole otolith readings. Ages of the fish under study ranged between one year and 14 years (15.5–43.5cm fork length). Age distribution was related to depth. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males were ...

  13. Symplasmic and apoplasmic transport inside feather moss stems of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens. (United States)

    Sokolowska, K; Turzanska, M; Nilsson, M-C


    The ubiquitous feather mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens form a thick, continuous boundary layer between the soil and the atmosphere, and play important roles in hydrology and nutrient cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems. The water fluxes among these mosses and environmental factors controlling them are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether feather mosses are capable of internal transport and to provide a better understanding of species-specific morphological traits underlying this function. The impacts of environmental conditions on their internal transport rates were also investigated. Cells involved in water and food conduction in P. schreberi and H. splendens were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Symplasmic and apoplasmic fluorescent tracers were applied to the moss stems to determine the routes of internal short- and long-distance transport and the impact of air humidity on the transport rates. Symplasmic transport over short distances occurs via food-conducting cells in both mosses. Pleurozium schreberi is also capable of apoplasmic internal long-distance transport via a central strand of hydroids. These are absent in H. splendens. Reduced air humidity significantly increased the internal transport of both species, and the increase was significantly faster for P. schreberi than for H. splendens. Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens are capable of internal transport but the pathway and conductivity differ due to differences in stem anatomy. These results help explain their varying desiccation tolerance and possibly their differing physiology and autecology and, ultimately, their impact on ecosystem functioning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. Field observation on the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) as a biocontrol agent against Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae in a cemetery. (United States)

    Nyamah, M A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B


    This study explored the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens, predator of Aedes albopictus as a biocontrol agent. There was a negative correlation between Ae. albopictus larval population and Tx. splendens larval population in ovitraps (r=-0.287, R²=0.0821). The correlation is higher between the mean number of Ae. albopictus larvae per ovitrap and the number of Tx. splendens larvae in an ovitrap (r=-0.987, R²=0.9737). Larvae of Tx. splendens were observed to co-exist with larvae of Ae. albopictus and Culex fuscocephala in the ovitraps placed in the study area. The existence of Tx. splendens larvae in the study area coincides with their habit, preferring to breed in bamboo stumps. A total of 480 ovitraps were inspected for 30-week study period and 281 ovitraps were positive with Ae. albopictus larvae respectively. There was a significant difference between numbers of ovitrap positive for Ae. albopictus larvae with number of Tx. splendens larvae in the ovitraps (ANOVA, F((4,475)) 2.655, p<0.05). Of 281 ovitraps positive with Ae. albopictus larvae, 255 ovitraps contained only one Tx. splendens larva each. Only one ovitrap contained four, the most number of Tx. splendens larvae (p< 0.05). Thus, Tx. splendens could be utilised as an alternative for dengue vector control programme.

  15. Ultimate costs of sporophyte production in the clonal moss Hylocomium splendens


    Rydgren, Knut; Økland, Rune H.


    A richly sporophyte-producing population of the dioecious perennial clonal moss Hylocomium splendens was followed for five years in order to investigate the longterm costs of sporophyte production. Female mature segments were divided into two subpopulations: sporophyte producing and reference without sporophytes. Ultimate (long-term) population growth rates of l 5 1.091 and 1.258, respectively, were found for the two subpopulations by building separate deterministic transition ...

  16. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector. (United States)

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F


    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia.

  17. A new densovirus isolated from the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Pattanakitsakul, Sa-Nga; Boonnak, Kobporn; Auethavornanan, Kusuma; Jairungsri, Aroonroong; Duangjinda, Thaneeya; Puttatesk, Punjaporn; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Malasit, Prida


    A new densovirus was isolated and characterized in laboratory strains of Toxorhynchites splendens. The virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from mosquitoes reared in our laboratory. PCR fragments from each mosquito were compared by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and found to be indistinguishable. Thus, it is likely the densoviruses from these mosquitoes contain homologous nucleotide sequences. The PCR fragment corresponding to a 451 bp densovirus structural gene segment from each of 5 mosquitoes had 100% identical nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the structural gene sequence suggests the newly isolated densovirus is more closely related to Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) than to Aedes albopictus densovirus (AalDNV). Analysis of offspring and predated larvae suggests that vertical and horizontal transmission are responsible for chronic infections in this laboratory strain of Toxorhynchites splendens. The virion DNA is 4.2 kb in size, is closely related to, but distinct from, known densoviruses in the genera Brevidensovirus and Contravirus. Thevirus is tentatively named Toxorhynchites splendens densovirus (TsDNV).

  18. Salivary gland of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae): ultrastructural morphology and electrophoretic protein profiles. (United States)

    Jariyapan, Narissara; Choochote, Wej; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Bates, Paul A


    The salivary glands of male and female Toxorhynchites splendens have the same morphology, and they are paired organs lying on either side of the esophagus. Each gland is composed of two identical tubular lobes, joined together at the end of the proximal region. In the gland, a salivary duct extends through the length of each lobe. The general cellular architecture of the salivary gland of this mosquito is unique. No secretory cavity was found in any cell, and the salivary materials are secreted from long microvilli and collect in a periductal space surrounding the duct. In addition, a number of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a very large nucleus were observed, suggesting a high energy requirement for producing the salivary proteins involved in sugar feeding. The size of the gland is approximately 50 microm in diameter and 1.5 mm in length. These dimensions correlate with high protein content of these salivary glands (2.88+/-0.14 microg/gland pair). Sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic protein profiles of the male and female salivary glands were identical. No dominant major proteins were found. Compared with Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, the protein profile of T. splendens was similar to that observed in the males of these other species but different to that shown by the females, thus making T. splendens an excellent organism for studying the biochemistry of sugar feeding in mosquitoes.

  19. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Uvaria chamae and Clerodendoron splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Ebere Okwu


    Full Text Available Uvaria chamae P. Beauv and Clerodendron splendens A Cheval are known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. Their anti-inflammatory and oxytocic properties were assessed in this study. The extracts and aspirin were found to inhibit carrageenan-induced paw oedema on albino rats and mice with a strong activity in aspirin having (80.43 % inhibition while U. chamae and C. splendens have 69.57% and 47.83% inhibition respectively. The plants extract exhibition and uterine contraction activity on guinea pig. Phytochemical studies on the plants revealed the presence of bioactive components comprising flavonoids (0.70 – 5.70 mg. 100 g-1, alkaloids (0.81-5.40 mg. 100 g-1, tannins (0.40 – 3.60 mg. 100 g-1, saponins (0.38 – 2.10 mg. 100 g-1 and phenols (0.08 – 0.10 mg. 100 g-1. These bioactive compounds may be responsible for the medicinal properties of U. chaemae and C. splendens that form the basis of their use in herbal medicine in Nigeria.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini


    Full Text Available Betta ornamental fish of marble strain is a strain which is prefered by the hobbyists, because of its unique color, expensive price, and difficult to obtain the fish color strains. Therefore strain marble betta fish is still dominant for export quality for national and international contests. The aim of this study was to observe the growth and color performance of the crossedbreed marble strains of wild betta, Betta imbellis crossed with Betta splendens. The hybrids of B. imbellis (f x B. splendens (m (D had a specific length and weight rate, (1,113 ± 0.04%/day; 2,531 ± 0.14%/day; 26.61 ± 2.02 mm which was better than that of the hybrids B. imbellis (m x B. splendens (f (C (1,099 ± 0.02%/day; 2,244 ± 0.13%/day; 25.97 ± 1.33 mm; and 0.0027 ± 0.0003 mm. However, the survival rate of the C hybrids (42.19 ± 11.42% was higher than those of D (33.67%-17.08%. Based on the obtained results of the color identification the hybrids had as many as 15 characters of color, homozygous strains of marble which became the target of as much as 1%.

  1. Predatory activity of Rhantus sikkimensis and larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens on mosquito larvae in Darjeeling, India. (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Ash, Anirban; Saha, Goutam K


    Predation potential of the dytiscid beetle, Rhantus sikkimensis Regimbart 1899 and the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann 1819 occurring along with the larval stages of the mosquitoes in the annual lentic water bodies of Darjeeling was evaluated using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 as preys, in the laboratory under simulated natural conditions. Field collected R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens were offered IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to observe the rate of predation, at varying prey and predator densities. Based on the data obtained on the predation for a period of three consecutive days, two indices of predation, predatory impact (PI) and clearance rate (CR) values were estimated, and compared between the predator species. The rate of predation of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by R. sikkimensis ranged between 21.56 and 86.89 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value remained between 18.67 and 35.33 larvae/day depending on prey densities, while the CR ranged between 2.21 and 2.23 larvae litres/day/predator. Compared to these, the Tx. splendens larvae consumed the prey larvae at the rate of 0.67 to 34.22 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value ranged between 7.67 and 11.33 larvae/day, and the CR value ranged between 1.41 and 1.76 larvae litres/day/predator. The rate of predation, CR values and PI values of R. sikkimensis and Tx. splendens varied significantly. Both the predators R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, though the rate of consumption between the two predators vary owing to the difference in the life history traits and features. It can be assumed that these predators play an important role in larval population regulation of mosquitoes and thereby impart an effect on species composition and interactions in the aquatic insect communities of Darjeeling Hills, India.

  2. Copper acute toxicity tests with Schizothorax o'connori Lloyd and Schizothorax waltoni Regan: a biomonitor of heavy metal pollution in a high altitude area? (United States)

    Shao, Jian; Xie, Congxin; Qin, Jianhui; Huo, Bin; Luo, Yangzhi


    Fingerlings of two different Schizothorax species, S. o'connori Lloyd and S. waltoni Regan, were exposed to copper for 264 h in a series of static toxicity tests. The mortality rates of these two species increased as the exposure concentrations increased and the exposure time was prolonged. Estimated 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 0.31 and 0.28 mg/L for the two species, respectively. These findings indicated that fingerlings of these species were sensitive to copper, and that both species may be suitable for use as local biomonitors of copper pollution in the high altitude environment. However, S. waltoni may be more useful in indicating the safe concentrations of copper used in aquaculture for therapeutic purposes. Further quantitative studies with measured concentrations of copper are required to verify the results observed in the present study.

  3. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Liu


    Full Text Available Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS. We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO, using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including “oxidation reduction”, “transcription factor activity”, and “ion channel transporter”. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Fiona Sari


    Full Text Available Dengue virus are transmitted from human to human by the bites of infective female Aedesmosquitoes from subgenus Stegomyia. One of the way to detect Dengue virus antigen is by usingimmunohistochemical technique. This method was reported to detect dengue vims antigen in lowlevels. The aims of this study is to measure sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal antibodyDSSE10 using SBPC to detect antigen Dengue virus in head squash Toxorhynchites splendenswere infected with dengue patient serum and RT-PCR as gold standart. Artificially-infected Tx.splendens mosquitoes with serum positif dengue virus were used as infectious samples and noninfectedTx. splendens mosquitoes were used as control negative. The immunohistochemichalSBPC assay using monoclonal antibody DSSE10 then applied in mosquitoes head squash todetect Dengue vims antigen. RT-PCR as a gold standart was applied in each mosquito thorax.The result were analyzed by descriptive stasistic test and 2x2 diagnostic test table. Monoclonalantibody DSSE10 using immunohistochemical SBPC assay in head squash Tx. splendens wasgave sensitivity 87,09% and specificity 92,5%. Conclussion of this study is DSSE10 Monoclonalantibodies can be used as primary antibodies for the detection of dengue vims antigen inmosquito head squashKeywords: Dengue viruses, SBPC, antibodies DSSE10, head squash, Toxorhynchitessplendens' Virus Dengue ditularkan dari orang ke orang melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes dari subgenusStegomyia. Salah satu cara untuk mendeteksi antigen vims Dengue adalah dengan menggunakanteknik imunohistokimia. Metode imunohistokimia dilaporkan dapat mendeteksi antigen vimsDengue dalam kadar yang rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan evaluasi sensitivitasdan spesifitas antibodi monoklonal DSSE10 dengan metode imunohistokimia Streptavidin BiotinPeroxidase Complex (SBPC untuk mendeteksi antigen Dengue melalui scdiaan head squashnyamuk Toxorhynchites splendens yang diinfeksi dengan scrum penderita

  5. Effect of copper tolerant Elsholtzia splendens on bacterial community associated with Commelina communis on a copper mine spoil. (United States)

    Yang, Ruyi; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Jing; Su, Nannan; Shao, Zongyuan; Zan, Shuting


    Facilitation, or positive plant-plant interaction, has received increasing concern from ecologists over the last two decades. Facilitation may occur through direct mitigation of severe environments or indirect mediation by a third participant from the same or different trophic levels. The copper (Cu) tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens facilitates the establishment and growth of co-occurring Commelina communis through indirect enrichment of microbial activity. However, whether and how E. splendens impacts the microbial community that is associated with C. communis is less known. We characterized the soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere of C. communis in the absence and presence of E. splendens using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing. The result showed that the richness of the bacterial community increased, but diversity and evenness remained similar, in the presence of E. splendens. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacteria. The relative abundance of dominant and minor bacterial groups showed distinctly different responses to E. splendens. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that variation of the bacterial community was determined by multiple factors and might be driven by the tested soil parameters collectively, or alternatively changed through plant root exudates or other microorganisms. Our results enhance the understanding of how the bacterial community associated with a beneficiary plant responds to a benefactor plant and suggests that the changes of bacterial community composition may have far-reaching influence on plant-soil feedback and the aboveground plant community in the long run. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F.L. Pivetta


    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens, uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro quantidades de palha de arroz (0, 4, 6 e 8 t ha-1 combinadas com três doses do herbicida oxyfluorfen (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1. Observou-se que os tratamentos que levaram à veiculação do herbicida (nas duas doses testadas e nas três quantidades de palha apresentaram controle de plantas daninhas sem que efeitos fitotóxicos severos fossem observados nas plantas de sálvia. A pulverização direta do herbicida sobre o solo e as plantas de sálvia não se mostrou viável. O tratamento que proporcionou controle satisfatório de plantas daninhas sem causar danos às plantas de sálvia e que, por isso, pode ser recomendado foi o que recebeu o herbicida na dose de 2 L ha-1, veiculado a 4 t ha-1 de palha de arroz.Weed control is one of the main constrains to flower garden maintenance. This work aimed to study the possibility of translocating oxyfluorfen to rice straw and of selectivity of Salvia splendens, one of the main ornamental species produced and commercialized in Brazil, to the herbicide. A randomized block design was used in the factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of four amounts of rice straw (0, 4, 6 and 8 t ha-1 combined with three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 1 and 2 L ha-1. The results showed that the treatments that led to translocation of the herbicide to rice straw showed great weed control, without any high phytotoxicty damage to the salvia plants. The treatment receiving g 4 L ha-1 of herbicide in 2

  7. Valor inerente e vulnerabilidade: critérios éticos não-especistas na perspectiva de Tom Regan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia T. Felipe


    Full Text Available vivos de todas as espécies têm sido considerados objetos de propriedade, passíveis de serem explorados para atender aos desejos, fantasias e necessidades humanas. Filósofos morais utilitaristas, a exemplo de Peter Singer, propõem princípios éticos para definir os limites da liberdade humana em relação a todos os seres sencientes. Mas, o critério da senciência, no caso da formulação de uma ética ambiental genuína, não pode ser aplicado à natureza ambiental, nem mesmo a todos os seres vivos, exceto aos mamíferos e aves. Neste artigo, reconstituo os argumentos de Tom Regan para fundamentar a ética animal e os critérios necessários, na perspectiva desse filósofo moral, para a fundamentação de uma ética ambiental.

  8. Fighting fish (Betta splendens) bubble nests do not inhibit microbial growth. (United States)

    Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D


    Some organisms produce antimicrobial substances in nesting foam to favorably manipulate the environment to which their developing offspring are exposed. We tested if fighting fish Betta splendens foamy nest material, which is comprised of bubbles produced in the oral cavity of nesting males, has antimicrobial properties against a pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda), a nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli), or a pathogenic oomycete (Saprolegnia parasitica). We also tested if exposure to nest material increases larval survival by performing in vitro fertilizations and individually incubating eggs in bubble nest extract or tank water (control). Our results show no evidence of antimicrobial properties of bubble nests. On the contrary, bubble nests provided favorable microenvironments for the growth of Saprolegnia parasitica. Our results confirm earlier work citing the importance of male nest attendance, and suggest that the mechanism responsible for decreased survival in the absence of attending males is pathogenic microbes. 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC

  9. Factors affecting oviposition site preference by Toxorhynchites splendens in the laboratory. (United States)

    Benzon, G L; Apperson, C S; Clay, W


    In a series of laboratory oviposition assays, gravid Toxorhynchites splendens exhibited a preference for cups containing Aedes aegypti larval rearing water, but not for cups containing liquid cultures of bacteria, live Ae. aegypti in distilled water, Ae. aegypti larval holding water with reduced bacterial contamination, or methyl propionate at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% in distilled water. Preoviposition flight behavior was elicited by dark-colored containers, but few eggs were deposited if they contained no water. An invisible source of humidity placed in cups enhanced oviposition, but a reflective surface placed in dry cups did not. It is concluded that this species is strongly influenced by humidity and visual stimuli in the acceptance of a site for oviposition.

  10. Population interaction of Toxorhynchites splendens and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory. (United States)

    Amalraj, D D; Das, P K


    Population interaction of Toxorhynchites splendens and Aedes aegypti in relation to the complexity of the breeding habitats and their initial number was studied in the laboratory. The predator and the prey were introduced in different ratios in the colony cages (1 m3) with different oviposition structures. Predator-prey interaction lasted for 5-9 weeks without structural complexity of the oviposition containers. When there was a structural complexity, their interaction lasted for 18 weeks. During the interaction period, Ae. aegypti number was at a lower level. Therefore, both structural complexities of the breeding sites and initial predator and prey number play a crucial role in establishing stable interaction between them at a lower threshold level for a longer period.

  11. Estimation of predation by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens on the aquatic stages of Aedes aegypti. (United States)

    Dominic Amalraj, D; Das, P K


    Predation by instars of Toxorhynchites splendens on aquatic stages of Aedes aegypti was studied by estimating functional response parameters such as attack rate (a') and handling time (Th) in the laboratory. The predator displayed typical type-II functional response, similar to that of most insect predators when presented with increasing densities of any given size class of prey. Second instar predator attacked prey significantly at higher rate than the other instars. Small prey were attacked at higher rate than the predation on larger prey. Except second instar predator, other instars showed significant reduction in a' with increase in Th. Foraging surface area did not influence the predation rate. Predation was high at high water temperature and this was more prominent in the second instar predator. However, prey handling time was independent of the water temperature. Modeling of the predation of mixed age populations of prey and the predator through this short-term functional response experiment is discussed.

  12. Assessment of (Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora Cell Cultures Response Under to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Angélica Guerrero Zúñiga


    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures are homogenous experimental systems, highly controllable that allow the study of short and large water stress adaptations without the interference of the different tissues and development of plants. An approach to understand these adaptations is through the presence of induced proteins; as a result of changes in genetic expression. This work analyze the response of Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora cell cultures exposed to abscisic acid (ABA, through the electrophoretic characterization of quantity and quality of stress induced proteins. There were recorded low molecular weight polypeptides (< 35kDa, common in experiments under ABA 10mM, followed by the association with 20 and 30mM ABA conditions, with a particularly response of cell cultures without the stress agent.

  13. Chemical components of Ardisia splendens leaves and their activity against coxsackie A16 viruses. (United States)

    Van Nguyen, Thi Hong; Vien, Trinh Anh; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Van Kiem, Phan; Van Minh, Chau; Long, Pham Quoc; Anh, Luu Tuan; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Nanyoung; Park, Seon Ju; Kim, Seung Hyun


    Using a combination of chromatographic methods, one new flavonol glycoside, myricetin 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), and nine known compounds myricitrin (2), quercetin 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), quercitrin (4), desmanthin-l (5), myricetin 3-O-(3"-O-galloyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (6), (+)-catechin (7), benzyl O-1-D-glucopyranoside (8), 2-phenylethyl O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), and corilagin (10) were isolated from the leaves of Ardisia splendens Pit. Based on an in vitro test against Coxsackie viruses A16 by SRB assay, only compounds 2, 5, and 10 exhibited activity against Coxsackie viruses A16 with IC50 values of 40.1, 32.2, and 30.5 microM, respectively. This result suggested that compounds 2, 5, and 10 might be potential agents for treating hand, foot and mouth diseases.

  14. Improved eicosapentaenoic acid production in Pythium splendens RBB-5 based on metabolic regulation analysis. (United States)

    Ren, Liang; Zhou, Pengpeng; Zhu, Yuanmin; Zhang, Ruijiao; Yu, Longjiang


    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid for human beings. At present, the production of commercially available long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly from wild-caught ocean fish, is struggling to meet the increasing demand for EPA. Production of EPA by microorganisms may be an alternative, effective and economical method. The oleaginous fungus Pythium splendens RBB-5 is a potential source of EPA, and thanks to the simple culture conditions required, high yields can be achieved in a facile manner. In the study, lipid metabolomics was performed in an attempt to enhance EPA biosynthesis in Pythium splendens. Synthetic, metabolic regulation and gene expression analyses were conducted to clarify the mechanism of EPA biosynthesis, and guide optimization of EPA production. The results showed that the Δ 6 desaturase pathway is the main EPA biosynthetic route in this organism, and ∆ 6 , ∆ 12 and Δ 17 desaturases are the rate-limiting enzymes. All the three desaturase genes were separately introduced into the parent strain to increase the flow of fatty acids into the Δ 6 desaturase pathway. Enhanced expression of these key enzymes, in combination with improved regulation of metabolism, resulted in a maximum yield of 1.43 g/L in the D12 transgenic strain, which represents a tenfold increase over the parent strain before optimization. This is the higher EPA production yield yet reported for a microbial system. Our findings may allow the production of EPA at an industrial scale, and the strategy employed could be used to increase the production of EPA or other lipids in oleaginous microorganisms.

  15. Caffeic acid product from the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens post-phytoremediation: its extraction, purification, and identification* (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Zhang, Meng-xi; Li, Xia; Zeng, Wei-wei; Yang, Xiao-e


    In the current study, caffeic acid was an important metabolite in the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens. Preparation and purification of caffeic acid were performed on the dried biomass of the plants by means of sonication/ethanol extraction, followed by purification using a macroporous resin (D101 type) column and silica gel chromatography. The faint-yellow caffeic acid product was yielded with a purity of 98.46%, and it was chemically identified from spectra of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)/carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Caffeic acid is a possible product from the post-harvest processing of Elsholtzia splendens biomass. PMID:22661211

  16. Caffeic acid product from the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens post-phytoremediation: its extraction, purification, and identification. (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Zhang, Meng-xi; Li, Xia; Zeng, Wei-wei; Yang, Xiao-e


    In the current study, caffeic acid was an important metabolite in the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens. Preparation and purification of caffeic acid were performed on the dried biomass of the plants by means of sonication/ethanol extraction, followed by purification using a macroporous resin (D101 type) column and silica gel chromatography. The faint-yellow caffeic acid product was yielded with a purity of 98.46%, and it was chemically identified from spectra of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)/carbon nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Caffeic acid is a possible product from the post-harvest processing of Elsholtzia splendens biomass.

  17. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fayuan; Lin Xiangui; Yin Rui


    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens

  18. Caffeic acid product from the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens post-phytoremediation: its extraction, purification, and identification*


    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Zhang, Meng-xi; Li, Xia; Zeng, Wei-wei; Yang, Xiao-e


    In the current study, caffeic acid was an important metabolite in the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens. Preparation and purification of caffeic acid were performed on the dried biomass of the plants by means of sonication/ethanol extraction, followed by purification using a macroporous resin (D101 type) column and silica gel chromatography. The faint-yellow caffeic acid product was yielded with a purity of 98.46%, and it was chemically identified from spectra of Fourier trans...

  19. Australicola pectinatus n. gen. and n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from deep-sea fish Beryx splendens from Tasmania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš


    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2006), s. 126-129 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Australicola pectinatus * Beryx splendens * Triaenophoridae Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  20. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)


    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik


    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant ...

  1. Predatory efficiency of the sewage drain inhabiting larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann on Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) larvae. (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Bhattacharyya, Sankar; Kundu, Niloy; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Saha, Goutam Kumar


    The rate of predation by stage IV instar Toxorhynchites splendens larvae on the equivalent instar stage larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus, co-occurring in sewage drains, were noted for a period of three consecutive days in the laboratory using different prey densities and combinations. The rate of predation varied by age of the predator, density of prey, and prey type. The number of Ar. subalbatus larvae consumed by a single Tx. splendens larva ranged between 0.50 +/- 0.71 and 16.40 +/- 2.01; while for Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, the number consumed ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.42 to 20.40 +/- 1.43 per day. The pupation rates of the prey species varied in respect to control, with a minimum of 0.20 +/- 0.42 pupa/day to a maximum of 12.20 +/- 2.30 pupa/day in the presence of Tx. splendens. The values for the controls were 1.00 +/- 0.87 and 14.44 +/- 2.83 pupa/day, respectively. Irrespective of prey densities and combinations, a single Tx. splendens fourth instar larvae was found to consume on average 10.07 larvae on the first day 16.57 larvae on the second day and 4.38 larvae on the third day, killing a total of 17.70 to 45.10 larvae, in three days. In the presence of Tx. splendens, the cumulative pupation, irrespective of prey, remained between 12.20 and 45.10, and differed significantly from control where the values were between 13.90 and 54.70. The results indicate that Tx. splendens can significantly reduce immature numbers and lower the rate of pupation of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ar. subalbatus. Tx. splendens may be a potential biological resource in the control of mosquitoes inhabiting sewage drains.

  2. Predator-mediated natural selection on the wings of the damselfly Calopteryx splendens: differences in selection among trait types. (United States)

    Kuchta, Shawn R; Svensson, Erik I


    Traits that increase mating success in males may come at a cost, such as an increased risk of predation. However, predator-mediated selection is challenging to document in natural populations, hampering our understanding of the trade-offs between sexual selection and predation. Here we report on a study of predator-mediated natural selection on wing traits in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens, the males of which possess conspicuous wing patches. Wagtails (genus Motacilla) are important avian predators of C. splendens, capturing them in flight and removing the wings prior to consumption. Using geometric morphometric techniques, we quantified the strength and mode of selection on wing traits by comparing wings from depredated individuals with the standing variation present in the population. Our results reveal that predator-mediated selection is stronger on secondary sexual characters than on size and shape, suggesting that traits related to flight performance are closer to their adaptive peaks. This could be a consequence of the long-term evolutionary association with avian predators, whereas stronger selection on conspicuous secondary sexual traits may reflect trade-offs between sexual and natural selection. Finally, even though C. splendens possesses nearly identical fore- and hindwings, we found evidence for divergent selection between them.

  3. Uncertain population dynamic and state variables of alfonsino (Beryx splendens Dinámica poblacional incierta y variables de estado en alfonsino (Beryx splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Wiff


    Full Text Available Alfonsino (Beryx splendens is a species associated with seamounts, with an important fishery in Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile (33°40'S, 79°00'W. Since 2004, this resource has been managed by catch quotas estimated from stock assessment models. The alfonsino model involves high levels of uncertainty for several reasons including a lack of knowledge of aspects of the population dynamics and poorly informative time-series that feed the proposed evaluation models. This work evaluated three hypotheses regarding population dynamics and their influence on the main state variables (biomass, recruitment of the model using age-structured and dynamic biomass models. The hypotheses corresponded to de-recruitment of older individuals, non-linearity between standardized catch per unit effort, and population abundance as well as variations of the relative importance of length structures. According to the results, the depletion of the spawning biomass between 1998 and 2008 varied between 9 and 56%, depending on the combination of hypotheses used in the model. This indicates that state variables in alfonsino are not robust to the available information; rather, they depend strongly on the hypothesis of population dynamics. The discussion is focused on interpreting the causes of the changes in the state variables in light of a conceptual model for population dynamics in alfonsino and which pieces of information would be necessary to reduce the associated uncertainty.El alfonsino (Beryx splendens es una especie asociada a montes submarinos. En Chile sustenta una importante pesquería en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (33°40'S, 79°00'W. Desde el año 2004, este recurso es administrado a través de cuotas anuales de capturas, las cuales son estimadas desde un modelo de evaluación de stock. La modelación de la población de alfonsino se caracteriza por una alta incertidumbre, debido a diversas fuentes, como son desconocimiento de aspectos de su din

  4. The impact of weather conditions on dynamics of Hylocomium splendens annual increment and net production in forest communities of forest-steppe zone in Khakassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Goncharova


    Full Text Available Dynamics of annual increments of green moss Hylocomium splendens (Hedw. Schimp. in B.S.G. in the Khakassia forest-steppe zone has been studied. The values of the moss linear and phytomass increments were investigated in different habitats for 6 years. The aboveground annual production of the H. splendens in phytocenosis was estimated. Linear increments of the H. splendens growing under the tree canopy and opening between trees were not significantly different. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are significantly higher than in the openings between trees. The density of moss mats, proportion between leaves and stems were calculated. It was revealed that climatic factors have a different degree and duration influence on the moss increments in different habitats. Linear increments of H. splendens in different habitats synchronously respond to weather factor changes. The air temperature was the most important at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period; the amount of precipitation was more important in the middle of the growth period. Phytomass increments of H. splendens in different habitats respond differently to influence of weather conditions. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are not sensitive to air temperature, and more sensitive to precipitations in the middle of growth period than one of opening between trees. The specificity of the climatic factors’ influence on the biomass growth depends on habitat conditions.

  5. Combining Niche Modelling, Land-Use Change, and Genetic Information to Assess the Conservation Status of Pouteria splendens Populations in Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narkis S. Morales


    Full Text Available To assess the conservation status of a species with little ecological information is usually a challenging process. Pouteria splendens is an endemic shrub of the coastal range of Central Chile currently classified as lower risk (LR by IUCN (version 2.3. Knowledge about this species is extremely limited. Currently P. splendens is only found in two small and isolated populations, which are thought to be remaining populations of an originally large metapopulation. However, there is no evidence to support this hypothesis, limiting our ability to gauge the real current conservation status of this species. In this study we combine niche modelling, land-use information, and genetic techniques to test the metapopulation hypothesis and reassess the conservation status of P. splendens using the IUCN criteria. We also evaluated the potential effects of climate change in the species distribution. Our results support the hypothesis of a large metapopulation that was recently fragmented. Future climate could increase the range of P. splendens; however the high level of fragmentation would preclude colonization processes. We recommend reclassifying P. splendens as Endangered (EN and developing strategies to protect the remaining populations. Similar approaches like the presented here could be used to reclassify other species with limited ecological knowledge.

  6. Biological control of container-breeding mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, in a Japanese island by release of Toxorhynchites splendens adults. (United States)

    Miyagi, I; Toma, T; Mogi, M


    To control container-breeding mosquitoes in the small island of Minnajima (0.56 km2), northern Okinawa, Japan, laboratory-reared adults (aged 7-10 days) of Toxorhynchites splendens (Palawan strain), a mosquito with predatory larvae, were released repeatedly during 1984, 1986 and 1987. Thirteen species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) occurred in artificial containers, ground pools or crab-holes on the island, the predominant species being Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus. Predatory mosquito larvae of Culex (Lutzia) fuscanus and Cx (Lt.) halifaxii were found commonly in wet containers. In the first year of study, during a period of 54 days from 13 May to 5 July 1984, totals of 879 female and 806 male adults of Tx.splendens were released on six occasions. Similarly, between 29 April and 30 August 1986, totals of 2920 female and 2878 male adult Tx.splendens were released. In the third study year, totals of 2041 female and 1783 male Tx.splendens were released on eight occasions during 199 days from 23 April to 7 November 1987. After adult releases at two sites, the immature stages of Tx.splendens were found in 164 out of 502 traps in 1984, 421 out of 933 traps in 1986, and 151 out of 502 traps in 1987. The number of immatures of Tx.splendens present in each trap varied from 1 to 40 in 1984, 1 to 29 in 1986 and 1 to 9 in 1987. Numbers of immatures of the target species found in the traps during August-September averaged 71.9/trap/month in 1984, 114.7/trap/month in 1986 and 36.0/trap/month in 1987, significantly less in the traps with Tx.splendens than in those without them. The present field studies indicated that, in this small island, approximately 250 adult female and 200 male Tx.splendens per month should be released from April to November, and the releases should be carried out every year, in order to control effectively the target mosquitoes Ae.albopictus and Cx quinquefasciatus breeding in artificial containers in Minnajima.

  7. Interactive effects of copper stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on photosynthetic characteristics and chlorphyl fluorescence parameters of elsholtzia splendens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Jin, Z.; Li, J.


    To determine interactive effects of added copper (Cu) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the photosynthesis of Elsholtzia splendens, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted. Four treatments were used, including -Cu-AMF (no Cu addition and no AMF inoculation), +Cu-AMF (Cu addition but no AMF inoculation), -Cu+AMF (no Cu addition and AMF inoculation), and +Cu+AMF (Cu addition and AMF inoculation). Cu addition did not change diurnal variation curves of the net photosynthetic rate(PN), the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (Ci), the stomatal conductance (gs), or the transpiration rate (E); however, it significantly decreased the daily mean PN, gs, E, light-use efficiency (LUE), and carboxylation efficiency (CE). Furthermore, AMF inoculation significantly increased the daily mean PN, gs, LUE, and CE of E. splendens. In response to light, Cu addition significantly decreased the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (PNmax), the light saturation point (LSP), the light compensation point (LCP), and the apparent quantum yield (AQY), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax and AQY. In response to the CO/sub 2/ concentration, Cu addition significantly decreased PNmax and the CO/sub 2/ saturation point (CSP), while AMF inoculation significantly increased PNmax. Both Cu addition and AMF inoculation significantly decreased the relative chlorophyll content. Compared to the negative control treatment (-Cu-AMF), Cu addition significantly increased the minimal fluorescence, but significantly decreased maximal fluorescence, variable fluorescence,and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. These results suggest that AMF inoculations alleviate the inhibitory effect of copper stress on E. splendens plants by weakening its toxic effects on the photosynthetic apparatus and pigments. (author)

  8. Multiplication and distribution of type 2 dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses in Toxorhynchites splendens after intrathoracic inoculation. (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Kimura, T; Ohyama, A


    The nonhematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites (Tx.) splendens was found to be the most susceptible to type 2 dengue (D-2) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses among three hosts examined by virus titration and replication assays. After inoculation with D-2, the number of viral antigen positive cells in the head, thorax and abdomen increased up to day 15 and D-2 reached the maximum titer of 8.4 log10 PFU/g in the head on day 15. Hemocytes were the earliest cell type that could be detected as D-2 antigen positive on day 2. Multiplication of JEV was faster than that of D-2 in the mosquito. The number of JEV antigen positive cells in each part of the mosquito increased up to day 3, JEV reaching the maximum titer of 8.0 log10 PFU/g in the abdomen on day 3. Hemocytes and fat body cells (FBC) could be detected as JEV antigen positive cells on day 1. The time course of D-2 and JEV infection suggested that intrathoracically inoculated viruses were probably initially phagocytosed by hemocytes and/or FBC, and multiplied primarily in their cytoplasm. The infected hemocytes were then transported by the flow of body fluid and viruses were disseminated to other susceptible organs, such as ganglia, salivary glands, etc. The results obtained indicate that the course of infection of D-2 and JEV in Tx. splendens is similar to that in vector mosquitoes. Tx. splendens is therefore very useful for the study of these viruses.

  9. Evaluation of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens var. Hispolii (N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae: 2. Investigation in lotic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Baptista


    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hispolii in 12 ppm concentration (12 mg/l caused 100% mortality for a Biomphalaria tenagophila population in a lotic habitat after 9 hr of dripfeed application. For sentinel snails, in cages placed at the water surface and buried under 0.10 m, the mortality rates varied with the distance from the application point and were: 100% (0 m; 92.6% (50 m and 94.7% (100. No lethal effects were observed for the other living species in this habitat (Pomacea haustrum and Poecilia reticulata.

