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Sample records for spleen weight related

  1. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Careful examination of the left upper quadrant of the pediatric patient will usually disclose the presence or absence of an enlarged spleen. Although the spleen has a wide variation in weight and mobility, the normal spleen rarely extends below the left costal margin. While the presence of a palpable spleen is usually of pathological significance, the wide variation in splenic weight and position may make the detection of splenomegaly difficult on routine physical examination. When present, it may be difficult to differentiate the enlarged spleen from other palpable masses in the left upper quadrant. For these reasons, radionuclide imaging of the spleen has become a simple and valuable method for precisely locating and establishing the accurate size of functioning splenic tissue. The size and weight of the spleen can be approximated by direct measurement from the scan; normal values have been established based on the splenic length and the age and weight of the child. The diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide s []anning of the spleen in lymphoma, leukemia, other malignancies, anemia and other blood dyscrasias, infectious diseases, granuloma, and cysts is discussed. (CH)

  2. Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured ...

  3. Relative biological effectiveness (R.B.E.) of Cf-252 vs. acute Co-60 and low dose rate Cs-137 irradiation by spleen weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    R.B.E. of Cf-252 on lymphoid tissue was assessed by radiation study of spleen weight loss following acute Co-60, and low dose rate (L.D.R.) Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations. Acute Co-60 and L.D.R. Cs-137 dose-response followed two component exponential curves with a 1.3-fold greater effect of L.D.R. Cs-137 vs. acute Co-60 on the first slope and 1.9-fold greater effect for the 2nd slope. L.D.R. Cf-252 response was 1.3 x greater than acute Co-60 but was 1.0 vs. L.D.R. Cs-137 for the first slope indicating a similar effect of Cf-252 mixed neutron/gamma radiation to L.D.R. gamma radiation in producing spleen shrinkage. There was no effect of different sequences and schedules of mixing acute Co-60 with Cf-252 irradiation observed by endogenous CFU-S survival. The R.B.E. of 1.0 - 1.9 indicates that lymphohemopoietic in vivo, presumably well oxygenated, does not respond acutely or as sensitively as hypoxic tumor where R.B.E. is 5 - 7. (author)

  4. Relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, dramatic advances have taken place in our knowledge of the organization and functions of the thymus and lymphoid system. Some of our understanding has come form the application of radiation therapy to diseases derived from lymphoid organs. Human investigations using radiotherapy have shed light on the radiosensitivities of the system as well as on its important functional activities. Likewise, studies of cellular traffic in the lymphoid organs, i.e., the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, showed that extensive cellular exchange occurs between the bone marrow compartment with its hemopoietic and progenitor cells and the various central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Because this is so, the term lymphohemopoietic (LH) system is appropriate. This very selective review will recapitulate some of the ongoing research in radiotherapy and radiobiology in these closely related fields. The clinical therapeutic advances have taken place in four important settings closely related to clinical therapy of tumor derived from the LH system

  5. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

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    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2012-12-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathologic abnormality, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human males. A prospective study of healthy men aged 18 to 35 years who died of sudden, traumatic deaths was undertaken. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, if prolonged medical treatment was performed, if there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, if body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ, which could have affected the weight. A total of 232 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had a mean age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm, with a mean length of 173 cm. The weight ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg, with a mean weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean weight of the brain was 1407 g (range, 1070-1767 g), that of the liver was 1561 g (range, 838-2584 g), that of the spleen was 139 g (range, 43-344 g), that of the right lung was 445 g (range, 185-967 g), that of the left lung was 395 g (range, 186-885 g), that of the right kidney was 129 g (range, 79-223 g), and that of the left kidney was 137 g (range, 74-235 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in men, much like those in use

  6. Modulation of gamma radiation induced changes in the weight of spleen and thymus by centella asiatica pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Radha; Jaimala

    2003-01-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn) is a medicinal plant widely used in several Ayurvedic preparations. Pretreatment of swiss albino mice with Centella asiatica one hour before irradiation with a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight protected the animal from death by way of reducing the histopathological changes and loss of weight of the spleen and thymus against radiation. In irradiated animals (6 and 8 Gy) the reduction in the weight of spleen and thymus was significantly higher and recovery was slower in comparison to animals pretreated with Centella asiatica. It might be due to the increased cell population in the spleen and thymus of the animal pretreated with the plant extract or plant extract might have inhibited the cell death caused by radiation. (author)

  7. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

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    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  8. HIV related isolated tuberculosis of the spleen: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patient with left upper quadrant pain, intermittent fever, and weight loss but no radiographic evidence suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis is presented. Abdominal sonography showed multiple hypo echoic nodular splenic lesions reported as foci of infection/abscess. Histopathology study of splenectomy specimen ...

  9. Characterization of the rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identification of immune-related genes

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    Ali eAli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resistance against diseases affects profitability of rainbow trout. Limited information is available about functions and mechanisms of teleost immune pathways. Immunogenomics provides powerful tools to determine disease resistance genes/gene pathways and develop genetic markers for genomic selection.RNA-Seq sequencing of the rainbow trout spleen yielded 93,532,200 reads (100bp. High quality reads were assembled into 43,047 contigs. 26,333 (61.17% of the contigs had hits to the NR protein database and 7,024 (16.32% had hits to the KEGG database. Gene ontology showed significant percentages of transcripts assigned to binding (51%, signaling (7%, response to stimuli (9% and receptor activity (4% suggesting existence of many immune-related genes. KEGG annotation revealed 2,825 sequences belonging to organismal systems with the highest number of sequences, 842 (29.81%, assigned to immune system. A number of sequences were identified for the first time in rainbow trout belonging to Toll-like receptor signaling (25, B cell receptor signaling pathway (28, T cell receptor signaling pathway (33, chemokine signaling pathway (44, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis (23, leukocyte transendothelial migration (34 and NK cell mediated cytotoxicity (21. In addition, 51 transcripts were identified as spleen-specific genes. The list includes 277 full-length cDNAs.The presence of a large number of immune-related genes and pathways similar to other vertebrates suggests that innate and adaptive immunity in fish are conserved. This study provides deep-sequence data of rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identifies many new immune-related genes and full-length cDNAs. This data will help identify allelic variations suitable for genomic selection and genetic manipulation in aquaculture.