  10. Effect on growth and reproduction of hormone immersed and masculinized fighting fish Betta splendens. (United States)

    Kirankumar, Santhakumar; Pandian, Thavamani Jegajothivel


    To produce all-male progenies in the fighting fish, Betta splendens, six groups of fry were subjected to discrete immersion treatment at different 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) doses (viz. 100, 200, 500, 700, 900, and 1,000 microg/l) for a constant duration (3 hr/day) and frequency (second, fifth, and eighth day after hatching). The treatment at 900 microg/l led to 98% masculinization and 71% survival at sexual maturity. Treated groups, which showed significant deviation from the 1:1 sex ratio, were classified into two different series: S1 and S2. The groups that showed nearly cent-percent masculinization were classified as S1, and the other groups were classified as S2. The S1 males showed remarkably slower growth and attained 3.5 cm total length compared to 6.0 cm attained by a normal male. The S2 males attained 5.4 cm total length. Apart from these morphological defects, both S1 and S2 males suffered functional (decreased sperm count and sperm motility) and behavioral defects (incomplete embracing during mating) in their reproductive ability, leading to approximately 50% and 30% reduction in fecundity per mating, respectively. The cumulative fecundity loss suffered by the S1 male during its active reproductive phase is discussed. When normal and sex-reversed males were presented, a female preferred the former. Progeny testing of the sex-reversed males showed the occurrence of 12.75% males, indicating the possible role of autosomal genes in the sex determination mechanism of this species. Discrete immersion treatment at optimal/super-optimal doses ensured not only a higher percentage of masculinization, but also a higher frequency of homogametic males (XX). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Tolerância aguda e crônica de adultos de beta, Betta splendens, à salinidade da água Acute and chronic salinity tolerance in adult siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de Betta splendens à salinidade da água, realizou-se um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis concentrações de sal na água (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 e 15 g de sal comum/L de água, cada uma com cinco repetições (1 peixe/repetição. Fêmeas adultas de Betta splendens foram alojadas individualmente em aquários mantidos em estufa incubadora, a 26 ± 0,2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Os peixes foram alimentados até a saciedade, uma vez ao dia, com ração comercial. Foram mensurados o consumo diário de ração e a sobrevivência dos peixes a cada 12 horas. Para avaliar o efeito agudo da salinidade, foram calculados o tempo médio de sobrevivência e a salinidade letal mediana-96 horas, enquanto o efeito crônico (18 dias foi avaliado pelo cálculo da salinidade máxima de sobrevivência e da salinidade letal mediana. O tempo médio de sobrevivência foi significativamente menor na salinidade de 15 g/L. A salinidade letal mediana-96 horas estimada foi de 11,88 g/L, a salinidade máxima de sobrevivência entre 6 e 7 g/L, e a salinidade letal mediana de 9,35 g/L. Observou-se interação significativa entre as salinidades da água e o tempo de alimentação. Considerando que é uma espécie de água doce, o beta possui alta tolerância à salinidade da água.Salinity tolerance of Betta splendens was evaluated in a complete randomized design, with six salt concentrations in the water (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 and 15 g common salt/L with five replications (1 fish/replication. Adult female B. splendens were individually placed in aquariums in an incubation chamber at 26 ± 0.2ºC and 12-hour photoperiod. Fish were fed to satiation, once a day, with commercial diet. Feed intake and survival rate were measured every 12 hours. To evaluate the effect of acute salinity, the mean survival time and median lethal salinity-96 h were calculated, while the chronic effect (18 days was assessed by calculating

  12. Leaf litter is essential for seed survival of the endemic endangered tree Pouteria splendens (Sapotaceae from central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Sotes


    Full Text Available Pouteria splendens (A.DC. Kuntze, the Chilean lúcumo, is an endemic tree and the only member of the Sapotaceae family in Chile. It is considered an endangered species as a consequence of its restricted distribution and small population size. Currently, individuals of P. splendens are immersed in a heterogeneous landscape with rocky mounds and plains located in areas densely populated by humans. Natural regeneration in the species seems to be low, despite the fact that plants are able to produce fruits. The species produces brightly colored fleshy drupes. There is no information about the dispersal pattern and the fate of the seeds. In this work we investigate (i the seed dispersal pattern and (ii the effect of tree canopy and the presence of leaf litter on seed survival, both in rocky mounds and plains. Results indicated an extremely low distance of seed dispersal, with most of the seeds falling down under the canopy. Seed survival under the canopy without leaf litter was very low and even zero in rocky mounds. Nevertheless, the presence of leaf litter covering the seeds increased survival in both habitats. Outside the canopy, seed survival only increased in plains. We suggest that future conservation programs should focus on protecting both adult plants and leaf litter under trees.

  13. Determination of the lethal doses LD50 and LD90 of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex on Physa cubensis Pfeiffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysio da Silva Ferrão Filho


    Full Text Available The genus Physa are among the most common and widespread fresh-water snails and are frequently associated with the genus Lymnaea and Biomphalaria, typically occupying the same habitat and being hosts of trematodes that can cause disease in humans. Several studies have evaluated the control of snails through the use of plant-derived molluscicides; however, few such studies exist regarding the genus Physa. Determining the correct lethal doses of [latex of Euphorbia splendens] is important for the control of the Physa cubensis snail. In one experimental model, 150 snails from Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ were used. After acclimatization for 72 hours, the snails were divided into groups of 10 and placed into beakers containing different doses, each at a temperature of 26±1ºC and a relative humidity of 80±10%. The results demonstrated LD50 of 1.08 µL/L and LD90 of 3.41 µL/L, without significant changes in the physical or chemical parameters of the solutions. We conclude that E. splendens latex had a significant effect on P. cubensis in the laboratory setting.

  14. Global and New Caledonian patterns of population genetic variation in the deep-sea splendid alfonsino, Beryx splendens, inferred from mtDNA. (United States)

    Lévy-Hartmann, Lauriana; Roussel, Valérie; Letourneur, Yves; Sellos, Daniel Y


    Splendid alfonsino Beryx splendens is a commercial species in several countries, but is not currently exploited in New Caledonia. Information on species biology and genetics can influence the development of fisheries and assist in their management, but the genetic structuring and diversity of B. splendens populations remain largely unknown. To improve knowledge of genetic parameters, we used mitochondrial DNA sequences to conduct a comparative study of populations from throughout the world. Fragments of 815 bp of cytochrome b gene were sequenced and used to interpret the species history. We analyzed 204 individuals representing 14 geographical populations worldwide. A special focus was put on populations from New Caledonia. Analysis of variation between sequences, based on pairwise F statistics and AMOVA, demonstrated a population subdivision between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans (Fst = 0.11-0.32; P EEZ.

  15. Co-production of biochar, bio-oil and syngas from halophyte grass (Achnatherum splendens L.) under three different pyrolysis temperatures. (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Chen, Qun; Yue, Yan; Pang, Renzhong; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hao


    In the present study, pyrolysis of Achnatherum splendens L. was performed under three different pyrolysis temperature (300, 500, and 700°C) to investigate the characteristics of biochar, bio-oil, and syngas. Biochar yield decreased from 48% to 24%, whereas syngas yield increased from 34% to 54% when pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 700°C. Maximum bio-oil yield (27%) was obtained at 500°C. The biochar were characterized for elemental composition, surface, and adsorption properties. The results showed that obtained biochar could be used as a potential soil amendment. The bio-oil and syngas co-products will be evaluated in the future as bioenergy sources. Overall, our results suggests that A. splendens L. could be utilized as a potential feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production through pyrolytic route. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the Molluscicidal Properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N.E.B. Latex: Experimental Test in an Endemic Area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Nelymar M


    Full Text Available Following the positive results obtained regarding the molluscicidal properties of the latex of Euphorbia splendens that were corroborated in laboratory and field tests under restricted conditions, a field study was conducted in experimental streams located in an endemic area. After recording the average annual fluctuations of vectors in three streams, a solution of E. splendens latex at 12 ppm was applied in stream A, a solution of niclosamide at 3 ppm that was applied in stream B and a third stream (C remained untreated for negative control. Applications of E. splendens and niclosamide resulted in a mortality of 100% among the snails collected in the streams A and B. No dead snails were found in the negative control stream. A monthly follow-up survey conducted during three consecutive months confirmed the return of vectors to both experimental streams treated with latex and niclosamide. This fact has called for a need to repeat application in order to reach the snails that remained buried in the mud substrate or escaped to the water edge, as well as, newly hatched snails that did not respond to the concentration of these molluscicides. Adults snails collected a month following treatment led us to believe that they had migrate from untreated areas of the streams to those previously treated

  17. Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jurberg


    Full Text Available The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R, Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.

  18. The effects of experience on the development of sexual behaviour of males and females of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens). (United States)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Scobell, Sunny K; Svensson, Erik I


    Mate preferences can vary in the direction of the preference, as well as the strength of the preference, and both direction and strength of preference are known to be plastic in many species. Preferences might have a learned component, and current and past social context may influence an individual's choosiness. In the damselfly species Calopteryx splendens, females increase the strength of their mate preferences with sexual experience. Here we show that sexually naïve females selectively respond to conspecific courtship as soon as physical contact has been established, suggesting a role for tactile cues perceived through interspecific morphological differences in secondary reproductive traits. In addition our data also shows that males and females selectively respond to the intensity of the courtship of the potential, conspecific mate, while ignoring such information in heterospecific potential mates. These results underscore that mate choice is the result of dynamic interactions between the sexes, where both current and past information are integrated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the Wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of Toxorhynchites splendens for identification and quantitation of serotypes contained in the tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine. (United States)

    Jirakanjanakit, N; Khin, M M; Yoksan, S; Bhamarapravati, N


    Assurance of identity and quantity is an indispensable part of quality control in the manufacture of vaccines. Dengue-1 PDK13, dengue-2 PDK53, dengue-3 PGMK30F3 and dengue-4 PDK48 in the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine were assayed by identification and quantitation in a mosquito system (Toxorhynchites splendens). Each serotype of dengue virus was identified by dengue specific monoclonal antibodies in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Virus content was estimated by calculating the 50% mosquito infectious dose (MID50). Differences from 0 to +/-0.5 log10 were observed between the original monovalent titer and that from the blend which showed no significant difference at 95% confidence limit (P < 0.05). This result indicates that there is no interference between dengue serotypes in mosquitoes infected by intrathoracic inoculation with the virus mixture. It can be also concluded that this mosquito system can be used as an effective measure for infectivity titration of each component in the tetravalent dengue vaccine.

  20. Cloning and functional characterization of a gene for capsanthin-capsorubin synthase from tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium Thunb. 'Splendens'). (United States)

    Jeknić, Zoran; Morré, Jeffrey T; Jeknić, Stevan; Jevremović, Sladana; Subotić, Angelina; Chen, Tony H H


    The orange color of tiger lily (Lolium lancifolium 'Splendens') flowers is due, primarily, to the accumulation of two κ-xanthophylls, capsanthin and capsorubin. An enzyme, known as capsanthin-capsorubin synthase (CCS), catalyzes the conversion of antheraxanthin and violaxanthin into capsanthin and capsorubin, respectively. We cloned the gene for capsanthin-capsorubin synthase (Llccs) from flower tepals of L. lancifolium by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) with a heterologous non-degenerate primer that was based on the sequence of a gene for lycopene β-cyclase (lcyB). The full-length cDNA of Llccs was 1,785 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 1,425 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a predicted N-terminal plastid-targeting sequence. Analysis by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that expression of Llccs was spatially and temporally regulated, with expression in flower buds and flowers of L. lancifolium but not in vegetative tissues. Stable overexpression of the Llccs gene in callus tissue of Iris germanica, which accumulates several xanthophylls including violaxanthin, the precursor of capsorubin, resulted in transgenic callus whose color had changed from its normal yellow to red-orange. This novel red-orange coloration was due to the accumulation of two non-native κ-xanthophylls, capsanthin and capsorubin, as confirmed by HPLC and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis with authentic standards. Cloning of the Llccs gene should advance our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms of the biosynthesis of κ-carotenoids in general and in the genus Lilium in particular, and will facilitate transgenic alterations of the colors of flowers and fruits of many plant species.

  1. Population mitogenomics provides insights into evolutionary history, source of invasions and diversifying selection in the House Crow (Corvus splendens). (United States)

    Krzemińska, Urszula; Morales, Hernán E; Greening, Chris; Nyári, Árpád S; Wilson, Robyn; Song, Beng Kah; Austin, Christopher M; Sunnucks, Paul; Pavlova, Alexandra; Rahman, Sadequr


    The House Crow (Corvus splendens) is a useful study system for investigating the genetic basis of adaptations underpinning successful range expansion. The species originates from the Indian subcontinent, but has successfully spread through a variety of thermal environments across Asia, Africa and Europe. Here, population mitogenomics was used to investigate the colonisation history and to test for signals of molecular selection on the mitochondrial genome. We sequenced the mitogenomes of 89 House Crows spanning four native and five invasive populations. A Bayesian dated phylogeny, based on the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, supports a mid-Pleistocene (~630,000 years ago) divergence between the most distant genetic lineages. Phylogeographic patterns suggest that northern South Asia is the likely centre of origin for the species. Codon-based analyses of selection and assessments of changes in amino acid properties provide evidence of positive selection on the ND2 and ND5 genes against a background of purifying selection across the mitogenome. Protein homology modelling suggests that four amino acid substitutions inferred to be under positive selection may modulate coupling efficiency and proton translocation mediated by OXPHOS complex I. The identified substitutions are found within native House Crow lineages and ecological niche modelling predicts suitable climatic areas for the establishment of crow populations within the invasive range. Mitogenomic patterns in the invasive range of the species are more strongly associated with introduction history than climate. We speculate that invasions of the House Crow have been facilitated by standing genetic variation that accumulated due to diversifying selection within the native range.

  2. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj


    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  3. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae), a predator of container breeding mosquitoes. (United States)

    Dominic Amalraj, D; Sivagnaname, N; Das, P K


    Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id) and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars) than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr) of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR) of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  4. Effects of nitrate on the diurnal vertical migration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and the photosynthetic capacity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium splendens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, J.J.; Horrigan, S.G.


    A non-thecate dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium splendens, was studied in a 12 d laboratory experiment in 2.0 x 0.25 m containers in which light, temperature, and nutrients could be manipulated. Under a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, the dinoflagellates exhibited diurnal vertical migrations, swimming downward before the dark period began and upward before the end of the dark period. This vertical migration probably involved geotaxis and a diel rhythm, as well as light-mediated behavior. The vertical distribution of nitrate affected the behavior and physiology of the dinoflagellate. When nitrate was present throughout the container, the organisms resembled those in exponential batch culture both in C:N ratios and photosynthetic capacity (P/sub max/); moreover, they migrated to the surface during the day. In contrast, when nitrate was depleted, C:N ratios increased, P/sub max/ decreased, and the organisms formed a subsurface layer at a depth corresponding to the light level at which photosynthesis saturated. When nitrate was present only at the bottom of the tank, C:N ratios of the population decreased until similar to those of nutrient-saturated cells and P/sub max/ increased; however, the dinoflagellates behaved the same as nutient-depleted cells, forming a subsurface layer during the light period. Field measurements revealed a migratory subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer dominated by G. splendens. It was just above the nitracline during the day, and in the nitracline during the night, which concurs with our laboratory observations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Albusaidi


    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry was described for the otolith width and length of adult teleost Beryx splendens. The results showed that the level of asymmetry of the otolith width was the highest among the two asymmetry values obtained for the otolith of B. splendens. For the otolith width character, the results showed that the level of asymmetry at its highest value in fish ranging in length between 191–200 mm and in its lowest value in fish ranging in length between 121–180 mm. For the otolith length, the highest value of asymmetry is noticed in fish ranging in length between 231–244 mm and the lowest value in fish within the length of 121–190 mm. The possible cause of the asymmetry in this species has been discussed in relation to different pollutants and their presence in the area. No trend of increase in the asymmetry values with the fish length was noticed for the otolith width, but there is a weak trend of increase with the fish length in case of otolith length character.

  6. Stable sulphur isotope ratios in the moss species Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from the Kielce area (south-central Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Dolegowska, S.; Halas, S.; Trembaczowski, A. [Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry


    Stable sulphur isotope determinations were performed on 18 moss samples collected at nine sites in forested areas of the city of Kielce. The {delta}{sup 34} S of Hylocomium splendens varied from 4.4 to 7.1%, whereas the {delta}{sup 34} S of Pleurozium schreberi was in the range of 3.7-9.1%. The Holy Cross Mountains mosses display a positive delta S-34 signature of airborne SO{sub 2} and sulphates of anthropogenic origin, which is characteristic for this part of Europe. Some spatial variations in the {delta}{sup 34}S of mosses are due to the interactions that occur between coal combustion emissions with diverse isotopic imprints, variations in wind direction and topographic features combined with biological fractionation.

  7. Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. (syn. M. fallax (Rich.) DC.) (Myrtaceae) Essential Oil from Amazonian Ecuador: A Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity Profile. (United States)

    Scalvenzi, Laura; Grandini, Alessandro; Spagnoletti, Antonella; Tacchini, Massimo; Neill, David; Ballesteros, José Luis; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra


    In this study, we performed the chemical characterization of Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. (Myrtaceae) essential oil from Amazonian Ecuador and the assessment of its bioactivity in terms of cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity as starting point for possible applicative uses. M. splendens essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID): the major components were found to be trans -nerolidol (67.81%) and α-bisabolol (17.51%). Furthermore, we assessed the cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (breast), A549 (lung) human tumor cell lines, and HaCaT (human keratinocytes) non-tumor cell line through 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2- H -tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test: promising results in terms of selectivity and efficacy against the MCF-7 cell line (IC 50 of 5.59 ± 0.13 μg/mL at 48 h) were obtained, mainly due to α-bisabolol. Furthermore, antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria were performed through High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic assay and microdilution method: trans -nerolidol and β-cedren-9-one were the main molecules responsible for the low antibacterial effects against human pathogens. Nevertheless, interesting values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were noticeable against phytopathogen strains. Radical scavenging activity performed by HPTLC bioautographic and spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) approaches were negligible. In conclusion, the essential oil revealed a good potential for plant defense and anti-cancer applications.

  8. Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. (syn. M. fallax (Rich. DC. (Myrtaceae Essential Oil from Amazonian Ecuador: A Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scalvenzi


    Full Text Available In this study, we performed the chemical characterization of Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. (Myrtaceae essential oil from Amazonian Ecuador and the assessment of its bioactivity in terms of cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity as starting point for possible applicative uses. M. splendens essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID: the major components were found to be trans-nerolidol (67.81% and α-bisabolol (17.51%. Furthermore, we assessed the cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (breast, A549 (lung human tumor cell lines, and HaCaT (human keratinocytes non-tumor cell line through 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT test: promising results in terms of selectivity and efficacy against the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 of 5.59 ± 0.13 μg/mL at 48 h were obtained, mainly due to α-bisabolol. Furthermore, antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria were performed through High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC bioautographic assay and microdilution method: trans-nerolidol and β-cedren-9-one were the main molecules responsible for the low antibacterial effects against human pathogens. Nevertheless, interesting values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were noticeable against phytopathogen strains. Radical scavenging activity performed by HPTLC bioautographic and spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH approaches were negligible. In conclusion, the essential oil revealed a good potential for plant defense and anti-cancer applications.

  9. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. (United States)

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni


    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs.

  10. Siphonostomatoid copepods infecting Squalus acutipinnis Regan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Squalus acutipinnis (previously included in S. megalops) individuals caught off the east, south and west coasts of South Africa were examined for siphonostomatoid copepod infection. Collected siphonostomatoids were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and studied under microscopes using both transmitted and ...

  11. Estudio comparado del crecimiento del alfonsiño Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 de las montañas submarinas del golfo de Guinea y del océano Índico suroccidental


    López-Abellán, L.J. (Luis José); Santamaría, M.T.G. (María Teresa García); Román-Marcote, E. (Esther)


    The alfonsino Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 is a species typical of elevations and promontories of the ocean bottom, which has been widely studied in its distribution areas, although characterization of its populations lacks detailed comparative analyses regarding many important aspects of its biology. The present paper studies age and growth of alfonsino from the Gulf of Guinea seamounts, based on whole otolith readings. Ages of the fish studied ranged from 1 to 21 years (14.1-46.4 cm fork leng...

  12. The use of feather as an indicator for heavy metal contamination in house crow (Corvus splendens) in the Klang area, Selangor, Malaysia. (United States)

    Janaydeh, Mohammed; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Aziz, Nor Azwady Abd; Taneenah, Ayat


    The Klang area of Peninsular Malaysia has experienced rapid industrial growth with intense activities, which can increase the concentration of pollutants in the environment that significantly impact on habitats and the human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of selected heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, and Pb) in the heart, lung, brain, liver, kidney, muscle tissues, and feathers of house crow, Corvus splendens, in Klang, Peninsular Malaysia. House crow samples were collected from the Klang area through the Department of Public Health at Majlis Perbandaran Klang. Quantitative determination of heavy metals was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result shows the presence of heavy metals in all biological samples of house crows. For heavy metals in all the house crow tissues analyzed, Fe concentrations were the highest, followed by those of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Ni. The feathers and kidney accumulated high concentrations of Pb, whereas the liver accumulated high concentrations of essential heavy metals (Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni). Significant variations were also detected in the concentrations of Pb among adult and juvenile and male and female bird samples. The results also revealed significant positive correlations between Pb metal concentration in the breast feathers and all internal organs. Accumulation of toxic heavy metals in feathers reflected storing and elimination processes, while the accumulation of toxic heavy metals in the kidney can be consequential to chronic exposure. The present study clearly shows the usefulness of house crow breast feather as a suitable indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the internal organs of house crows in the Klang area.

  13. Interspecies and interregional comparisons of the chemistry of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.; Dolegowska, S.


    Comparative biogeochemical studies performed on the same plant species in remote areas enable pinpointing interspecies and interregional differences of chemical composition. This report presents baseline concentrations of PAHs and trace elements in moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) (HCM) and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Total PAH concentrations in the mosses of HCM were in the range of 473-2970 ??g kg-1 (dry weight basis; DW), whereas those in the same species of Alaska were 80-3390 ??g kg-1 DW. Nearly all the moss samples displayed the similar ring sequence: 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 for the PAHs. The 3 + 4 ring/total PAH ratios show statistically significant differences between HCM (0.73) and Alaska (0.91). The elevated concentrations of PAHs observed in some sampling locations of the Alaskan parks were linked to local combustion of wood, with a component of vehicle particle- and vapor-phase emissions. In HCM, the principal source of PAH emissions has been linked to residential and industrial combustion of coal and vehicle traffic. In contrast to HCM, the Alaskan mosses were distinctly elevated in most of the trace elements, bearing a signature of??the underlying geology. H.??splendens and P. schreberi showed diverse bioaccumulative capabilities of PAHs in all three study areas. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae. 2: limited field-testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos


    Full Text Available The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches, after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  15. Rendimientos, estructuras de tallas y madurez sexual del alfonsino (Beryx splendens capturado en el cordón submarino de Juan Fernández, Chile Fishing yields, size structures, and sexual maturity of alfonsino (Beryx splendens caught on Juan Fernandez seamounts, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Guerrero


    Full Text Available Se analiza la información recopilada en lances comerciales para la captura de alfonsino (Beryx splendens realizados en montes submarinos del archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, entre los años 2001 y 2003, que corresponden a la etapa de desarrollo inicial de esta pesquería. En dicho período se efectuaron 187 lances, de los cuales en 121 se obtuvo la especie objetivo, capturándose 525,1 ton, que constituyeron el 99,2% de la captura total. Por la configuración irregular de los fondos, los lances de pesca se caracterizaron por su corta duración (0,26-0,50 h, a profundidad media de 469,7 m. En este periodo se analizaron 14.773 ejemplares, 6.064 machos (41% y 8.709 hembras (59%, evidenciando un predominio de hembras. La proporción sexual estructurada a la talla mostró un predominio de machos a tallas inferiores a 24 cm de longitud de horquilla (LH. En machos el tamaño medio fluctuó entre 34,6 y 36,8 cm de LH y en hembras entre 36,2 y 38,4 cm LH. Para determinar la madurez de las gónadas, se utilizó la escala macroscópica propuesta por Lehodey et al. (1997 y se estableció que los machos alcanzaron la primera madurez (TMS50% a 34,3 cm LH y las hembras a los 33,3 cm LH. Los rendimientos promedio en el período analizado correspondieron entre 0,2 y 6,6 ton lance-1 y entre 1,8 y 19,0 ton h.a.-1 , con medias de 4,3 ton lance-1 y 9,2 ton h.a.-1 .We analyzed information collected during commercial hauls targeting alfonsino (Beryx splendens on seamounts of the Juan Fernández Archipelago (Chile from the early stages of the fishery (2001-2003. Of the 187 hauls carried out in this period, 121 were successful; alfonsino catches reached 525.1 ton, constituting 99.2%> of the total catch. Due to the irregularity of the sea bottom, short (0.26-0.50 h fishing hauls were performed at mid-depth (469.7 m. We analyzed 14,773 specimens during the study period: 6,064 males (41% and 8,709 females (59%, the latter being predominan! The size structure was

  16. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex Avaliação da estabilidade temporal, estacional e geográfica da ação moluscicida do latex da Euphorbia splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Torres Schall


    Full Text Available Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscicidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring, 1.02 ppm (fall, 1.09 ppm (winter, and 1.07 ppm (summer that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador, demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscicidal effect. The molluscicidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12ºC (lyophilized product. A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasisTestes de laboratório com soluções aquosas do látex da Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii demonstraram uma estabilidade estacional da atividade moluscicida do produto coletado na Ilha do Governador - RJ, encontrando-se as seguintes DL90: 1,14 ppm (primavera; 1,02 ppm (outono; 1,09 ppm (inverno e 1,07 ppm (verão sobre Biomphalaria tenagophila de campo. Ensaios com o látex da planta coletado em Belo Horizonte e Recife, identificaram DL90 semelhantes aos da substância de referência coletada no Rio, demonstrando uma estabilidade geográfica do efeito moluscicida. Usando diluições aquosas do latex in natura, centrifugado

  17. Estratégia de coalimentação na sobrevivência e no crescimento de larvas de Betta splendens durante a transição alimentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Fosse


    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do período de coalimentação na sobrevivência e no crescimento de larvas de Betta splendens. As larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia durante sete dias e, posteriormente, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: jejum contínuo; ração contínua; quatro dias de coalimentação + 14 dias de ração; oito dias de coalimentação + 10 dias de ração; 12 dias de coalimentação + seis dias de ração; náuplios de Artemia durante todo o período experimental. Os valores das variáveis de desempenho das larvas do tratamento 12 dias de coalimentação + seis dias de ração e do tratamento náuplios de Artemia foram superiores aos demais tratamentos, exceto para sobrevivência, em que não houve diferença significativa com o tratamento oito dias de coalimentação + 10 dias de ração. Considerando-se apenas o tempo de oferta de Artemia (em dias, obteve-se a equação de regressão para as variáveis analisadas. A sobrevivência e a taxa de crescimento específico (TCE apresentaram efeito quadrático, e as demais variáveis apresentaram efeito linear. O ponto de máxima para sobrevivência foi de 21,7 dias (88,92% e para TCE foi de 26,2 dias (23,47% dia-1. O período de co-feeding influencia no crescimento e na sobrevivência de larvas de Betta splendens. Após o período de 19 dias de oferta de alimento vivo, com 12 dias de coalimentação, as larvas estão aptas a aproveitar de maneira eficiente o alimento inerte sem prejuízos ao crescimento e à sobrevivência.

  18. THREATENED FISHES OF THE WORLD: Paracobitis rhadinaeus (Regan, 1906 (NEMACHEILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mousavi-Sabet


    Full Text Available Paracobitis rhadinaeus is an endemic Nemacheiline loach in the Sistan basin, southeast Iran. The population is declining probably due to habitat loss or degradation, damming, drought and poaching. Urgent habitat protection with bans on further regulation of the Hamoun wetland and related reservoirs is suggested. Captive breeding of the fish should be initiated. Fishing activities should be forbidden or limited. A detailed study of current population status, biology and ecology of P. rhadinaeus is required.

  19. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. ("Christ's Crown" (Euphorbiaceae against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae: 1- test in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos


    Full Text Available The latex action of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Christ's Crown against snails Lymnaea columella, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the Station of Pisciculture at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. Lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons of the year, finding the following lethal concentrations (LC90: 1.51 mg/l in the spring; 0.55 mg/l in the summer; 0.74 mg/l in the fall and 0.93 mg/l in winter, after 24 h exposure of the snails, showing significant differences among the seasons of the year (ANOVA test, F = 11.01, G.L.= 3/33, p < 0.05, as well as among the concentrations (ANOVA test, F = 27.38, G.L.= 11/33, p < 0.05. In the summer, mortality reached 100% from concentration at 0.6 mg/l, the same during fall and in winter as of 1 mg/l, while in spring it only reached 100% mortality as of 2 mg/l. Mortality in the controls was low, reaching 5% in the summer and winter and 10% in the fall and spring. None of the samples died. During the assay, with an aqueous solution of the latex at a concentration of 5 mg/l, in order to check the time of duration of the product effect, in the laboratory, it was observed that the molluscicidal activity remained stable up to the 15th day after the beginning of the test with 100% mortality of L. columella, gradually losing its effect until the 23rd day, when we no longer observed animal mortality. In the control group, there was a random daily variation in mortality rate ranging 0-50% after 48 h of observation for 30 days.

  20. Development of calibration factors of moss (Hylocomium splendens); Utvikling av kalibreringsfaktorer for mose (Hylocomium splendens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T.


    The present paper relates to atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway. These elements are mapped geographically in every fifth year by analysing bio-monitored mosses. This is a part of an original Scandinavian monitoring program which gradually expanded to other parts of Europe. In 1995, 32 countries participated in the program. The investigation of mosses in Norway has also been used as a basis for the development of special environment indicators for monitoring atmospheric long-range transported heavy metals. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Some aspects in early life stage of Siamese gourami, Trichogaster pectoralis (Regan Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponpanom Promkaew


    Full Text Available The sexual maturity of female Siamese gourami, Trichogaster pectoralis was studied by determining fecundity and gonadosomatic index (GSI. It was found that the size at sexual maturity of female Siamese gourami was 18.07±1.10 cm (mean±SD in average total length and 94.20±13.39 g in average body weight. The fecundity was 26,261±5,215.81 ova/fish and gonadosomatic index (GSI was 10.9±2.1%.Newly hatched larvae of Siamese gourami were produced by induced spawning using chemical injection (Suprefact and Motilium. The sexually mature fishes were cultured in fiber-glass tank (water volume 300 liters with the ratio of male and female brooders 1:1. The fertilization rate, hatching out and hatching rate experiments were carried out using a 15-liter aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 1,000 eggs. It was found that the eggs were floating and rounded. The fertilized eggs had a diameter of 908.25±39.13 μm. The average fertilization rate was 91.12%, hatching out was 22 hr 10 min and average hatching rate was 83.03% at a water temperature of 27.0-30.5ºC. Sampling of the newly-hatched larvae was done at 2-hour intervals, when 20 of them were randomly taken and preserved in 10% buffered formalin for later analysis to determine the time of final yolk absorption. Observation using a microscope revealed that newly hatched larvae were 2.73±0.02 mm in total length and had yolk sacs of 153.76±2.49 μm3 in volume. The yolk sacs were completely absorbed within 110 hr after hatching at a water temperature of 27.0-30.5ºC. Up until full mouth development (start of feeding, 2-hourly samplings of twenty newly hatched larvae were taken from an aquarium for observation of the size of mouth opening. All the larvae had open mouths about 60 hr after hatching (3.56±0.04 mm TL, with the mouths measuring 443.64±24.26 μm in height.The feeding experiments were carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 1,000 larvae aged 1.5 days post-hatching (just before the mouth opened. They were fed with rotifer at a density of 10 ind/ml. Twenty larvae were collected at random from the aquarium at 2-hourly intervals, preserved in 10% buffered formalin, and then dissected to determine the presence of rotifer in the digestive tract. The digestive tracts were fixed at 72 hr of hatching at water temperatures of 27.0-30.5ºC, and measured 503.73±22.57 μm in mouth height. The average number of rotifer in the digestive tract at the start of feeding was 0.57 individual/larva.A starvation experiment was carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters with three replications. Five hundred newly hatched larvae of Siamese gourami were kept without feeding. Larvae started to die at 72 hr and totally died within 156 hr after hatching at water temperature ranging between 27.0 and 30.5ºC.

  2. Diet of the clupeid fish Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917) in two different Brazilian coastal lagoons


    Aguiaro,Talita; Castelo Branco,Christina Wyss; Verani,José Roberto; Caramaschi,Érica Pellegrini


    Platanichthys platana is considered a constant species in both Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons that are characterised by different marine and freshwater inputs, and anthropogenic influences. The stomach content analysis of P. platana captured between July 1991 and July 1993 revealed filamentous algae, detritus, eggs of benthic invertebrates, larvae of chironomids and bivalves as the main food sources in Imboassica lagoon. Small-sized cladocerans, copepods and shrimp larvae were the prevailing...

  3. Re-validation of Otocinclus arnoldi Regan and reappraisal of Otocinclus phylogeny (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lehmann A

    Full Text Available Otocinclus arnoldi from the La Plata basin is resurrected from the synonymy of O. flexilis described from the rio Jacuí drainage, based on three distinguishing features: the possession of five branched pectoral-fin rays, the larger number of enlarged odontodes on the tip of the parieto-supraoccipital posterior process, and having the prootic involved in the contact with the hyomandibular articular condyle. These species are also compared to O. mimulus, a third species described from the Paraná River basin, and the three species are rediagnosed. A reassessment of the phylogenetic relationships of all species of Otocinclus shows a well-supported clade composed of (O. xakriaba ((O. mimulus, O. arnoldi (O. affinis, O. flexilis from the eastern-draining river basins of the Brazilian Shield as sister-group to a clade including all remaining Otocinclus species which are distributed on a wide lowland area of the Amazonas, Paraguay, and Orinoco basins.

  4. Diet of the clupeid fish Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917 in two different Brazilian coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiaro Talita


    Full Text Available Platanichthys platana is considered a constant species in both Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons that are characterised by different marine and freshwater inputs, and anthropogenic influences. The stomach content analysis of P. platana captured between July 1991 and July 1993 revealed filamentous algae, detritus, eggs of benthic invertebrates, larvae of chironomids and bivalves as the main food sources in Imboassica lagoon. Small-sized cladocerans, copepods and shrimp larvae were the prevailing items in Cabiúnas lagoon. Seasonal food variations were noted for the fishes of Imboassica lagoon. Diet differences were highlighted within specimens lesser than 40 mm standard length in Imboassica lagoon, and were related to the increase of marine influence due to artificial sand barrier openings. Dissimilarities among size classes in relation to invertebrate larvae consumption were observed in fishes from Cabiúnas lagoon.

  5. Secondary metabolites from the gorgonian Echinomuraceae splendens (Thomson and Simson)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S; Naik, C.G.; Govenkar, M.B.

    Two xanthine derivatives, caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine 1) and its 2-O-methyl analog 2, N-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid 3 and a tetrahydroxysterol, 1b, 3b, 5a, 6b-tetrahydro-xycholes-ane 4 have been isolated from the methanol extract...

  6. Breeding biology of House Crows ( Corvus splendens ) in Durban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details of nestling growth, and fledging and post-fledging dependence periods, are provided. Breeding success was relatively poor. Early breeding attempts were more successful than late breeding attempts. Breeding failure was suspected, or known, to be associated with observer disturbance, egg breakage, failure of ...

  7. New data on Gaidropsarus granti (Regan, 1903 (Gadiformes: Lotidae from the Mediterranean Sea, with emphasis on its parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais


    Full Text Available One adult male Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti was captured by trammel nets at a depth of about 250 m near the coast of Arbatax (Sardinia, Italy in early March 2007. This new report confirms a wide bathymetric range for this species. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the gonad showed a spent testis at a postspawning stage, with a weak residual spermatogenetic activity. Several body parts of Natantia (Crustacea: Decapoda were detected in its stomach contents. Different developmental stages of 91 parasite specimens belonging to Arthropoda (Gnathiidae and Nematoda (Anisakidae, Cystidicolidae and Philometridae were found in its mouth and gills, and body cavity, respectively. Myxozoan spores were found in the gallbladder. Male and female nematodes of the genus Ichthyofilaria are reported for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea, and a very rare male of this genus is reported for the second time in the world. Parasitological results indicated that this Atlantic migrant probably entered the Mediterranean as an adult, suggesting for a non-indigenous species the possibilities of entering with natural parasites and/or acquiring native parasites in the introduced range.

  8. Relationships of body lengths with mouth opening and prey length of nemipterid fishes (Regan, 1913 in the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Paul


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship among total length (TL of fish with mouth opening namely horizontal opening (MH, vertical opening (VH, mouth area (MA and fork length (FL of seven sympatric nemipterid fish species and to know the relationship between total length and consumed prey length of five sympatric species sampled from the Gulf of Thailand in 2015. A total 883 fish were investigated collected from both cruise surveys and fishing port survey. TL was linearly and log-linearly related with both MV and MH for three and four species, respectively. MA’s were always the log linear relation of TL and shapes were nearly oval for all species. FL in all TL-FL relationships were proportional to the TL’s in all species (r2 = 0.94, P  .5 and in invertebrate prey items for N. tambuloides (P > .5. So, this study clearly confirms that nemipterid fishes of different sizes feed on all different specific prey items according to its own body size and feed according to size class for prey items available nearby.

  9. Two new species of Apistogramma Regan (Teleostei: Cichlidae from the rio Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven O Kullander

    Full Text Available Apistogramma angayuara is described from the rio Trombetas close to the cachoeira Vira Mundo where it is found in association with rapids. It is assigned to the A. pertensis species group, distinguished by the following characters in combination: three prominent stripes composed of dark spots along the sides of the abdomen, 2 vs. 3 postlachrymal infraorbital pores, 5 vs. 4 dentary pores, low dorsal fin in adult males, and presence of a caudal spot. It is the smallest species of Apistogramma reported so far, with the largest male 24.7 mm SL and the largest female 22.7 mm SL, and the first cichlid species found with a significant proportion of rhizopods in the stomach content. Apistogramma salpinction is described from lentic habitats at the margin of road BR-163, circa 70 km from Cachoeira Porteira village, in a swamp most probably connected to the igarapé Caxipacoré. It is compared to members of the Apistogramma cacatuoides group with which it shares prolonged anterior dorsal fin lappets and marginal caudal fin streamers in adult males. It is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the color pattern which includes a lateral band and abdominal stripes that become darker and have much lighter interspaces on the caudal peduncle, and a caudal spot that is divided into elongated blotches continuing the lateral band and upper two abdominal stripes, respectively.

  10. The Effect of Glare on Regan Contrast Letter Acuity Scores Using Dye-Based and Reflective Laser Eye Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghani, Nadeem


    .... Reflective LEPDs are also better at maintaining a constant color appearance which is important for tasks requiring recognition of color coded information such as reading color maps or color cockpit displays...

  11. Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae, Apistogramma borellii (Regan, 1906: First record for state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanés, L. E. K.


    Full Text Available This note extends the distribution of the dwarf cichlid fish Apistogramma borellii, and is the first record of thespecies, and the genus for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, suggesting that the fish diversity of wetlands,although relatively high, is still poorly investigated in southern Brazil.

  12. The Effect of Glare on Regan Contrast Letter Acuity Scores Using Dye-Based and Reflective Laser Eye Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghani, Nadeem


    Current laser eye protection devices (LEPDs) are dye-based or reflective. While both technologies block the laser wavelengths, reflective LEPDs generally transmit more visible light than do dye-based LEPDs...

  13. Prozac Alters Reproductive Performance and Filial Cannibalism in Male Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar


    Full Text Available Background: Fluoxetine (ProzacTM is one of the most popular antidepressant that can be released to aquatic systems via sewage-treatment effluents. It is suspected to provoke substantial effects in the aquatic environment. Methods: In spawning tanks, specimens were exposed to concentrations of 0 and 0.54 µgl-1 fluoxetine from male introduction until the larvae had hatched. Prior to spawning, nest area and time spent for nest building were measured. Also, spawning duration, number of copulations per spawning and eggs per copulation, total produced eggs and hatching rate were recorded. Results: The number of copulations, eggs per copulation and total produced eggs did not differ between the two treatments. Fluoxetine treatment significantly decreased the nest size, time spent for nest building and spawning duration. Also hatching rate was significantly lower during fluoxetine treatment than in the control condition. Notably, five fluoxetine treated males cannibalized their eggs and larvae. Conclusion: We showed that environmental exposure of fighting fish to fluoxetine potentially alters specific aspects of nest building and sexual behavior and, as a consequence, reproductive output.

  14. Effects of manipulated aggressive 'interactions' on bystanding male fighting fish, Betta splendens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peake, Thomas More; Matos, Ricardo Jorge; McGregor, Peter Kenneth


    occurring differences between observed interactants and have therefore lacked this degree of control. We allowed bystanding male fighting fish to observe two male conspecifics that appeared to be interacting, but in reality the two males were displaying to mirrors. The apparent interactions were manipulated...

  15. La dieta y la fauna de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae en la costa de Chile centro-sur: variaciones geográficas y ontogenéticas Diet and metazoan parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae on the coast of central-south Chile: geographical and ontogenetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Conocer qué, cuánto, cuándo y dónde comen y viven los hospedadores permitiría complementar los estudios parasitarios, ya que la transmisión de los endoparásitos está estrechamente ligada a la dieta, y la de los ectoparásitos al uso del hábitat. Por esto, se describen y comparan la composición y características cuantitativas de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis con datos obtenidos de 108 ejemplares juveniles recolectados desde la zona intermareal de cuatro localidades de la costa de Chile (entre 33º y 40º S, y de 14 adultos recolectados desde el submareal somero de una quinta localidad (36º S, y se discute los resultados a la luz de los cambios ontogenéticos en el nicho de este huésped. Cerca del 70 % de los ejemplares tenía contenido alimentario, en el que se distinguieron 25 ítems presa, de los cuales sólo uno era compartido entre juveniles y adultos. La dieta de los toritos juveniles estuvo compuesta principalmente por anfípodos y la de los adultos por crustáceos decápodos. Cerca de un 40 % de los toritos albergaba un total de 624 parásitos en los que se reconocieron 16 taxa, y sólo cuatro eran compartidos entre juveniles y adultos. En los toritos juveniles muestreados en las cuatro localidades había baja y similar intensidad total, riqueza y diversidad parasitarias, y variaciones geográficas significativas en la prevalencia total, composición de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos. La falta de una relación clara entre la composición de la dieta y del parasitismo en los toritos juveniles puede deberse a que las parasitosis son necesariamente recientes, y a que pueden haber grandes diferencias en el tiempo de residencia de presas y parásitos en el tracto digestivo. En los toritos adultos hubo mayor prevalencia, intensidad y diversidad de parásitos que en los juveniles de una localidad cercana. Se requieren más estudios, en especial en la variación geográfica del parasitismo de los toritos adultos, para dilucidar si en esta especie de hospedador el eje ontogenético es o no más importante que el geográfico para explicar las variaciones de la fauna parasitaria.Knowledge on what, how much, when and where hosts eat and live should help to understand the changes that occur in parasite communities because transmission of endoparasites is tightly linked to diet composition as well as ectoparasites are to the use that hosts make of the habitat. Thus, geographical and ontogenetic variations in diet and parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis are described, and discussed taking into account the ontogenetic shifts in this host's niche. A total 122 individuals: 108 juveniles collected from the intertidal zone at four localities along the south-central coast of Chile (between 33º and 40º S, and 14 adults collected from the shallow subtidal at a fifth locality (36º S, were examined for food contents and parasite infracommunities. Food items were encountered in almost 70 % of fish examined with 25 prey items being recognized. Only one of the prey items was found in both juvenile and adult fish. The diet of juvenile fish consisted mainly of amphipods and while that of adults was mainly composed of crustacean decapods. Almost 40 % of fish examined harbored parasites with a total of 624 individuals and belonging to 16 taxa being identified, four of which were shared between juvenile and adult fish. Prevalence, total intensity, richness, and diversity of parasites was similarly low among juvenile fish sampled at four different localities, while significant differences in total prevalence, dietary and parasite infracommunity composition among localities were found. Absence of a clear relationship among juvenile fish between the composition of the diet and of infracommunities may be due to the fact that parasitoses are necessarily recent. Adult hosts had infracommunities with greater total prevalence, total intensity, taxonomic richness and diversity than juveniles sampled at a nearby locality. All these observations could be associated to ontogenetic shifts in diet and concomitant shifts in parasite fauna. Further studies are required, especially on geographical variations of the parasitism among adult thornfish to elucidate whether the host ontogenetic axis could be more important than the geographical in this species, when attempting to explain sources variations in the parasite fauna

  16. Heterochromatin polymorphism and physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in four populations of Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1907) from the Paraná River basin, Brazil: evolutionary and environmental correlation. (United States)

    Baumgärtner, Lucas; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito Portela


    A cytogenetic analysis was performed on four populations of Hypostomus strigaticeps from the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Two populations were collected from the large channel river at the Itaipu reservoir area and the other two were from the upper stretches of tributaries of the Paraná River. All populations showed 2n=72 chromosomes (12m+12sm+18st+30a), intra- and interpopulation 18S rDNA site polymorphisms (two to three acrocentric chromosome pairs), and multiple 5S rDNA sites in three chromosome pairs (4, 21, and 28). C-banding revealed heterochromatin located in the centromere and pericentromere regions of most chromosome; however, large heterochromatic blocks (CMA3(-)/DAPI(+)) on the long arm of acrocentric chromosomes identified intra- and interpopulation polymorphism. The amount and distribution of heterochromatin seem to be correlated to biogeographical characteristics of H. strigaticeps along the Paraná River. Morphometric results also showed diversity among the populations, suggesting phenotypic plasticity of this species. Evolutionary, taxonomy, and biogeographical approaches with regard to H. strigaticeps and interrelationships in Hypostomus are discussed.

  17. Introduction of some Odonata species (Insecta from northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Elham Yoosefi Lafooraki


    *Anax parthenope, *Calopteryx splendens intermedia, Calopteryx splendens orientalis, *Coenagrion vanbrinckae, Crocothemis erythraea, *Epallage fatime, *Ischnura pumilio, *Lestes virevs, *Libellula depressa, *Orthetrum albistylum, Orthetrum sabina, *Platycnemis dealbata, Sympetrum fonscolombei and Sympetrum striolatum.

  18. A redescription of morphologically similar species from the genus Euglena: E. laciniata, E. sanguinea, E. sociabilis, and E. splendens(1). (United States)

    Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Triemer, Richard E; Zakryś, Bożena


    Euglena sanguinea (Ehrenberg 1831) was one of the first green euglenoid species described in the literature. At first, the species aroused the interest of researchers mainly due to the blood-red color of its cells, which, as it later turned out, is not a constant feature. Complicated chloroplast morphology, labeled by Pringsheim as the "peculiar chromatophore system", made the correct identification of the species difficult, which is the reason why, throughout the 20th century, new species resembling E. sanguinea were continually being named due to a lack of suitable diagnostic features to distinguish E. sanguinea. Interest in E. sanguinea has returned in recent years, following findings that the species can produce ichthyotoxins. This was followed by the need to classify E. sanguinea correctly, which was achieved through the verification of morphological and molecular data for all species similar to E. sanguinea. As the result of the analysis, the number of species sharing some morphological similarities with E. sanguinea could be reduced from 12, as described in the literature, to four, with established epitypes and updated diagnostic descriptions. The most important diagnostic features included: the presence of mucocysts (i.e., whether they were visible before and/or after staining), the number of chloroplasts, the size of the double-sheathed pyrenoids, and the presence of the large paramylon grain in the vicinity of the stigma. Moreover, sequence analysis revealed the presence of unusually long SSU rDNA sequences in E. sanguinea. Previously, SSU rDNA sequences of such length were known to be present in primary osmotrophic euglenoids. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium marinum in clinically asymptomatic Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens from ornamental fih shops in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anucha Sirimalaisuwan


    Full Text Available Objective: To detect Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum infections in healthy Siamese fighting fish from ornamental fish shops in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods: Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from 380 internal organs of healthy Siamese fighting fish using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H10 culture media. A 924-bp DNA fragment from mycobacterial 16S rRNA was amplified and digested with BanI and ApaI restriction enzymes to yield unique restriction patterns for each mycobacterial specie. Results: Thirty-five mycobacterial isolates (8.42% were recovered from 380 Siamese fighting fish; 21 isolates (5.5% and 11 isolates (2.29% were identified as M. marinum and Mycobacterium chelonae, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the presence of M. marinum zoonotic bacterial pathogens in healthy Siamese fighting fish, and underlined the infection risk to humans of not only exposure to infected fish, but also when they manipulate clinically asymptomatic fish.

  20. Assessment of Human Visual Performance with a Swept Evoked Potential Technique (United States)


    ment are common (leg weakness, urinary incontinence ). More recently, psychophysical studies (Regan, Silver & Murray, 1977; Regan, Whitlock, Murray...effect diminution 13. Discrete potential generations (?) 14. Strobe stimulation responses 15. Random phase EEG 16. Phase sensitive detection...latency provide an objective assessment of neural pathway conduction in the visual system. However, aspects of the electrical waveform data which can

  1. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel (United States)

    ... Travel Chapter 6 - Death during Travel Cruise Ship Travel Joanna J. Regan, Kara Tardivel, Susan A. Lippold, ... Insurance, & Medical Evacuation Insurance ). Box 6-01. Cruise travel health precautions ADVICE FOR CLINICIANS GIVING PRETRAVEL CRUISE ...

  2. Taxonomical and ecological description of a species complex of zooplanktivorous and insectivorous cichlids from Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van M.J.P.; Witte, F.


    The zooplanktivorous Haplochromis tanaos spec. nov., and the morphologically very similar but insectivorous Haplochromis thereuterion spec. nov., from Lake Victoria (East Africa) are described and compared to Haplochromis diplotaenia Regan & Trewavas, 1928, a similar species which is known only from

  3. Age, growth and distribution of the Antarctic fish Chaenocephalus aceratus based on otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Jacek Traczyk


    Żabrowski, M. 2000. The osteology and ossification variability of the skull of antarctic white-blooded fish Chaenodraco wilsoni Regan, 1914 (Channichthyidae, Notothenioidei. W-wa : Acta Icht. Piscat. 30 (2: 111-126.

  4. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour (United States)

    Abante, Maria E.


    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  5. On implicit abstract neutral nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Eduardo, E-mail: [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Computação e Matemática, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (Brazil); O’Regan, Donal, E-mail: [National University of Ireland, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Applied Mathematics (Ireland)


    In this paper we continue our developments in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) on the existence of solutions for abstract neutral differential equations. In particular we extend the results in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) for the case of implicit nonlinear neutral equations and we focus on applications to partial “nonlinear” neutral differential equations. Some applications involving partial neutral differential equations are presented.

  6. The South American catfish genus Brochis Cope, 1872 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.


    Examination of the type specimens of Callichthys splendens Castelnau, 1855, Brochis coeruleus Cope, 1872 (type species of Brochis Cope, 1872), Brochis dipterus Cope, 1872, Corydoras semiscutatus Cope, 1872, Chaenothorax bicarinatus Cope, 1878 (type species of Chaenothorax Cope, 1878), and

  7. Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.; Njaastad, O.


    The lichens Hypogymnia physodles and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use af biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137 Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hypogymnia physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137 Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with depostion figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous depostion pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137 Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hylocomium splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (au) (21 refs.)

  8. lupus anticoagulants: pathophysiology, clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 2, 2003 ... report. East Afr. Med. J. 1998; 75:619-620. procainamide induced lupus anticoagulant. Acta Haematol. 13. Mateo, 1., Oliver, A., Borell, M. et al. Laboratory evaluation 1989; 82:50-52. and clinical characteristics of 2, 132 consecutive unselected 29. Rai, R., Cohen H., Dave M., and Regan, L. Randomised.

  9. Sensory Sensitivities and Discriminations and their Roles in Aviation (United States)


    auditory and visual brain responses using zoom-FFT. In SJ Williamson, M Hoke, G Stroink & M Kotani (Eds), Advances in biomagnetism . New York: Plenum, 205...Hoke, G Stroink & M Kotani (Eds), Advance’ in biomagnetism . New York: Plenum, 201-04. 1990 190. Regan D & Hong X (1990) Visual acuity for optotypes made

  10. Music Activities for "Mama", "Mama" and "Papa", "Papa" (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger


    Jean Marzollo creates two beautiful texts using a child's first words, "Mama, Mama" and "Papa, Papa" as a recurring theme. Wildlife artist, Laura Regan, illustrates Marzollo's poetry with loving images of parents and children in the animal kingdom. Poetry and illustrations highlight the tenderness and care of Mama and Papa as they bond with their…

  11. Quotient probabilistic normed spaces and completeness results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Bernardo Lafuerza-Guillén1 Donal O'Regan2 Reza Saadati3. Departamento de Estadística y Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain; Department of Mathematics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland; Faculty of Sciences, University of Shomal, Amol, Iran ...

  12. Abundance and gill net selectivity of Pellonula leonensis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 18, 2007 ... Studies on the ecology of the clupeid (Pellonula leonensis Regan, 1917) in the River Warri (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Acta. Hydrobiol, 35: 381 - 398. Imevbore AMA, Bakare O (1974). A pre-impoundment study of swamps in the Kainji Lake basin. Afr. J. Trop. Hydrobiol. Fish 3: 79-93. Institute of poll0ution studies ...

  13. “Deference” in Judicial Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Hoexter Administrative Law 104. 12. Schokman, Creasey and Mohen Short Guide 3. 13. O'Regan 2005 PER/PELJ 125. 14. Labuschagne 2011 Politeia 2; Choudhry 2009 CCR 11; Giliomee, Myburgh and Schlemmer 2001. Democratization 44-45. 15. Malan 2014 PER/PELJ 1968-1969; Roux Politics of Principle 167-168.

  14. Fixed Point Theorems on Spaces Endowed with Vector-Valued Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Alexandru-Darius


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present some (local and global fixed point results for singlevalued and multivalued generalized contractions on spaces endowed with vector-valued metrics. The results are extensions of some theorems given by Perov (1964, Bucur et al. (2009, M. Berinde and V. Berinde (2007, O'Regan et al. (2007, and so forth.

  15. Beyond categories, proper names, types and norms toward a fragile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 16, 2012 ... Ricoeur, P., 1976, Interpretation theory: Discourse & the surplus meaning, Texas. Christian University Press, Fort Worth, TX. Ricoeur, P., 1978, The philosophy of Paul Ricoeur: An anthology of his work, eds. C.E.. Regan & D. Stewart, Beacon Press, Boston, MA. Ricoeur, P., 1980, 'Toward a hermeneutic of ...

  16. Special Curriculum Issue. (United States)

    O'Connor, Bridget N.; And Others


    Includes "Foreword" (O'Connor, Fidoten); "Organizational and End-User Information Systems (OEIS)" (Regan); "Curriculum Development" (Bronner); "OEIS Model Curriculum" (O'Connor); "OEIS Model Curriculum: A Template for Implementation" (Moses, Rehwaldt); "Status of Model Curricula Development" (Caouette, Lutz); "Training in Industry and Education"…

  17. 76 FR 79656 - E & B Giftware LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order (United States)


    ..., Room 820, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4408. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Regan A. Sweeney, Trial... (``E&B'') and staff (``Staff'') of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (``Commission'' or... Act (``CPSA''). The Agreement and the incorporated attached Order resolve Staff's allegations set...

  18. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.


    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  19. Relationships between hemoglobin A and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 12, 2011 ... glucose measurements in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. AE Edo, K Akhuemokhan1. Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching ..... Diabetes Care. 2002; 25(suppl 1): S97‑9. 4. Nathan DM, Turgeon H, Regan S. Relationship between glycated haemoglobin levels and mean glucose ...

  20. Periodic and subharmonic solutions for second order p-Laplacian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [15] Jiang D, Chu J, O'regan D and Agarwal R P, Positive solutions for continuous and dis- crete boundary value problems to the one-dimension p-Laplacian, Math. Inequal. Appl. 7 (2004) 523–534. [16] Kocic V L and Ladas G, Global Behavior of Nonlinear Difference Equations of High. Order with Applications (Boston: ...

  1. South African Medical Journal - Vol 102, No 7 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confirmation of the recurrent ACVR1 617G>A mutation in South Africans with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Collet Dandara, Chris Scott, Mike Urban, Karen Fieggen, Regan Arendse, Peter Beighton ...

  2. Anterior Elbow Subluxation After Radial Head Arthroplasty for Fracture Dislocation of the Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai-Kit


    Full Text Available We describe a case of elbow dislocation with Hotchkiss type III radial head fracture and Regan-Morrey type II coronoid process fracture, which was treated with radial head replacement. It was complicated with oversizing of prosthesis, resulting in elbow subluxation. It was treated with radial shaft shortening osteotomy. The clinical result was satisfactory.

  3. Selected Current Acquisitions and Articles from Periodicals (United States)


    Oxford University Press, 1994. KD540 .G73 1994 LAW--SOCIAL ASPECTS--UNITED STATES. Kennedy, Duncan. Sexy dressing, etc. Cambridge, Mass. i Harvard...Interest No.35:3- 17 Spring 󈨢. Regan, Patrick M. War Toys, War Movies , and the Militarization of the United States, 1900-85. Journal of Peace Resear’h 31

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Pediatric Surgery Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, ... due to ugly scarss'w. in pediatric surgical prac- ..... or burn? Regan Rep Nurs Law 1996, 37:4. Hoffman 8. Reduction mammaplasty: a medico- legal hazard? Aesthetic Plast Surg 1987, 11:113. Frishman GN, Schwartz T, ...

  5. Psychiatric therapeutic applications of virtual reality technology (VRT): research prospectus and phenomenological critique. (United States)

    Bloom, R W


    There is theoretical and empirical research supporting the hypothesis that virtual reality technology (VRT) can be efficaciously applied to attenuate the symptoms of mental disorders (Baer, 1996; Rothbaum et al, 1995a, 1995b; Rothbaum et al, 1996.) Yet there is also research suggesting psychiatric therapeutic applications of VRT may induce noxious or unexpected psychological consequences (Kolasinski, 1996; Muscott & Gifford, 1994; Regan & Price, 1994; Regan & Ramsey, 1996; Strickland, 1995.) A prudent conclusion would be to advocate ever more sophisticated studies on psychiatric therapeutic applications of VRT concerning (1) increasing the overall socioadaptiveness of patients, (2) the robustness of moderating, modifying, or other intermediary variables effecting or affecting VRT therapeutic efficacy, and (3) variables, processes, and hypotheses generated from VRT applications in non-psychiatric fields.

  6. [The ethics of animal experimentation]. (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves


    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  7. Breast Cancer Stem Cells in Antiestrogen Resistance (United States)


    Schafer JIM ,O’Regan RM, Jordan VC. Antitumor action of physiological estradiol on tamox- ifen stimulated breast tumors grown in athymic mice. Clin. Cancer...JS, Crowe DL (2009) Tumor initiating cancer stem cells from human breast cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol 34:1449–1453. 10. Woodward WA, Chen MS... Crowe DL (2009) Tumor initiating cancer stem cells from human breast cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol 34: 1449–1453. 49. Woodward WA, Chen MS, Behbod F

  8. Upward Influence Strategies: The Effect of Consistency and Reciprocity Approaches on Supervisory Compliance and Performance Evaluations (United States)


    any approach, researchers must consider its impact on individual workplace outcomes such as performance ratings or promotions . Previous Research on...examined the ability of several influence agents-- advertisers , sales personnel, politicians, the mass media- -to change the attitudes or beliefs of others...besides money as long as the repayment is valued by the agent. Indeed, Regan (1971) found that subjects bought twice as many raffles tickets from a

  9. A Comparison of Nurses’ Activities Under Two Models of Administration (United States)


    Unit Manager." Hospital Management 101 (June 1966): 30-36. Brodt, Dagmar. "The Service Manager : Innovation for Nursing and Health Organizations... Service Manager 13 (December 1980): 3-6. Regan, Patrick A. "Measuring the Effectiveness of a Unit Management Program." Hospital Program 50 (December...Approach." Health Service Manager 12 (January 1979): 6-8. Rotkovitch, Rachel. "The Head Nurse as a First Line Manager." The Health Care Supervisor 1 (July

  10. Biorregionalismo, ética e justiça ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luiz Negrão


    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, retomo a argumentação de Gary Snyder, um libertário biorregionalista, e do socialista John Clark, verificando os limites e possibilidades de suas propostas na formulação de uma ética ambiental, à luz dos critérios estabelecidos por Kenneth Goodpaster (vida e por Tom Regan (valor inerente, para fundamentar uma ética genuinamente ambiental.

  11. A functional integral inclusion involving Carathéodories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao Dhage


    Full Text Available In this paper the existence of extremal solutions of a functional integral inclusion involving Carathéodory is proved under certain monotonicity conditions. Applications are given to some initial and boundary value problems of ordinary differential inclusion for proving the existence of extremal solutions. Our results generalize the results of Dhage [8] under weaker conditions and complement the results of O'Regan [16].

  12. Siphoninus finitimus Silvestri (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), "mosquita blanca del olivo" en Arica-Chile


    Bobadilla Guzman, Dante; Cerdá Hernández, Carolina; Salvatierra Martínez, Ricardo; Sepúlveda Chavera, Germán F.


    Se ent regan antecedentes sobr e las diferencias morfométricas en distintas estructuras de adultos y del pupoide de las poblaciones de aleyródidos asociados a olivo, peral y granado en la región de Arica- Parinacota, Chile. Las significativas diferencias (p < 0,01) encontradas en las dimensiones y en la morfología de las estructuras estudiadas entre las distintas poblaciones de mosquitas blancas que a...

  13. Corticosteroid/Antibiotic Treatment of Septic Shock: An Evaluation of Mechanisms. (United States)


    J Physiol 227:778-781, 1974. 21. Groves AC, Woolf LI, O’Regan PJ, Beach C, Hasinoff C, Sutherland WH. Impaired gluconeogenesis in dogs with E. coli...dose of live E. coli organisms administered intravenously to dogs and nonhuman primates. The therapy consists of intermittent infu- sions of the...initiation of E. coli administra- tion has increased survival (> 7 days) from 0% to 100% in both dogs and baboons. The purpose of this study was to delineate

  14. Doing International Business: From Cultural Perspectives


    Calvert, Charles; Lin, Shinyi; Martin, Lynda


    The remarkable growth of the global economy over the past 50 years has been shaped by the dynamic interplay of various driving and restraining forces. From business and HRD (Human Resource Development) aspects, an understanding of globalization as it applies to the field of training and educational programs enables organizations to develop competencies and skills to respond to these emerging challenges faced by globalization. In recent reports (Yager, 2001; O’Regan, 2001), employers are incre...

  15. Computing handbook computer science and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Teofilo; Tucker, Allen


    Overview of Computer Science Structure and Organization of Computing Peter J. DenningComputational Thinking Valerie BarrAlgorithms and Complexity Data Structures Mark WeissBasic Techniques for Design and Analysis of Algorithms Edward ReingoldGraph and Network Algorithms Samir Khuller and Balaji RaghavachariComputational Geometry Marc van KreveldComplexity Theory Eric Allender, Michael Loui, and Kenneth ReganFormal Models and Computability Tao Jiang, Ming Li, and Bala

  16. A recepção teórica nas éticas ambientalistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendonça


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a recepção teórica dos éticos ambientalistas Kenneth E. Goodpaster, W. Murray Hunt, Tom Regan, Paul Warren Taylor e Louis G. Lombardi, em sua argumentação favorável ou contrária à ética ambiental biocêntrica.

  17. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy (United States)


    The production of hydrogen by purple bacteria or microalgae are difficult to scale up due to low energy concentration insolation (e.g., ~200 W/m2...Cycle Assessment Of Biodiesel Production From Microalgae . Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 6475–6481. 28. Logan, B.E.; Regan, J.M. Microbial fuel...sustainable production , high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density

  18. Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Alves


    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908, H. prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758, and H. prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905 and three have multiple Ag-NORs (H. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911, H. prope iheringi (Regan, 1908, and H. strigaticeps (Regan, 1908. In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed.

  19. Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Rapid Assessment of Wetlands in the North Slope Region of Alaska (United States)


    arvense) and cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus). Nonvascular plants include sphagnum ( Sphagnum spp.), splendid feather moss (Hylocomium splendens), turgid...cotton-grass or Chamisso’s ERDC/EL TR-17-14 18 cotton-grass occur. Nonvascular species include sphagnum , splendid feather moss, turgid...aulacomnium mosses, scorpidium moss (Scorpidium scorpioides), drepanocladus moss (Drepanocladus spp.), and sphagnum moss. Low-centered polygon interiors

  20. Long-term warming and litter addition affects nitrogen fixation in a subarctic heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Michelsen, Anders


    the measurements. We analyzed N fixation rates on both whole-ecosystem level and specifically on two moss species: Sphagnum warnstorfii and Hylocomium splendens. The whole-ecosystem N fixation of the warmed plots almost tripled compared with the control plots. However, in the Sphagnum and Hylocomium mosses we...

  1. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  2. Exotic multifaceted medicinal plants of drugs and pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassia alata Linn, Nauclea latifolia, Clerodendron splendens and Bryophyllum pinnatum are some of the Nigerian exotic medicinal plants. These plants not only acts as ornamental but also exhibit antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. They are sources of drugs and are used in herbal ...

  3. Nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of Raphionacme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity of root tubers of R. splendens. Samples were collected from South-West Kordofan. Analyses included determination of moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein, fat, fibre, ash, minerals, vitamin C, amino acids and fatty acids composition.

  4. seasonal population dynamics of rodents of mount chilalo, arsi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ecological role of rodents (Krebs, 1998). Studies of diets and ... (grasshoppers, ants, flies and termites), spiders and worms. Generally, most ...... 1. Abebe Kokiso and Afework Bekele (2008). Ecology of mole rats, Tachyoryctes splendens and its impact on agricultural fields at Angacha, central Ethiopia. Acto Zoologica Sinica.

  5. A new species of Fissidens from Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman-Nannenga, M.A.


    Fissidens splendens Brugg.-Nann. – nov. spec. – Type: Pócs 6289 Z (herbarium Bizot: holotype; U). – Fig. 1-7. Species lamina vera semi-aperta vel raro, aperta et limbo folii tumido e cellulis parenchymaticis composito instructa faciliter distinguenda. A F. nitente s.l. limbo cellulis

  6. 1640-IJBCS-Article-Konan Fernique+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Short Communication Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Fernique KONAN KOUADIO 1*, Nathalie K. GUESSENND 2, Ouattara KARAMOKO ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Abstract PDF · Vol 74 (2014) - Articles Comparison of the performances and validation of three methods for Yersinia spp. detection from ...

  8. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 701 - 750 of 1050 ... Vol 36, No 2 (2014), Processes influencing the population dynamics and conservation of African penguins on Dyer Island, South Africa, Abstract ... Vol 37, No 3 (2015), Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of ...

  9. 76 FR 2665 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings (United States)


    .... Virgin Islands, February 16, 2011, The Buccaneer Hotel, Estate Shoys, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. February 17, 2011, Holiday Inn (Windward Passage Hotel) Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S... Xyrichtys splendens, Green razorfish Echidna catenata, Chain moray Gymnothorax funebris, Green moray...

  10. Radiotelemetry Study of a Desert Tortoise Population: Sand Hill Training Mea, Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California (United States)


    time) the occurrence of the usually fatal Upper Respiratory Disease Syndrome (URDS, also called Upper Respiratory Tract Disease [URTD]), in many...extremes, or wildfire; biological processes, such as predation, competition, parasitism, and disease ; or anthropogenic impacts, such as habitat destruction...rhatany (Krameria greyii) and pencil cholla ( Opuntia ramossissima), and the appearance of ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) and jojoba (Simmondsia

  11. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (United States)


    fitted with a Xe bulb and fiber-optic light guide fixture. The absolute spectral irradiance and power output of the solar simulator was captured with a...dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), invented by Michael Grätzel and Brian O’Regan in 1991 (1). As described in their original Nature paper “A Low-Cost...The co-sensitizer dye, an equimolar mix of the two dyes, offered the broadest and highest absorbance of incident light , and thus was used as the

  12. O conceito de valor na concepção da ética ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Köhler Schulte


    Full Text Available artigo identifica os conceitos de valor na concepção de uma ética ambiental, propostos por Tom Regan, Louis Lombardi, Paul Taylor, Baird Callicott e Michael Zimmerman, e a concepção de uma ética ambiental partindo da visão dualista na relação sujeito-objeto, para uma visão menos dualista, buscada na teoria quântica.

  13. Experimental Septic Shock: Models and Mechanisms (United States)


    I. Woolf, P. J. O’Regan, C. Beach, C. Hasinoff, and W. H. Sutherland. Impaired gluconeogenesis in dogs with E. coli bacteremia. Surgery 76:533, 1974...rats administered endotoxin (9,18), dogs given endotoxin (1,2,14) or live E. coli organisms (10,11,13), and nonhuman primates receiving endotoxin...8217 ’ • ,, - , -• --" :" ,• ... ., ., -. .- " - . ..... . . . I3 in dogs is 2.5 mg/kg, while even a dose of 40 mg/kg in one baboon did not result in its death during a 24-hour period. A separate

  14. Using Py-GC/MS to detect and measure silicone defoamers in pulp fibres and mill deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce


    Full Text Available (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under flow-through test conditions, in:377 Presented at SETAC Europe, Porto, Portugal, 2007. [9] E.G. Gooch, Determination of traces of silicone defoamer in fruit juices by sol- 378 vent extraction/atomic absorption spectroscopy, Journal... commerce,, 2007.374 [8] K.R. Drottar, R.L. Jezowski, D.A. McNett, J.M. Regan, J.Y. Domoradzki, K.P. Plotzke,375 14C-Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (14C-D5): dietary bioaccumulation in the376 rainbow trout...

  15. Egg cannibalism and carnivory among three species of Toxorhynchites. (United States)

    Linley, J R; Duzak, D


    In laboratory experiments, third and early fourth instar larvae of Toxorhynchites amboinensis, Tx. splendens and Tx. brevipalpis, previously starved 24 h, rapidly cannibalized eggs of their own species, or ate the eggs of other species present on the water surface in small containers. Toxorhynchites amboinensis and Tx. splendens larvae of either instar cannibalized eggs somewhat more rapidly than Tx. brevipalpis, probably because brevipalpis eggs distributed themselves around the edge of the container and were less accessible. When offered heterospecific eggs, fourth instar larvae of all three species ate them as efficiently as they cannibalized their own except that eggs of Tx. brevipalpis were eaten very slowly. Toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae were offered conspecific hatched eggs, and these also were consumed.

  16. Description of a new species, Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) tyagii (Diptera: Culicidae), from Nilgiri hills, Western Ghats, southern India. (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, R; Munirathinam, A; Dhananjeyan, K J; Hiriyan, J; Mariappan, T; Samuel, P Philip; Venkatesh, A


    Specimens of Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) tyagii, sp. n., were collected from the fringe areas of Gudaloor town, Ooty in the Nilgiri hills at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level in Western Ghats ranges in southern India during October 2011 and from Darjeeling ranges in the northern hilly region of Raymatang TG in Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, in eastern India during February 2012. The adults, pupa and fourth-instar larva of this species are described and illustrated to distinguish it from Toxorhynchites (Tox.) splendens and Toxorhynchites (Tox.) edwardsi, which are the closest allies of Tx. (Tox.) tyagii. Besides possessing remarkable distinguishing male genital characteristics, Tx. tyagii differs from Tx. splendens also by the presence of conspicuous yellow scale-patches over the wing root that extend to the scutellum, and differs from Tx. edwardsi by having midtarsomeres 3-5 all dark whereas in Tx. edwardsi tarsomeres 3 and 4 and a larger part of 5 are white.

  17. Insect monitoring with fluorescence lidar techniques: feasibility study. (United States)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Guan, Zuguang; Wellenreuther, Maren; Svanberg, Sune


    We investigate the possibilities of light detection and ranging (lidar) techniques to study migration of the damselfly species Calopteryx splendens and C. virgo. Laboratory and testing-range measurements at a distance of 60 m were performed using dried, mounted damselfly specimens. Laboratory measurements, including color photography in polarized light and spectroscopy of reflectance and induced fluorescence, reveal that damselflies exhibit reflectance and fluorescence properties that are closely tied to the generation of structural color. Lidar studies on C. splendens of both genders show that gender can be remotely determined, especially for specimens that were marked with Coumarin 102 and Rhodamine 6G dyes. The results obtained in this study will be useful for future field experiments, and provide guidelines for studying damselflies in their natural habitat using lidar to survey the air above the river surface. The findings will be applicable for many other insect species and should, therefore, bring new insights into migration and movement patterns of insects in general.

  18. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil. (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu


    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal and spatial assemblages of invasive birds occupying the urban landscape and its gradient in a southern city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Menon


    Full Text Available Common birds play an important role in regulating the functioning of urban ecosystems. Typically, a few common species have become invasive species threatening biodiversity worldwide. Our understanding of the dynamics of invasive birds in an Indian context is still in its infancy. Hence, we studied the gradual adaptation of invasive birds to novel habitats and their dispersal dynamics in a southern city of India. We tested the prediction that urban matrix are increasingly composed of invasive generalist species. The results illustrate the dominance of invasive species such as Corvus splendens, Acridotheres tristis, Acridotheres livia, and Milvus migrans in the urban environment. The significant abundance of C. splendens exhibited urbanization-induced homogenization. The land-use pattern showed more inclination toward the urban structures than the vegetative attributes. Specialist groups from the frugivore guild were found to decline from the urban environment, which may shed light on the ecological factors that constrain their distribution.

  20. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković P.


    Full Text Available Ether extracts of 15 Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae methanol extracts of 12species, and cnicin isolated from C. derventana were tested for general bioactivity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Cnicin showed the most potent activity with LC50 0.2. Also, ether extract of C. splendens showed significant activity with LC50 7.3, as did methanol extract of C. arenaria with LC50 12.4.

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Vector Efficiency of Aedes aegypti for Dengue 2 Virus (United States)


    50% endpoints, em- ploying LLC-MK2 cells. Mosquitoes The Ae. aegypti adults were F, progeny from eggs oviposited by adults collected as larvae in...a low socioeconomic sector of Bangkok. Eggs were hatched, and larvae were reared to adults, according to standard procedures, at 25°C and at 70% to...R. McN., and Burke, D. S., 1982. Evaluation of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culici- dae) as a bioassay host for dengue viruses. J. Med

  2. New species of Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae) from Macau (China). (United States)

    Ribeiro, H


    The male holotype and female allotype of Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) macaensis Ribeiro, a new mosquito species from Macau, southern China, are described on the basis of the examination of a type series of 6 males and 7 females. Similarities of the new species with the other species of the Splendens group, to which the new taxon belongs, are discussed and keys to identification of males and females of all the species of the group are provided.

  3. Sinclair and Dyes Inlets Toxicity Study: An Assessment of Copper Bioavailability and Toxicity in Surface Waters Adjacent to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility (United States)


    Project ENVVEST by the Environmental Sciences Branch ( Code 71750) of the Advanced and Applied Sciences Division ( Code 717), SPAWAR Systems Center...MΩ water containing 32-g NaCl. Cu-CC was estimated from the inflection point of the resulting titration curve using a MATLAB ® routine (Rivera...had a strong odor similar to that of seaweed, possibly due to the high concentrations of toxic algae (G. splendens) observed in samples collected

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Action antibactérienne de l'extrait éthanolique 70% de Clerodendrum splendens (G. Don) (Verbenacae) sur des souches bactériennes isolées de selles chez des enfants diarrhéiques. Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effet antibactérien de l'extrait aqueux de l'écorce de Terminalia glaucescens Planch ex Benth ...

  5. Plantes alimentaires spontanées de la région du Fromager (Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    J. 62 Solanum torvum. 2 0 0. 1,85. Fruits. J. 63 Sphenocentrum jollyanum. 0 0 2. 1,85. Fruits. F. 64 Bidens pilosa. 0 1 0. 0,93. Feuilles. J. 65 Cleome ciliata. 0 0 1. 0,93. Feuilles. J. 66 Clerodendrum splendens. 0 0 1. 0,93. Feuilles. J, P. 67 Cucumeropsis mannii. 0 0 1. 0,93. Fruits, jeunes feuilles. J, P. 68 Isolona campanulata.