  10. Immune-Related Gene Expression Patterns in GPV- or H9N2-Infected Goose Spleens

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    Shun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Goose parvovirus (GPV and avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses, respectively, both of which can spread in goslings and cause a significant economic loss. To explore the comprehensive transcriptome of GPV- or H9N2-infected goose spleens and to understand the immune responses induced by a DNA virus (GPV or a RNA virus (H9N2, RNA-seq was performed on the spleens of goslings at the fifth day post infection. In the present study, 2604 and 2409 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the GPV- and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Through KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, the up-regulated transcripts in the two virus-infected groups were mainly involved in immune-related pathways. In addition, the two virus-infected groups displayed similar expression patterns in the immune response pathways, including pattern-recognition receptor signaling pathways, the antigen processing and presentation pathway, the NF-κB signaling pathway and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, as well as cytokines. Furthermore, most of the immune-related genes, particularly TLR7, TRAF3, Mx, TRIM25, CD4, and CD8α, increased in response to GPV and H9N2 infection. However, the depression of NF-κB signaling may be a mechanism by which the viruses evade the host immune system or a strategy to achieve immune homeostasis.

  11. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

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    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  12. Gamna-Gandy bodies of the spleen detected with susceptibility weighted imaging: maybe a new potential non-invasive marker of esophageal varices.

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    Jiuquan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Portal hypertension (PH is a clinical sequelae of liver cirrhosis, and bleeding from esophageal varices (EV is a serious complication of PH with significant morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to assess the ability of 2D multislice breath-hold susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI to detect Gamna-Gandy bodies (GGBs in the spleens of patients with PH and to evaluate the potential role of GGB number as a non-invasive marker of PH and EV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1-, T2- and T2(*-weighted imaging and SWI were performed on 135 patients with PH and on 37 control individuals. Platelet counts were collected from all PH patients. Two radiologists analyzed all magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, and measured the portal vein diameter, splenic index (SI, and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio. The numbers of patients with GGBs in the spleen were determined, and the numbers of GGB were counted in the four MRI sequences in GGB-positive patients. The portal vein diameter, SI, platelet count, and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio of control individuals were compared with those of GGB-negative and GGB-positive patients on SWI images. The correlations among GGB numbers, the portal vein diameter, the SI, the platelet count, and the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio were analyzed. RESULTS: The GGB detection rate and the detected GGB number by using SWI were significantly greater than those by using T1-, T2-, and T2*-weighted images. The number of GGBs in the SWI images correlated positively with the portal vein diameter and SI and correlated negatively with the platelet count and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio. CONCLUSION: SWI provided more accurate information of GGBs in patients with PH. The number of GGB may be a non-invasive predictor of improving the selection for endoscopic screening of PH patients at risk of EV.

  13. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

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    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  14. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on expressions of regulatory T cells and related molecules in mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fanxu; He Shumei; Dong Juancong; Guo Haizhuo; Jin Shunzi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes in expressions of spleen regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the related factor forkhead box protein-3 (Foxp3) after irradiation with different doses of X-ray in mice at different times, and to elaborate the effects of X-rays on regulatory T cells and Foxp3. Methods: 112 male ICR mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and irradiated by X-rays at the doses of 0.075 and 2 Gy, respectively. The mice were killed at 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h post-irradiation and the spleens removed. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Treg and protein expression of (Foxp3), and RT-PCR was used to exmiamine the mRNA expression of Fox3. Results: Compared with those before irradiation, the CD4 + CD25 + Treg positive rates began to increase and peaked at 8 h post-irradiation with 0.075 Gy at 8, 16, 24, 72 h (t=8.73, 10.55, 4.21, 4.65, P<0.05) and 2 Gy at 8, 16, 48, 72 h (t=4.65, 4.28, 3.71, 2.88, P<0.05), and then slightly decreased, but still remained at high levels. The mRNA protein levels of Fox3 did not change significantly after exposure to the dose of 0.075 Gy, but began to significantly increase at 8 h after exposure to the dose of 2 Gy. However, the Fox3 protein level began to increase 4 h post-irradiation, peaked at 16 h, and then slightly decreased, but still remained at high levels (t=2.59, 3.37, 3.70, 3.20, P<0.05). Conclusions: The changes in expressions of Tregs and Foxp3 after high- and low-dose X-ray irradiation may be used to explain the differences in immune effects induced ionizing radiation at different doses. (authors)

  16. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1505-1509. Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  17. Spleen stiffness measurement can predict clinical complications in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colecchia, Antonio; Colli, Agostino; Casazza, Giovanni; Mandolesi, Daniele; Schiumerini, Ramona; Reggiani, Letizia Bacchi; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Lisotti, Andrea; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Golfieri, Rita; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement represents the best predictor of clinical decompensation (CD) in cirrhotic patients. Recently data show that measurement of spleen stiffness (SS) has an excellent correlation with HVPG levels. Aim of the present prospective study was to assess SS predictive value for CD compared to HVPG, liver stiffness (LS), and other non-invasive tests for portal hypertension in a cohort of patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis. From an initial cohort of 124 patients, 92 underwent baseline LS, SS, HVPG measurements and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at enrolment and then followed-up for 2 years or until the occurrence of the first CD. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for determining judgement criteria associated parameters. Accuracy of predictive factors was evaluated using c statistic. The final model was internally validated using the bootstrap method. During follow-up, 30 out 92 (32.6%) patients developed CD. At univariate analysis varices at enrolment, all non-invasive parameters, HVPG, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) resulted clinical predictors of CD. At multivariate analysis only SS (p=0.0001) and MELD (p=0.014) resulted as predictive factors. A decision algorithm based on the results of a predictive model was proposed to detect patients with low risk of decompensation. This study shows that in compensated cirrhotic patients a SS and MELD predictive model represents an accurate predictor of CD with accuracy at least equivalent to that of HVPG. If confirmed by further studies, SS and MELD could represent valid alternatives to HVPG as prognostic indicator of CD in HCV-related cirrhosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-inflammatory role of methotrexate in adjuvant arthritis: effect on substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide in thymus and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, J.A.; Iqbal, M.P.; Rehman, R.; Qureshi, A.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of methotrexate (MTX) in rats with adjuvant arthritis through its influence on the expression of proinflammatory neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in immune organs, thymus and spleen. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in rats by inoculation with heat-killed mycobacteria. One group of arthritic rats (n=6) was treated with MTX (0.2 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) on every 4th day for a period of 18 weeks, while another group of arthritic rats (n=6) was treated with physiological saline served as control. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed and thymus and spleen were dissected and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. The neuronal density of SP and CGRP immunoreactivity in thymus and spleen was assessed by semi-quantitative analysis. There was a marked reduction in hind paw swelling and inflammation in the MTX-treated rats after 18 weeks of treatment. Restoration of joint spaces (tibiotalar and subtalar) was seen after 9 weeks of MTX treatment. CGRP-positive nerve fibres were significantly reduced (p=0.0001) in thymus of rats treated with MTX compared to control rats. SP-positive nerve fibers were also found to be decreased in thymus of rats treated with MTX compared to controls, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. The neuronal density of SP and CGRP-immunoreactivity in spleen was not significantly different in MTX-treated and placebo-treated rats. In arthritic rats, MTX significantly reduced CGRP expression in thymus. Suppression of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as CGRP and probably SP could be another mechanism by which MTX produces its antiinflammatory effect in adjuvant arthritis. (author)

  19. [Relation between PMI and FTIR spectral changes in asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to observe the postmortem degradation process in mechanical asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen for providing a new method of estimating PMI. Rats were sacrificed by mechanical asphyxia and cadavers were kept at (20 +/- 2) degrees C in a control chamber. The liver and spleen were sub-sampled from the same rat at intervals of 0-15 days postmortem and the data were measured by FTIR spectrometer. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish mathematical models by the statistical software. The band absorbance ratios showed increase, decrease and stable with PMI. The cubic model functions showed the strongest correlation coefficient. Compared with the spleen, the liver showed a higher correlation coefficient. The A1541/A1396 of liver showed the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.966). After 6-7 days postmortem, band absorbance ratios showed a steady period. FTIR spectroscopy can be a new and efficient method to estimate PMI within 7 days.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts of Immune-Related Genes in Spleen of Gosling and Adult Goose

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    Anqi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goose (Anser cygnoides, having high nutritional value, high-quality feathers and high economic benefit, is an economically important poultry species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the higher susceptibility to pathogens in goslings than in adult geese remains poorly understood. In this study, the histological sections of spleen tissue from a two-week-old gosling and an adult goose, respectively, were subjected to comparative analysis. The spleen of gosling was mainly composed of mesenchyma, accompanied by scattered lymphocytes, whereas the spleen parenchyma was well developed in the adult goose. To investigate goose immune-related genes, we performed deep transcriptome and gene expression analyses of the spleen samples using paired-end sequencing technology (Illumina. In total, 50,390 unigenes were assembled using Trinity software and TGICL software. Moreover, these assembled unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions and gene ontology (GO analysis was performed. Through Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG analysis, we investigated 558 important immune-relevant unigenes and 23 predicted cytokines. In addition, 22 immune-related genes with differential expression between gosling and adult goose were identified, among which the three genes showing largest differences in expression were immunoglobulin alpha heavy chain (IgH, mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 (MASP1 and C–X–C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4. Finally, of these 22 differentially expressed immune-related genes, seven genes, including tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TNFRSF13B, C-C motif chemokine 4-like (CCL4, CXCR4, interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA, MHC class I heavy chain (MHCIα, transporter of antigen processing 2 (TAP2, IgH, were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The expression levels of all the candidate unigenes were up-regulated in adult geese other than that of TNFRSF13B. The

  1. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

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    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  2. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis: a TNF-α related pathogenesis?

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    Titze Ulf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Littoral cell angioma (LCA is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. Generally thought to be benign, additional cases of LCA with malignant features have been described. Thus, its malignant potential seems to vary and must be considered uncertain. The etiology remains unclear, but an immune dysregulation for the apparent association with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases has been proposed. Case Presentation We report a case of LCA in a 43-year old male patient who presented with a loss of appetite and intermittent upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed multiple hypoattenuating splenic lesions which were hyperechogenic on abdominal ultrasound. Lymphoma was presumed and splenectomy was performed. Pathological evaluation revealed LCA. Conclusions LCA is a rare, primary vascular neoplasm of the spleen that might etiologically be associated with immune dysregulation. In addition, it shows a striking association with synchronous or prior malignancies. With about one-third of the reported cases to date being co-existent with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases, this advocates for close follow-ups in all patients diagnosed with LCA. To our knowledge, this report is the first one of LCA associated with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis and hypothesizes a TNF-α related pathogenesis of this splenic tumor.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Yunfei Dang

    Full Text Available The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens.

  4. Radiation-related lymphopenia is associated with spleen irradiation dose during radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Qianqian; Deng, Weiye; Lu, Jie; Xu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Renben; Li, Xia; Yue, Jinbo

    2017-05-30

    The decrease in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by radiation lessens the antitumour effect of the immune response, which might cause immunosuppression. We aimed to investigate the correlation between the decrease in peripheral blood lymphocytes during radiotherapy (RT) and the spleen irradiation dose in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The subjects were 59 patients with HCC who had received RT from 2005 to 2014. The Min ALC (minimum value of absolute counts for peripheral blood lymphocytes) was collected from the routine workup for each patient prior to RT and weekly during RT. Spleen dose-volume variables, including the percentage of the organ volume receiving ≥ n Gy (V n ) and the mean spleen dose (MSD), were calculated using Eclipse treatment planning. Potential associations between dosimetric variables and the Min ALC were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Peripheral lymphocytes decreased during RT (P irradiation doses were significantly correlated with lower Min ALC during RT for HCC. V 5 should be limited in clinical practice. Maximum sparing for spleen irradiation during RT is recommended to preserve peripheral blood lymphocytes, which may decrease immunosuppression.

  5. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  6. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  7. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  8. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  9. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between sonographers. The spleen and left kidney lengths were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05).

  10. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  11. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  12. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... Biochemistry Department, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... These changes were significantly different (P<0.05).The absolute and relative organ (liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, spleen and lungs) weight changes of the ...