  6. Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody system for the detection of bluetongue virus from Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (United States)

    Habibur Rahman, A; Manickam, R


    A new system, the Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody (TFA) test in which the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens mosquitoes were used for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) from Culicoides midges, was developed. Twenty-seven pools of Culicoides midges were collected from bluetongue-prone areas of Tamil Nadu by use of the light-trap and suction-trap methods. A suspension of each pool was injected intrathoracically into T. splendens IV instar larvae and inoculated onto Vero cell monolayers. An indirect fluorescent antibody technique and an immunoperoxidase test were used to detect BTV antigen in smears of crushed midges, crushed larval head smears after incubation for 7 d at 28 degrees and cell monolayers showing cytopathic effects 48 h post inoculation. The suspensions were also injected intravenously into embryonated chicken eggs, and the characteristic BTV-induced lesion(s), viz. cherry-red appearance of embryos, were observed after 48 h. Virus was confirmed by a qualitative neutralization test conducted simultaneously in embryonated chicken eggs. A total of seven out of 27 samples (26%) were positive for the presence of BTV antigen in all the diagnostic systems used. Since BTV propagates readily in experimentally infected T. splendens larvae and the BTV antigen can be detected by the fluorescent antibody technique with a sensitivity comparable to that for virus propagated in tissue culture and embryonated eggs, the TFA system can be adopted as a new method for the isolation of BTV from vectors. The advantages of the TFA system are discussed.

  7. Causal Agents of Mycobacterial Diseases in Freshwater Ornamental Fish and their Importance for Human Health in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Řehulka


    Full Text Available In the period from 1995 to 2004, the following mycobacterial species were isolated during the examination of the state of health of aquarium fish from the Moravian-Silesian region of the Czech Republic: Mycobacterium fortuitum (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Poecilia sphenops, Hemigrammus rhodostomus, Hyphessobrycon flammeus, M. chelonae (P. axelrodi, Betta splendens, Xiphophorus helleri, Puntius tetrazona, M. kansasii (P. axelrodi, B. splendens, M. simiae (Hyphessobrycon ecuadoriensis, and M. gordonae (P. axelrodi, Colisa lalia, B. splendens, Symphysodon discus. The first isolation from aquarium fish was recorded in the case of M. kansasii and the second isolation in the case of M. simiae; both should also be taken into account as aetiological agents of mycobacterial infections in humans. The measures to reduce mycobacterial infections in both fish and humans should include monitoring water mains as possible sources of M. kansasii infections, compliance with the sanitation principles in handling fish suspected of being infected and the content of tanks (molluscs, water, plants, and the introduction of strict veterinary inspection of imported fish, fish from aquarist shops and from large-scale distributors.

  8. [Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the growth of five bryophytes in Changbai Mountains]. (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Huan; Gu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Peng; Zoltán, Tuba


    Five bryophytes (Rhytidium rugosum, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, Hylocomium splendens, Hylocomium pyrenaicum, and Polytrichum alpinum) were exposed to 0.2 kJ x m(-2) x d(-1) (visible light under native condition, CK), 3.0 kJ x m(-2) x d(-1) (simulated dose of UV-B irradiance at the tundra in Changbai Mountains, medium dose of UV-B irradiance, T1), and 6.0 kJ x m(-2) x d(-1) (high dose of UV-B irradiance, T2) to investigate the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant height, biomass, and chlorophyll content. The results indicated that medium and high UV-B radiations decreased the plant height, biomass, and chlorophyll content of R. triquetrus and H. splendens by 32.3%, 62.4%, and 81.3%, and 21.4%, 59.4%, and 62.8%, respectively, and the relative growth rates were negative. Enhanced UV-B radiations had less effect on P. alpinum chlorophyll content but doubled its below-ground biomass, and slightly increased the biomass of R. rugosum. P. alpinum and R. rugosum had higher tolerance against UV-B radiation, while R. triquetrus and H. splendens were more sensitive to UV-B radiation.

  9. Contemporary sensorimotor theory

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Andrew


    This book analyzes the philosophical foundations of sensorimotor theory and discusses the most recent applications of sensorimotor theory to human computer interaction, child’s play, virtual reality, robotics, and linguistics. Why does a circle look curved and not angular? Why does red not sound like a bell? Why, as I interact with the world, is there something it is like to be me? An analytic philosopher might suggest: ``if we ponder the concept of circle we find that it is the essence of a circle to be round’’. However, where does this definition come from? Was it set in stone by the Gods, in other words by divine arbiters of circleness, redness and consciousness? Particularly, with regard to visual consciousness, a first attempt to explain why our conscious experience of the world appears as it does has been attributed to Kevin O’Regan and Alva Noe, who published their sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness in 2001. Starting with a chapter by Kevin O’Regan, Contemporary Sensorimo...

  10. Future petroleum market of the USA under globalization and deregulation (Part 2). Glovarization to kisei kanwaka ni okeru kongo no beikoku sekiyu shijo (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    With the rise of OPEC and the fall of MAJORS in the 1970s, the petroleum market of the USA began to change, and still further changed with the reinforcement of regulation by the Carter administration, and the deregulation and the policy dependent on the market by the Regan administration. Policy of the Regan administration was to raise the suppressed price by means of deregulation, and as a result to increase domestic production of petroleum, to conserve energy, and to increase the supplied amount of energy by accelerating the development of alternative energy and energy conversion to coal. With the abolishment of regulation, difference in the foreign and domestic petroleum prices was lost, domestic exploration development was accelerated and domestic production was increased. With the sharp fall of the petroleum price in 1986, however, demand for energy was increased, and on the other hand activities for domestic exploration declined, domestic production was decreased, and partly with the conversion from other energy to petroleum, import of petroleum is increasing rapidly. Meanwhile, there are problems of nuclear power and the feeling of people who put emphasis on the protection of the environment, and the world keeps an eye on the measures the USA take. 55 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Crisis management and crisis prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallensteen, P.


    This paper reports that many proposals have come forth to ease the tension between East and West. Some focus on arms developments, others take up diplomatic issues. In addition, some have raised the question of crisis management and crisis prevention. Can crises be prevented even before they have taken place? The Palme Commission on Disarmament and Security suggested, in its 1982 report, ways of restraining superpower involvement in Third World conflicts. Such conflicts, it was argued, could escalate and ultimately result in nuclear confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Certainly, the commission also paid attention to conflicts over issues in Europe and to problems in Eastern or in Western Europe. However, the commission raised a question that lately has received increasing attention: the dangers of superpower confrontation over Third World issues. In his statement to the United Nations on 24 October 1985, President Regan pointed to the need for settling regional conflicts as they play a large role in building suspicions and tensions. Regan's initiative explicitly concerned Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Angola and Nicaragua. It included negotiations with the Soviet Union over Afghanistan, and, at a later stage, also over other issues. The goal, he the, was not to force a settlement on the parties. The initiative concerned issues that have for the American public, justified armaments and reduced Soviet credibility

  12. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang]. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming


    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  13. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gallenmüller

    Full Text Available Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots. Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar. In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1 a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2 occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3 failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm² and (4 failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species.

  14. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants. (United States)

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas


    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species).

  15. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin


    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  16. Fungos associados a sementes e plantas ornamentais herbáceas no Distrito Federal


    Barreto, Sarah da Silva


    Estudou-se a microflora fúngica de sementes de nove espécies de plantas ornamentais herbáceas (Dahlia pinnata, Petunia x hybrida, Phlox drummondii, Rudbeckia hirta, Salvia farinacea, Salvia splendens, Tagetes patula, Viola tricolor e Zinnia elegans). Foram analisadas 13 amostras de sementes, sendo 5 delas estavam com data de validade vencida (P. drummondii, R. hirta, T. patula lote nº1, T. patula lote nº 2 e Z. elegans). Além disso, realizou-se o levantamento de fungos em mudas e plantas em f...

  17. Inhibitory effects of copper on marine dinoflagellates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifullah, S.M.


    The effect of copper on three species of marine dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella faeroense (Paulsen) Balech et Soares, Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg, Gymnodinium splendens Lebour) was studied. It inhibited the growth of all species and was lethal to one species in batch cultures. The effect was more pronounced in semicontinuous culture than in batch cultures. Chlorophyll concentrations and rate of uptake of radioactive carbon by cells of S. faeroense were affected in a manner similar to cell numbers. Copper inhibited growth of cells, most probably either by arresting cell division or by penetrating inside the cell and affecting metabolism.

  18. Fungi on seeds of ornamentals


    Barreto, Sarah da Silva; Rezende, Denise Vilela de; Blum, Luiz Eduardo Bassay


    Estudou-se a ocorrência de fungos em sementes de nove espécies de plantas ornamentais herbáceas (Dahlia pinnata, Petunia x hybrida, Phlox drummondii, Rudbeckia hirta, Salvia farinacea, Salvia splendens, Tagetes patula, Viola tricolor e Zinnia elegans) costumeiramente plantadas no Distrito Federal. O método de detecção utilizado foi o de papel de filtro (“blotter-test”), sendo que uma subamostra, de 100 sementes, de cada espécie foi submetida a assepsia com álcool 70% e hipoclorito de sódio 1%...

  19. Rights and duties under the law of nature:contractarianism and the Moral Status of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bull


    Full Text Available This is a philosophical inquiry into the moral status of animals, focusing on which ethical principle should guide us in our relationship with animals. The author examines the case for applying contractarian theory to animals other than human beings by looking in particular at the issues of rationality and trusteeship. From the law of nature and by way of a contractarian approach the author arrives at the principle of humility, which he advances as the ideal basis for our behaviour in respect of animals. He then tests certain prevailing philosophical positions in this area, including those of Singer and Regan, exploring utilitarian and rights conceptions. Finally, the author considers the significance of the principle of humility in practical terms in order to evaluate its utility as a moral judgment.

  20. Detection of Bordetella pertussis from Clinical Samples by Culture and End-Point PCR in Malaysian Patients. (United States)

    Ting, Tan Xue; Hashim, Rohaidah; Ahmad, Norazah; Abdullah, Khairul Hafizi


    Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. In vaccinating countries, infants, adolescents, and adults are relevant patients groups. A total of 707 clinical specimens were received from major hospitals in Malaysia in year 2011. These specimens were cultured on Regan-Lowe charcoal agar and subjected to end-point PCR, which amplified the repetitive insertion sequence IS481 and pertussis toxin promoter gene. Out of these specimens, 275 were positive: 4 by culture only, 6 by both end-point PCR and culture, and 265 by end-point PCR only. The majority of the positive cases were from ≤3 months old patients (77.1%) (P 0.05). Our study showed that the end-point PCR technique was able to pick up more positive cases compared to culture method.

  1. Knight's move thinking? Mild cognitive impairment in a chess player. (United States)

    Archer, H A; Schott, J M; Barnes, J; Fox, N C; Holton, J L; Revesz, T; Cipolotti, L; Rossor, M N


    We report the case of a chess player with superior premorbid cognitive function who presented to the Cognitive Disorders clinic at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery with a 2-year history of symptoms of possible memory loss. Initially the MRI scan appearance was within normal limits and his cognitive scores inside the normal range; subsequently his cognitive function deteriorated and he fulfilled criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) two years later. Unexpectedly he died of an unrelated illness seven months later and post mortem examination of the brain was carried out, revealing advanced Alzheimer's disease (CERAD definite and NIA-Regan Institute high likelihood). This case highlights the difficulties encountered in assessing patients with superior premorbid function in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, and reveals the value of serial MRI and neuropsychological assessment in detecting and monitoring early neurodegenerative disease.

  2. Biocentric ethics and animal prosperity. (United States)

    Anchustegui, A T


    Singer's utilitarian and Regan's deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they'd be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while at the same time recognizing that in certain cases, human needs must outweigh the needs of non-humans. On this view, moral consideration is not conferred only on beings that have human-life mental properties. Finally, it offers an unambiguous recommendation for the abolition of harmful animal experimentation, factory farming, and killing animals for sport.

  3. Networks in Cell Biology (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele


    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  4. The Medical Mission and Modern Core Competency Training: A 10-Year Follow-Up of Resident Experiences in Global Plastic Surgery. (United States)

    Yao, Caroline A; Swanson, Jordan; McCullough, Meghan; Taro, Trisa B; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Bradshaw, Allison; Campbell, Alex; Magee, William P; Magee, William P


    The emphasis on cultural competency for physicians and surgeons is increasingly important, as communication with both patients and other providers significantly affects individual and system-wide outcomes. International surgical training has been shown to improve leadership skills, cultural competency, and technical proficiency of participants in short-term follow-up. This study explores the long-term impact of international surgical mission experiences on developing participants' core competencies, professional outcomes, and commitment to global health. All 208 plastic and reconstructive surgeons who completed the Operation Smile Regan/Stryker fellowship programs between 2006 and 2015 were surveyed electronically. One hundred sixty-five surveys were returned, for an overall response rate of 79.3 percent. The majority of participants reported that the fellowship positively impacted all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. Most participants who were attending physicians at the time of the survey were practicing general plastic surgery, with 42 percent in an academic/teaching environment, 32 percent in assistant/associate professor positions, and 6 percent in either a program director or department chairman position. The majority currently volunteer on local or international missions, and all respondents would consider volunteering again. Carefully structured and rigorously proctored programs such as the Regan/Stryker Fellowship offer plastic surgery residents the opportunity to gain valuable professional and personal experiences that benefit them long after their service experience. Programs of this nature can not only effectively improve cultural competency of physicians, but also positively influence their attitudes toward leadership and direct that potential to meet the growing need for surgical care in low- and middle-income countries.

  5. [Effects of bryophytes in dark coniferous forest of Changbai Mountains on three conifers seed germination and seedling growth]. (United States)

    Lin, Fei; Hao, Zhanqing; Ye, Ji; Jiang, Ping


    This paper studied the effects of Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, the main bryophytes in dark coniferous forests of Changbai Mountains, on the seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus koraiensis, Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis. The results indicated that at definite concentrations, the water extract of H. splendens inhibited Picea koraiensis seed germination, while that of R. triquetrus promoted it. Although the water extracts of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, they expedited the occurrence of the tree species' daily germination peak. The water extracts of test bryophytes inhibited the seedling growth of P. koraiensis and Picea koraiensis, but promoted that of Larix olgensis. The living shoots of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but delayed the daily germination peak of Picea koraiensis while promoted that of Larix olgensis, andthe killed shoots inhibited the seed germination of all test tree species. Living shoots in larger amounts promoted the seedling growth of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but killed shoots were inadverse.

  6. Interspecific aggression causes negative selection on sexual characters. (United States)

    Tynkkynen, Katja; Kotiaho, Janne S; Luojumäki, Mari; Suhonen, Jukka


    Interspecific aggression originating from mistaken species recognition may cause selection on secondary sexual characters, but this hypothesis has remained untested. Here we report a field experiment designed to test directly whether interspecific aggression causes selection on secondary sexual characters, wing spots, in wild damselfly populations. Males of Calopteryx virgo are more aggressive toward males of C. splendens with large than with small wing spots. This differential interspecific aggression may cause negative selection on wing spot size. Indeed, our results show that directional survival selection on wing spot size of C. splendens males was changed by experimental removal of C. virgo males. Without removal, directional selection went from positive to negative with increasing relative abundance of C. virgo males. In populations where C. virgo males were removed, this relationship disappeared. These results verify that interspecific aggression can cause negative selection on sexual characters. Thus, interspecific aggression has the potential to cause divergence on these characters between two species offering an alternative explanation for reinforcement for generating character displacement in secondary sexual characters.

  7. Forestry impacts on the hidden fungal biodiversity associated with bryophytes. (United States)

    Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Ohlson, Mikael


    Recent studies have revealed an unexpectedly high, cryptic diversity of fungi associated with boreal forest bryophytes. Forestry practices heavily influence the boreal forest and fundamentally transform the landscape. However, little is known about how bryophyte-associated fungal communities are affected by these large-scale habitat transformations. This study assesses to what degree bryophyte-associated fungal communities are structured across the forest successional stages created by current forestry practices. Shoots of Hylocomium splendens were collected in Picea abies dominated forests of different ages, and their associated fungal communities were surveyed by pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons. Although community richness, diversity and evenness were relatively stable across the forest types and all were consistently dominated by ascomycete taxa, there was a marked shift in fungal community composition between young and old forests. Numerous fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed distinct affinities for different forest ages. Spatial structure was also detected among the sites, suggesting that environmental gradients resulting from the topography of the study area and dispersal limitations may also significantly affect bryophyte-associated fungal community structure. This study confirms that Hylocomium splendens hosts an immense diversity of fungi and demonstrates that this community is structured in part by forest age, and as such is highly influenced by modern forestry practices. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dragonfly flight. I. Gliding flight and steady-state aerodynamic forces. (United States)

    Wakeling, JM; Ellington, CP


    The free gliding flight of the dragonfly Sympetrum sanguineum was filmed in a large flight enclosure. Reconstruction of the glide paths showed the flights to involve accelerations. Where the acceleration could be considered constant, the lift and drag forces acting on the dragonfly were calculated. The maximum lift coefficient (CL) recorded from these glides was 0.93; however, this is not necessarily the maximum possible from the wings. Lift and drag forces were additionally measured from isolated wings and bodies of S. sanguineum and the damselfly Calopteryx splendens in a steady air flow at Reynolds numbers of 700-2400 for the wings and 2500-15 000 for the bodies. The maximum lift coefficients (CL,max) were 1.07 for S. sanguineum and 1.15 for C. splendens, which are greater than those recorded for all other insects except the locust. The drag coefficient at zero angle of attack ranged between 0.07 and 0.14, being little more than the Blassius value predicted for flat plates. Dragonfly wings thus show exceptional steady-state aerodynamic properties in comparison with the wings of other insects. A resolved-flow model was tested on the body drag data. The parasite drag is significantly affected by viscous forces normal to the longitudinal body axis. The linear dependence of drag on velocity must thus be included in models to predict the parasite drag on dragonflies at non-zero body angles.

  9. Novel Technique of Active Biomonitoring Introduced in the Czech Republic: Bioaccumulation of Atmospheric Trace Metals in two moss species / Nová Metoda Aktivního Biomonitoringu Zavedená V České Republice: Bioakumulace Stopových Kovů V Atmosféře U Dvou Druhů Mechů

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyka Oldřich


    Full Text Available Za účelem validace byla pro biomonitoring v průmyslem ovlivněném regionu Ostravska použita metoda, která dosud v České republice nebyla aplikována. Transplantáty dvou druhů mechů Hylocomium splendens a Pleurozium schreberi byly vystaveny atmosférickému znečištění pomocí metody “irrigated moss bag” ve výšce jak 1 m, tak 2 m nad zemí. Vzorky byly poté analyzovány za účelem zjištění koncentrace stopových prvků Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, V a Zn. Celkový průběh bioakumulace ukazuje, že je Hylocomium splendens pro biomonitoring vhodnější, stejně tak jako výška 2 m nad zemí.

  10. Multiple cues produced by a robotic fish modulate aggressive behaviour in Siamese fighting fishes. (United States)

    Romano, Donato; Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Remorini, Damiano; Canale, Angelo; Stefanini, Cesare


    The use of robotics to establish social interactions between animals and robots, represents an elegant and innovative method to investigate animal behaviour. However, robots are still underused to investigate high complex and flexible behaviours, such as aggression. Here, Betta splendens was tested as model system to shed light on the effect of a robotic fish eliciting aggression. We evaluated how multiple signal systems, including a light stimulus, affect aggressive responses in B. splendens. Furthermore, we conducted experiments to estimate if aggressive responses were triggered by the biomimetic shape of fish replica, or whether any intruder object was effective as well. Male fishes showed longer and higher aggressive displays as puzzled stimuli from the fish replica increased. When the fish replica emitted its full sequence of cues, the intensity of aggression exceeded even that produced by real fish opponents. Fish replica shape was necessary for conspecific opponent perception, evoking significant aggressive responses. Overall, this study highlights that the efficacy of an artificial opponent eliciting aggressive behaviour in fish can be boosted by exposure to multiple signals. Optimizing the cue combination delivered by the robotic fish replica may be helpful to predict escalating levels of aggression.

  11. Connecting America and Russia: Eocene erosion across the Arctic (United States)

    Spiegel, Cornelia; Lisker, Frank; Piepjohn, Karsten; Estrada, Solveig; Lorenz, Henning


    The structural evolution of the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding continental areas is still poorly constrained, due to ice coverage and inaccessibility. The only scientific coring campaign within the central Arctic Ocean (the ACEX project) was positioned on the Lomonosov Ridge. This is a pronounced geomorphic structure of presumably continental origin, which stretches across the entire Arctic Ocean between the northernmost margin of the North American continent (Ellesmere Island) and the Siberian Shelf, bordering the New Siberian Islands. Geophysical data suggest that the Lomonosov Ridge may be continuous with the Siberian and Ellesmerian continental margins (e.g., Poselov et al., 2011). Rather unexpectedly, the ACEX project revealed that the Lomonosov Ridge was in very shallow water or even exposed to erosion between 44 and 18 Ma. As an explanation, it was suggested that the Lomonosov Ridge experienced compressional tectonics at that time, which may have affected the entire central Arctic Ocean, propagating from North America towards the Siberian shelf (ÓRegan et al., 2008). Here we present the first low-temperature thermochronological data from northern Ellesmere Island and from the New Siberian Islands, recording the erosion and exhumation history of these areas. Our apatite (U-Th)/He data show that while southern and central Ellesmere Island was characterized by very slow erosion during the Cenozoic, northern Ellesmere Island bordering the Arctic Ocean experienced km-scale erosion during the Eocene, contemporaneously with the stalled subsidence / uplift period of the Lomonosov Ridge. The thermochronology data from the New Siberian Islands reflect a complex erosion history: the eastern part of the North Siberian Islands, the DeLong Island Group, experienced rather limited erosion during the Cenozoic and most of the Mesozoic. By contrast, data from the western New Siberian Islands - the Lyakhov Island Group - in direct continuation of the Lomonosov Ridge are

  12. Laboratory tests of the effects of p-cresol and 4-methylcyclohexanol on oviposition by three species of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes. (United States)

    Linley, J R


    Laboratory experiments tested the effects of p-cresol or 4-methylcyclohexanol at concentrations of 1, 10 and 50 ppm, on oviposition by the mosquitoes Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald, Tx. amboinensis (Doleschall) and Tx. splendens (Wiedemann). A 5 + 5 ppm mixture of the two chemicals was also tested. All three species laid significantly more eggs in cups containing p-cresol, whereas only Tx. brevipalpis and Tx. amboinensis responded similarly to 4-methylcycohexonol and to the mixture of both chemicals. Tx. brevipalpis was, to a relatively limited degree, the most responsive of the three species. Ancillary experiments indicated that the chemicals were acting as attractants, causing more females to fly to treated cups. No stimulant effects were detected either in terms of the proportion of females that initiated oviposition flight (after flying to the cups) or in terms of the number of looping flights executed prior to ejection of an egg.

  13. Comparative susceptibility of five species of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes to parenteral infection with dengue and other flaviviruses. (United States)

    Rosen, L; Shroyer, D A


    Five species of colonized Toxorhynchites mosquitoes were compared for relative susceptibility to parenteral infection with the four dengue serotypes and St. Louis and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Tx. amboinensis, Tx. brevipalpis, Tx. rutilus, and Tx. splendens were equally susceptible to infection with the dengue viruses, while Tx. theobaldi was relatively resistant to infection with those viruses. All five mosquito species were equally susceptible to infection with the encephalitis viruses. The intensity of immunofluorescence in head squashes was slightly less in Tx. brevipalpis infected with the dengue viruses as compared to the other three mosquito species susceptible to those viruses. Immunofluorescence was also less in Tx. theobaldi infected with the encephalitis viruses as compared with all the other mosquito species.

  14. Moss-specific changes in nitrogen fixation following two decades of warming, shading, and fertilizer addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Lett, Signe; Michelsen, Anders


    Climate warming will induce changes in Arctic ecosystem carbon balance, but besides climate, nitrogen availability is a critical controlling factor of carbon cycling. It is therefore essential to obtain knowledge on the influence of a changing climate on nitrogen fixation, as this process...... is the main source of new nitrogen to arctic ecosystems. In order to gain information on future nitrogen fixation rates in a changing climate, we studied the effects of two decades of warming with passive greenhouses, shading with sackcloth, and fertilization with NPK fertilizer on nitrogen fixation rates....... To expand the knowledge on species-specific responses, we measured nitrogen fixation associated with two moss species: Hylocomium splendens and Aulacomnium turgidum. Our expectations of decreased nitrogen fixation rates in the fertilizer and shading treatments were met. However, contrary to our expectation...

  15. Biodiversity of mosquitoes in Manipur State and their medical significance. (United States)

    Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Khan, A M; Sharma, C K; Mahanta, J


    Entomological studies conducted during monsoon and post-monsoon season in Manipur State revealed the presence of fifty-five species of mosquitoes under ten genera. Out of the seventeen Anopheles species recorded, Anopheles aconitus, An. dirus and An. nivipes were recorded for the first time from the state. The present study has confirmed the existence of An. dirus, the major malaria vector in the Northeast from a selected area of the state. Among Culicines, four species viz., Aedes nigrostriatus, Malaya genurostris, Aediomyia catasticta and Toxorhynchites splendens which were not reported earlier from this state have been recorded in the present study. With the addition of these seven species of mosquitoes to the earlier record of mosquitoes so far reported from Manipur, the mosquito fauna swells up to one hundred and eleven including the major vectors of malaria of the Northeast and the potential vectors of Japanese encephalitis and dengue virus transmission in India.

  16. Waste-water assay with continuous algal cultures: the effect of mercuric acetate on the growth of some marine dinoflagellates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, H.


    The effect of mercuric acetate was studied in culture experiments with the dinoflagellates Scrippsiella faeroense (Paulsen) Balech et Soares, Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg and Gymnodinium splendens Lebour. Impairment of growth rates, in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, maximum cell densities and morphological changes served as criteria for assessing sublethal influences. Tests were made using the batch- and continuous-culture techniques. Addition of Hg at concentrations of 0.001 mg.1/sup -1/ and higher resulted in reduction of relative growth rates. In a few cases populations recovered from the initial decline and showed new growth. Cell counts corresponded very closely to in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Morphological variations were observed in S. faeroense, which responded (even in sublethal concentrations) by bursting its thecae, releasing naked motile cells and forming vegetative resting stages. The problems of optimal algal-bioassay methods are discussed also, in the light of results obtained by other authors.

  17. Feeding, growth, and food conversion of the marine planktonic copepod Calanus helgolandicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.


    Food intake, growth rate, and food conversion of nauplii, copepodids, and adult females of Calanus helgolandicus were investigated experimentally at 15/sup 0/C. The diatom Lauderia borealis and the dinoflagellates Gonyaulax polyedra, Gymnodinium splendens, and Prorocentrum micans were offered separately as food at concentrations ranging from 41 to 101 C liter/sup -1/. Amounts of food ingested differed with concentration and species. Daily exponential growth rates were highest for nauplii and young copepodids (k = 0.29 to 0.41) and decreased gradually with increasing age of the copepods to k = 0.02. Gross growth efficiency changed during the different juvenile life periods of the copepod with maximum values for the period CdI to CIII. Feeding on L. borealis at lower food concentrations resulted in an increase in gross growth efficiency. (auth)

  18. Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Yee Win; Nyunt Wynn; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Myint; Saw Hla Myint; Myint Khine


    Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

  19. Review of the genus Saprinus Erichson, 1834 from Madagascar and adjacent islands with description of a new species (Coleoptera: Histeridae: Saprininae) Third contribution to the knowledge of the Histeridae of Madagascar. (United States)

    Lackner, Tomáš; Gomy, Yves


    Clown beetles belonging to the genus Saprinus Erichson, 1834 from Madagascar and adjacent islands are reviewed. The Malagasy fauna of Saprinus consists of seven species: Saprinus (Saprinus) erichsonii Marseul, 1855; Saprinus (Saprinus) fulgidicollis Marseul, 1855; Saprinus (Saprinus) basalis Fairmaire, 1898; Saprinus (Saprinus) cupreus Erichson, 1834; Saprinus (Saprinus) chalcites (Illiger, 1807); Saprinus (Saprinus) splendens (Paykull, 1811); one species S. (Saprinus) labordei sp. nov., is described as new. Saprinus erichsonii Marseul, 1855 is transferred from the subgenus Phaonius Reichardt, 1941 into the nominotypical subgenus based on the morphological evidence. Lectotypes of the following species are designated: Saprinus erichsonii Marseul, 1855; Saprinus basalis Fairmaire, 1898 and Saprinus fulgidicollis Marseul, 1855. Saprinus (Saprinus) cupreus Erichson, 1834 is newly reported from Madagascar and Saprinus (Saprinus) basalis Fairmaire, 1898 is newly reported from the following countries: Congo, Gambia, Central African Republic, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Republic of South Africa.

  20. Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Alves


    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919, Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995, Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828 and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758. All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.

  1. The Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in the South Ural

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, L I; Staines, E; Lyapunov, S M; Cherdintsev, V D; Romanov, S A; Samosadnyi, V T


    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and surface soil, collected in 1997-2001, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and radionuclides in the South Ural Mountains characterized by intense anthropogenic impact from various industries. A total of 38 elements in soil and 33 elements in moss were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elements Cu, Cd and Pb were determined in moss samples only by atomic absorption spectrometry. ^{90}Sr and ^{137}Cs activity was measured in surface soil samples also. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis and GIS maps of factor scores were used to identify and characterise different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas.

  2. Antibiotic Properties of the endophytic Streptomyces Spp. Isolated from the Leaves of Myanmar Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Pe; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Maung


    Three medicinal plants of Myanmar are selected in the study of endophytic microorganisms and are taxonomically classified and identified to be Sa-ba-lin (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.), Shazaungtinga- neah (Euphorbia splendens Bojer. ex Hooker) and Ma-shaw (Sauropus grandifolius Pax. and Hoffm.). The screening of endophytic microorganisms is performed according to the ISP method (International Streptomyces Projects 1993). The morphological and physicochemical properties of isolated strains are studied and identified to be the Genus Streptomyces. The test of apparent antimicrobial activity of isolated Streptomyces is done on 18 strains of pathogenic bacteria. It is found that the isolated endophytic Sireptomyces showed the significant antibacterial activity on most of the test organisms. (author)

  3. Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 (Nematoda, Camallanoidea in ornamental aquarium fishes: pathology and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Caldas Menezes


    Full Text Available The pathology induced by the nematode Camallanus cotti in the aquarium fishes Beta splendens (beta fish and Poecilia reticulata (guppy consisted of gross and microscopic lesions, the former characterized by abdominal swelling with reddish parasites protruding from the anus in both fish hosts and the latter, similar in the beta fishes and guppies, by hemorrhage, congestion, edema, a few glandular elements, and extensive erosion areas in the rectum mucosa, with a marked thickening of the wall and absence of inflammatory infiltrate. Lesions were associated with the presence of several worms attached to the wall or free in the rectal lumen. This is the second reference of the parasite in Brazil and the first report of pathological findings related to this nematode species that is also briefly redescribed and illustrated for the first time on the basis of Brazilian samples.

  4. Characterisation of seven Inocybe ectomycorrhizal morphotypes from a semiarid woody steppe. (United States)

    Seress, Diána; Dima, Bálint; Kovács, Gábor M


    Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) of Inocybe species (Inocybaceae, Basidiomycota) formed by three host plant species (Populus alba, Salix rosmarinifolia and Pinus nigra) in a semiarid woody steppe of Hungary were studied. To identify the fungal partners, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences for the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear DNA (nrDNA ITS) together with sequences gained from public databases. Seven Inocybe ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were morpho-anatomically characterised. Five morphotypes were identified (I. phaeoleuca, I. psammophila, I. semifulva, I. splendens and I. subporospora), whereas two morphotypes represented unidentified Inocybe species. Differences were discernible among the morphotypes, and they showed general anatomical characteristics of Inocybe ECM, such as the slightly organised plectenchymatic mantle (types A, B and E and the gelatinous C). The ECM of I. subporospora and I. phaeoleuca were detected from the introduced Pinus nigra. These two fungi are probably native to the area but capable of forming a novel ectomycorrhizal association with the invasive host.

  5. Effects of plant leachates from four boreal understorey species on soil N mineralization, and white spruce (Picea glauca) germination and seedling growth. (United States)

    Castells, Eva; Peñuelas, Josep; Valentine, David W


    Natural regeneration of white spruce (Picea glauca) after disturbance has been reported to be very poor. Here a study was made to determine whether C compounds released from understorey species growing together with white spruce could be involved in this regeneration failure, either by (1) changing soil nutrient dynamics, (2) inhibiting germination, and/or (3) delaying seedling growth. Foliage leachates were obtained from two shrubs (Ledum palustre and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and one bryophyte (Sphagnum sp.) with high phenolic compound concentrations that have been reported to depress growth of conifers in boreal forests, and, as a comparison, one bryophyte (Hylocomium splendens) with negligible phenolic compounds. Mineral soil from a white spruce forest was amended with plant leachates to examine the effect of each species on net N mineralization. Additionally, white spruce seeds and seedlings were watered with plant leachates to determine their effects on germination and growth. Leachates from the shrubs L. palustre and E. hermaphroditum contained high phenolic compound concentrations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), while no detectable levels of C compounds were released from the bryophytes Sphagnum sp. or H. splendens. A decrease in net N mineralization was determined in soils amended with L. palustre or E. hermaphroditum leachates, and this effect was inversely proportional to the phenolic concentrations, DOC and leachate C/N ratio. The total percentage of white spruce germination and the growth of white spruce seedlings were similar among treatments. These results suggest that the shrubs L. palustre and E. hermaphroditum could negatively affect the performance of white spruce due to a decrease in soil N availability, but not by direct effects on plant physiology.

  6. Molecular typing and phylogeny of Wolbachia: A study from Assam, North-Eastern part of India. (United States)

    Soni, Monika; Bhattacharya, Chandrakanta; Sharma, Jitendra; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla


    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, infecting 40-75% of arthropod species. Knowledge on distribution of native strains infecting mosquito vectors from endemic regions is essential for successful implementation of vector control interventions utilizing potential strains of Wolbachia. Study identified various native strains of Wolbachia inhabiting different mosquito species from field and colonised conditions of Assam. The fly Drosophila melanogaster was also included in our study. Different mosquito species collected from field viz; Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles annularis, Culex vishnui, Toxorhynchites splendens, Armegeries obturbans and fly Drosophila melanogaster were included in the study. Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were obtained from RMRC, Dibrugarh mosquito colony y for Wolbachia screening. DNA was extracted from these species, amplified using group specific wsp primers followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Aedes albopictus from Dibrugarh, Tinsukia and Sivasagar district showed superinfection with A and B group of Wolbachia but, Aedes albopictus from Tezpur district presented infection with A group only. Our study reports for the first time natural infection of Wolbachia A and B group from colonised Anopheles stephensi mosquito but reported no infection from field collected Anopheles hyrcanus or Anopheles annularis. Similarly Armigeres obturbans and Culex vishnui presented infection with only B group of Wolbachia. Drosophila melanogaster showed superinfection with A and B group. Toxorhynchites splendens, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus reported no infection with Wolbachia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on Wolbachia screening from Northeast part of India and also first report of natural Wolbachia infection from colonised Anopheles stephensi species. The current understanding on distribution of Wolbachia strains naturally present

  7. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh (United States)

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md. Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber


    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = −0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae. PMID:27241953

  8. The trophotaenial placenta of a viviparous goodeid fish. II. Ultrastructure of trophotaeniae, the embryonic component. (United States)

    Lombardi, J; Wourms, J P


    Embryos of the viviparous goodeid fish Ameca spendens develop within the ovarian lumen, where they establish a placental association with the maternal organism and undergo a 15,000% increase in embryonic dry weight. The placenta consists of an embryonic component, the trophotaeniae, and a maternal component, the internal ovarian epithelium. Examination with light microscopy and with transmission and scanning electron microscopy reveals that trophotaeniae of A. splendens are extraembryonic membranes consisting of five ribbon-like processes originating from a tube-like mass of tissue that extends outward from the perianal region of developing embryos. There are two sets of lateral processes and a longer single median process. Trophotaeniae possess an outer epithelium that surrounds a highly vascularized core of loose connective tissue. Epithelial cells possess apical microvilli and a pronounced endocytotic apparatus. Cells of the trophotaenial epithelium are either tightly apposed along their lateral margins or separated by enlarged intercellular spaces. Regions of the trophotaenial epithelium possessing enlarged intercellular spaces are distributed in patches. The trophotaenial epithelium is continuous with the embryonic hindgut epithelium and is considered to be derived from it. Comparison of trophotaenial morphology in A. splendens with that reported in Xenotoca eiseni reveals differences in histological organization. The former possess unsheathed trophotaeniae, whereas the latter are sheathed. We postulate that the apposition of trophotaenial epithelium to the internal ovarian epithelium constitutes a placental association equivalent to a noninvasive, epithelioform of an inverted yolk sac placenta. Structural relationships of embryonic and maternal tissues of the trophotaenial placenta are discussed in relation to maternal-embryonic nutrient transfer processes.

  9. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber


    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = -0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae.