  13. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge References Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  14. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  15. Effects of Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on the Expression of Endocannabinoid Signaling-Related Proteins in the Spleen of Young Adult Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Pavón

    Full Text Available Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS, which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in

  16. Weight-related teasing, emotional eating, and weight control behaviors in Hispanic and African American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Dempsey, Allison; Gonzalez, Erika; Abrahamson, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    To assess the association among parent and peer weight-related teasing, emotional eating, and weight control behaviors in minority girls. 141 Hispanic and African American preadolescent girls (mean age = 11.1 years, SD = 1.5 years) participated. Most of the participants were of Hispanic origin, had a bicultural orientation, and were obese. Participants completed surveys assessing weight-related teasing, emotional eating, weight control behaviors, demographic, and acculturation characteristics. Body weight and height were also assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses were run to determine the associations among study variables. Fifty-nine percent of participants reported being weight-related teased by peers and 42% participants reported weight-related teasing by parents. Weight-related teasing by parent was associated with emotional eating and binge eating, whereas peer weight-related teasing was only associated with emotional eating. Findings demonstrated the differential association of weight-related teasing from peers and parents to emotional and binge eating in minority girls. © 2013.

  17. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. Methods: In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513, public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Results: Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. Conclusion: German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance.

  19. Maternal Weight after Childbirth versus Aging-Related Weight Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakusheva, Olga; Kapinos, Kandice; Weiss, Marianne

    Pregnancy weight gain is believed to contribute to female overweight and obesity. However, most studies do not account for the changes in body weight expected to occur as women age. We examined the long-term weight trajectory of childbearing women relative to weight progression that could be expected in the absence of pregnancy. From the hospital records of 32,187 women with two births in Wisconsin during 2006 to 2013, we extracted the maternal weight at pregravid, delivery, and subsequent pregravid. We predicted the corresponding aging-progressed weights using a weight-for-age equation adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Nonparametric mixed effects models estimated the average maternal weight trajectory and the corresponding aging-related progression through 5 years after birth. The estimated aging-related progression predicted a gradual annual weight increase of 1.94 pounds (95% confidence interval 1.90-1.98), from 152.79 pounds at pregravid to 163.76 pounds by 5 years after birth. Actual maternal weight followed a sinusoidal pattern: increasing during gestation, decreasing during the first postbirth year, converging with the aging-related progression during the second postbirth year, and then increasing at 2.89 pounds (95% confidence interval 2.23-3.55) annually and diverging upward from the aging-related progression to 168.03 pounds by 5 years after birth. Pregnancy weight gain did not contribute to the aging-related trend, but lifestyle changes of parenthood may later exacerbate the long-term trend. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. All in the family: correlations between parents' and adolescent siblings' weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F; Crichlow, Renee; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether and how parents' and adolescent siblings' weight and weight-related behaviors are correlated. Results will inform which family members may be important to include in adolescent obesity prevention interventions. Data from two linked population-based studies, EAT 2010 and F-EAT, were used for cross-sectional analyses. Parents (n = 58; 91% females; mean age = 41.7 years) and adolescent siblings (sibling #1 n = 58, 50% girls, mean age = 14.3 years; sibling #2 n = 58, 64% girls, mean age = 14.8 years) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Some weight-related behaviors between adolescent siblings were significantly positively correlated (i.e., fast food consumption, breakfast frequency, sedentary patterns, p obesity prevention interventions or in recommendations healthcare providers give to adolescents regarding their weight and weight-related behaviors. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  2. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Hemopoiesis in mouse heterozygous for the W trait. Difference in postirradiation recovery related to the defect in formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Urbanowska, E.; Szczylik, C.; Siekierzynski, M.; Pojda, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The hemopoietic regeneration following midlethal irradiation in Wsup(v)/+ mice had similarly biphasic kinetics as in their hematologically normal +/+ littermates. The first abortive phase of regeneration was either severly reduced (formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies, reticulocyte count, granulocyte count) or absent (spleen and femur cellularity, platelet count, PCV) in Wsup(v)/+ mice, when compared to +/+ mice. The second phase leading to permanent recovery of hemopoiesis was in Wsup(v)/+ mice delayed in time. Moreover, although to a lesser extent the values of spleen and femur cellularity, PCV and platelet count were decreased in Wsup(v)/+ mice. Postirradiation bleeding, which stimulated particularly the 1st phase of regeneration both in Wsup(v)/+ and +/+ mice did not lead to the minimization of differences between above two genotypes. It is suggested that the observed differences in the abortive regeneration between Wsup(v)/+ and +/+ mice are primarily dependent on the presence in Wsup(v)/+ mice of selective defect of transient endogeneous colony forming units (TE-CFUs). Moreover, it is possible that the differences in the second phase of regeneration leading to permanent recovery are secondarily dependent on the TE-CFUs defect, as most probably the TE-CFU is the step in stem cell differentiation to mature cells. (orig.) [de

  4. Overview of the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  5. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  6. Recurrence relations and weight functions for approximation by orthonormal polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisoi, A.K.

    1989-12-01

    The popular three-term recurrence relation is found to be a numerically unstable algorithm for generation of higher order orthogonal polynomials. For stability, a k-term recurrence relation for generating the k th order polynomial is suggested. Instead of assigning equal weight to data points with unspecified errors, the use of the Jacobian weight function is suggested for generating the orthogonal polynomials to effect a closer representation. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  7. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disparities in parent confidence managing child weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Curran, Jennifer L; Abatemarco, Diane J

    2015-01-01

    To describe ethnic disparities in parental confidence managing child weight-related behaviors. This was a cross-sectional survey of 59 parents of children with obesity between 4 and 7 years of age presenting to a tertiary care pediatric weight management clinic. Parents completed a validated measure assessing their confidence managing their child's weight-related behaviors (parent confidence score). Student's t-tests and linear regression analyses were used to determine parent and child characteristics associated with parent confidence score. Families were ethnically diverse with half being of Hispanic ethnicity. Mean parent confidence score was 159 (SD 66) with 71% of parents with parent confidence scores below the clinical cut-off for the measure. Parent confidence score was lower among Hispanic (mean 133, SD 67) compared to non-Hispanic parents (mean 184, SD 55, p confidence score was most strongly associated with parental ethnicity (β = -0.39, p = 0.002, adjusted R(2) = 0.14). Parental confidence managing weight-related behaviors was low among parents of young obese children, especially those of Hispanic ethnicity. This study highlights the need to assess parental confidence in managing weight-related behaviors as part of pediatric obesity care and to provide counseling to improve parental management of weight-related behaviors in a culturally-appropriate manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight discrimination and unhealthy eating-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  11. Parenting style as a predictor of adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-04-01

    Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake, and physical activity; but most of the research has been cross-sectional, making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, were used. Adolescents (N = 2,516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower body mass index in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth and/or caring in the parent-adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent-adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemoperitoneum secondary to an spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicking a duodenal perforated ulcera: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Díaz, Gustavo; Alias, David; Jiménez-Fuertes, Montiel; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen without traumatic cause is an unfrequent entity, usually related with pathologic spleens. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of an histologically normal spleen with splenomegalia secondary to smoking habit. The hemoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicked a hollow viscera perforation.

  13. Addressing Size Stereotypes: A Weight Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Intervention among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyairi, Maya; Reel, Justine J.; Próspero, Moisés; Okang, Esther N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a weight-related teasing prevention program implemented for both female and male students in a school setting. Methods: Junior High School students (N = 143) in seventh grade were invited to participate in the program. One hundred eighteen participants completed pre- and posttest surveys to assess…

  14. Weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Hector, Debra; Lloyd, Beverley

    2012-11-01

    To describe the weight status and weight-related behaviors of children commencing school. This study is a representative cross-sectional survey of Australian children in their first year of schooling (n=1141) in 2010. Height and weight were measured, and parents reported their child's diet, physical activity and screen-time. 18.7% of children were overweight/obese. Compared with non-overweight/obese peers, overweight/obese boys were 1.73 times (95% CI 1.08, 2.79) as likely to exceed recommended screen time and 2.07 times (95% CI 1.11, 3.87) as likely to eat dinner three or more times/week in front of the TV. Overweight/obese girls were twice as likely to have a TV in their bedroom (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.12, 3.59) and usually be rewarded with sweets for good behavior (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.09, 3.51) and were 1.65 times as likely to be inactive (95% CI 1.08, 2.55). We showed that many children begin school with established weight-related behaviors that occur in the home environment. The inclusion of parents and the home environment in intervention strategies will be important to support changes to reduce childhood obesity. The weight status and weight-related behaviors of children entering school may potentially be a general indicator of the overall effectiveness of obesity prevention interventions among preschool-aged children. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight lifting in women with breast-cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ahmed, Rehana L; Troxel, Andrea; Cheville, Andrea; Smith, Rebecca; Lewis-Grant, Lorita; Bryan, Cathy J; Williams-Smith, Catherine T; Greene, Quincy P

    2009-08-13

    Weight lifting has generally been proscribed for women with breast-cancer-related lymphedema, preventing them from obtaining the well-established health benefits of weight lifting, including increases in bone density. We performed a randomized, controlled trial of twice-weekly progressive weight lifting involving 141 breast-cancer survivors with stable lymphedema of the arm. The primary outcome was the change in arm and hand swelling at 1 year, as measured through displaced water volume of the affected and unaffected limbs. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of exacerbations of lymphedema, number and severity of lymphedema symptoms, and muscle strength. Participants were required to wear a well-fitted compression garment while weight lifting. The proportion of women who had an increase of 5% or more in limb swelling was similar in the weight-lifting group (11%) and the control group (12%) (cumulative incidence ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.13). As compared with the control group, the weight-lifting group had greater improvements in self-reported severity of lymphedema symptoms (P=0.03) and upper- and lower-body strength (Pweight lifting had no significant effect on limb swelling and resulted in a decreased incidence of exacerbations of lymphedema, reduced symptoms, and increased strength. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194363.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  16. Weight and weight-related behaviors among 2-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Gardner, Jolynn K; Laska, Melissa N

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND PARTICIPANTS: The purpose of this article is to describe weight indicators and weight-related behaviors of students enrolled in 2-year colleges, including sex differences. During Fall 2011 and Spring 2012, 441 students from 3 Minnesota community colleges enrolled in the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) Study and completed baseline assessments. Participants completed a baseline survey evaluating eating and activity patterns, sleep, and stress and measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and body fat. Participants were primarily female (68%), white (73%), with a mean age of 22.8 years, and 66.2% reporting an annual income < $12,000. Almost half (47%) were overweight or obese. Young males appeared to engage the most in risky health behaviors and had higher levels of overweight or obesity, compared with young females. Findings confirm the need for innovative interventions targeting this understudied and underserved young adult population.

  17. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.

  18. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status among Lebanese University Students. ... International Journal of Health Research ... University campus, using a self reported questionnaire that included age, field of study, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and smoking habits.

  19. Value of selective spleen scintigraphy when liver/spleen image shows equivocal spleen defects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Corley, J.H.; Kyle, R.W.; Stotler, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine the utility of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS) in the evaluation of equivocal defects on liver/splen (LS) image. Six of seven questionable features on LS image were classified on SSS to be definite defects in three, and normal in three. Three of seven patients had defects on SSS that were not seen on LS image. The inability of the LS image to exclude or delineate an abnormality in the spleen was attributed to an overlying left lobe of the liver in five, and to technique in one. The SSS is a valuable diagnostic tool in the further evaluation of equivocal spleen defects on LS image, and SSS may demonstrate abnormalities not demonstrated on LS image

  20. Relative Weight and Income at Different Levels of Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Silventoinen, Karri; Lahelma, Eero

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of relative weight with individual income at different levels of socioeconomic status among gainfully employed Finnish women and men. Methods. We used a population-based survey including 2068 women and 2314 men with linked income data from a taxation register. Regression analysis was used to calculate mean income levels within educational and occupational groups. Results. Compared with their normal-weight counterparts, obese women with higher education or in upper white-collar positions had significantly lower income; a smaller income disadvantage was seen in overweight women with secondary education and in manual workers. Excess body weight was not associated with income disadvantages in men. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with a clear income disadvantage, particularly among women with higher socioeconomic status. PMID:14998816

  1. Weight-related criticism and self-perceptions among preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Jensen, Chad D; Steele, Ric G

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationships among weight-related criticism (WRC), body size perceptions, and body size dissatisfaction among a sample of preadolescent children. A community sample of 382 fifth and sixth graders (M age = 10.8) completed measures of WRC, nonweight-related criticism (NWRC), body size perceptions, body size dissatisfaction, and general self-esteem. Body mass index for each participant was collected during a standard school assessment. WRC was a significant and unique predictor of body size perceptions and body size dissatisfaction, controlling for actual BMI percentile and NWRC. Weight status moderated these relationships, with significant effects for WRC found only in the overweight group. NWRC was a significant predictor of self-esteem. The results suggest that WRC is specifically and uniquely associated with preadolescent children's body self-perceptions beyond its association with general, nonweight-related victimization. Prevention efforts may be needed to limit WRC and its potentially harmful effects.