  10. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes


    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  11. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae Assessment of moluscicidal activity of the latex of three Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae species on Leptinaria unilamellata d'Obigny 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Afonso-Neto


    Full Text Available Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri e Euphorbia tirucalli L. despertam atenção pelos excelentes resultados obtidos sobre moluscos aquáticos. Contudo, estudos sobre a atividade de plantas moluscicidas em moluscos terrestres são pouco comuns, apesar de sua grande importância parasitológica e agrícola. As semelhanças anatomo-fisiológicas entre espécies de moluscos aquáticos e terrestres sugerem que estratégias de controle químico possam ter eficiência semelhante para os dois grupos de invertebrados. Com base nessa hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies do gênero Euphorbia sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, gastrópode terrestre descrito como hospedeiro intermediário de helmintos trematódeos digenéticos que parasitam animais domésticos. Destas E. milii var. splendens apresentou efeito moluscicida elevado sobre L. unilamellata, 100% até uma diluição de 1:800, já nos primeiros minutos após a aplicação. Embora citadas na literatura como tóxicas para moluscos aquáticos, E. cotinifolia e E. tirucalli não exibiram atividade moluscicida sobre L. unilamellata. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o látex de E. milii var. splendens pode se constituir em uma estratégia viável de controle químico de moluscos terrestres.Pulmonate terrestrial gastropods can be intermediate hosts for helminthes. The first records of

  12. Eye movement control in reading: accounting for initial fixation locations and refixations within the E-Z Reader model. (United States)

    Reichle, E D; Rayner, K; Pollatsek, A


    Reilly and O'Regan (1998, Vision Research, 38, 303-317) used computer simulations to evaluate how well several different word-targeting strategies could account for results which show that the distributions of fixation locations in reading are systematically related to low-level oculomotor variables, such as saccade distance and launch site [McConkie, Kerr, Reddix & Zola, (1988). Vision Research, 28, 1107-1118]. Their simulation results suggested that fixation locations are primarily determined by word length information, and that the processing of language, such as the identification of words, plays only a minimal role in deciding where to move the eyes. This claim appears to be problematic for our model of eye movement control in reading, E-Z Reader [Rayner, Reichle & Pollatsek (1998). Eye movement control in reading: an overview and model. In G. Underwood, Eye guidance in reading and scene perception (pp. 243-268). Oxford, UK: Elsevier; Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher & Rayner (1998). Psychological Review, 105, 125-157], because it assumes that lexical access is the engine that drives the eyes forward during reading. However, we show that a newer version of E-Z Reader which still assumes that lexical access is the engine driving eye movements also predicts the locations of fixations and within-word refixations, and therefore provides a viable framework for understanding how both linguistic and oculomotor variables affect eye movements in reading.

  13. King Lear Reveals the Tragic Pattern of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Eflih Al-Ibia


    Full Text Available Rather than focusing on the obvious traditions of evaluating Shakespearean tragic heroes, this paper presents a groundbreaking approach to unfold the pattern William Shakespeare follows as he designed his unique characters. This pattern applies to most, if not all, Shakespearean tragic heroes. I argue that Shakespeare himself reveals a great portion of this pattern on the tongue of Lear as the latter disowns Goneril and Regan promising to have “such revenges on [them] both” in King Lear. Lear’s threats bestow four unique aspects that apply not only to his character but they also apply to Shakespearean tragic heroes. Lear’s speech tells us that he is determined to have an awful type of revenge on his daughters. However, the very same speech tells us that he seems uncertain about the method through which he should carry out this revenge. Lear does not express any type of remorse as he pursues his vengeful plans nor should he aim at amnesty. He also admits his own madness as he closes his revealing speech. This research develops these facts about Lear to unfold the unique pattern Shakespeare follows as he portrayed his major tragic figures. This pattern is examined, described and analyzed in King Lear, Othello, and Hamlet. We will find out that the pattern suggested in this study helps us better understand Shakespeare’s tragedies and enables us to provide better explanations for some controversial scenes in the tragedies discussed.

  14. LLE Review 98 (January-March 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V.N.


    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2004, features ''Performance of 1-THz-Bandwidth, 2-D Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion and Polarization Smoothing of High-Power, Solid-State Laser Beams'', by S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V.A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel (p. 49). Laser-beam smoothing achieved with 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA laser system is reported. These beam-smoothing techniques are directly applicable to direct-drive ignition target designs for the 192-beam, 1.8-MJ, 351-nm National Ignition Facility. Equivalent-target-plane images for constant-intensity laser pulses of varying duration were used to determine the smoothing. The properties of the phase plates, frequency modulators, and birefringent wedges were simulated and found to be in good agreement with the measurements.

  15. The efficacy of hyoscine hydrobromide in reducing side-effects induced during immersion in virtual reality. (United States)

    Regan, E C; Ramsey, A D


    Regan and Price (1994) investigated the frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of using an immersion virtual reality system in 150 subjects: 61% of the subjects reported symptoms of malaise at some point during a 20-min immersion and 10-min post-immersion period. This paper describes a double-blind placebo-controlled study that investigated whether 300 microgram of hyoscine/scopolamine hydrobromide administered to subjects prior to immersion in virtual reality was effective in reducing side-effects experienced during immersion. It was hypothesized that the hyoscine hydrobromide would cause a significant reduction in reported symptoms. We administered 300 micrograms of hyoscine hydrobromide to 19 subjects, and 20 subjects were administered a placebo compound 40 min prior to a 20-min immersion in VR. Data on malaise were collected using a simulator sickness questionnaire and a malaise scale. A 2 x 2 Chi-square analysis comparing the numbers of subjects reporting no symptoms on the malaise scale with those reporting some symptoms in the placebo and hyoscine conditions showed the differences between the two groups to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level (Chi-square = 7.392 with 1 df, p = 0.007). This difference was clearly in the direction of fewer symptoms being reported in the hyoscine condition. The results of the study showed that the hyoscine was effective in reducing symptoms that are commonly observed during immersion in virtual reality.

  16. Implementing the Kyoto protocol - chances and challenges for transition countries. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodi, M. (ed.)


    Within the scope of the Proceedings of the Summer Academy ''Energy and the Environment'' with the title ''Implementing the Kyoto Protocol - Chances and Challenges for Transition Countries'', held between August 21st and 27th, 2005, at Irkutsk (Russia), the following lectures were held: (a) Ethical Orientation for Climate Change Policies (Konrad Ott); (b) The Future of the climate regime: How does the institutional design matter? (Dirk Hanschel); (c) Challenges in CO{sub 2}-Data-Gathering: the German example (Camilla Bausch, Christine Luche); (d) The flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (Michael A. Mehling); (e) The linking directive and Russia (Javier de Cendra de Larragan); (f) Circular Economy and the clean development mechanism: An option for China's sustainable development? (Michael Knaus, Bernadette O'Regan); (g) Russian Green Investment Schemes: A background and practical examples (Anna Korppoo, Irina Lyanguzova); (h) Emissions trading and joint implementation: An economic assessment if the implementation strategy from the Russian viewpoint (Yuri Safonov, Janine Rechel); (i) Russia and the Kyoto Protocol: How to meet the challenges and not miss the opportunities (Mikhail A. Yulkin); (j) Roadmapping Kyoto: Energy efficiency in Russia and Ukraine (Aleksandra Novikova, Anastasiya Timoshyna); (k) Message from Siberia: A barrier analysis.

  17. Comparison of alkylating agent and radiation carcinogenesis: some aspects of the possible involvement of effects on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawley, P.D.


    A series of alkylating agents was classified in terms of increasing relative ability to react at O-atom sites in DNA, MMS 6 -alkylguanines are directly miscoding bases. This series of agents was also used in a study of comparative carcinogenicity with respect to induction of thymic lymphoma in mice, a system in which x-irradiation yields tumors. A positive correlation between ability of agents to alkylate O-6 of guanine in DNA of thymus and carcinogenic potency was found. Although MMS was not active in this system, it was noted that it can induce tumors in other systems. The relationship between repair of alkylation and radiation induced damage in DNA was briefly discussed. The methylating agents induce single-strand breaks in DNA, and the principal repair system appears to fall into the category of short repair as denoted by Regan and Setlow (1974). These single-strand breaks may result from spontaneous hydrolytic depurinations of 3- and 7-methylpurines, or from enzymatic depurinations, e.g., of 3-alkyladenine and O 6 -alkylguanine. Aralkylating agents, which are also carcinogens, can evoke an alternative repair response of the uvr type

  18. Nanostructured Semiconductor Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cavallo


    Full Text Available Since O’Regan and Grätzel’s first report in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs appeared immediately as a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology. In fact, though being far less efficient than conventional silicon-based photovoltaics (being the maximum, lab scale prototype reported efficiency around 13%, the simple design of the device and the absence of the strict and expensive manufacturing processes needed for conventional photovoltaics make them attractive in small-power applications especially in low-light conditions, where they outperform their silicon counterparts. Nanomaterials are at the very heart of DSSC, as the success of its design is due to the use of nanostructures at both the anode and the cathode. In this review, we present the state of the art for both n-type and p-type semiconductors used in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs, showing the evolution of the materials during the 25 years of history of this kind of devices. In the case of p-type semiconductors, also some other energy conversion applications are touched upon.

  19. Potential of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to Predict Copper Toxicity in the White-Water of the Solimões-Amazon River. (United States)

    Pont, Giorgi Dal; Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez; Fernandes-de-Castilho, Marisa; Val, Adalberto Luis


    In this study, we evaluated the capacity of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to predict copper toxicity in white-waters of the Solimões-Amazon River. LC 50 tests using the species Otocinclus vittatus (Regan, 1904) were performed with Solimões-Amazon river water (100%) at 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% dilutions. A sevenfold decrease in both dissolved and total Cu toxicity was observed in the experiment conducted with 100% when compared to 20% white-water, indicating that physicochemical characteristics of white-water attenuate Cu toxicity. There was agreement between the observed LC 50 and the LC 50 predicted by the BLM after the adjustment of critical accumulation concentration (LA 50 ) for O. vittatus. BLM modeling indicated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH were the most important water parameters influencing Cu toxicity, followed by Ca 2+ . Our results highlight the first evidence that the BLM presents potential to predict Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms in the white-water of the Solimões-Amazon River.

  20. Optical, electrical and electrochemical evaluation of sputtered platinum counter electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Moraes, R. S.; Saito, E.; Leite, D. M. G.; Massi, M.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.


    Since Grätzel and O'Regan started in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been extensively studied around the world. In addition to increasing efficiency, their characteristics such as low cost materials and inexpensive manufacturing processes are attractive for organic solar cells. Several parts of DSSC devices are being researched such as semiconductor engineering, low cost counter electrodes, electrolytes, and dyes. In this work, platinum (Pt) thin films were deposited by sputtering technique to produce counter electrodes for DSSC. The films were characterized by profilometry, elipsometry, four-point probe sheet resistance, spectrophotometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response was also compared to that built from a commercial platinum solution. The results allow us to determine the minimum Pt film thickness necessary to achieve a relevant reduction of the sheet resistance and charge transfer resistance, which preserve a significant electrode transparency. The 22 nm and 24.8 nm thick films combined low charge transfer resistance and good transparency. The 122 nm Pt film presented the lowest charge transfer resistance.

  1. The species of Hemiancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador. (United States)

    Provenzano R, Francisco; Barriga S, Ramiro


    At the Fish Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, three species traditionally grouped in the genus Hemiancistrus were identified: H. annectens (Regan 1904), H. landoni Eigenmann 1916, and a new specie described here. The new species inhabits exclusively in the Esmeraldas River Basin, Pacific slope, northwestern Ecuador. It is easily recognized by the completely naked abdomen, with rounded, dark spots, and a different color pattern on the dorsal and caudal fins. A comparative analysis of bones related to the opercular mobility, shows important differences between H. annectens, H. landoni, and the new species, suggesting that H. annectens does not belong to the genus Hemiancistrus or the Ancistrini group. According to the characteristics observed in these bones, H. annectens shows greater similarity to those reported in species of the Hypostomini group, supporting its inclusion in this group, but placing it in the genus Hypostomus requires further analysis. On the other hand, the conditions observed on the bones of Hemiancistrus landoni and the new species suggest that both are inside of the Ancistrini group. The new species is placed in the genus Hemiancistrus tentatively, pending future analysis.

  2. Ética prática contemporânea. Uma abordagem crítica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia T. Felipe


    Full Text Available Sete estudantes de pós-graduação mostram nesse número especial da Ethic@, a relevância filosófica do estudo das abordagens éticas de Singer e de Regan, sobre interesses e direitos de seres sencientes e sujeitos de uma vida, não-humanos. Os artigos aqui apresentados representam uma espécie de quebra do silêncio e da indiferença quando se trata de interesses não antropocêntricos, tradicionalmente ignorados por filósofos morais ao redor do planeta, e especialmente no Brasil, onde os animais normalmente são considerados objetos de propriedade. No Departamento de Filosofia da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brasil, os estudantes têm a oportunidade de investigar teorias morais que representam uma abordagem crítica de dogmas morais conservadores, defendidos por filósofos morais por séculos mundo afora. Os artigos escritos por essas e esses jovens estudantes mostram que se pode esperar, mesmo no âmbito filosófico, romper o conservadorismo moral estimulandoos a pensarem sobre coisas que têm sido silenciadas para proteger interesses humanos enquanto os dos animais são violados.


    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A


    Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Do valor da vida senciente e autoconsciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Consenso Tonetto


    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho é analisar a posição assumida por Peter Singer em relação à questão do valor da vida dos seres humanos e não-humanos. Reconstruo, primeiramente, a argumentação desenvolvida por Singer no artigo Animals and Value of Life no qual questiona se é moralmente correto tirar a vida de animais para fins de nutrição ou experimentação. Analiso, em segundo lugar, diferentes posições, a saber: algumas tradições religiosas; os filósofos clássicos: René Descartes e Jeremy Bentham; os filósofos contemporâneos: Tom Regan e Michael Tooley; as filósofas feministas: Nel Noodings e Carol Gilligan. Finalmente, avalio criticamente o conceito de pessoa utilizado por Singer e sua posição em relação aos animais não-humanos.

  5. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.


    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  6. Habitat use by desert bighorn sheep in sonora, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarango, L. A.


    Full Text Available The use of habitat components by desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis was examined to explain sexual segregation of sheep in Sierra el Viejo, Sonora, Mexico. We evaluated 265 plots used by bighorns and 278 random plots from April 1997 to December 1998. Groups of segregated males and females preferred the elephant tree (Bursera microphylla-salvia (Salvia mellifera-limber bush (Jatropha cuneata association (ESL and avoided the foothill palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum-desert ironwood (Olneya tesota association (FDD. Segregated females selected the ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens-desert agave (Agave spp.yhop bush (Dodonoea viscosa (OAH vegetation association, formed larger groups, were closer to escape terrain, and occupied more rugged areas during autumn and spring than males. Segregated females selected areas that provided more opportunities to evade predation than did males.

    Nous avons étudié les différents composants de l'utilisation de l'habitat par le mouflon américain (Ovis canadensis afin d'expliquer sa ségrégation sexuelle dans la Sierra el Viejo, à Sonora, Mexique. D'avril 1997 à Décembre 1998, on a évalué 265 parcelles utilisées par les mouflons et 278 parcelles au hasard. Différents groupes séparés de mâles et femelles préféraient l'association (ESL formée par l'arbre Bursera microphylla, la sauge (Salvia mellifera et l'arbuste Jatropa cuneata et ils évitaient l'association (FDD composée du Cercidium microphyllum et /'Olneya tesota. Les groupes de femelles sélectionaient l'association végétale (OAH de Fouquieria splendens. Agave spp. et l'arbuste Dodonoea viscosa; et par rapport aux mâles, elles formaient de plus grands groupes, étaient plus proches de la zone de fuite et elles occupaient des terrains plus accidentés en automne et au printemps. Les groupes de femelles, plus que les

  7. Impacts of long-term enhanced UV-B radiation on bryophytes in two sub-Arctic heathland sites of contrasting water availability. (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, M; Gwynn-Jones, D; Callaghan, T V; Núñez-Olivera, E; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Horton, P; Phoenix, G K


    Anthropogenic depletion of stratospheric ozone in Arctic latitudes has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) reaching the biosphere. UV-B exposure is known to reduce above-ground biomass and plant height, to increase DNA damage and cause accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds in polar plants. However, many studies on Arctic mosses tended to be inconclusive. The importance of different water availability in influencing UV-B impacts on lower plants in the Arctic has been poorly explored and might partially explain the observed wide variation of responses, given the importance of water in controlling bryophyte physiology. This study aimed to assess the long-term responses of three common sub-Arctic bryophytes to enhanced UV-B radiation (+UV-B) and to elucidate the influence of water supply on those responses. Responses of three sub-Arctic bryophytes (the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Polytrichum commune and the liverwort Barbilophozia lycopodioides) to +UV-B for 15 and 13 years were studied in two field experiments using lamps for UV-B enhancement with identical design and located in neighbouring areas with contrasting water availability (naturally mesic and drier sites). Responses evaluated included bryophyte abundance, growth, sporophyte production and sclerophylly; cellular protection by accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds, β-carotene, xanthophylls and development of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ); and impacts on photosynthesis performance by maximum quantum yield (F(v) /F(m)) and electron transport rate (ETR) through photosystem II (PSII) and chlorophyll concentrations. Responses were species specific: H. splendens responded most to +UV-B, with reduction in both annual growth (-22 %) and sporophyte production (-44 %), together with increased β-carotene, violaxanthin, total chlorophyll and NPQ, and decreased zeaxanthin and de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pool (DES). Barbilophozia lycopodioides responded less to +UV-B, showing

  8. Myxomycetes do Canavial I: levantamento florístico em Carpina - Pernambuco Myxomycetes of sugar-cane plantation I: foristic survey in Carpina - Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Jucene dos Santos


    Full Text Available Durante um ano investigou-se a ocorrência, freqüência e constância de Myxomycetes em um canavial da Estação Experimental do PLANALSUCAR, em Carpina-PE. As observações foram efetuadas nos meses de março, junho, setembro e dezembro, correspondentes a diferentes etapas do cultivo da cana-de-açúcar. Numa área de 1.134m2, observou-se um total de 40 touceiras, em cada mês de coletas, examinando-se folhas, colmos e raízes (vivos ou mortos, bem como a superfície do solo. Foram registradas oito espécies, todas pertencentes à subclasse Myxogastromycetidae: Cribraria splendens (Schr. Pers. (Liceales; Arcyria cinerea (Buli. Pers., A. deruidata (L. Wett. e Trichia favoginea (Batsch. Pers. (Trichiales; Craterirum leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar, Physarumnucleatum Ré x, P. nutans Pers. e P. cf. pezizoideum (Jung. Pav. & Lag. (Physarales. No levantamento efetuado, a espécie mais freqüente foi C. leucocephalum (70,4%, as demais sendo de ocorrência rara (7,4 - 3,7%. Nenhuma espécie foi classificada como constante no canavial; C. leucocephalum foi registrada como acessória e as outras espécies como acidentais.Myxomycetes from sugar-cane plantation I - Floristic Survey. Occurrence, frequence and constancy of Myxomycetes has been investigated on a sugar-cane plantation of the Experimental Station PLANALSUCAR, in Carpina, Pernambuco. The observations were carried out in March, June, September and December corresponding to differents stages of sugar-cane culture. Within an area of 1134m²/40 individuals were sampred at each month of collection. Their leaves, stems and roots (alive or dead as well as soil surface were all examined. Eight species were recorded, all belonging to the subclass Myxogastromycetidae: Cribraria splendens (Schr. Pers. (Liceales; Arcyriacinerea (Bull. Pers., A. denudata (L. Wett, and Tricchia favoginea (Batsch. Pers. (Trichiales; Craterium leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar, Physarum nucleatum Rex, P. nutans Pers. and. P. cf

  9. Digestibilidade de alimentos protéicos e energéticos para fêmeas de beta Digestibility of protein feedstuffs and energetic feedstuffs for female beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon


    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, energia bruta (EB e EE de alimentos protéicos (farelo de soja e farinha de peixe e energéticos (fubá de milho e farelo de trigo para beta (Betta splendens. Fêmeas adultas foram alojadas em gaiolas e mantidas em dois aquários de fibra de vidro (30 peixes/aquário para alimentação e dois para coleta de fezes, ambos de formato cônico e com capacidade para 30 L. Os resultados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, PB, EB e EE foram, respectivamente, de 69,43; 72,52; 67,91 e 55,50% para farelo de soja; 60,67; 51,15; 75,55 e 58,26% para farinha de peixe; 63,88; 87,16; 77,61 e 50,40% para fubá de milho; e 61,06; 93,37; 58,17 e 65,51% para farelo de trigo. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitem otimizar a formulação de dietas práticas balanceadas, economicamente viáveis para a espécie.Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and ether extract from protein feeds: soybean meal and fish meal and from energy feeds: corn and wheat middlings were evaluated for Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens. Adult female fish were stocked in cages and held in two fiberglass aquaria (30 fish/aquarium for feeding and two aquaria for collect fecal samples, both with conic shape with 30L. The results of apparent digestibility coefficients for DM, CP, GE and EE were respectively 69.43, 72.52, 67.91 and 55.50% for soybean meal; 60.67, 51.15, 75.55 and 58.26% for fish meal; 63.88, 87.16, 77.61 and 50.40% for corn and 61.06, 93.37, 58.17 and 65.51% for wheat middlings. The determined digestibility values are essential to economically viable practical diet formulation for Siamese fish fighting.

  10. Demersal fish assemblages off the Seine and Sedlo seamounts (northeast Atlantic) (United States)

    Menezes, Gui M.; Rosa, Alexandra; Melo, Octávio; Pinho, Mário R.


    hypothesis [Isaacs, J.D., Schwartzlose, R.A., 1965. Migrant sound scatterers: interaction with the sea floor. Science 150, 1810-1813]. At both seamounts mesopelagic feeders (e.g., Beryx splendens) dominate the upper-slope assemblages (1300 m) were dominated by squaliform species (e.g., Centrophorus squamosus, Centroscymnus coelolepis, Etmopterus princeps) along with Mora moro or the Antimora rostrata. The lower abundance of C. squamosus observed at Seine may be a result of the fishing activities in the area, since the species is an important by-catch of the black-scabbard fish fishery in the Madeira archipelago. The slightly higher predominance of scavenger species at Seine in deeper assemblages may be the result of an ecological response favouring this functional group in lower productivity regimes. Especially relevant was the record of large reproductive aggregations of B. splendens and Epigonus telescopus found at the edge of the Sedlo plateau.

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report July-September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2000, begins with an article by T. R. Boehly, V. N. Goncharov, O. Gotchev, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, S. P. Regan, Y. Srebro, W. Seka, D. Shvarts, S. Skupsky, and V.A. Smalyuk, who describe measurements of the effect of beam smoothing and pulse shape on imprinting. (Imprinting is defined as the imposition of pressure perturbations on the target by spatial variations in the laser intensity.) A principal result is the observation of reduced levels of imprint with the higher beam smoothing afforded by 1-THz smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Additional highlights of research presented in this issue are: (1) P. W. McKenty, V. N. Goncharov, R. P. J. Town, S. Skupsky, R. Betti, and R. L. McCrory describe calculations of directly driven ignition capsule performance on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The authors detail how the various contributors to implosion disruption (laser imprint, power imbalance, and target roughness) affect target performance and final gain. The conclusions are obtained by examining the simulated target evolution with the two-dimensional hydrodynamics computer code ORCHID. (2) D. D. Meyerhofer, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. Keck, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, F. J. Marshall, P. B. Radha, S. P. Regan, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, C. Sorce, C. Stoeckl, J. M. Soures, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, J. D. Zuegel, J. Frenje, C. K. L1,R. D. Petrasso, F. Seguin, K. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, R. Lerche, T. W. Phillips, and T. C. Sangster describe the results of a series of direct-drive implosions of gas-fusion-fuel-filled plastic shells performed on the OMEGA laser system. The experiments include those performed with 1-THZ SSD and high-quality power balance. (3) V. Yu. Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel describe the technique of measuring secondary neutron yield (DT neutron yield from D

  12. Humans, Animals, and Aristotle. Aristotelian Traces in the Current Critique of Moral Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Huth


    Full Text Available The concept of moral individualism is part of the foundational structure of most prominent modern moral philosophies. It rests on the assumption that moral obligations towards a respective individual are constituted solely by her or his capacities. Hence, these obligations are independent of any ἔθος (ethos, of any shared ethical sense and social significations. The moral agent and the individual with moral status (who is the target of a respective action are construed as subjects outside of any social relation or lifeworld significations. This assumption has been contested in the last decades by diverse authors with very different approaches to moral philosophy. In the last years, an increasing number of philosophers like Cora Diamond and Alice Crary (with a Wittgensteinian background, but also phenomenologists like Paul Ricœur, Klaus Held, and Bernhard Waldenfels question the presupposition that individual capacities are the agent-neutral and context-neutral ground of moral considerations. This critique of moral individualism in different contemporary discourses shows a striking similarity between Wittgensteinian and phenomenological philosophers as their critical inquiry of prominent theories like the ones by Immanuel Kant, John Rawls, Peter Singer or Tom Regan is derived from mostly implicitly efficacious Aristotelian theorems. Telling examples are the ἔθος (ethos as pre-given normative infrastructure, the ἕξις (hexis as individual internalization of the ethos, the φρόνησις (phronesis described as a specific practical know-how in contrast to scientific knowledge, and not at least the definition of the human being as ζῷον πολιτικόν (zoon politikon. However, the Aristotelian sources of this movement have not yet been scrutinized systematically. This paper aims, first, to reveal the significance of these sources to make them visible and, second, to contribute to the notion of the topicality of Aristotelian

  13. A new species of Auriculostoma (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from the intestine of Brycon guatemalensis (Characiformes: Bryconidae) from the Usumacinta River Basin, Mexico, based on morphology and 28S rDNA sequences, with a key to species of the genus. (United States)

    Hernández-Mena, David Iván; Lynggaard, Christina; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce


    We describe a new species of Auriculostoma Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004 based on several sources of information including morphology (light and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), sequences of two nuclear genes, host association, and geographical distribution. Morphologically, the new species most closely resembles Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo & Choudhury, 2004, but differs by having deeply lobated testes and cirrus-sac extending posteriorly to seminal receptacle level. Auriculostoma lobata n. sp. can be readily distinguished from all the other congeners by the combination of the following characters: testes located in tandem, testes deeply lobated, and larger body size. A phylogenetic analysis using 28S rDNA sequences along with those available for other allocreadiid trematodes, revealed that the new species is a sister taxon of A. astyanace, a species described from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier) in Nicaragua. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis Razo-Mendivil, Mendoza-Garfias, Pérez-Ponce de León & Rubio-Godoy, 2014 from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi) in Mexico is the sister taxon of A. astyanace plus the new species. Genetic divergence levels for the 28S rDNA and ITS2 were estimated among the Middle-American species of Auriculostoma infecting characiforms. The validity of the new species is then established by reliable morphological differences, its host association to bryconids (Brycon guatemalensis Regan), restricted geographical distribution (Usumacinta and Lacantun River basins), and genetic divergence levels, albeit relatively low. A morphometric comparison between the new species and the other seven congeneric species was undertaken and, in addition, a taxonomic key to identify the species contained in the genus Auriculostoma, widely distributed across the Americas, is provided.

  14. Non-Canonical Hedgehog Signaling Is a Positive Regulator of the WNT Pathway and Is Required for the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Regan


    Full Text Available Summary: Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. To study CSCs in colon cancer, we used limiting dilution spheroid and serial xenotransplantation assays to functionally define the frequency of CSCs in a panel of patient-derived cancer organoids. These studies demonstrated cancer organoids to be enriched for CSCs, which varied in frequency between tumors. Whole-transcriptome analysis identified WNT and Hedgehog signaling components to be enhanced in CSC-enriched tumors and in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-positive CSCs. Canonical GLI-dependent Hedgehog signaling is a negative regulator of WNT signaling in normal intestine and intestinal tumors. Here, we show that Hedgehog signaling in colon CSCs is autocrine SHH-dependent, non-canonical PTCH1 dependent, and GLI independent. In addition, using small-molecule inhibitors and RNAi against SHH-palmitoylating Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT, we demonstrate that non-canonical Hedgehog signaling is a positive regulator of WNT signaling and required for colon CSC survival. : Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation(s of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs. Regan et al. use 3D culture models to demonstrate that CSC survival is regulated by non-canonical, SHH-dependent, PTCH1-dependent Hedgehog signaling, which acts as a positive regulator of WNT signaling to block CSC differentiation. Keywords: WNT pathway, non-canonical Hedgehog signaling, cancer stem cell, colon cancer, cancer organoid, PTCH1, HHAT, SHH

  15. Gamma irradiation for disinfestation of salted and dried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.


    About 60-70% of commercially salted and dried fish were found to be infested by flies of 6 different species, i.e. the Cheese skipper (Piophila casei, L.) the Bronze bottle fly (Paenicia cuprina), the Screw worm fly (Chrysomya megacephala, Fab.), the Red-tailed flesh fly (Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, Fallen), Lucilia illustris, Meigen and Chrysomya marginalis, Weidemann. Larvae of the Cheese skipper were found to be the least radiation-sensitive, as 225 krad was required to prevent 99% of the larvae from developing into pupae. This dose was completely lethal to other developmental stages of the Cheese skipper and to all stages of other species. Irradiation at this doselevel also has some beneficial microbiological effects. Doses between 3 and 12,5 krad prevented larvae of all insects mentioned above from reaching the adult stage, though they did not inhibit the transition into the pupal form. No significant difference was observed on the organoleptic properties between salted and dried mackerel and Pla salid (Trichogaster pectoralis, Regan), a fresh water fish, irradiated up to 300 krad and those of untreated samples when tested up to 6 months of storage time at room temperature. Polypropylene bags of 0,13 and 0,20 mm thickness and polyethylene bags of 0,20 mm thickness could prevent re-infestation of the samples. Transportation tests by truck for a distance of 800 km revealed that both polypropylene and polyethylene bags of 0,13 and 0,20 mm thickness were suitable to package the mackerel samples but only polypropylene bags of 0,20 mm thickness were sufficient to protect the Pla salid samples. It appeared that salted and dried mackerel irradiated up to 300 krad and stored for 4 months was not considered rancid. No change in fat, protein and ash contents of irradiated samples was observed. It was concluded that gamma irradation could be considered as an effective method for disinfesting and preserving salted and dried fish. (author)

  16. The eXtraordinarY Kids Clinic: an interdisciplinary model of care for children and adolescents with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartaglia N


    Full Text Available Nicole Tartaglia,1,2 Susan Howell,1,2 Rebecca Wilson,2 Jennifer Janusz,1,2 Richard Boada,1,2 Sydney Martin,2 Jacqueline B Frazier,2 Michelle Pfeiffer,2 Karen Regan,2 Sarah McSwegin,2 Philip Zeitler1,2 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Child Development Unit, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Purpose: Individuals with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs are born with an atypical number of X and/or Y chromosomes, and present with a range of medical, developmental, educational, behavioral, and psychological concerns. Rates of SCA diagnoses in infants and children are increasing, and there is a need for specialized interdisciplinary care to address associated risks. The eXtraordinarY Kids Clinic was established to provide comprehensive and experienced care for children and adolescents with SCA, with an interdisciplinary team composed of developmental–behavioral pediatrics, endocrinology, genetic counseling, child psychology, pediatric neuropsychology, speech–language pathology, occupational therapy, nursing, and social work. The clinic model includes an interdisciplinary approach to care, where assessment results by each discipline are integrated to develop unified diagnostic impressions and treatment plans individualized for each patient. Additional objectives of the eXtraordinarY Kids Clinic program include prenatal genetic counseling, research, education, family support, and advocacy. Methods: Satisfaction surveys were distributed to 496 patients, and responses were received from 168 unique patients. Results: Satisfaction with the overall clinic visit was ranked as “very satisfied” in 85%, and as “satisfied” in another 9.8%. Results further demonstrate specific benefits from the clinic experience, the importance of a knowledgeable clinic coordinator, and support the need for similar clinics across the country. Three case examples of the interdisciplinary approach to assessment and

  17. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2001). Volume 86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sources, John M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics


    This volume of LLE Review, covering January-March 2001, includes a report on the characterization of direct-drive implosion core conditions using time-resolved Ar K-shell spectroscopy. This work was carried out by a team that included S. P. Regan, J. A. Delettrez, P. A. Jaanimagi, B. Yaakobi, V. A. Smalyuk, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, and W. Seka of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester; D. A. Haynes, Jr. of the Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin; and C. F. Hooper, Jr. of the Department of Physics, University of Florida. The experiments involved the implosion of polymer shells filled with Ar-doped deuterium gas driven with up to 24-kJ, 1-ns square laser pulses smoothed with 1-THz, 2-D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS). The emissivity-averaged core electron temperature and density were inferred from the measured time-dependent Ar K-shell spectral line shapes. Electron densities in excess of 2.5 × 1024 cm-3 and electron temperatures ~2.5 keV were measured in these experiments. This represents the highest combination of electron temperature and density measured for these types of implosions in laser-driven inertial fusion experiments. Other articles in this volume are titled: Study of Direct-Drive, DT-Gas-Filled-Plastic-Capsule Implosions Using Nuclear Diagnostics on OMEGA; A Consistent Measurement-Based Picture of Core-Mix in Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA; High-Resolution Neutron Imaging of Laser-Imploded DT Targets; The Smoothing Performance of Ultrafast Pickets on the NIF; Tests of EXAFS on OMEGA: Feasibility for Shock Heating Measurements; and, Microhardness and Indention Fracture of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP).

  18. Concetration and Distribution of Depleted Uranium (DU) and Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Air on Illeginni Island at Kwajalein Atoll after the Final Land-Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Martinelli, R E; Gouveia, F J; Kehl, S R; Lindman, T R; Yakuma, S C


    Re-entry vehicles on missiles launched from Vandenberg Air Force base in California re-enter at the Western Test Range, the Regan Test Site (RTS) at Kwajalein Atoll. An Environmental Assessment (EA) was written at the beginning of the program to assess potential impact of DU and Be, the major RV materials of interest from a health and environmental perspective, for both ocean and land impacts. The chemical and structural form of Be and DU in RVs is such that they are insoluble in soil water and seawater. Thus, they are not toxic to plant life on the isalnd (no soil to plant uptake.) Similarly, due to their insolubility in sea water there is no uptake of either element by fish, mollusks, shellfish, sea mammals, etc. No increase in either element has been observed in sea life around Illeginnin Island where deposition of DU and Be has occured. The critical terrestrial exposure pathway for U and Be is inhalation. Concentration of both elements in air over the test period (1989 to 2006) is lower by a factor of nearly 10,000 than the most restrictive U.S. guideline for the general public. Uranium concentrations in air are also lower by factors of 10 to 100 than concentrations of U in air in the U.S. measured by the EPA (Keith et al., 1999). U and Be concentrations in air downwind of deposition areas on Illeginni Island are essentially indistinguishable from natural background concentrations of U in air at the atolls. Thus, there are no health related issues associated with people using the island.

  19. Nuclear astrophysics: a new era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiescher, Michael; Aprahamian, Ani [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame (United States); Regan, Paddy [Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)


    The latest generation of radioactive-ion-beam facilities promises to shed light on the complex nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars and stellar explosions. The most fundamental question in nature is where do we come from, or, put another way, what are we made of? The late Carl Sagan poetically said that we are all made of stardust, but the origin of the elements has fascinated scientists for thousands of years. Many of the greatest medieval and renaissance scientists dabbled in alchemy, trying to create the elements that make up the cosmos, but we had to wait until the early 20th century to recognize that elements are really defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. According to our current understanding, after the big bang most of the normal or baryonic material in the universe consisted of the lightest two elements, hydrogen and helium, with only trace amounts of lithium and beryllium. All the heavier elements that occur naturally on Earth were created from this original material via a series of nuclear reactions in the cores of stars or in stellar explosions. Over the last decade, ground-based telescopes and satellite-based Observatories have opened new windows on the stars across the electromagnetic spectrum, from infrared to gamma radiation. New technology now makes it possible to observe and analyse short-lived stellar explosions. Indeed, the distribution of elements in 'planetary nebula' and in the ejecta of supernovae and novae give a direct glimpse of individual nucleosynthesis processes. In the February issue of Physics World, Michael Wiescher, Paddy Regan and Ani Aprahamian describe how sate-of-the-art facilities are set to plug many of the gaps in our understanding of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)

  20. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali


    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  1. The feeding habits of the eyespot skate Atlantoraja cyclophora (Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra da Fonseca Viana


    Full Text Available The stomach contents of the eyespot skate, Atlantoraja cyclophora (Regan, 1903, were examined with the goal to provide information about the diet of the species. Samples were collected off the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, near Ilha Grande, between January 2006 and August 2007, at a depth of about 60 m. The diet was analyzed by sex, maturity stages and quarterly to verify differences in the importance of food items. The latter were analyzed by: frequency of occurrence, percentage of weight and in the Alimentary Index. The trophic niche width was determined to assess the degree of specialization in the diet. Additionally, the degree of dietary overlap between males and females; juveniles and adults and periods of the year were defined. A total of 59 individuals of A. cyclophora were captured. Females and adults were more abundant. The quarters with the highest concentrations of individuals were in the summer of the Southern Hemisphere: Jan-Feb-Mar 06 and Jan-Feb-Mar 07. Prey items were classed into five main groups: Crustacea, Teleosts, Elasmobranchs, Polychaeta, and Nematoda. The most important groups in the diet of the eyespot skate were Crustacea and Teleosts. The crab Achelous spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871 was the most important item. The value of the niche width was small, indicating that a few food items are important. The comparison of the diet between males and females and juveniles and adults indicates a significant overlap between the sexes and stages of maturity; and according to quarters, the importance of prey groups differed (crustaceans were more important in the quarters of the summer and teleost in Jul-Aug-Sep and Oct-Nov-Dec 06, indicating seasonal differences in diet composition. Three groups with similar diets were formed in the cluster analysis: (Jan-Feb-Mar 06 and 07; (Apr-May-Jun 06 and Jul-Aug-Sep 07; (Jul-Aug-Sep 06 and Oct-Nov-Dec 06.