  2. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  3. The Impacts of Weight Change and Weight Change Intention on Health-Related Quality of Life in the Korean Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Eun Sun

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the impacts of weight change and weight change intention on health-related quality of life (HRQL) among community-dwelling Korean elderly individuals. Data on those aged 75 years and above from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Compared with no weight change, unintentional weight loss was associated with significantly lower adjusted overall HRQL and lower scores in the subdimensions of mobility, pain/discomfort, usual activities, and self-care (in order), whereas intentional weight loss was associated with significantly poorer scores for anxiety/depression. Weight gain showed no statistically significant differences in comparison with no weight change. These findings suggest that weight maintenance or weight gain should be recommended rather than weight loss, whether unintentional or intentional, regardless of weight status, to improve HRQL among the elderly.

  4. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Suzanne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO measure designed to assess the key impacts of prescription anti-obesity medication. This paper will present the validation findings for the TRIM-Weight. Methods The online validation battery survey was administered in four countries (the U.S., U.K., Australia, and Canada. Eligible subjects were over age eighteen, currently taking a prescription AOM and were currently or had been obese during their life. Validation analyses were conducted according to an a priori statistical analysis plan. Item level psychometric and conceptual criteria were used to refine and reduce the preliminary item pool and factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed and the minimally importance difference (MID explored. Results Two hundred and eight subjects completed the survey. Twenty-one of the 43 items were dropped and a five-factor structure was achieved: Daily Life, Weight Management, Treatment Burden, Experience of Side Effects, and Psychological Health. A-priori criteria for internal consistency and test-retest coefficients for the total score and all five subscales were met. All pre-specified hypotheses for convergent and known group validity were also met with the exception of the domain of Daily Life (proven in an ad hoc analysis as well as the 1/2 standard deviation threshold for the MID. Conclusion The development and validation of the TRIM-Weight has been conducted according to well-defined principles for the creation of a PRO measure. Based on the evidence to date, the TRIM-Weight can be considered a brief

  5. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  6. Weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors among overweight adolescents in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastav Radhika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.

  7. Self-perception of body weight, weight management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors in central and eastern European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Ihász, Ferenc; Uvacsek, Martina; Kalabiska, Irén; Johnson, Erin; Hantiu, Iacob; Klarova, Renata; Simonek, Jaromir

    Self-perception of body weight, management practices and goals, and other weight-related factors were assessed among a sample of 2,566 adolescents from 30 high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine, and Poland. Students who perceived themselves as much too fat were more likely than those with other weight perceptions to engage in weight management practices to lose weight, have higher body mass index, rate themselves lower on physical attractiveness, and estimate higher percentages of their same-sex friends as trying to lose weight. Similar to other research, boys and girls differed on self-perception of weight and other weight-related factors. Cross-cultural comparisons between central and eastern European adolescents and U.S. adolescents, as well as east and southeast Asian youth are made. Implications for health education practice are discussed.

  8. A Systematic Review of Electronic Mindfulness-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Weight, Weight-Related Behaviors, and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2018-03-01

    Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.

  9. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Exposure Effects of Online Model Pictures and Weight-Related Persuasive Messages on Women's Weight-Loss Planned Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Peña, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how exposure to pictures of women with different body sizes (thin, obese), physical attractiveness levels (attractive, unattractive), along with exposure to weight-related messages (pro-anorexia, anti-anorexia) embedded in a fashion website affected female participants' planned behavior toward weight loss. Participants exposed to attractive model pictures showed higher intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms to lose weight compared with unattractive models. Additionally, participants exposed to thin and attractive model pictures indicated the highest attitudes and self-efficacy to lose weight, whereas those exposed to thin and unattractive model pictures indicated the lowest. Furthermore, weight-related messages moderated the effect of model appearance (body size and attractiveness) on controllability of weight-loss activities. However, website pictures' body size differences had no main effects on planned behavior toward weight loss. These effects are discussed in the light of social comparison mechanisms.

  11. The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K

    2018-02-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001-2003 (N = 3105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001–2003 (N=3,105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. PMID:28372829

  13. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  14. Weight concerns in male low birth weight adolescents: relation to body mass index, self-esteem, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Anna; Whitaker, Agnes H; Lorenz, John M; Feldman, Judith F; Nieto, Marlon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Paneth, Nigel

    2008-06-01

    To compare weight concerns and self-reported body mass index (BMI) of low birth weight (LBW) adolescent boys to those of a normative sample and examine relationships among BMI, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression in the LBW cohort. LBW boys (n = 260; mean age, 16.0) belong to the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study birth cohort. Normative boys (n = 305; mean age, 16.5) belong to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Both samples were assessed in 2001-2004 with self-report questionnaires. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Symptoms Inventory. In LBW boys, self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. Based on self-reported height and weight, LBW boys were more likely to be healthy weight or underweight and less likely to be overweight than normative boys. Despite having healthier self-reported BMIs, LBW boys reported more weight concerns than the normative sample. A total of 46.9% of LBW boys perceived their weight as abnormal, and 76.5% desired weight change. Weight concerns in LBW boys mostly reflected a perception of being underweight (31.2% of the cohort) and a desire to gain weight (47.5% of the cohort), although only 6.5% were clinically underweight. Weight concerns, but not BMI, were related to clinical depression and lower self-esteem. LBW adolescent boys are at high risk of experiencing weight concerns. Weight concerns rather than BMI are associated with emotional problems in LBW boys.

  15. Gender and Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Weight Perception and Weight Control Behavior in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyung Joh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Korea, obesity is more prevalent among men and lower socioeconomic groups. To explain this obesity disparity, we compared weight perception and weight control behavior across gender and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: We analyzed data from 16,260 participants aged 20 years or older in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SES indicators included education and income levels. Weight under-perception was defined when participants considered themselves lighter than their measured BMI status. Either no active or inappropriate weight control (i.e., trying to gain weight in obese individuals was considered to be unhealthy patterns. Multivariate prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regressions. Results: Men had a higher prevalence of weight under-perception (24.5 vs. 11.9% and unhealthy patterns of weight control behavior (57 vs. 40% than women. Low education level was associated with weight under-perception (ptrend = 0.022 in men, ptrend trend trend = 0.047 in men, ptrend Conclusion: Weight perception and weight control behavior significantly varied by gender and SES. Public actions should be directed toward improving perception and behavior of high-risk populations.

  16. Effects of aluminum trichloride on the trace elements and cytokines in the spleen of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Li, Xinwei; Chen, Chongxiao; Wang, Fan; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Miao, Liguang

    2012-08-01

    The bioaccumulation and immunotoxicity of aluminum (Al) have been previously documented. Al accumulates in the organs of the organism, including spleen. Spleen is a peripheral organ of the immune system. The accumulated Al may alter the immune function. Here, we investigated the bioaccumulation of Al in spleen and its alterations in the immune system. Forty male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) weighed 110-120 g were orally exposed to aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) (0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water for 120 days. The concentrations of spleen's Al, iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and growth index were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of Al and Cu in the spleen were increased in an AlCl(3)-dose dependent manner, and the concentrations of spleen's growth index, Fe, Zn, IL-2 and TNF-α were reduced in AlCl(3)-treated rats. The results suggest that AlCl(3) can suppress the growth of spleen, disorder the balance of trace elements and inhibit the immune regulation of cytokines in the spleen. It indicates that AlCl(3) suppresses the immune function of spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Radiologic findings of intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Acu

    2015-06-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital abnormality consisting of normal splenic tissue in ectopic sites. They are found most commonly near the splenic hilum. One in every six accessory spleens is located in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis of an IPAS should be considered when a pancreatic mass has the CT densities and/or MRI signal intensities similar to those of the spleen, with and without contrast medium. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 140-143

  19. How do pregnancy-related weight changes and breastfeeding relate to maternal weight and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 y after delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    of breastfeeding are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight changes, and breastfeeding influence maternal weight and body mass index-adjusted waist circumference (WCBMI) 7 y after delivery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study...... that postpartum weight retention at 6 mo and weight gain from 6 to 18 mo postpartum contribute equally to adverse maternal anthropometric measures 7 y after delivery. Breastfeeding duration may have a beneficial effect.......BACKGROUND: Reproduction has been related to long-term maternal weight gain, and changes in fat mass, with gestational weight gain, have been identified as an important contributor. However, the influence of weight changes during the whole reproductive cycle and the modifying effect...

  20. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. The Relation between Eating- and Weight-Related Disturbances and Depression in Adolescence: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Morgan, Ashley S.; Nguyen, Hien; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2010-01-01

    Depression often emerges during adolescence and persists into adulthood. Thus, it is critical to study risk factors that contribute to the development of depression in adolescence. One set of risk factors that has been recently studied in adolescent depression research is eating- and weight-related disturbances (EWRDs). EWRDs encompass negative…

  2. Weight-related teasing and non-normative eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Crosby, Ross D; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-07-01

    Weight loss maintenance is essential for the reduction of obesity-related health impairments. However, only a minority of individuals successfully maintain reduced weight in the long term. Research has provided initial evidence for associations between weight-related teasing (WRT) and greater non-normative eating behaviors. Further, first evidence was found for associations between non-normative eating behaviors and weight loss maintenance. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the predictive value of WRT for weight loss maintenance and the role of non-normative eating behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship. The study was part of the German Weight Control Registry that prospectively followed individuals who had intentionally lost at least 10% of their maximum weight and had maintained this reduced weight for at least one year. In N = 381 participants, retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence, current non-normative eating behaviors (i.e., restrained, external, emotional eating), and change in body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) over two years were examined using self-report assessments. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. As a result, a greater effect of retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence predicted less successful adult weight loss maintenance over two years. Current emotional eating fully mediated this relationship while current restrained and external eating yielded no mediational effects. Hence, a greater effect of WRT predicted greater current emotional eating, which in turn predicted a smaller decrease or a greater increase in BMI. Our findings suggest that suffering from WRT during childhood and adolescence might lead to emotional eating which in turn impairs long-term weight loss maintenance. Thus, our results highlight the need for interventions aiming at reducing weight stigmatization and targeting emotional eating for successful long-term weight loss maintenance

  3. Length- weight relationships, condition factor (K) and relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationship and condition factors were estimated for Dentex congoensis and Dentex angolensis of the family sparidae trawled from Nigeria Coastal water in 2009. A total number of 534 specimens ranging from 7.2 – 3.0 cm in total length and 5.4 – 489.8 g in weight were analyzed. The lengthweight ...

  4. Demographic, Psychological, and Weight-Related Correlates of Weight Control Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seibert, Crescent A

    2007-01-01

    .... The majority of participants were enlisted (92.2%), Navy (78.0%), Caucasian (59.2%) men (79.7%). Nearly 23% of the respondents reported engaging in weight control behaviors prior to weigh-in/physical fitness testing...

  5. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A; Amy, Nancy K

    2011-06-26

    Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children differ from children of other weights in that thin children are less

  6. Nonresident parental influence on adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors: similar or different from resident parental influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-10-23

    Many parents do not live with, or have shared custody of, their adolescent children (i.e., nonresident parents). The degree of their influence on their children, as compared to parents who do live with their children the majority of the time (i.e. resident parents) has not been well-studied. The current study aimed to examine whether and how resident and nonresident parents' weight and weight-related behaviors are correlated with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. Results will inform who may be important to include in adolescent obesity prevention interventions. Data from two linked population-based studies, EAT 2010 and F-EAT, were used for cross-sectional analyses. Resident parents (n = 200; 80% females; mean age =41.8), nonresident parents (n =200; 70% male; mean age =43.1), and adolescents (n =200; 60% girls; mean age =14.2 years) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Multiple regression models were fit to investigate the association between resident and nonresident parents' weight and weight-related behaviors and adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. Both resident and nonresident parents' BMI were significantly associated with adolescents' BMI percentile. Additionally, resident parents' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage intake and fruit and vegetable intake (p fast food consumption, breakfast frequency, or sedentary behaviors were significantly associated with adolescents' same behaviors. These preliminary findings suggest that resident and nonresident parents may have slightly different influences on their adolescent children's weight-related behaviors. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to determine temporality of associations.