  2. Biogeographic evaluation of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana-Bria, L.


    Full Text Available Insects are one of the most diverse groups of animals in terrestrial ecosystems, and are thus a good model system to study macrogeographic patterns in species’ distributions. Here we perform a biogeographical analysis of the dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian Country (Eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the species present in this territory with those in the adjacent territories of Catalonia and Aragon, and with those present in the whole Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we update the list of species of dragonflies and damselflies in the Valencian territory (65 species, and discuss the current status of two of them: Macromia splendens and Lindenia tetraphylla. Our results highlight that the Valencian Country has a higher proportion of Ethiopian elements but a lower proportion of Eurosiberian elements than Catalonia and Aragon. We also emphasize the importance of volunteer work in providing new knowledge on this group of iconic insects, and the relevance of museum collections in preserving them. The role of climate change in the distribution of Odonata is also discussed.

  3. The Use of an Infrared Thermometer to Determine Surface Temperatures in Marine Macroalgae (United States)

    Olson, T. K.; Van Alstyne, K.


    The surface temperatures of intertidal algae may span a wide range at low tide, and there is a need for a quick yet accurate method to measure them. Infrared thermometers are used for measuring the temperatures of a variety of surfaces but, to our knowledge, have not been used to measure surface temperatures of marine macroalgae. These thermometers produce estimates of surface temperatures based upon measurements of infrared radiation and the emissivity of the surface being measured. In order to determine if this instrument would be suitable for measurements of macroalgal surface temperatures, variation in the emissivities of macroalgal surfaces had to first be determined. Emmisivities generally ranged from 0.93 to 0.98 and, with the exception of Chondrocanthus exasperatus, showed little variation among algal species, with the condition of the algal surface, or with layering. The differences in emissivities between C. exasperathus and other algal species might have been due to its papillate surface texture. Using an emissivity of 0.95, the infrared thermometer was then used to obtain the surface temperatures of a variety of intertidal algae in the field. Ulva lactuca and Porphyra sp. displayed the largest range of surface temperatures, while Ulvaria obscura and Mazzaella splendens varied the least.

  4. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Rodriguez, Alison C.


    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  5. Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians. (United States)

    Beukema, Wouter; De Pous, Philip; Donaire-Barroso, David; Boaerts, Sergé; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Escoriza, Daniel; Arribas, Oscar J; El Mouden, El Hassan; Carranza, Salvador


    The amphibian fauna of the Kingdom of Morocco was traditionally regarded as poor and closely related to its European counterpart. However, an increase in research during the last decades revealed a considerable degree of endemism amongst Moroccan amphibians, as well as phenotypic and genotypic inter- and intraspecific divergence. Despite this increase in knowledge, a comprehensible overview is lacking while several systematic issues have remained unresolved. We herein present a contemporary overview of the distribution, taxonomy and biogeography of Moroccan amphibians. Fourteen fieldtrips were made by the authors and colleagues between 2000 and 2012, which produced a total of 292 new distribution records. Furthermore, based on the results of the present work, we (i) review the systematics of the genus Salamandra in Morocco, including the description of a new subspecies from the Rif- and Middle Atlas Mountains, Salamandra algira splendens ssp. nov.; (ii) present data on intraspecific morphological variability of Pelobates varaldiiand Pleurodeles waltl in Morocco; (iii) attempt to resolve the phylogenetic position of Bufo brongersmai and erect a new genus for this species, Barbarophryne gen. nov.; (iv) summarize and assess the availability of tadpole-specific characteristics and bioacoustical data, and (v) summarize natural history data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayakun Satria


    The availability of data and information on deep-sea fishes in tropical waters especially in the northern part of Indonesia still very limited and rare. This paper attempted to provide information at the first time of species composition of  deep-sea fishes found around Sangihe and Talaud Islands. The exploration was conducted from July to August 2010. A joint cruise between Indonesia and USA in the frame of “The Indonesia and USA Exploration Sangihe Talaud (Index SATAL”using RV Baruna Jaya IV (1,200 GT. There were 53 species whithin 32 families have been discovered including economically important deep-sea demersal fishes i.e.Beryx splendens, Hoplosthethus crassispinus, Setarches guentheri, Lamprogrammus niger and Grammicolepis sp. North of Bunaken and East of Kawio waters with deep-sea seamounts were indicated important habitat for those economic valuable species. This paper is intended to provide preliminary information for species distribution of deep-sea fishes inhabited in North Sulawesi Waters, mainly in Sangihe and Talaud Islands.

  7. Co-existence and interaction between myxomycetes and other organisms in shared niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina O. Dudka


    Full Text Available The ecology of myxomycetes co-existing with the Latridiidae (Coleoptera, bryophytes and ascomycetous, basidiomycetous and anamorphic fungi were studied in Crimea and at different locations on the left bank of Ukraine. Results from the left bank indicate that the Latridiidae feed on myxomycetes. Colonies of the most common 13 myxomycete species (which included Stemonitis axifera (Bull. Macbr., S. fusca Roth, S. splendens Rost., Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and Mucilago crustacea Wigg. were inhabited by 5 species of the Latridiidae. Myxomycete spores were present in guts of 19 of the 25 beetle specimens investigated. Beetles Latridius hirtus, Enicmus rugosus and E fungicola seem to be obligate myxomycete feeders, while Corticarina truncatella was clearly facultative. 13 species of myxomycetes were recorded on 9 species of moss and 3 species of liverwort developing on decaying wood or bark in the Crimean Nature Reserve. Relations between myxomycetes and bryophytes on woody substrata are spatial rather than trophic, and are possibly regulated by specific microclimatic conditions inside bryophyte thallomes. 69 species of myxomycetes were found co-existing with 36 species of ascomycetes, 21 species of basidiomycetes and 9 species of anamorphic fungi in the Crimean Nature Reserve. Associations formed by myxomycetes and fungi on different woody substrata are analyzed.

  8. Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue


    Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large impact on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert region to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This regional-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.

  9. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size. (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I


    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. The toxicological effect of Ruta graveolens extract in Siamese fighting fish: a behavioral and histopathological approach. (United States)

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Brown, Culum


    The effects of pharmacological waste on aquatic ecosystems are increasingly highlighted in ecotoxicology research. Many of these products are designed for human physiology but owing to the conservative nature of vertebrate evolution they also tend to have effects on aquatic organisms and fishes in particular when they find their way into aquatic systems via wastewater effluent. One area of research has focused on reproductive control and the associated hormone treatments. Many of these hormones affect the reproductive physiology of fishes and may cause feminization of male reproductive traits. Alternative medicines have also been widely used particularly in traditional cultures but few of these alternative treatments have been assessed with respect to their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Rue (Ruta graveolens) has been used as a male contraceptive in traditional medicines but its effects on fish behavior and reproductive anatomy have yet to be established. Here we show that treating Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, with extract of rue has a significant effect on key aggressive/reproductive behaviors and the propensity to explore novel objects (boldness). In all cases the respective behaviors were reduced relative to controls and sham injected fish. Histological analysis of the testes revealed that rue exposure reduced the number of spermatozoa but increased the number of spermatocytes relative to controls.

  11. Additions to the moss flora of the Taita Hills and Mount Kasigau, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enroth Johannes


    Full Text Available Based on our recent collections we report 43 moss species as new to the Taita Hills and Mount Kasigau in SE Kenya, 15 of the species being also new to the country. The number of moss species known from the region rises from the previously reported 85 to 128, and from 506 to 521 for the whole country. The most noteworthy findings are Fissidens splendens Brugg.-Nann., previously known only from Tanzania, and Barbella capillicaulis (Renauld & Cardot Cardot var. capillicaulis (Renauld & Cardot Cardot, previously reported from Mauritius, Madagascar and Uganda. The taxa reported represent the families Anomodontaceae (1 sp., Brachytheciaceae (3 spp., Calymperaceae (3 spp., Dicranaceae (8 spp., Erpodiaceae (1 sp., Fissidentaceae (3 spp., Hedwigiaceae (1 sp., Hookeriaceae (1 sp., Hypnaceae (3 spp., Leucodontaceae (1 sp., Meteoriaceae (3 spp., Neckeraceae (5 spp., Orthotrichaceae (1 sp., Pilotrichaceae (1 sp., Polytrichaceae (1 sp., Pterigynandraceae (1 sp., Pterobryaceae (2 spp., Pylaisiadelphaceae (1 sp., Sematophyllaceae (1 sp., Stereophyllaceae (1 sp., and Thuidiaceae (1 sp..

  12. [The community succession of sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area]. (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Meng-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Lai, Yue; Wang, Jiang-Feng


    To explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). From early May to August in 2013, in Forensic Medical Examination Center of Shenzhen Public Security Bureau, the main insect species and the decomposition process were observed in two adult pig carcasses of simulative indoor and outdoor environment. The different decomposition stages and the community succession of insects were recorded. The indoor and outdoor pig carcasses showed skeleton 412.5 and 325 hours after death, respectively. The main species of flies on pig carcasses were Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya chani. The main species of beetles were Crecphilus maxillosus, Necrobia ruficollis, Saprinus splendens and Dermestes maculatu. The dominant species of flies in the outdoor pig carcasses obviously produced the second generations due to the effect of mass rainfall, nor in the indoor pig carcasses. There are regular patterns on the community succession of insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area. The activity patterns of seven typical insects and their larva show important value for estimating PMI.

  13. Dipterous haematophagous insects occurring in Dehradun district and its adjoining areas in Uttarakhand, India. (United States)

    Pemola Devi, N; Jauhari, R K


    Haematophagous dipterans belonging to 10 genera - Aedes (12), Anopheles (14), Armigeres (01), Culex (09), Toxorhynchites (01), Uranotaenia (01), Sergentomyia (02), Phlebotomus (01), Atylotus (01) and Tabanus (03) were encountered from 12 localities under 6 blocks of Dehradun district (Uttarakhand) during January 2011 to December 2012. The Culicines (50.69%) were more dominant than the Anophelines (38.9%), Toxorhynchites (1.72%), horse flies (6.63%) and sandflies (2.01%). The following species viz., Toxorhynchites splendens and Phlebotomus argentipes have been recorded for the first time while Aedes pseudotaeniatus as reappeared species from the study area. Species diversity is represented through Species richness (S), Shannon index (H) and Shannon Eveness (E) among Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Sandfly and Horsefly. The species richness (S) and evenness (E) were found as 12, 0.65; 14, 0.84; 09, 0.74; 3, 0.61 and 4, 0.78 respectively by Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Sandfly and Horsefly. Highest Shannon index was shared by Anopheles (2.214) followed by Culex (1.639), Aedes (1.631), Horsefly (1.085) and Sandfly (0.672) in succeeding order.

  14. Molecular strain typing of Wolbachia infection from Indian mosquitoes using wsp gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar H


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the status of Wolbachia subgroup and phylogenetic relationships in Indian mosquitoes. Methods: Recently we reported Wolbachia infection in eight out of twenty field-caught mosquito species of India, using wsp specific primers. DNA extracted from these mosquito species were used for PCR amplification and sequencing. Results: Wolbachia A harboured in Aedes albopictus and Culex gelidus belongs to the subgroup AlbA whereas Wolbachia B harboured in Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus belongs to the subgroup Pip and of Culex vishnui belongs to subgroup Con. However, Wolbachia harboured in Armigeres subalbatus, Armigeres kesseli, Culex sitiens and Toxorhynchites splendens could not be placed into any known subgroup and may represent other unknown strains of Wolbachia. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed eight novel Wolbachia strains, four in the A group and four in the B group. Most of the Wolbachia strains present in Indian mosquitoes belong to the Albo, Pip and Con groups. Conclusions: The similarities and differences between Wolbachia strains infecting different mosquito species are fundamental for estimating how easily mosquitoes acquire new infections.

  15. Lateralization of aggression in fish. (United States)

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea


    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  16. Natural trace element enrichment in fishes from a volcanic and tectonically active region (Azores archipelago) (United States)

    Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Giacomello, Eva; Anes, Bárbara; Menezes, Gui M.


    Seamounts, in general, are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities. They have been targeted by commercial fishing for demersal and pelagic fish species due to the occurrence of large aggregations in mid- and deep-water. Specimens of Phycis phycis, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pontinus kuhlii, Beryx splendens, Beryx decadactylus, Etmopterus pusillus, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Deania profundorum, Scomber colias and Trachurus picturatus were collected at the Condor seamount and on the slopes of Faial and Pico islands of Azores archipelago. Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in muscle and liver of each individual. Values of the 11 trace elements in the two tissues of the benthopelagic and benthic specimens, from the two surveyed areas, presented a significant inter-specific variation. In general, levels were lower in muscle than in liver, and negative relations between weight and Co, Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle and liver of three species were found. Pagellus bogaraveo, S. colias and T. picturatus presented enhanced elemental concentrations in liver, particularly of Cd. The extremely high storage of this potentially toxic element suggests a response to high uptake of Cd and the existence of an additional natural source of Cd to the environment.

  17. Detection of vegetation stress from laser-induced fluorescence signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, N.


    The in vivo laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signatures of UV irradiated Salvia splendens plants were measured using an Optical Multichannel Analyser (OMA) system with Nitrogen laser excitation. The LIF spectra which consisted of the blue-green and the red chlorophyll bands were analysed with a non-linear interactive procedure using Gaussian spectral functions. The fluorescence intensity ratios of the various bands obtained from curve fitted parameters were found to be more sensitive to changes in the photosynthetic activity of the plant. The variation in the intensity ratio for the chlorophyll bands for nutrient stressed sunflower, cotton and groundnut plants as well as the nutrient and water stressed rice plants are also presented. It is observed that vegetation stress not only changes the fluorescence intensity ratios and the vitality index of the plant but also changes the peak position of the emission bands, in some cases. It is also seen that analysis of the fluorescence spectra in vegetation remote sensing applications would require a deconvolution procedure to evaluate the exact contribution of each band in the total spectra. (author). 23 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Differential activation and tyrosine hydroxylase distribution in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain brain regions in response to cognitive performance in Indian house crows exposed to abrupt light environment. (United States)

    Taufique, S K Tahajjul; Kumar, Vinod


    Disruption of the cyclic feature of the day-night environment can cause negative effects on daily activity and advanced brain functions such as learning, memory and decision-making behaviour. These functions in songbirds, including corvids, involve the hippocampus, pallium and midbrain, as revealed by ZENK (a neuronal activation marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressions. TH is rate-limiting marker enzyme of the biosynthesis of dopamine, widely implicated in learning and memory. Here, we measured ZENK and TH immunoreactivity in the hippocampal, pallial and midbrain regions in response to cognitive performance (learning-memory retrieval) tests in Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to constant light environment (LL) with controls on 12h light:12h darkness. Along with the decay of circadian rhythm in activity behaviour, LL caused a significant decline in the cognitive performance. There was also a decrease under LL in the activity of neurons in the hippocampus, medial and central caudal nidopallium, and hyperpallium apicale, which are widely distributed with TH-immunoreactive fibres. Further, under LL, TH- immunoreactive neurons were reduced in number in midbrain dopamine synthesis sites, the venteral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), with a negative correlation of co-localized ZENK/TH- immunoreactive cells on errors during the association tasks. These results show decreased activity of learning and memory neural systems, and underscore the role of dopamine in reduced cognitive performance of diurnal corvids with disrupted circadian rhythms under an abrupt light environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden


    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  20. A heavy metal atmospheric deposition study in the South Ural mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Smirnov, L.I.; Steinnes, E.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Cherchintsev, V.D.


    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily poluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Tf, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis, The elements Cu, Cd and Pb (in moss samples only) were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. The element concentrations were compared to those for copper basins in Poland and Serbia as well as to baseline concentrations in Norway. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterise different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas

  1. Nutrient regeneration by zooplankton during a red tide off Peru, with notes on biomass and species composition of zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L.


    During March and April 1976, a red tide, dominated by the dinoflagallate Gymnodinium splendens Lebour, developed in the vicinity of 15/sup 0/O6'S and 76/sup 0/31'W off Peru. At the height of the bloom, the euphotic zone was 6 m deep and the chlorophyll a at the surface was 48 1/sup -1/. A daily collection of zooplankton at 09.00 hrs showed large fluctuations of biomass, from 0.2 to 3.84 g dry weight m/sup -2/ in a water column of 120 m. Copepodids and nauplii dominated the collections. During a period of reduced wind, the adult copepods were a mixture of the species characteristic of the coastal upwelling system and the neritic species associated with more northerly, tropical waters. Nitrogen regeneration by the zooplankton varied with the development of the bloom, the type of zooplankton dominating the experiment, and biomass fluctuations, but never accounted for more than 25% of the nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton.

  2. Metal pollution around an iron smelter complex in northern Norway at different modes of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.; Sjoebakk, T.E.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Varskog, P.


    The moss biomonitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in and around the town of Mo i Rana, northern Norway, before and after closing an iron smelter and establishing alternative ferrous metal industries. Samples of Hylocomium splendens were collected from the same sites in 1989 and 1993. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to obtain data for 38 elements in these moss samples, and the analytical data were subjected to factor analysis. In general, the deposition was higher when the iron smelter was still in operation, in particular for Fe and for many elements normally associated with crustal matter. For Cr there was a substantially increased deposition due to the operation of a new ferrochrome smelter. Also for Ni and Au an increased deposition was observed, whereas for metals such as Mn, Co, Ag, Sb, and W there was no appreciable change. INAA proved to be a powerful tool for this kind of study. The regional distribution of pollutants was strongly dependent on the local topography. Samples of natural surface soils collected simultaneously with the first moss series showed clear signs of contamination with a number of metals from atmospheric deposition. The approach described in this work could be advantageously used to study atmospheric deposition of heavy metals around iron smelters in Russia and elsewhere

  3. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.; Lappalainen, N.M.; Turunen, J.


    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A 280-320nm ) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time

  4. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). (United States)

    Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J


    There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  5. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion. (United States)

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua


    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation.

  6. Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [V.H.N.S.N College, Virudhunagar (India). Research Centre in Botany; Seiler, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)


    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in Aganosma cymosa (10.3%), Carissa carandas (5.8%), and Argemone mexicana (5.0%). Swietenia mahagoni yielded the highest protein content with 8.1%. The gross heat value of 4175.0 cal/g(17.5 MJ/kg) for Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), and 4112.0 cal/g for Dalbergia sissoo were the highest among the species analysed. NMR spectra of the hydrocarbon fractions of Alstonia scholaris, Carissa carandas, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Plumeria rubra, Thevetia neriifolia (white flowered var.), Vallaris solanacea, Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), Euphorbia hirta, E. splendens, Artocarpus integrifolia and Ficus religiosa revealed the presence of cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber), whereas Argemone mexicana showed the presence of trans-polyisoprene (gutta). Several new crop species were identified with potentially useful compounds. The potential exists for growing these alternate crops in areas of under-utilized lands, subsequently stimulating industrial and economic growth. (author)

  7. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls. (United States)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter


    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  8. Temporal trends (1990-2005 in heavy metal accumulation in mosses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Maòkovská


    Full Text Available Biomonitoring of multielement atmospheric deposition using terrestrialmoss is a well-established technique in Europe. The moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum sp. were collected in Slovakia. Separately we evaluated the atmospheric deposition in the National Parks (Vysoké Tatry, Nízke Tatry, Západné Tatry -Jelenec, Slovenský raj and in a landscape protection area (Ve¾ká Fatra. In comparison to the median northern Norway values ofheavy metal contents in moss, the Slovak atmospheric deposition loads of elements were found to be higher. The survey has been repeated and in this paper we report on the temporal trends in the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn between 1990 and 2005. Metal- and sites-specific temporal trends were observed. In general, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mossesdecreased between 1990 and 2005; the decline was higher for Pb than for Cd. The observed temporal trends for the concentrations in mosses were similar to the trends reported for the modelled total deposition of cadmium, lead and mercury in Europe. The level of elements, determined in bryophytes reflects the relative atmosphericdeposition loads of elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian mosses.

  9. Differences in the growth response of three bryophyte species to nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salemaa, Maija [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland)], E-mail:; Maekipaeae, Raisa [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland)], E-mail:; Oksanen, Jari [University of Oulu, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland)], E-mail:


    The effect of nitrogen on biomass production, shoot elongation and relative density of the mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Dicranum polysetum was studied in a chamber experiment. Monocultures were exposed to 10 N levels ranging from 0.02 to 7.35 g N m{sup -2} during a 90-day period. All the growth responses were unimodal, but the species showed differences in the shape parameters of the curves. Hylocomium and Pleurozium achieved optimum biomass production at a lower N level than Dicranum. Pleurozium had the highest biomass production per tissue N concentration. Tolerance to N was the widest in Dicranum, whereas Hylocomium had the narrowest tolerance. Dicranum retained N less efficiently from precipitation than the other two species, which explained its deviating response. All species translocated some N from parent to new shoots. The results emphasize that the individual responses of bryophytes to N should be known when species are used as bioindicators. - Boreal bryophytes display differences in their sensitivity to nitrogen.

  10. Fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes and vascular plants. (United States)

    Davey, M L; Nybakken, L; Kauserud, H; Ohlson, M


    Little is known about the amount of fungal biomass in the phyllosphere of bryophytes compared to higher plants. In this study, fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of three bryophytes (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum commune) and three vascular plants (Avenella flexuosa, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Vaccinium myrtillus) was investigated using ergosterol content as a proxy for fungal biomass. Phyllosphere fungi accounted for 0.2-4.0 % of the dry mass of moss gametophytes, representing the first estimation of fungal biomass associated with bryophytes. Significantly more fungal biomass was associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes than co-occurring vascular plants. The ergosterol present in moss gametophytic tissues differed significantly between species, while the ergosterol present in vascular plant leaf tissues did not. The photosynthetic tissues of mosses had less associated fungal biomass than their senescent tissues, and the magnitude of this difference varied in a species-specific manner. The fungal biomass associated with the vascular plants studied varied significantly between localities, while that of mosses did not. The observed differences in phyllosphere community biomass suggest their size could be affected by host anatomical and physiological attributes, including micro-niche availability and chemical host defenses, in addition to abiotic factors like moisture and nutrient availability.

  11. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination. (United States)

    Pokorná, Martina; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Rens, Willem; Kratochvíl, Lukáš


    The eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) include both species with temperature-dependent sex determination and species where genotypic sex determination (GSD) was suggested based on the observation of equal sex ratios at several incubation temperatures. In this study, we present data on karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics in 12 species (Aeluroscalabotes felinus, Coleonyx brevis, Coleonyx elegans, Coleonyx variegatus, Eublepharis angramainyu, Eublepharis macularius, Goniurosaurus araneus, Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi, Goniurosaurus luii, Goniurosaurus splendens, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, and Holodactylus africanus) covering all genera of the family, and search for the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Phylogenetic mapping of chromosomal changes showed a long evolutionary stasis of karyotypes with all acrocentric chromosomes followed by numerous chromosomal rearrangements in the ancestors of two lineages. We have found heteromorphic sex chromosomes in only one species, which suggests that sex chromosomes in most GSD species of the eyelid geckos are not morphologically differentiated. The sexual difference in karyotype was detected only in C. elegans which has a multiple sex chromosome system (X(1)X(2)Y). The metacentric Y chromosome evolved most likely via centric fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes involving loss of interstitial telomeric sequences. We conclude that the eyelid geckos exhibit diversity in sex determination ranging from the absence of any sexual differences to heteromorphic sex chromosomes, which makes them an interesting system for exploring the evolutionary origin of sexually dimorphic genomes.

  12. Neospora caninum in crows from Israel. (United States)

    Salant, H; Mazuz, M L; Savitsky, I; Nasereddin, A; Blinder, E; Baneth, G


    A cross-sectional Neospora caninum seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (Corvus cornix, Corvus monedula and Corvus splendens) from Israel in order to assess their exposure to this pathogen and evaluate their role as potential hosts or as sentinels of infection. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff titer of 1:100, 30 out of 183 crows (16.4%) were found to be N. caninum seropositive. Positive results were validated and confirmed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). There was 100% agreement between tests when cut-off titers of 1:50 and 1:100 were applied for the IFAT and MAT, respectively. PCR analysis of brain extracts from all crows resulted in the detection of N. caninum DNA for the first time in crows belonging to two species, C. cornix and C. monedula. The high N. caninum seroprevalence in crows suggests that widespread exposure to infection with N. caninum exists especially in central and northern Israel and that crows may act as suitable markers for disease prevalence in the areas in which they are found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual conflict and ecology: Species composition and male density interact to reduce male mating harassment and increase female survival. (United States)

    Gomez-Llano, Miguel A; Bensch, Hanna M; Svensson, Erik I


    Sexual conflict is a pervasive evolutionary force that can reduce female fitness. Experimental evolution studies in the laboratory might overestimate the importance of sexual conflict because the ecological conditions in such settings typically include only a single species. Here, we experimentally manipulated conspecific male density (high or low) and species composition (sympatric or allopatric) to investigate how ecological conditions affect female survival in a sexually dimorphic insect, the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens). Female survival was strongly influenced by an interaction between male density and species composition. Specifically, at low conspecific male density, female survival increased in the presence of heterospecific males (C. virgo). Behavioral mating experiments showed that interspecific interference competition reduced conspecific male mating success with large females. These findings suggest that reproductive interference competition between con- and heterospecific males might indirectly facilitate female survival by reducing mating harassment from conspecific males. Hence, interspecific competitors can show contrasting effects on the two sexes thereby influencing sexual conflict dynamics. Our results call for incorporation of more ecological realism in sexual conflict research, particularly how local community context and reproductive interference competition between heterospecific males can affect female fitness. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail:; Lappalainen, N.M. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland); Turunen, J. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)


    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A{sub 280-320nm}) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time.

  15. Ship traffic and the introduction of diatoms and dinoflagellates via ballast water in the port of Annaba, Algeria (United States)

    Cheniti, Radhia; Rochon, André; Frihi, Hocine


    We present here the first study on the role of ship traffic in the introduction of potentially harmful and/or non-indigenous species in the port of Annaba (Algeria). A total of 25 ships of two different types (general cargo and bulk carriers) were sampled and separated into two categories: oceanic and Mediterranean ships. We estimated propagule pressure of high-risk coastal phytoplankton delivered in ballast water to the port of Annaba. We identified 40 diatom and 38 dinoflagellate taxa, among which, 11 harmful/toxic taxa: Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Alexandrium tamarense, Alexandrium sp., Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis rotundata, Dinophysis sp., Gonyaulax spinifera, Gymnodinium catenatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Protoceratium reticulatum and cyst of Alexandrium sp. In addition, 8 taxa (5 diatoms, 1 dinoflagellate and 2 dinoflagellate cysts) never observed in the Annaba region were considered as potentially non-indigenous: Actinoptychus splendens, Coscinodiscus asteromphalus, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Odentella granulata, Thalassiosira cf. decipiens, Prorocentrum scutellum, cyst of Polykrikos kofoidii and Islandinium minutum. Several factors were examined, including ship routes, ballast water age and the volume of ballast water discharged. Our analyses revealed that diatom and dinoflagellate abundances decreased with ballast water age, possibly as a result of mortality of species due to voyage length and lack of light in ballast tanks. Estimates of actual propagule pressure, diatoms and dinoflagellates abundances varied from 1 to 4 × 108 cells/ship. The results of this study could serve as the baseline for the development and implementation of monitoring and ballast water management programs in ports of Algeria.

  16. Improvement of Bioactive Compound Classification through Integration of Orthogonal Cell-Based Biosensing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran N. Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Lack of specificity for different classes of chemical and biological agents, and false positives and negatives, can limit the range of applications for cell-based biosensors. This study suggests that the integration of results from algal cells (Mesotaenium caldariorum and fish chromatophores (Betta splendens improves classification efficiency and detection reliability. Cells were challenged with paraquat, mercuric chloride, sodium arsenite and clonidine. The two detection systems were independently investigated for classification of the toxin set by performing discriminant analysis. The algal system correctly classified 72% of the bioactive compounds, whereas the fish chromatophore system correctly classified 68%. The combined classification efficiency was 95%. The algal sensor readout is based on fluorescence measurements of changes in the energy producing pathways of photosynthetic cells, whereas the response from fish chromatophores was quantified using optical density. Change in optical density reflects interference with the functioning of cellular signal transduction networks. Thus, algal cells and fish chromatophores respond to the challenge agents through sufficiently different mechanisms of action to be considered orthogonal.

  17. Atmospheric transport of contaminants to remote arctic wilderness areas: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crayton, W.M.; Talbot, S.


    The Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge includes the Tuxedni Wilderness Area (WA), which is required to meet the Class 1 air quality requirements of the Clean Air Act (42 CFT 7401 et seq.). The Act specifically protects such areas from significant deterioration; however, most Class 1 Wilderness monitoring focuses on visual impairment and traditional atmospheric pollutants such as NOx. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of also measuring atmospheric transport of potentially toxic elemental and organic contaminants to remote areas as a pilot for subsequent monitoring of Service lands to be undertaken through the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program. Located on the western shore of Cook Inlet, the Tuxedni WA lies about 80 km downwind of a major petroleum complex that the City of Anchorage. Elemental contaminants emanating from the city will be studied in two species of widely distributed alpine vegetation (Cladina rangiferina, a lichen; and Hylocomium splendens, a moss) collected from elevated windward slopes on Chisik Island, a remote site in the WA. Vegetation samples will be analyzed for a suite of potentially toxic elements by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Polycyclic aromatic compounds originating from petroleum-related and urban sources will be studied through the deployment of lipid-containing passive accumulators and analysis by gas chromatography with photoionization detection. Reference areas will also be selected and monitored

  18. Air pollution studies in Slovakia using aerosol filters and biomonitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Jeskovsky, M.; Sykora, I.; Burda, C.; Melicherova, T.; Mankovska, B.; Oszlanyi, J.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.


    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were employed in order to evaluate the concentration up to 36 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) in the atmospheric aerosols. Two sampling sites in Bratislava were examined. The first site Liscie udolie is quite a pristine location with a low traffic concentration. The second sampling site is close to the crude oil processing plant SLOVNAFT. The influence of the steel industry in Vel'ka Ida and thermal power plant in Prievidza was investigated. Most heavily contaminated sampling site in the vicinity of surface coal mine Tusimice in Czech Republic was also included in this study. The levels of pollutant concentrations were compared to those in atmosphere of other five European sites: Cracow (Poland); Budapest (Hungary); Ispra, Milan, Ponzone (Italy). The terrestrial mosses P. schreberi and H. splendens were collected in the environs of the oil plant SLOVNAFT to monitor heavy metal atmospheric deposition. The elemental concentrations in moss samples were compared to the Slovakian and Norwegian median values

  19. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition study in the South Ural Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.; Smirnov, L.I.; Lyapunov, S.M.


    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Urals, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elements Cu, Cd and Pb (in moss samples only) were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. VARIMAX rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas. (author)

  20. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study in the South Ural Mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Lyapunov, S M; Cherchintsev, V D


    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elem...

  1. Metal Pollution Around an Iron Smelter Complex in Northern Norway at Different Modes of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Steinnes, E; Eidhammer-Sjobakk, T; Varskog, P


    The moss biomonitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in and around the town of Mo i Rana, northern Norway, before and after closing an iron smelter and establishing alternative ferrous metal industries. Samples of Hylocomium splendens were collected from the same sites in 1989 and 1993. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to obtain data for 38 elements in these moss samples, and the analytical data were subjected to factor analysis. In general, the deposition was higher when the iron smelter was still in operation, in particular for Fe and for many elements normally associated with crustal matter. For Cr there was a substantially increased deposition due to the operation of a new ferrochrome smelter. Also for Ni and Au an increased deposition was observed, whereas for metals such as Mn, Co, Ag, Sb, and W there was no appreciable change. INAA proved to be a powerful tool for this kind of study. The regional di...

  2. Changes in the heavy metal and nutrient contents of dried feather mosses during long-term storage. (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Karhu, Jouni; Seppänen, Reijo; Kubin, Eero


    This study measured heavy metal and nutrient concentrations of two feather mosses during the periods of dry storage. Samples (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi) were collected in the nationwide moss surveys carried out on the permanent sample plots of the 8th Finnish National Forest Inventory in 1985-86, 1990, 1995 and 2000. A small amount of each moss sample was analyzed soon after collection, and the remainder was dried and stored at the Paljakka environmental specimen bank (ESB). The 108 stored samples from 27 plots were reanalyzed in 2008. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, K, Mg, P) were determined and compared for each survey year. Overall, Fe, Pb and Cr concentrations decreased, and Cu concentrations increased significantly during storage. The greatest decrease was observed in samples from plots where their initial concentrations were the highest. Changes in the concentrations of Cd, Ni and Zn were less pronounced. The loss of heavy metals is likely due to drying when cell membranes rupture and some of the surface material is lost. K, P and, to some extent, Mg concentrations increased during storage, whereas Ca did not change significantly. Nutrient increase is probably due to their movement from older to younger growths during the initial phase of drying. Ca is mostly bound to cell walls and is not easily released. Results emphasize the importance of establishing the intended use of a stored moss prior to sampling, in order to select and optimize an appropriate storage technique.

  3. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Imatomi


    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  4. Birds communities of fragmented forest within highly urbanized landscape in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (United States)

    Mohd-Taib, F. S.; Rabiatul-Adawiyah, S.; Md-Nor, S.


    Urbanization is one form of forest modification for development purposes. It produces forest fragments scattered in the landscape with different intensity of disturbance. We want to determine the effect of forest fragmentation towards bird community in urbanized landscapes in Kuala Lumpur, namely Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (FR), Bukit Nenas FR and Bukit Sungei Puteh FR. We used mist-netting and direct observation method along established trails. These forests differ in size, vegetation composition and land use history. Results show that these forests show relatively low number of species compared to other secondary forest with only 39 bird species recorded. The largest fragment, Sg. Besi encompassed the highest species richness and abundance with 69% species but lower in diversity. Bukit Nenas, the next smallest fragment besides being the only remaining primary forest has the highest diversity index with 1.866. Bkt. Sg. Puteh the smallest fragment has the lowest species richness and diversity with Shanon diversity index of 1.332. The presence of introduced species such as Corvus splendens (House crow) in all study areas suggest high disturbance encountered by these forests. Nonetheless, these patches comprised of considerably high proportion of native species. In conclusion, different intensity of disturbance due to logging activities and urbanization surrounding the forest directly influenced bird species richness and diversity. These effects however can be compensated by maintaining habitat complexity including high vegetation composition and habitat structure at the landscape level.

  5. Parasite fauna of Antarctic Macrourus whitsoni (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) in comparison with closely related macrourids. (United States)

    Münster, Julian; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven; Klapper, Regina; Kuhn, Thomas


    The extreme, isolated environment within the Antarctic Convergence has fuelled the evolution of a highly endemic fauna with unique adaptations. One species known from this area is the Whitson's grenadier Macrourus whitsoni (Regan, 1913). While closely related species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere were targets of a variety of studies, knowledge on M. whitsoni is scarce, including not only its ecology but also its parasite fauna. Parasites, an often overlooked but important component of every ecosystem, can provide important insights into host ecology, including feeding habits, food web interactions and distribution patterns. The aim of our study was to increase the currently limited knowledge on the ecology of M. whitsoni and its parasite life-cycles. In this study, parasite fauna and stomach content of 50 specimens of M. whitsoni were sampled off Elephant and King George Islands. Fish samples were morphological, food ecological and parasitological examined and parasites morphological and partly molecular identified. To evaluate the findings, results were compared with other macrourid species. The parasite fauna of M. whitsoni revealed 9 genera and 17 species. Stomach content analysis indicated Amphipoda and Mysida as the primary food source. Considering the parasites of M. whitsoni, the highest diversity was found within the Digenea, while prevalence was highest for the Acanthocephala and Nematoda. The diverse parasite fauna of M. whitsoni together with the stomach content analysis, suggests a benthopelagic mode of life. Furthermore, an extensive evaluation of the parasite fauna of species of the Macrourinae was conducted, which is probably the most thorough one yet, to compare the findings with closely related host fish species. A similarity analysis revealed a strong connection between the parasite fauna composition and geographical distribution, with a clear separation between the parasite faunas in fishes sampled in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Middle American cichlids (Cichlidae, Heroini) based on combined evidence from nuclear genes, mtDNA, and morphology. (United States)

    Rícan, Oldrich; Zardoya, Rafael; Doadrio, Ignacio


    Heroine cichlids are the second largest and very diverse tribe of Neotropical cichlids, and the only cichlid group that inhabits Mesoamerica. The taxonomy of heroines is complex because monophyly of most genera has never been demonstrated, and many species groups are without applicable generic names after their removal from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma (sensu Regan, 1905). Hence, a robust phylogeny for the group is largely wanting. A rather complete heroine phylogeny based on cytb sequence data is available [Concheiro Pérez, G.A., Rícan O., Ortí G., Bermingham, E., Doadrio, I., Zardoya, R. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43, 91-110], and in the present study, we have added and analyzed independent data sets (nuclear and morphological) to further confirm and strengthen the cytb-phylogenetic hypothesis. We have analyzed a combined cytb-nuclear (RAG1 and two S7 introns) data set of 48 species representing main heroine lineages to achieve further resolution of heroine higher taxonomic levels and a combined cytb-morphological data set of 92 species to stabilize generic taxonomy. The recovered phylogenies supported the circumamazonian--CAM--Heroini (sensu Concheiro Peréz et al., 2007) as a monophyletic group, that could be divided into six main clades: (1) australoheroines (the southernmost heroine genus Australoheros), (2) nandopsines (the Antillean genus Nandopsis), (3) caquetaines (including the north western Amazonian genera Caquetaia and Heroina), (4) astatheroines (including Astatheros, Herotilapia and Rocio), (5) amphilophines (including Amphilophus and related genera), and (6) herichthyines (including Herichthyis and related genera). Nuclear and mitochondrial data partitions arrived at highly congruent topologies. Suprageneric relationships were influenced mainly by the nuclear signal, as well as the most basal phylogenetic position

  7. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Mangrove Ecosystem and its Dependent Fishing Communities in the Coastal Regions of Cauvery Delta: A Message for Policy Planners to Frame Suitable Antcipatory Adaptation Strategies (United States)

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Ramachandran, A.; Kandasamy, P.; Selvam, V.; Shanmugam, P.


    Coastal adaptation to sea-level rise (SLR) in the deltaic region is a multidimensional and complex process requiring informed decisions based on predicted impact and vulnerability assessment of SLR. Elevation plays a key role in determining the impact and vulnerability of coastal land areas to inundation from SLR. Highly accurate mapping of the elevation of the landscape is essential to identify low-lying coastal deltaic regions with valuable ecosystem like mangroves and its dependent human communities that are potentially at risk of inundation. It is difficult for policy planners and decision makers to identify suitable adaptation strategies without having information on the predicted impact and degree of vulnerability of coastal systems to SLR. Importantly, modeling and mapping will provide valuable input to climate change adaptation planning (NOAA 2010). Unfortunately, the comprehensive range of information that is typically required is seldom available and rarely in the possession of decision makers responsible for management of the deltaic and coastal zone (O'Regan, 1996). The present study seeks to provide insights on predicted impact of climate change induced SLR on mangrove ecosystem and its dependent human communities of Pichavaram mangroves, located at the Vellar-Coleroon estuarine region on the banks of Cauvery delta, Tamil Nadu, India. Based on real-time on-ground elevation measurement by DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) survey and by using GIS portals, the study has identified about 597 ha of mangroves (one third of total mangrove regions) and about 9 fishing hamlets with 12,000 and more of human population that directly depends on this mangrove ecosystem for their livelihood are under threat of inundation to the predicted impact of 0.5m SLR. The present study is intended to showcase a method by providing reliable scientific information on predicted impact of SLR on mangroves and its dependent human communities to policy planner for

  8. Toward Game-Based Digital Mental Health Interventions: Player Habits and Preferences. (United States)

    Mandryk, Regan Lee; Birk, Max Valentin


    frequency (P=.25) or genre preference (P=.53), but it was associated with platform preference (P=.01); desktop-only players had lower needs satisfaction than those who used all platforms. As expected, play frequency was associated with identity (Pgames are a suitable approach for mental health interventions as they are played broadly by people across a range of indicators of mental health. We further unpack the platform preferences and genre preferences of players with varying levels of well-being. ©Regan Lee Mandryk, Max Valentin Birk. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 20.04.2017.

  9. La inmunofluorescencia en el diagnóstico de la tos ferina: experiencia de un laboratorio de referencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Muñoz


    Full Text Available Publicaciones recientes refieren un alto porcentaje de falsos positivos en el diagnóstico de la tos ferina con el empleo de la inmunofluorescencia directa (IFD; por esta razón, se analizaron los datos obtenidos en el Laboratorio de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud, al emplear esta técnica en el estudio de dos poblaciones infantiles. El primer grupo estaba conformado por267 niños con edades entre 15 días y 7 años, con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome coqueluchoide de etiología por determinar, viral o periussis, y en ellos se tomó un aspirado nasofaríngeo. El grupo control estuvo constituido por 50 niños sanos, entre 3 y 28 meses de edad de quienes se obtuvo una muestra nasofaringea. El procesamiento de las muestras incluyó el cultivo en agar Regan-Lowe y la IFD realizada con el empleo de anticuerpos policlonales anti-Bordetella periussis y una cepa control. Adicionalmente, las muestras del grupo control fueron inocularon en agar sangre de cordero y agar chocolate y los microorganismos recuperados fueron identificados con el empleo de pruebas convencionales. En 36 de las 267 muestras de aspirado nasofaríngeo de los pacientes, se aisló B. periussis y la IFD fue reactiva en 46; en 30 casos las pruebas coincidieron en positividad y en 16 la IFD fue reactiva con el cultivo negativo; esto representó para la IFD una especificidad de 93%. En el grupo control, los cultivos para B. periussis fueron negativos y la IFD fue reactiva con baja intensidad, en 8 (16% casos, lo que representó una especificidad de 84%. Estos falsos positivos fueron confirmados, por coloración de Gram como Bacillus sp. en 4 casos y, por aislamiento e identificación, como Haernophilus influenzae y Streptococcus pneurnoniae en 2 casos cada uno. Estos datos indican que la IFD puede ser empleada para el diagnóstico de la tosferina, siempre y cuando se tenga especial cuidado en la interpretación de la lectura, basada en la morfología microscópica del

  10. Metal Selenides as Efficient Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. (United States)

    Jin, Zhitong; Zhang, Meirong; Wang, Min; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Zhong-Sheng


    Solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy available to the earth and can meet the energy needs of humankind, but efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity is an urgent issue of scientific research. As the third-generation photovoltaic technology, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have gained great attention since the landmark efficiency of ∼7% reported by O'Regan and Grätzel. The most attractive features of DSSCs include low cost, simple manufacturing processes, medium-purity materials, and theoretically high power conversion efficiencies. As one of the key materials in DSSCs, the counter electrode (CE) plays a crucial role in completing the electric circuit by catalyzing the reduction of the oxidized state to the reduced state for a redox couple (e.g., I 3 - /I - ) in the electrolyte at the CE-electrolyte interface. To lower the cost caused by the typically used Pt CE, which restricts the large-scale application because of its low reserves and high price, great effort has been made to develop new CE materials alternative to Pt. A lot of Pt-free electrocatalysts, such as carbon materials, inorganic compounds, conductive polymers, and their composites with good electrocatalytic activity, have been applied as CEs in DSSCs in the past years. Metal selenides have been widely used as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and light-harvesting materials for solar cells. Our group first expanded their applications to the DSSC field by using in situ-grown Co 0.85 Se nanosheet and Ni 0.85 Se nanoparticle films as CEs. This finding has inspired extensive studies on developing new metal selenides in order to seek more efficient CE materials for low-cost DSSCs, and a lot of meaningful results have been achieved in the past years. In this Account, we summarize recent advances in binary and mutinary metal selenides applied as CEs in DSSCs. The synthetic methods for metal selenides with various morphologies and stoichiometric ratios and

  11. Fish predation on brachyuran larvae and juveniles in the Pinheiros river, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo V. Costa


    Full Text Available Fish predation is thought to exert an important influence on the demographical dynamics of larvae and juveniles of estuarine brachyuran crabs but few studies have investigated this phenomenon in nature. In this study, fishes were captured during full moons (in January and February 2005, when many brachyuran species are known to release their larvae. Samples were carried out in the Pinheiros river, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil. The stomach contents of collected fishes were surveyed to determine the species that are most likely to prey on brachyuran immature forms in this location. Two techniques were used to capture fishes: manual samplings, using a 5-mm mesh size net (1.8m depth, and bottom trawling with a 20-mm mesh size net. The collected specimens were fixed using 10% formaldehyde and preserved in 70% ethanol. A total of 2941 fishes of 43 different species were collected and the stomach contents of 962 individuals were analyzed in laboratory. Food items were identified and quantified. The fish species captured using manual nets that showed the highest number of preyed zoeae per stomach was the clupeid Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917. Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 showed the highest levels of predation on megalopae. Of the fish species captured using trawl nets, Genidens genidens (Cuvier, 1829 showed the highest average number of zoeae per analyzed stomach and Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier, 1830 was the most important predator on brachyuran megalopae and on young juveniles. The obtained data indicate that brachyuran crab restocking efforts performed in the Guaratuba Bay should include strategies to avoid or, at least, reduce the access of fishes to the released early juvenile stages, given the potential substantial losses caused by fish predation. Considering that, in general, predation potential was 8.5 times lower in juveniles than in megalopae, releasing immature forms produced in laboratory

  12. Boceprevir and telaprevir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection: an indirect comparison meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper CL


    Full Text Available Curtis L Cooper1, Eric Druyts2, Kristian Thorlund3, Jean B Nachega4, Antoine C El Khoury5, Christopher O'Regan6, Edward J Mills2,31Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 5Merck and Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ, 6Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, United KingdomBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the relative efficacy and safety of boceprevir and telaprevir, when used in combination with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, using an indirect comparison meta-analysis.Methods: Published phase II and phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of boceprevir and telaprevir in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infected adult populations were included. The primary outcomes were sustained virologic response, relapse, and discontinuation of all study drugs. Secondary outcomes included the adverse events of anemia, neutropenia, rash, and pruritus. Results: Four boceprevir trials and six telaprevir trials were included. No significant differences were observed for sustained virologic response among either naïve (relative risk [RR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–1.37, P = 0.20 or experienced patients (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52–1.23, P = 0.30. Similarly, for relapse among naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.18–3.45, P = 0.77 and experienced patients (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.90–3.24, P = 0.10, or discontinuation of therapy for naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.28–2.29, P = 0.72 and experienced patients (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69–1.12, P = 0.30. Telaprevir was more likely to be associated with rash and pruritus, and boceprevir was more likely to be associated with neutropenia in certain patient populations.Conclusion: Boceprevir and telaprevir appear

  13. MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiki, Hassan [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail:


    MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of

  14. Influence of Vessel Type, Physical State of Medium and Temporary Immersion on the Micropropagation of Three Rhodophiala species Influencia del Tipo del Recipiente, Estado Físico del Medio e Inmersión Temporal en la Micropropagación de Tres Especies de Rhodophiala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Muñoz


    Full Text Available Rhodophiala C. Presl (Amaryllidaceae is a genus of attractive flowering geophytes native to South America. They have ornamental value, but most species are little known and have conservation problems. The objective of this study was to optimize a micropropagation process to support the use and preservation of three Chilean native species, R. montana (Phil. Traub, R. splendens (Rengifo Traub., and R. ananuca (Phil. Traub. The research evaluated the feasibility of implementing liquid medium culture and assessed the influence of different tissue culture systems on the shoot production and biomass increment of small bulbs. Three experiments were carried out. The first one determined the influences of flask size and volume of media; the second compared liquid and solid media, and in the third experiment, a temporary immersion system (TIS, and conventional culture in static liquid, shaken liquid and gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS media were compared. By using larger (350 mL flasks with higher (50 mL media volume, 100% more fresh weight of microbulb was obtained that treatment with smaller flasks (45 mL and media volume (10 mL. In gelled medium, hyperhydricity affected only 5% of explants, while in liquid medium was 16-40%. Survival to acclimatization reached 87-94% for plants from gelled medium; from liquid medium only 38-69%. TIS yielded higher propagation rate (1.9 shoots in 30 d compared with shaken liquid medium (1.0 (P Rhodophiala C. Presl (Amaryllidaceae es un género de geófitas nativas de Sudamérica con un gran potencial ornamental por sus atractivas flores. La mayoría de las especies de este género son poco conocidas y tienen problemas de conservación. El objetivo de este estudio fue optimizar un proceso de micropropagación para sustentar el uso y preservación de tres especies nativas de Chile: R. montana (Phil. Traub, R. splendens (Rengifo Traub y R. ananuca (Phil. Traub. Se evaluó la factibilidad de la implementación del cultivo en

  15. Valorisation of palaeontological collections: nomination of a lectotype for Conohyus simorrensis (Lartet, 1851, Villefranche d’Astarac, France, and description of a new genus of tetraconodont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickford, M.


    Full Text Available The type species of the suid genus Conohyus Pilgrim (1925 is Sus simorrensis Lartet (1851 by original designation, but, as was usual at the time of the creation of the species in 1851, no holotype was nominated. Allusion was made by Lartet (1851 to upper and lower canines and some molars from two localities, Simorre and Villefranche d’Astarac, France. The canines belong to Listriodon splendens, a highly lophodont suid, but the molars were described as being bunodont. Until now a lectotype has not been nominated, partly because the original collections of Lartet (1851 were thought to be lost, but also because the diagnosis of the molars as bunodont was insufficient for distinguishing the species from a host of other suids. A suggestion was made to nominate a mandible from Le Fousseret as lectotype, but it was never formalised, and later it was proposed that a bunodont tooth from Simorre collected during the 1960s should be selected, but none was nominated. We here report the re-discovery of the collection of suids examined by Lartet (1851 and select a lectotype for the species Sus simorrensis. We provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of all the tetraconodont material from Villefranche d’Astarac, Simorre (Rajegats and Le Fousseret, and discuss the relationships of the fossils to other tetraconodont samples from Europe. There are two taxa of bunodont tetraconodonts at Villefranche d’Astarac and Simorre, one of which represents a new genus, which is defined and described.Por designación original, la especie tipo del género de suidos Conohyus Pilgrim (1925 es Sus simorrensis Lartet (1851, pero como era habitual en el momento de la creación de la especie en 1851, no se designó el holotipo. Lartet (1851 aludió a los caninos superiores e inferiores y algunos molares de dos localidades: Simorre y Villefranche d'Astarac, Francia. Los caninos pertenecen a splendens Listriodon, un suido extremadamente lofodonto, pero los molares se

  16. Estado de conservación de los peces de la familia Goodeidae (Cyprinodontiformes en la mesa central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Y De la Vega-Salazar


    Full Text Available Se estableció el estado de conservación y se identificaron los riesgos que presentan los peces de la familia Goodeidae en la Mesa Central de México. Para ello se evaluó la disminución en el número de localidades y el área de distribución, y se incorporó una descripción limnológica en 53 localidades. Esta evaluación incluyó una comparación de las colecciones actuales con registros hist��ricos de la distribución de la familia. Un análisis de componentes principales de las variables limnológicas indicó que la mayoría de las especies de goodeidos habitan localidades caracterizadas por tener poca degradación ambiental, y sólo pocas especies parecen tener elevada tolerancia a dicho estado de contaminación. Los resultados de la disminución histórica de localidades y del área de distribución sugieren que el estado de conservación de las especies (de acuerdo con los criterios de la IUCN es el siguiente: una especie está extinta (Allotoca catarinae, una especie está extinta en la naturaleza (Skiffia francesae, ya que existen ejemplares en cautiverio, ocho están en peligro crítico (Allotoca goslinei, Allotoca regalis, Allotoca zacapuensis, Allodontichthys hubbsi, Ameca splendens, Characodon audax, Hubbsina turneri y Zoogoneticus tequila, once están en peligro, ocho se consideran como vulnerables, cuatro se pueden considerar en riesgo próximo y sólo dos parecen no enfrentar ningún riesgo. En conclusión, la pérdida de hábitat, la introducción de especies exóticas de peces, el ámbito geográfico restringido y la especialización ecológica de las especies son los principales factores de riesgo para las especies estudiadas de la familia Goodeidae. La supervivencia de este grupo requiere acciones para su conservación.Conservation status of Goodeidae familiy fishes (Cyprinodontiformes from the Mexican Central Plateau. To establish the conservation status and threats for Goodeidae fishes in the high plateau of Mexico

  17. Genetic and morphological diversity in Armeria (Plumbaginaceae is shaped by glacial cycles in Mediterranean refugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo


    Full Text Available Little is known of the direct effects of Quaternary glaciationdeglaciation cycles in plants within southern European refugia. This study, centered in the Sierra Nevada (S Spain, used RAPD and morphometric data from 36 populations of Armeria (Plumbaginaceae from five taxa belonging to three species that are endemic to that region: A. filicaulis subsp. nevadensis, A. fili caulis subsp. trevenqueana, A. filicaulis subsp. alfacarensis, A. splendens, and A. villosa subsp. bernisii. The results based on genetic analyses at the population level (AMOVA, genetic diversity, genetic distance and genetic and morphological analyses at individual level (haplotype phenetic distance, PCO, morphometrics indicate that: (1 genetic diversity decreases with altitude, probably as a result of the postglacial recolonization processes, except in some secondary contact zones between taxa; (2 gene flow among interspecific populations, most likely facilitated by contraction of vegetation belts, led to the formation of hybrid taxa; (3 genetic distances among populations provide a useful basis for studying scenarios with frequent interspecific gene-flow since it allows distinguishing eventual cases of introgression from hybridogenous taxa.Poco se sabe de los efectos directos de los ciclos de glaciacióndeglaciación del Cuaternario sobre las plantas de los refugios glaciales del S de Europa. En el presente estudio, centrado en Sierra Nevada (S de España, hemos empleado RAPD y datos morfométricos de 36 poblaciones de Armeria (Plumbaginaceae de cinco táxones pertenecientes a tres especies endémicas de esa región: A. filicaulis subsp. nevadensis, A. filicaulis subsp. trevenqueana, A. filicaulis subsp. alfacarensis, A. splendens y A. villosa subsp. bernisii. Los resultados basados en el análisis genético a nivel poblacional (AMOVA, diversidad genética, distancia genética y los análisis genéticos y morfológicos a nivel individual (distancia fenética genotipo haploide

  18. Microclimatic variation in multiple Salamandra algira populations along an altitudinal gradient: phenology and reproductive strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Escoriza


    Full Text Available Salamandra algira is one of the southernmost species of the genus, and most of its ecology remains poorly known. We studied the microhabitat conditions of the sites occupied by several populations of S. algira along an altitudinal gradient, and the use of water bodies for reproduction. The microclimate conditions were analysed at six sites in northern Morocco: one site in Beni Snassen massif (S. algira spelaea, two in the Middle Atlas and central Rif mountains (S. algira splendens, and three in the western Rif mountains and Peninsula Tingitana (S. algira tingitana, where a viviparous population also occurs. The microclimate was characterized using temperature and relative humidity data loggers for a period of two years. We also measured the surface area and depth of the water bodies where we found S. algira larvae. Our results showed an autumn-winter reproductive period for all ovoviviparous populations studied. In most of the aquatic habitats examined, larvae appeared between November and March, although this period could extend to May at higher altitudes. Larval abundance and their size variability did not correlate with water body size or microclimate conditions. The decrease in the number of larvae per water body coincided with the existence of suitable conditions for post-metamorphic dispersal. Salamandra algira occurred in regions with moist conditions (annual average relative humidity greater than 64 % and with mean annual temperatures of 13.6-18.6 °C, but populations were largely segregated along a gradient of humidity, with some showing higher and more constant values than others. The viviparous population occurs in a region with maritime influence and greater microclimate stability than the other sites studied.

  19. ITS2 for the identification of Calliphoridae (Diptera: Calliphoridae of forensic importance in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison R. Lea-Charris


    Full Text Available Forensic entomology is a discipline that uses insects to obtain useful information for the determination of the postmortem interval (PMI. Flies of the family Calliphoridae are extensively used for this purpose, however, the identification of these flies can be difficult when the individual is not an adult or when it is incomplete. In the present work, we tested the utility of the ITS2 region of the nuclear genome for the identification of Calliphoridae species in Colombia using three approaches: comparing genetic distances using the barcoding methodology, with a phylogenetic reconstruction, and with PCR-RFLPs. We sequenced 520 bp in 44 individuals belonging to 16 species of califorids. Intraspecific and interspecific distance values were calculated using the K2P model. The intraspecific distance values ranged between 0 and 0.252 %, while the interspecific distance values ranged between 3.6 and 18.9 %, indicating that this gene can be used as a genetic barcode for the identification of species of the Calliphoridae family. Both the Neighbour-Joining and Bayesian analyses recovered 90 % of the genera as monophyletic, with pp values between 0.89 and 1. Blepharicnema splendens was always recovered within the Lucilia genera. Based on the obtained sequences we used the NEBCutter application to identify four restriction enzymes that cut in a differential way and generated useful patterns for the identification of the species. The enzymes were successfully tested and confirmed the utility of this technique as a fast way to identify species of Calliphoridae in Colombia.

  20. The molluscicidal activity of niclosamide (Bayluscide WP70® on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae, a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Giovanelli


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of niclosamide (Bayluscide ® on Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions. The latter species is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon 1917. M. tuberculata was successfully used as competitor of B. glabrata in biological control programs in French West Indies. Both molluscicide and biological control using M. tuberculata have proved to be successful in reducing the population density of B. glabrata. The associated use of molluscicide in this area would be an effective measure if M. tuberculata were less susceptibility to the molluscicide than B. glabrata. Three hundreds individuals each of B. glabrata and of M. tuberculata, collected in Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were used in the experiment. The molluscs were exposed to 14 different concentrations of niclosamide as recommended by the World Health Organization. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC 50 and LC 90. The LC 50 and LC 90 values for B. glabrata were 0.077 mg/l and 0.175 mg/l, respectively and the LC 50 and LC 90 values for M. tuberculata were 0.082 mg/l and 0.221 mg/l respectively. As the lethal concentrations of niclosamide were approximately the same to both species, this could be a disadvantage when controlling B. glabrata with niclosamide in an area of M. tuberculata occurrence. It migth therefore be preferable to utilize the latex extracted from the Euphorbia splendens, which presented a much higher efficiency for B. glabrata than to M. tuberculata.

  1. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)


    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  2. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.


    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Evolutionary plasticity of habenular asymmetry with a conserved efferent connectivity pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Villalón

    Full Text Available The vertebrate habenulae (Hb is an evolutionary conserved dorsal diencephalic nuclear complex that relays information from limbic and striatal forebrain regions to the ventral midbrain. One key feature of this bilateral nucleus is the presence of left-right differences in size, cytoarchitecture, connectivity, neurochemistry and/or gene expression. In teleosts, habenular asymmetry has been associated with preferential innervation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the midbrain interpeduncular nucleus (IPN. However, the degree of conservation of this trait and its relation to the structural asymmetries of the Hb are currently unknown. To address these questions, we performed the first systematic comparative analysis of structural and connectional asymmetries of the Hb in teleosts. We found striking inter-species variability in the overall shape and cytoarchitecture of the Hb, and in the frequency, strength and to a lesser degree, laterality of habenular volume at the population level. Directional asymmetry of the Hb was either to the left in D. rerio, E. bicolor, O. latipes, P. reticulata, B. splendens, or to the right in F. gardneri females. In contrast, asymmetry was absent in P. scalare and F. gardneri males at the population level, although in these species the Hb displayed volumetric asymmetries at the individual level. Inter-species variability was more pronounced across orders than within a single order, and coexisted with an overall conserved laterotopic representation of left-right habenular efferents into dorso-ventral domains of the IPN. These results suggest that the circuit design involving the Hb of teleosts promotes structural flexibility depending on developmental, cognitive and/or behavioural pressures, without affecting the main midbrain connectivity output, thus unveiling a key conserved role of this connectivity trait in the function of the circuit. We propose that ontogenic plasticity in habenular

  4. Atmospheric metal deposition in France: Estimation based on moss analysis. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galsomies, L.; Letrouit-Galinou, M.A.; Avnaim, M.; Duclaux, G.; Deschamps, C.; Savanne, D.


    The aim of this programme set up by University Pierre and Marie Curie-Paris VI and ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management) is to obtain information on the atmospheric deposition of 36 elements (most being heavy metals) all over France, using 5 common mosses as bioaccumulators: Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Scleropodium purum and Thuidium tamariscinum. Sampling was performed in 1996 from April to November thanks to 43 collectors. One sample of moss at least has been collected in 512 sites distributed over France, with an average density of one site each 1000 km 2 . Procedures for sampling, drying, cleaning, sorting are strictly codified based on Scandinavian guidelines. Analyses are performed according to two procedures: ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma, Mass Spectrometry) for Pb, Ni specialty and INAA (instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for other elements. Data concerning As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb. Ni, V, Zn will be incorporated into the 1995-1996 European Programme 'Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe - estimation based on moss analysis' coordinated by the Nordic Council. The analyses are in progress, but preliminary results from Ile-de-France have been achieved for 34 elements in INAA. A preliminary study has shown that interspecies calibration could be possible for some heavy metals and that saturation effects in one species could be present when the intercalibration between species is not possible. Such a programme is made possible thanks to the financial support of the French Ministry of Environment and ADEME and with the active cooperation of several national organisations, especially the Laboratory Pierre Sue (CNRS-CEA). (author)

  5. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.


    Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by zooplankton and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant zooplankton. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of zooplankton and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in zooplankton and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within zooplankton were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of zooplankton (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.

  6. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.


    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m 2 frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  7. Oral ingestion of transgenic RIDL Ae. aegypti larvae has no negative effect on two predator Toxorhynchites species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreenaiza Nordin

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. No specific treatment or vaccine is currently available; traditional vector control methods can rarely achieve adequate control. Recently, the RIDL (Release of Insect carrying Dominant Lethality approach has been developed, based on the sterile insect technique, in which genetically engineered 'sterile' homozygous RIDL male insects are released to mate wild females; the offspring inherit a copy of the RIDL construct and die. A RIDL strain of the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti, OX513A, expresses a fluorescent marker gene for identification (DsRed2 and a protein (tTAV that causes the offspring to die. We examined whether these proteins could adversely affect predators that may feed on the insect. Aedes aegypti is a peri-domestic mosquito that typically breeds in small, rain-water-filled containers and has no specific predators. Toxorhynchites larvae feed on small aquatic organisms and are easily reared in the laboratory where they can be fed exclusively on mosquito larvae. To evaluate the effect of a predator feeding on a diet of RIDL insects, OX513A Ae. aegypti larvae were fed to two different species of Toxorhynchites (Tx. splendens and Tx. amboinensis and effects on life table parameters of all life stages were compared to being fed on wild type larvae. No significant negative effect was observed on any life table parameter studied; this outcome and the benign nature of the expressed proteins (tTAV and DsRed2 indicate that Ae. aegypti OX513A RIDL strain is unlikely to have any adverse effects on predators in the environment.

  8. Diversity of mosquitoes and larval breeding preference based on physico-chemical parameters in Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyasamy Senthamarai Selvan


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the diversity and distribution of mosquitoes in Western Ghats of Coimbatore and Nilgiris District, Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Random collections were carried out during August-2013 to July-2014 in cesspits, animal footprints, rock holes, tree holes, drainages at study areas of Marudhamalai, Valparai, Mettupalayam in Coimbatore District and Dhottapeta, Coonoor, Gudalur in Nilgiris District of Tamilnadu, India by using suction tube and kerosene pump. Mosquitoes were identified by standard entomological procedures. Results: A total of 1 018 mosquitoes (larvae and pupae were collected from all over the study areas comprising 6 genera and 23 species. They are, Culex mimulus, Culex pseudovishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex vishnui, Culex khazani, Culex uniformis, Heizmannia chandi, Heizmannia grenii, Heizmannia indica, Oclerotatus anureostriatus, Oclerotatus albotaeniatis, Oclerotatus deccanus, Oclerotatus gubernatoris, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes edwardsi, Aedes krombeini, Toxorhynchites minimus, Toxorhynchites splendens, Anopheles aitkenii, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles culiciformis and Anopheles maculatus. ShannonWeaver diversity index, Margalef’s index of richness and Simpsons dominance index was also studied. From 6 sites, the highest mosquitoes were collected from Marudhamalai (309 and the least mosquitoes were collected in Mettupalayam (68. The study determined whether physicochemical characteristics differ between habitats with high and low presence of mosquito larvae. Based on Margalef’s index of richness (Dmg, the highest values were present in Mettupalayam (5.214 study area and the lowest in Marudhamalai (3.837. It can be concluded from Shanon-Weaver index of diversity that, the highest values were present in Mettupalayam (2.947 and the least value were in Gudalur (2.410 during the study period. Conclusions: In areas with reservoirs of disease, mosquito abundance information can help to identify the

  9. Oral ingestion of transgenic RIDL Ae. aegypti larvae has no negative effect on two predator Toxorhynchites species. (United States)

    Nordin, Oreenaiza; Donald, Wesley; Ming, Wong Hong; Ney, Teoh Guat; Mohamed, Khairul Asuad; Halim, Nor Azlina Abdul; Winskill, Peter; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Muhammad, Zulkamal Safi'in; Lacroix, Renaud; Scaife, Sarah; McKemey, Andrew Robert; Beech, Camilla; Shahnaz, Murad; Alphey, Luke; Nimmo, Derric David; Nazni, Wasi Ahmed; Lee, Han Lim


    Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. No specific treatment or vaccine is currently available; traditional vector control methods can rarely achieve adequate control. Recently, the RIDL (Release of Insect carrying Dominant Lethality) approach has been developed, based on the sterile insect technique, in which genetically engineered 'sterile' homozygous RIDL male insects are released to mate wild females; the offspring inherit a copy of the RIDL construct and die. A RIDL strain of the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti, OX513A, expresses a fluorescent marker gene for identification (DsRed2) and a protein (tTAV) that causes the offspring to die. We examined whether these proteins could adversely affect predators that may feed on the insect. Aedes aegypti is a peri-domestic mosquito that typically breeds in small, rain-water-filled containers and has no specific predators. Toxorhynchites larvae feed on small aquatic organisms and are easily reared in the laboratory where they can be fed exclusively on mosquito larvae. To evaluate the effect of a predator feeding on a diet of RIDL insects, OX513A Ae. aegypti larvae were fed to two different species of Toxorhynchites (Tx. splendens and Tx. amboinensis) and effects on life table parameters of all life stages were compared to being fed on wild type larvae. No significant negative effect was observed on any life table parameter studied; this outcome and the benign nature of the expressed proteins (tTAV and DsRed2) indicate that Ae. aegypti OX513A RIDL strain is unlikely to have any adverse effects on predators in the environment.

  10. Effects on field- and bottom-layer species in an experiment with repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.


    Long-term changes in forest ground vegetation because of repeated PK- and NPK-fertilization were examined in an old field experiment, located in a 85-year-old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. Fertilizers were added at 5-(PK, NPK) or 10-(PK) year intervals, beginning 26 years prior to the study. The treatments were tested in two replicates on plots sized 40 x 40 m. The total doses added were N 720 kg/ha, P 222-380 kg/ha and K 318-620 kg/ha. N was given as ammonium nitrate, P as superphosphate and K as potassium chloride. The vegetation on control plots was of the Vaccinium vitis-idaea type. The field layer was dominated by V.vitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, and the bottom layer by Pleurozium schreberi. The effect of fertilization was quantified by examining the areal cover of individual species. This was done in 25 0.25 m[sup 2] frames systematically placed in a grid over each treatment plot. The only pronounced effect in the field layer was on V.myrtillus. The cover was strongly reduced by fertilization with PK. The reduction was 70% for the 5-year interval and 34% for the 10-year interval. The cover more than doubled after NPK-fertilization. Among the cryptogams, a reduction in cover was indicated for Cladina arbuscula and C.rangiferina because of fertilization with NPK. NPK reduced the number of species that were found, totally depending on negative effects on several lichen species. For species absent in the examined frame areas but present somewhere else on the treatment plots, it was seen that Deschampsia flexuosa increased after NPK-fertilization, while Peltigera apthosa and Steroecaulon tomentosum decreased. Hylocomium splendens occurred on both control plots, but only on one fertilized plot. 30 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  11. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Selected Cotoneaster Medik. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kicel


    Full Text Available The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O2•− and H2O2 scavenging assays. The samples exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays with activity parameters of EC50 = 18.5–34.5 µg/mL for DPPH; 0.9–3.8 mmol Fe2+/g for FRAP; SC50 = 27.7–74.8 µg/mL for O2•−; and SC50 = 29.0–91.3 µg/mL for H2O2. Significant linear correlations (|r| = 0.76–0.97, p < 0.01 between activity parameters and total contents of phenolics (5.2%–15.4% GAE and proanthocyanidins (2.1%–15.0% CYE, with weak or no effects for chlorogenic acid isomers (0.69%–2.93% and total flavonoids (0.28%–1.40% suggested that among the listed polyphenols, proanthocyanidins are the most important determinants of the tested activity. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses led to detection of 34 polyphenols, of which 10 B-type procyanidins, 5 caffeoylquinic acids and 14 flavonoids were identified. After cluster analysis of the data matrix, the leaves of Cotoneaster zabelii, C. splendens, C. bullatus, C. divaricatus, C. hjelmqvistii and C. lucidus were selected as the most promising sources of natural antioxidants, exhibiting the highest phenolic levels and antioxidant capacities, and therefore the greatest potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Compost de ave de corral como componente de sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alejandra Barbaro¹


    Full Text Available El sustrato para cultivo es un material que colocado en un contenedor permite el anclaje del sistema radicular, proporcionando agua y nutrientes. Entre los materiales empleados para formular sustratos se encuentran los compost. Entre ellos el compost de cama de ave de corral (CAC, elaborado en base al estiércol de aves mezclado con los materiales que forman su lecho. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar dos compost de CAC como componente de sustrato, mediante el desarrollo de plantas de Coral (Salvia splendens. Uno de los compost contenía cama de stud (CAC+S durante su compostaje. Se formularon sustratos con diferentes proporciones de compost de CAC, compost de corteza de pino y pinocha, luego fueron analizados física y químicamente. A las plantas cultivadas en cada sustrato se midió la longitud y el diámetro del tallo, peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radicular. La densidad, porosidad y capacidad de retención de agua de todos los sustratos fueron aceptables. El pH de ambos compost de CAC fue mayor a 6,3, y los valores de las mezclas se encontraron dentro del rango aceptable. Todos los sustratos superaron 1 dS m-1 (1+5 v/v, principalmente los formulados con compost de CAC+S, cuyo material puro contenía altos niveles salinos. Al disminuir el porcentaje de CAC en las mezclas, diminuyó la concentración de cada nutriente. Las plantas cultivadas en el sustrato comercial y en las mezclas con 20% de CAC fueron las que lograron los mayores pesos aéreos y radiculares, diámetro y longitud del tallo. Por lo tanto, el compost de ave de corral podría ser una alternativa viable como componente de sustrato si se lo utiliza hasta un 20%.

  13. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Marcela; Zechmeister, Harald; Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Bouso, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael; Koellensperger, Gunda; Deltell, Alexandre; Vizcaya, David


    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO 2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO 2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO 2 . Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO 2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO 2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO 2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO 2 . → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  14. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations contribute to ecosystem-N-budget of boreal forest (United States)

    Salemaa, Maija; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Merilä, Päivi; Mäkipää, Raisa; Smolander, Aino


    Bryophytes frequently dominate the ground vegetation on the forest floor in boreal region. Northern ecosystems are often nitrogen limited, and therefore biological nitrogen (N2) fixation of bryophyte-associated microbes is an important source of new N. In this study we estimated the N stock of bryophyte layer and the N input rate by N2 fixation of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations at the ecosystem level. We studied 12 intensively monitored forest ecosystem plots (ICP Forests Level II) along a latitudinal gradient in Finland during 2009-2013. The total biomass and N stock of the bryophytes varied 700-2000 kg ha-1 and 9-23 kg ha-1, respectively. N2 fixation rate associated to bryophytes increased towards the north and was at highest 1-2 kg N ha-1 year-1 (based on the bryophyte biomass in the monitoring plots). This N input was at the same level as the N deposition in the northern Finland (1.5 kg N ha-1 year-1). In comparison, via needle litterfall and other tree litter c.a. 5 kg N ha-1 is annually returned to the nutrient cycle. In southern Finland, very low rates of N2 fixation were found probably because of inhibition by the anthropogenic N deposition. The upper parts of the bryophyte shoots showed 2-3 times higher N2-fixing rate than the lower parts, but differences between Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were minor. However, Dicranum species showed much lower N2 fixation rates compared to these two species. The moisture level of bryophytes and light/temperature conditions regulated strongly the rate of N2-fixing activity. The results showed that the bryophyte layer significantly contributes to the N input and plays an important role in controlling the N and C balances of boreal forests.

  15. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chelyabinsk region (Ural mountains, Russia) through trace-elements and radionuclides: Temporal and spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchintsev, V.D.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Smirnov, L.I.


    This report contains the first results on the analysis of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi which were used to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk, the center of the iron steel industry of Russia. Moss samples were collected along Bannoe Lake, located 30 km north-west of Magnitogorsk, and were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithernal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna, and by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at the Geological Institute of RAS, Moscow. Results for a total of 38 elements were obtained, including Pb, Cd, and Cu determined by AAS. The element concentrations in moss samples from this area were compared with those available for the so-called 'Black Triangle' (the territory bordering Poland, Czechia and Slovakia), obtained by the same moss biomonitoring technique. The level of the concentrations of Fe, Cr, and V in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk was found to be 2-2.5 times higher than that of the mean values determined for the 'Black Triangle'; the level of Ni and Cd is of the same order as in the most polluted area of Europe. The concentrations of Zn and Cu tend to be higher in the 'Black Triangle'. The level of As is about 3 times higher in the Urals, whereas concentration of Pb is higher in Europe by a factor of 5. It appeared that concentration of Sb in the examined area has the highest ever published for levels in mosses from atmospheric deposition. The scanning electron microscope adjacent to the XRF analyzer (SEM-XRF) was used to examine the surface of the moss samples. Photographs of identified iron spherulas along with other aerosol particles were made at magnification of 3,500 to 5,000 times. Information on fieldwork in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk region in July, 1998 is reported. (author)

  16. Plant, Microbiome, and Biogeochemistry: Quantifying moss-associated N fixation in Alaska (United States)

    Stuart, J.; Mack, M. C.; Holland Moritz, H.; Fierer, N.; McDaniels, S.; Lewis, L.