  7. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  8. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  9. Weight-related concerns related to drug use for women in substance abuse treatment: prevalence and relationships with eating pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cortney S; Lindsay, Anne R; White, Emily K; Claudat, Kim; Velasquez, Sara C

    2013-01-01

    Women in substance abuse treatment increasingly report weight-related concerns as motivation for drug use. However, limited research has explored the nature of these concerns or examined whether women in substance abuse treatment with weight-related concerns related to drug use differ from those who do not on variables relevant to eating pathology. Using a sample of 297 women in substance abuse treatment, this study examined two intertwined issues: (1) the prevalence and nature of weight-related concerns related to drug use and (2) whether women who endorse weight-related concerns related to drug use differ from those without weight-related concerns on body dissatisfaction, eating pathology, perceived pressure and internalization of thin-ideal media, and appearance-related drug-use expectancies. Descriptive analyses indicated that the majority of participants were concerned about gaining weight during treatment and/or that weight gain could trigger drug relapse. Analyses of variance revealed that women who reported weight-based concerns (both with regards to weight gain during treatment and relapse potential) endorsed higher levels of body dissatisfaction, dieting, bulimic symptoms, and thin-ideal internalization than women who did not endorse weight-related concerns. Results suggest that substance abuse treatment programs should be aware of and address weight-related concerns around drug use for women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiences of weight teasing in adolescence and weight-related outcomes in adulthood: A 15-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Wall, Melanie M; Chen, Chen; Bryn Austin, S; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-07-01

    Weight-based teasing is common among youth, but little is known about its long-term impact on health outcomes. We aimed to 1) identify whether weight-based teasing in adolescence predicts adverse eating and weight-related outcomes 15years later; and 2) determine whether teasing source (peers or family) affects these outcomes. Data were collected from Project EAT-IV (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) (N=1830), a longitudinal cohort study that followed a diverse sample of adolescents from 1999 (baseline) to 2015 (follow-up). Weight-based teasing at baseline was examined as a predictor of weight status, binge eating, dieting, eating as a coping strategy, unhealthy weight control, and body image at 15-year follow-up. After adjusting for demographic covariates and baseline body mass index (BMI), weight-based teasing in adolescence predicted higher BMI and obesity 15years later. For women, these longitudinal associations occurred across peer and family-based teasing sources, but for men, only peer-based teasing predicted higher BMI. The same pattern emerged for adverse eating outcomes; weight-based teasing from peers and family during adolescence predicted binge eating, unhealthy weight control, eating to cope, poor body image, and recent dieting in women 15years later. For men, teasing had fewer longitudinal associations. Taken together, this study shows that weight-based teasing in adolescence predicts obesity and adverse eating behaviors well into adulthood, with differences across gender and teasing source. Findings underscore the importance of addressing weight-based teasing in educational and health initiatives, and including the family environment as a target of anti-bullying intervention, especially for girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Weight-related sport motive and girls’ body image, weight control behaviors and self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Woertman, L.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise for weight control is associated with disordered eating indices in older adolescent or adult exercisers in fitness centers. This study examined whether these relationships could be replicated in a more general sample of 140 Dutch adolescent girls between 13 and 18

  12. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  13. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  14. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  15. Interactions between Biliverdin, Oxidative Damage, and Spleen Morphology after Simulated Aggressive Encounters in Veiled Chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Stressors frequently increase oxidative damage--unless organisms simultaneously mount effective antioxidant responses. One putative mitigative mechanism is the use of biliverdin, an antioxidant produced in the spleen during erythrocyte degradation. We hypothesized that both wild and captive-bred male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus, which are highly aggressive to conspecifics, would respond to agonistic displays with increased levels of oxidative damage, but that increased levels of biliverdin would limit this increase. We found that even just visual exposure to a potential combatant resulted in decreased body mass during the subsequent 48-hour period, but that hematocrit, biliverdin concentration in the bile, relative spleen size, and oxidative damage in plasma, liver, and spleen were unaffected. Contrary to our predictions, we found that individuals with smaller spleens exhibited greater decreases in hematocrit and higher bile biliverdin concentrations, suggesting a revision to the idea of spleen-dependent erythrocyte processing. Interestingly, individuals with larger spleens had reduced oxidative damage in both the liver and spleen, demonstrating the spleen's importance in modulating oxidative damage. We also uncovered differences in spleen size and oxidative damage between wild and captive-bred chameleons, highlighting environmentally dependent differences in oxidative physiology. Lastly, we found no relationship between oxidative damage and biliverdin concentration, calling into question biliverdin's antioxidant role in this species.

  16. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  17. Statement on the conditions of use for health claims related to meal replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    ) and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID1418) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. Taking into account that the mechanisms by which meal replacements could exert the claimed effects were mostly related to their controlled energy content and the relatively high protein/low fat......) would affect the conclusions reached by the NDA Panel on its Scientific Opinion with respect to the scientific substantiation of health claims related to meal replacement for weight control (as defined in Directive 96/8/EC on energy restricted diets for weight loss) and reduction in body weight (ID 1417...... for weight control and reduction in body weight (ID 1417), and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID 1418) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, as assessed by the Panel in 2010....

  18. Weights and linear measurements of the body and some organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absolute weights of the body, heart, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, liver, gonads, digestive tract and adrenal glands, as well as the absolute linear measurements of the body, digestive tract and oviduct were determined in adult female and male African white-bellied tree pangolins. The relative weights, relative lengths and ...

  19. Haematology, Carcass and Relative Organ Weights of Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    1Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology,. 2Department of Animal Production and Health,. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,. P.M.B.4000 .... bled after cutting of the jugular vein with sharp knife, and evisceration was carried out immediately. Bled weight, eviscerated. Feeding regimes and rabbit ...

  20. Unhealthy weight control behaviors mediate the association between weight status and weight-specific health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking youth who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M

    2017-03-01

    Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.

  1. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  2. Use of nucleotides in weanling rats with diarrhea induced by a lactose overload: effect on the evolution of diarrhea and weight and on the histopathology of intestine, liver and spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, dietary sources of nucleotides were thought not to be essential for good nutrition. Certain states with higher metabolic demands may require larger amounts that cannot be provided by endogenous production