    The future carbon (C) sequestration potential of the Arctic and boreal zones, currently the largest terrestrial C sink globally, is linked to nitrogen (N) cycling and N availability vis-a-vis C accumulation and plant species composition. Pristine environments in Alaska have low anthropogenic N deposition (<1 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and the main source of new N to these ecosystems is through previously overlooked N-fixation from microbial communities on mosses. Despite the importance of moss associated N-fixation, the relationship between moss species, microbial communities, and fixation rates remains ambiguous. In the summer of 2016, the fixation rates of 20 moss species from sites around both Fairbanks and Toolik Lake were quantified using 15N2 incubations. Subsequently, the microbial community and moss genome of the samples were also analyzed by collaborators. The most striking result is that all sampled moss genera fixed N, including well-studied feather mosses such as Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi as well as less common but ecologically relevant mosses such as Aulacomnium spp., Dicranum spp., Ptilium crista-castrensis, and Tomentypnum nitens. Across all samples, preliminary fixation rates ranged from 0.004-19.994 µg N g-1 moss d-1. Depending upon percent cover, moss-associated N fixation is the largest input of new N to the ecosystem. Given this, linking variation in N-fixation rates to microbial and moss community structures can be helpful in predicting future trends of C and N cycling in northern latitudes. Vegetation changes, alterations in downstream biogeochemical N processes, and anthropogenic N deposition could all interact with or alter moss associated N-fixation, thereby changing ecosystem N inputs. Further elucidation of the species level signal in N-fixation rates and microbial community will augment our knowledge of N cycling in northern latitudes, both current and future.

  17. Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ingole SN (2011 Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India. Biodiversitas 12: 146-163. Verbenaceae is a large family of very diverse habit. The present study deals with detailed characteristics, distribution and economically important products of some verbenaceous members of Melghat and Amravati regions. During the survey twenty members belonging to fourteen genera of Verbenaceae were collected. Some members occur abundantly either in wild or cultivated state like Lantana camara L. var. aculeata Mold., Lantana flava Medik., L. nivea Vent., Glandularia bipinnatifida (Schauer Nutt., Duranta erecta L., Vitex negundo L., Volkameria inermis L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f., Clerodendrum splendens G. Don, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. etc. while Petrea volubilis L., Gmelina arborea Roxb., G. phillippensis Cham., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl., S. mutabilis (Jacq. Vahl., Rotheca serrata (L. Steane & Mabb., Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. are not much common and occur in limited locations. Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene, a creeping much-branched herb is found typically in wet places. Tectona grandis L. f. occurs very variable in size according to its habitat and is common dominant tree in forest of Melghat and also planted in plains. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., a gregarious tomentose shrub is exclusively found in shades of forest at limited spots in higher elevations of Melghat. The various members are not only beautiful ornamentals but also the source of important medicinal products useful in a broad range of diseases including skin disorders and snake remedies; they contain alkaloids, sterols, saponin, glucosides, dyes etc. and are economically quite important e.g. as high quality timber. On basis of morphological diversity the generic key is provided.

  18. Pollination ecology of Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn. (Lamiaceae in Coringa mangrove ecosystem, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Solomon Raju


    Full Text Available Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn. (Lamiaceae is bisexual, self-compatible and has a vector-dependent mixed breeding system.  They are dichogamous and herkogamous; the day 1 flowers are staminate while the day 2 and 3 flowers are pistillate.  The plant blooms in the evening, possesses a white long corolla with a hairy interior to exclude other insects and strong fragrance are adaptations for pollination by the hawk-moth Macroglossum gyrans.  The 2nd and 3rd day flowers are nectar-rich and attract hawk-moths during the dawn and dusk hours.  The plant is also visited by bees and butterflies.  The bees Xylocopa and Anthophora are primary nectar robbers which collect nectar without effecting pollination.  In C. inerme, three forms of flowers can be distinguished based on the position of sex organs.  The first form is characterized by elongated stamens and a style which occur in close proximity to each other just after anthesis facilitating contact between the stamens and stigma.  The second form is characterized by the scattered position of stamens and style.  In the third form, the stamens are fully extended while the style is curved away from them, either to the left or to the right; subsequently the stamens curl inward and the style elongates. Interestingly, the three flower forms can be found within a cyme also.  These forms of flowers with strong protandry prevent autonomous selfing but not geitonogamy.  The fruit is a capsule and breaks open to disperse nutlets.  Birds such as Acridotheres tristis, Corvus splendens, Corvus macrorhynchos and Turdoides caudatus disperse nutlets during the early winter season. Seeds germinate in June and seedlings grow gradually to produce new plants. 

  19. Rapid and high throughput molecular identification of diverse mosquito species by high resolution melting analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma


    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are a diverse group of invertebrates, with members that are among the most important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is paramount to the control of the diseases that they transmit. However, morphological techniques depend on the quality of the specimen and often unavailable taxonomic expertise, which may still not be able to distinguish mosquitoes among species complexes (sibling and cryptic species. High resolution melting (HRM analyses, a closed-tube, post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR method used to identify variations in nucleic acid sequences, has been used to differentiate species within the Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens complexes. We validated the use of PCR-HRM analyses to differentiate species within Anopheles and within each of six genera of culicine mosquitoes, comparing primers targeting cytochrome b (cyt b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1, intergenic spacer region (IGS and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI gene regions. HRM analyses of amplicons from all the six primer pairs successfully differentiated two or more mosquito species within one or more genera (Aedes (Ae. vittatus from Ae. metallicus, Culex (Cx. tenagius from Cx. antennatus, Cx. neavei from Cx. duttoni, cryptic Cx. pipiens species, Anopheles (An. gambiae s.s. from An. arabiensis and Mansonia (Ma. africana from Ma. uniformis based on their HRM profiles. However, PCR-HRM could not distinguish between species within Aedeomyia (Ad. africana and Ad. furfurea, Mimomyia (Mi. hispida and Mi. splendens and Coquillettidia (Cq. aurites, Cq. chrysosoma, Cq. fuscopennata, Cq. metallica, Cq. microannulatus, Cq. pseudoconopas and Cq. versicolor genera using any of the primers. The IGS and COI barcode region primers gave the best and most definitive separation of mosquito species among anopheline and culicine mosquito genera, respectively, while the other markers may serve to confirm identifications of closely related sub

  20. Prevalence and multidrug resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from resident wild birds of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Faruq


    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases, and the presence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in wild birds is global public health threat. Throughout the last decades, multidrug resistance of Salmonella spp. has increased, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance pattern against Salmonella spp. from two species of resident wild birds namely house crow (Corvus splendens and Asian pied starling (Gracupica contra. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from cloacal swabs of house crows and Asian pied starling for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method against Salmonella spp. isolates during March to December 2014. Results: The prevalence of Salmonella in Asian pied starling and house crows were 67% and 65%, respectively. Within the category of samples from different species, the variation in prevalence was not varied significantly (p>0.05. Isolated Salmonella spp. was tested for resistance to six different antimicrobial agents. Among six antimicrobial tested, 100% resistance were found to penicillin, oxacillin, and clindamycin followed by erythromycin (50-93%, kanamycin (7-20%, and cephalothin (30-67% from both species of birds. Kanamycin remained sensitive in (70-73%, cephalothin (26-70%, and erythromycin appeared to be (0-30% sensitive against Salmonella spp. isolates. Isolated Salmonella spp. was multidrug resistant up to three of the six antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antimicrobials needs to be adopted in the treatment of disease for livestock, poultry, and human of Bangladesh to limit the emergence of drug resistance to Salmonella spp.

  1. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology (United States)

    Demming, Anna


    also recommend them for ethanol fuel cells, as demonstrated in the decoration of SnO2-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes with platinum catalysts by researchers in Canada [5] Interest in solar power received an enormous boost in the early 1990s when Brian O'Regan and Michael Grätzel published work on a new way to maximise the amount of energy harvested by colloidal TiO2 films with the use of a charge-transfer dye [6]. This approach captured attention across the community due to the large current densities, exceptional stability and low cost of the devices. This design has been modified since, using arrays of nanowires, where each nanowire provides a direct pathway to the collection electrode. In [7], researchers in the US investigate how arrays of vertical nanowires with controlled aspect ratios grow in solution, and how the nanowire aspect ratio affects the performance of nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells. A collaboration of researchers in China and Australia has considered how the cell performance could be improved by maximising the interface area between the indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-glass electrode and the oxide semiconductor. To this end, they synthesized arrays of ITO nanowires and ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowires creating a three-dimensional electrode [8]. Quantum dots have also been incorporated into solar cell devices as they have higher extinction coefficients than metal-organic dyes and their size-dependent spectral responses allow them to be tuned to optimize their performance. Until recently, molecular linkers have been required to attach the quantum dots to the electrode, creating a gap between quantum dot and electrode that is thought to diminish cell performance. Researchers in Spain and Japan have applied a new technique that allows the quantum dots to be adsorbed directly onto the electrode, yielding significant improvements to cell efficiency [9]. Organic photovoltaic devices have also attracted considerable interest as a result of their

  2. PREFACE: Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada/ECORD summer school (United States)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Solignac, Sandrine


    IODP logoECORD logo The European Consortium for Ocean Drilling Program (ECORD), the Canadian Consortium for Ocean Drilling (CCOD), the Network of the Universités du Québec (UQ), the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) and GEOTOP sponsored, in 2010, a summer school entitled 'Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments'. This summer school took place from 27 June to 12 July in Rimouski, Québec city and Montréal (Quebec, Canada) and was attended by nineteen students and postdoctoral fellows from seven countries: Canada, France, Germany, UK, Serbia, Portugal and the USA. Lectures, hands-on laboratory exercises and laboratory visits were conducted at the Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE) and UQAM, in addition to two field trips and a short geological and geophysical cruise on board the R/V Coriolis II in the St Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord. During the summer school, more than twenty researchers gave lectures on the use of several paleoceanographic and geophysical techniques to reconstruct ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments. Some of these lectures are presented as short review papers in this volume. They are intended to portray a brief, but state-of-the-art overview of an array of techniques applied to Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, as well as the geological background information needed by the summer school participants to put the scientific expedition and fieldwork into context. The volume begins with a view on the great challenges and key issues to be addressed in the Arctic Ocean (Stein) in the forthcoming years and is followed by a review (O'Regan) on Late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Central Arctic. The two subsequent papers (St-Onge et al and de Vernal et al) deal with the oceanographic, paleoceanographic and geological context of the Saguenay Fjord, and St Lawrence Estuary and Gulf

  3. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review (United States)


    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or

  4. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount La vida colonial bajo el sistema de la corriente de Humboldt: corales de aguas profundas en el monte submarino O'Higgins I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete


    Full Text Available A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ, Se describe una comunidad bentónica constituida por un ensamble de cuatro especies de corales de profundidad recolectados mediante un lance de arrastre efectuado sobre el margen de la meseta del monte submarino O'Higgins I, Chile central. Sobre la meseta se detectó la presencia de agua oxigenadas frías correspondientes al Agua Intermedia Antártica (>400 m de profundidad y sobre ésta, el Agua Ecuatorial Subsuperficial asociada a la zona de mínimo de oxígeno (OMZ, <1 mL O2 L-1. La fauna muestra un origen biogeográfico de tipo subantártico sumado a la presencia de fauna típica del margen continental de la zona central de Chile. Este ensamble está representado por dos especies de Antipataria (Leiopathes sp. y Chrysopathes sp., una especie no identificada de la familia Paragorgiidae y una especie perteneciente a la familia Isididae (Acanella chilensis. Este estudio muestra que este ensamble de corales de profundidad provee un hábitat crítico para el camarón nailon (Heterocarpus reedi, crustáceo de importancia pesquera. La presencia de este crustáceo más algunos peces como el alfonsino (Beryx splendens y orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus podrían atraer la atención de la industria sobre estas frágiles, singulares y escasamente conocidas comunidades bentónicas chilenas y por lo tanto se requiere con urgencia acciones para su conservación.

  5. Tick-Borne Langat/Mosquito-Borne Dengue Flavivirus Chimera, a Candidate Live Attenuated Vaccine for Protection against Disease Caused by Members of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Complex: Evaluation in Rhesus Monkeys and in Mosquitoes (United States)

    Pletnev, Alexander G.; Bray, Michael; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Speicher, Jim; Elkins, Randy


    by mosquitoes was addressed by inoculating a nonhematophagous mosquito, Toxorhynchites splendens, intrathoracically with the chimera or its DEN4 or LGT parent. Neither the LGT TP21/DEN4 vaccine candidate nor the wild-type LGT TP21 virus was able to infect this mosquito species, which is highly permissive for dengue viruses. Certain properties of the chimera, notably its attenuation for monkeys, its immunogenicity, and its failure to infect a highly permissive mosquito host, make it a promising vaccine candidate for use in immunization against severe disease caused by many tick-borne flaviviruses. PMID:11483771

  6. Time-activity budgets and behaviour of the Amazilia hummingbird, Amazilia amazilia (Apodiformes: Trochilidae in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Calviño-Cancela


    Full Text Available This study deals with the time-activity budgets of Amazilia amazilia, a territorial hummingbird, and its preferences for different flower species and perches in the gardens of Lima (Peru in September 2001. A. amazilia spent an important part of its time resting on perches (ca. 80% and only 15.5% for foraging, devoted essentially to flower visitation and only 0.3% for hunting and drinking water. Territorial defence accounted for 2% of total time, mostly against Coereba flaveola, an introduced nectarivorous species that seem to be an important competitor of A. amazilia. Flower use is not directly related to flower abundance (χ29 = 1 546, pSe estudió la distribución del tiempo en las actividades de Amazilia amazilia, un colibrí territorial, y sus preferencias por diferentes flores y perchas en los jardines de Lima (Perú, en septiembre de 2001. A. amazilia pasa una parte importante de su tiempo descansando en las perchas (ca. 80% y sólo un 15.5% alimentándose, dedicado fundamentalmente a visitar flores y sólo un 0.3% a cazar y a beber agua. La defensa del territorio ocupó un 2% del tiempo total, la mayor parte frente a Coereba flaveola, una especie nectarívora introducida que parece constituir un importante competidor de A. amazilia. El uso de las distintas especies de flores no se relaciona con su abundancia (X²9 = 1546, p<0.0001, siendo Justicia brandegeana y Salvia splendens de flores rojas seleccionadas e Impatiens balsamina rechazada. La gran cantidad de tiempo que pasa en las perchas las convierte en un elemento importante del hábitat. Las perchas seleccionadas se encuentran típicamente en árboles, cercanas a las flores que visita y, se sitúan en posición baja y central rodeadas de baja densidad de follaje, probablemente para minimizar la pérdida de calor.

  7. Study of the collagen structure in the superficial zone and physiological state of articular cartilage using a 3D confocal imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ming H


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The collagen structure in the superficial zone of articular cartilage is critical to the tissue's durability. Early osteoarthritis is often characterized with fissures on the articular surface. This is closely related to the disruption of the collagen network. However, the traditional histology can not offer visualization of the collagen structure in articular cartilage because it uses conventional optical microscopy that does not have insufficient imaging resolution to resolve collagen from proteoglycans in hyaline articular cartilage. This study examines the 3D collagen network of articular cartilage scored from 0 to 2 in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society, and aims to develop a 3D histology for assessing early osteoarthritis. Methods Articular cartilage was visually classified into five physiological groups: normal cartilage, aged cartilage, cartilage with artificial and natural surface disruption, and fibrillated. The 3D collagen matrix of the cartilage was acquired using a 3D imaging technique developed previously. Traditional histology was followed to grade the physiological status of the cartilage in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society. Results Normal articular cartilage contains interwoven collagen bundles near the articular surface, approximately within the lamina splendens. However, its collagen fibres in the superficial zone orient predominantly in a direction spatially oblique to the articular surface. With age and disruption of the articular surface, the interwoven collagen bundles are gradually disappeared, and obliquely oriented collagen fibres change to align predominantly in a direction spatially perpendicular to the articular surface. Disruption of the articular surface is well related to the disappearance of the interwoven collagen bundles. Conclusion A 3D histology has been developed to supplement the traditional histology and study the subtle changes in

  8. Carbon and energy fluxes of the understory vegetation of the black spruce ecosystem in interior Alaska (United States)

    Ikawa, H.; Nakai, T.; Kim, Y.; Busey, R.; Suzuki, R.; Hinzman, L. D.


    Underlain by permafrost, understory vegetation in the boreal forest of the high northern latitudes is likely sensitive to climate change. This study investigated the contribution of the understory vegetation of the black spruce forest (Picea mariana) to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and vertical energy fluxes at the supersite (65deg 07' 24' N, 147deg 29' 15' W) of the JAMSTEC-IARC Collaboration Study (JICS) located within the property of the Poker Flat Research Range of the University of Alaska Fairbanks in interior Alaska [Sugiura et al., 2011; Nakai et al., 2013]. The understory is dominated by a 0 - 20 cm thick layer of peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) and feather moss (Hylocomium splendens). Eddy covariance measurements were made at 11 m over the canopy and 1.9 m above the ground in summer 2013. The measurement shows that the peak sink of CO2 from understory during the day typically accounted for 80% of the total NEE of (~ 3 μmol m-2s-1) observed over the canopy. Sensible heat flux was nearly identical between the two heights and latent heat flux observed at 1.9m was slightly higher than that observed at 11m. Higher latent heat flux from understory than the total latent heat flux over the canopy is most likely due to the difference in the footprint of the two measurements, and it is necessary to further evaluate the spatial representativeness of the understory fluxes. Nonetheless, these high flux values from the understory suggest an importance of the understory vegetation in evaluating ecosystem flux of the black spruce forest. Acknowledgement This study is funded by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) References Nakai, T., Y. Kim, R. C. Busey, R. Suzuki, S. Nagai, H. Kobayashi, H. Park, K. Sugiura, and A. Ito (2013), Characteristics of evapotranspiration from a permafrost black spruce forest in interior Alaska, Polar Science, 7(2), 136-148, doi:10.1016/j.polar.2013.03.003. Sugiura, K

  9. Analysis of mosses and soils for quantifying heavy metal concentrations in Sicily: a multivariate and spatial analytical approach. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Battaini, Francesca; Giani, Elisa; Papa, Ester; Jones, Robert J A; Preatoni, Damiano; Cenci, Roberto M


    The use of vegetal organisms as indicators of contamination of the environment is partially replacing traditional monitoring techniques. Amongst the vegetal organisms available, mosses appear to be good bioindicators and are used for monitoring anthropogenic and natural fall-out on soils. This study has two objectives: the evaluation of the concentrations of heavy metals in soils and mosses of the Sicily Region, in Italy and the identification of the origin of fall-out of heavy metals. Mosses and the surface soil were sampled at 28 sites, only the youngest segments of Hylocomium splendens and Hypnum cupressiforme, corresponding to the plant tissues produced during the last 3 years, were taken. The elements Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were analysed by ICP-MS and Hg by AAS. Statistical analysis was by PCA and spatial representation by GIS. In the mosses sampled in Sicily, the highest concentrations of Cd were found around the cities of Palermo and Messina. The highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the northern part of the island between Trapani and Messina, similar to the distribution of Cu. Different areas with the highest concentrations of Ni were found near the south coast, in the vicinity of Palermo and around the Volcano Etna. The highest concentrations of Pb were found in the south-west coast near Agrigento, where important chemical plants and petroleum refineries are located. Except for a few locations, Zn fall-out was found to be evenly distributed throughout Sicily. The sites where the concentrations of heavy metals cause greatest concern have been revealed by the PCA analysis and portrayed using GIS. Also of some concern is the diffuse and anthropogenic origin of Hg and Cd. The combined approach of using soil and mosses, together with pedological interpretation and application of multivariate statistical techniques has provided valuable insight into the environmental aspects of heavy metal deposition in a region of southern Europe. Further insight into

  10. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin (United States)

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu


    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis

  11. Differences in clinical outcomes among hepatitis C genotype 1-infected patients treated with peginterferon alpha-2a or peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Regan C


    Full Text Available Eric Druyts1, Edward J Mills1,2, Jean Nachega3, Christopher O'Regan4, Curtis L Cooper51Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Centre for Infectious Diseases, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; 4Division of Outcomes Research, Merck, Shire and Dohme, Hoddesdon, UK; 5Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Ottawa at The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, CanadaBackground: With the development of new direct acting antiviral (DAA therapy for hepatitis C, the backbone peginterferon alpha used may be of importance in maximizing treatment outcomes. To this end, the rates of sustained virologic response (SVR, relapse, and treatment discontinuation among hepatitis C genotype 1-infected patients given peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin or peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin were determined using a meta-analysis.Methods: Randomized trials examining peginterferon alpha-2a or peginterferon alpha-2b co-administered with ribavirin for 48 weeks were included. Data were extracted on SVR, relapse, and treatment discontinuations for treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Pooled proportions using fixed and random effects meta-analysis were calculated.Results: Twenty-six trials provided data on patients treated with peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin, and 19 trials provided data on patients treated with peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin. Five trials were direct head-to-head evaluations. In the subset of trials that included head-to-head evaluations, no significant differences were observed between the two treatments for treatment-naïve (relative risk [RR]: 1.07, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.97–1.18 and treatment-experienced patients (RR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.58–2.77. Using only active trial arms, a larger proportion of the treatment-naïve patients who were provided peginterferon alpha-2a

  12. A Critical Analysis Of The Majority Judgment In F V Minister Of Safety And Security 2012 1 Sa 536 (Cc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Linscott


    normative issues to be canvassed in order to determine the outcome of the second leg of the Rabie test. In fact, the "intimate link" question is the overall one to be decided in terms of the second leg of the Rabie test, which, in terms of the approach set out by O'Regan J in K, is to be answered by considering a range of factual and normative considerations in conjunction with one another. Moreover, the judge appears to construe the "intimate link" question in primarily factual terms. The discrepancies between the approaches of the courts in K and F are significant because they lead Mogoeng CJ to place a far heavier reliance on factual considerations in deciding whether the conduct of the employee wrongdoer was sufficiently closely related to the employer's business than would have been the case if he had more faithfully applied the test for vicarious liability set out in K. Although the judge devotes a considerable portion of the judgment to the normative issues which point to the need for the court to make a finding of vicarious liability, these do not seem to have been the immediate driver of his ultimate decision to impose vicarious liability in this instance. The reasoning of the majority in F becomes all the more problematic when one considers that the factual considerations linking the employee wrongdoer's conduct to the business of the SAPS are far more tenuous in this case than in K. A more compelling justification for imposing vicarious liability in F would have lain in the normative constitutional considerations that point towards the need to impose vicarious liability in this instance.

  13. Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petz LD


    Full Text Available Lawrence D Petz,1 John C Burnett,2 Haitang Li,3 Shirley Li,3 Richard Tonai,1 Milena Bakalinskaya,4 Elizabeth J Shpall,5 Sue Armitage,6 Joanne Kurtzberg,7 Donna M Regan,8 Pamela Clark,9 Sergio Querol,10 Jonathan A Gutman,11 Stephen R Spellman,12 Loren Gragert,13 John J Rossi2 1StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Irell and Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA; 4CCR5-Δ32/Δ32 Research Department, StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 5Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 6MD Anderson Cord Blood Bank, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 7Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 8St Louis Cord Blood Bank, SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA; 9Enhance Quality Consulting Inc., Oviedo, FL, USA; 10Cell Therapy Service and Cord Blood Bank, Banc de Sang i Teixits, Barcelona, Spain; 11BMT/Hematologic Malignancies, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 12Immunobiology and Observational Research, CIBMTR, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 13National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-Δ32/Δ32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV

  14. Molecular Engineering, Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterizations of Novel Ru(II) and BODIPY Sensitizers for Mesoporous TiO2 Solar Cells (United States)

    Cheema, Hammad Arshad

    To realize the dream of a low carbon society and ensure the wide spread application of renewable energy sources such as solar energy, photovoltaic devices should be highly efficient, cost-effective and stable for at least 20 years. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are photovoltaic cells that mimic the natural photosynthesis. In a DSC, the dye absorbs photons from incident light and converts those photons to electric charges, which are then extracted to the outer circuit through semiconductor TiO2, whereas the mediator regenerates the oxidized dye. A sensitizer is the pivotal component in the device in terms of determining the spectral response, color, photocurrent density, long term stability, and thickness of a DSC. The breakthrough report by O'Regan and Gratzel in 1991 has garnered more than 18,673 citations (as of October 9, 2014), which indicates the immense scientific interest to better understand and improve the fundamental science of this technology. With the aforementioned in mind, this study has focused on the molecular engineering of novel sensitizers to provide a better understanding of structure-property relationships of novel sensitizers for DSCs. The characterization of sensitizers (HD-1-mono, HD-2-mono and HD-2) for photovoltaic applications showed that the photocurrent response of DSCs can be increased by using mono-ancillary ligand instead of bis-ancillary ligands, which is of great commercial value considering the difference in the molecular weights of both dyes. The results of this work were published in Journal of Materials Chemistry A (doi:10.1039/c4ta01942c) and ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (doi: 10.1021/am502400b). Furthermore, structure-property relationships were investigated in Ru (II) sensitizers HL-41 and HL-42 in order to elucidate the steric effects of electron donating ancillary ligands on photocurrent and photovoltage, as discussed in Chapter 4. It was found that the electron donating group (ethoxy) ortho to the CH=CH spacer

  15. Dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer: a systematic review. (United States)

    Traa, Marjan J; De Vries, Jolanda; Bodenmann, Guy; Den Oudsten, Brenda L


    cancer may face and more insight on how to expand the dyadic coping of these coupes might facilitate improvements in the quality of cancer care. Couple-based intervention studies may increase the couples' relationship functioning. However, future research is needed to examine more specifically which couples may benefit from such interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Dyadic coping may influence the distress experienced by both members of the couple and their relationship functioning. Several reviews already reported on the potential of couple-based interventions to improve the dyadic coping of couples coping with cancer and on the beneficial effects of this coping on the psychosocial adjustment and relationship functioning of patients and partners (e.g., Badr & Krebs, 2012; Martire, Shulz, Helgeson, Small, & Saghafi, 2010; Regan et al., 2012). However, even though we now know that couple-based intervention might be useful, no systematic review has been conducted that focuses specifically on the mechanisms of dyadic coping itself. What does this study add? This review showed the importance of stress communication, supportive behaviours, and positive dyadic coping for the maintenance or enhancement of relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer. In addition, the dyadic intervention studies send an important message that encourages to further examine the potential benefit of such interventions in future. However, more consensus in the conceptualization and assessment of the dyadic coping styles is needed in order to increase the comparability of the reported findings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Geometrical illusions are not always where you think they are: a review of some classical and less classical illusions, and ways to describe them. (United States)

    Ninio, Jacques


    Geometrical illusions are known through a small core of classical illusions that were discovered in the second half of the nineteenth century. Most experimental studies and most theoretical discussions revolve around this core of illusions, as though all other illusions were obvious variants of these. Yet, many illusions, mostly described by German authors at the same time or at the beginning of the twentieth century have been forgotten and are awaiting their rehabilitation. Recently, several new illusions were discovered, mainly by Italian authors, and they do not seem to take place into any current classification. Among the principles that are invoked to explain the illusions, there are principles relating to the metric aspects (contrast, assimilation, shrinkage, expansion, attraction of parallels) principles relating to orientations (regression to right angles, orthogonal expansion) or, more recently, to gestalt effects. Here, metric effects are discussed within a measurement framework, in which the geometric illusions are the outcome of a measurement process. There would be a main "convexity" bias in the measures: the measured value m(x) of an extant x would grow more than proportionally with x. This convexity principle, completed by a principle of compromise for conflicting measures can replace, for a large number of patterns, both the assimilation and the contrast effects. We know from evolutionary theory that the most pertinent classification criteria may not be the most salient ones (e.g., a dolphin is not a fish). In order to obtain an objective classification of illusions, I initiated with Kevin O'Regan systematic work on "orientation profiles" (describing how the strength of an illusion varies with its orientation in the plane). We showed first that the Zöllner illusion already exists at the level of single stacks, and that it does not amount to a rotation of the stacks. Later work suggested that it is best described by an "orthogonal expansion

  17. MicroRNA profiling of patient plasma for clinical trials using bioinformatics and biostatistical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowitz J


    Full Text Available Joseph Markowitz,1–4 Zachary Abrams,2,5 Naduparambil K Jacob,2,6 Xiaoli Zhang,2,7 John N Hassani,1 Nicholas Latchana,8 Lai Wei,2,7 Kelly E Regan,2,5 Taylor R Brooks,2 Sarvani R Uppati,2 Kala M Levine,2 Tanios Bekaii-Saab,2,4 Kari L Kendra,2,4 Gregory B Lesinski,2,4 J Harrison Howard,2,8 Thomas Olencki,2,4 Philip R Payne,2,5 William E Carson III2,8 1Department of Cutaneous Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Oncologic Sciences, USF Morsani School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, 4Division of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 5Department of Biomedical Informatics, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, 7Center for Biostatistics, 8Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that function to repress translation of mRNA transcripts and contribute to the development of cancer. We hypothesized that miRNA array-based technologies work best for miRNA profiling of patient-derived plasma samples when the techniques and patient populations are precisely defined.Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from five sources: melanoma clinical trial of interferon and bortezomib (12, purchased normal donor plasma samples (four, gastrointestinal tumor bank (nine, melanoma tumor bank (ten, or aged-matched normal donors (eight for the tumor bank samples. Plasma samples were purified for miRNAs and quantified using NanoString® arrays or by the company Exiqon. Standard biostatistical array approaches were utilized for data analysis and compared to a rank-based analytical approach.Results: With the prospectively collected samples, fewer plasma samples demonstrated visible hemolysis due to increased attention to eliminating factors, such as increased pressure during phlebotomy, small gauge needles, and multiple punctures. Cancer patients enrolled in a melanoma clinical study

  18. Assessment of the bioavailability and the transfer of organic and metallic pollutants in 'soil - plant - invertebrate' food webs; Evaluation de la biodisponibilite et des transferts de polluants metalliques et organiques dans les reseaux trophiques ''sols-plantes-invertebres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifler, R.


    Pollution of ecosystems by metallic trace elements (MTEs) and organic compounds may lead to pollutant transfer in food webs. The aim of this work was to improve the assessment of bioavailability, transfer and effects of various MTEs (mainly cadmium (Cd) but also copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) and an organic pollutant, the herbicide Isoproturon. The food webs studied in this work were made up of 2 or 3 compartments among the following: soil - primary producer (lettuce Lactuca sativa, colza Brassica napus and maize Zea mays) - primary consumer (snail Helix aspersa) - secondary consumer (carabid beetle Chrysocarabus splendens). Three complementary approaches using food webs of increasing complexity were exploited. The first approach allowed studying pollutant bioavailability and transfers between 2 links of a food chain under controlled conditions. The isotopic dilution technique, until now only used to characterise the phyto-availability of major elements and MTEs in soils, was adjusted for the first time to an animal organism, the snail H. aspersa (assessment of zoo-availability) This work showed that snails, contrarily to plants, accessed the non-isotopically exchangeable Cd pool in soils, considered as non-bio-available by current risk assessment procedures. The study of Cd transfer from plants (B. napus contaminated by surface deposition) to the snail H. aspersa showed a high bioaccumulation of Cd in snail tissues and effects on snail growth and consumption at high concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF, herein defined as the ratio of the concentration of a pollutant in the tissues of an organism divided by the concentration of this pollutant in its food) was higher than 2. These results suggest that snails inhabiting polluted environments could represent a risk for their predators. To test this hypothesis, the transfer of Cd from contaminated snails to one of their predators, the carabid beetle C. splendens, was studied. Exposure of

  19. Compost and residues from biogas plant as potting substrates for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam Van, Do Thi


    Compost and residues from biogas plant have been increasingly recognized as potting substrates in horticulture. To investigate the suitability of both materials to grow salt tolerant plants in 2010 a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of INRES-Plant nutrition, University of Bonn. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were chosen as experimental plants. To reduce the high salt content compost and residues from biogas plant were leached. To improve physical characteristics of raw materials, additives including Perlite, Styromull, Hygromull, Lecaton, Peat, Cocofiber were incorporated into compost or residues from biogas plant with the volumetric ratio of 4:1. Plant growth (DM) and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na and S) of the experimental plants grown in compost-based or residue-based substrates with and without additives and standard soil as a control were determined. Preliminary results reveal that origin compost and residues from biogas plant without leaching are suitable potting substrates for those plants. For compost leaching may not be recommended while for residues from biogas plant the effect of leaching was not distinct and needs further investigations. The incorporation of additives into the basic materials partially resulted in higher plant dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. However, differences between the additives on both parameters were mainly insignificant. Incorporation of Hygromull or Peat, especially into residues from biogas plant favored plant growth and enhanced total nutrient uptake. In 2011, pot experiments were continued with the salt-sensitive ornamental plants, Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale Toro) and Salvia (Salvia splendens). Two separate experiments were carried out for the mixtures of compost and additives (SPS standard soil type 73 based on Peat, Hygromull or Cocofiber) with different volumetric ratios (4:1, 1:1, 1:4) and the mixtures of Peat incorporated with small

  20. Fitoplancton del Parque Nacional de las Tablas de Daimiel. I. Las euglenofitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo, Carmen


    Full Text Available Las Tablas de Daimiel is one of the most important wetlands in the Iberian Península. The increase of water contamination is producing obvious eutrophication. Monthly water samples were taken during 1996 and 1997 at five places - both from channels and shallow water (tablas. 18 taxa of Euglenophyta were found, two of them had been found before in Las Tablas de Daimiel (Astasia sp. and Euglena acus. Nine species are new records for this wetland (E. acilis, E. polymorpha, Lepocinclis ovum var. dimidio-minor. Phacus brevicaudatus, P. pyrum, P. skujae, Trachelomonas armata, T. abrupta and T. volvocinopsis; six species are new records for Spain (E. agilis var. piriformis, E. clara, E. oxyuris var. oxyuris, E. splendens, L. ovum var. globula, and P. brachykentron, and one species is new record for Europe (T. sculpta. The richness of Euglenophyta has increased conspicuously (1 species in 1975, 8 species in 1992-1993 and 18 species in 1996-1997. Moreover, the increasing water level from 19% has reduced the Euglenophyta density and these populations have simultaneously spread throughout the whole Park. The fluctuation seen in the Euglenophyte populations of the Tablas de Daimiel is not a response to contamination events, but the result of a the long eutrophication process endured by these wetlands.Las Tablas de Daimiel, una de las zonas húmedas más importantes de la Península Ibérica, sufre un claro proceso de eutrofización debido al aumento de la contaminación. Durante los años 1996 y 1997 se tomaron muestras mensualmente en cinco zonas que corresponden a canales y a zonas de aguas someras -tablas-, y se identificaron 18 táxones pertenecientes a Euglenophyta. Una especie fue del género Astasia, siete de Euglena, dos de Lepocinclis, cuatro de Phacus y otras cuatro de Trachelomonas. Seis de ellas son nuevas citas para España, y una lo es para Europa. Se observó un aumento en la riqueza de euglenofitas (una especie en 1975, ocho en 1992- 1993 y

  1. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior-posterior shoulder tears: an examination of clinical usefulness. (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A


    Calvert E, Chambers GK, Regan W, Hawkins RH, Leith JM. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior-posterior shoulder injuries are clinically limited and invalid: a diagnostic systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(5):558-563. The systematic review focused on diagnostic accuracy studies to determine if evidence was sufficient to support the use of superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) physical examination tests as valid and reliable. The primary question was whether there was sufficient evidence in the published literature to support the use of SLAP physical examination tests as valid and reliable diagnostic test procedures. Studies published in English were identified through database searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database (1970-2004) using the search term SLAP lesions. The medical subject headings of arthroscopy, shoulder joint, and athletic injuries were combined with test or testing, physical examination, and sensitivity and specificity to locate additional sources. Other sources were identified by rereviewing the reference lists of included studies and review articles. Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) focused on the physical examination of SLAP lesions, and (3) presented original data. A study was excluded if the article was limited to a clinical description of 1 or more special tests without any research focus to provide clinical accuracy data or if it did not focus on the topic. The abstracts that were located through the search strategies were reviewed, and potentially relevant abstracts were selected. Strict epidemiologic methods were used to obtain and collate all relevant studies; the authors developed a study questionnaire to record study name, year of publication, study design, sample size, and statistics. Validity of the diagnostic test study was determined by applying the 5 criteria proposed by Calvert et al. If the study met the inclusion and validity

  2. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics (United States)

    Freeman, Sean


    , giving a really excellent set of presentations. Finally we are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Office of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, as well as to Claire Garland for her planning and management of this event. This conference is the second in a series of conferences that began with the Rutherford Jubilee Conference held in Manchester in 1961, which is described in one of the contributions to these proceedings. I do hope that at least some of the delegates from the Centennial Conference will be able to attend the next one, fifty years hence in 2061, just as we were honoured to have some of the Jubilee delegates with us for the Centennial. If I am still around, I doubt that I will have the energy then to be conference chair. I would also not like to attempt to predict the plenary programme, but I hope that it will be as vibrant and exciting as the 2011 conference. Professor Sean J Freeman Conference Chair On behalf of the UK Organising Committee Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford (Photograph courtesy of The University of Manchester) Edited by: Sean Freeman (The University of Manchester) Andrei Andreyev (University of the West of Scotland/The University of York) Alison Bruce (University of Brighton) Alick Deacon (The University of Manchester) Dave Jenkins (University of York) Dave Joss (University of Liverpool) Douglas MacGregor (University of Glasgow) Paddy Regan (University of Surrey) John Simpson (University of Daresbury) Garry Tungate (University of Birmingham) Bob Wadsworth (University of York) Dan Watts (University of Edinburgh) International Advisory Panel: A Aprahamian (Notre Dame, USA) J Äystö (Jyväskylä, Finland) F Aziaez (Orsay, France) J-P Blaizot (Saclay, France/ECT, Italy) A Bracco (Milan, Italy) H Caines (Yale, USA) C W de Jaeger (JLAB, USA) J Dilling (TRIUMF, Canada) J

  3. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Epidemiology and Networks"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors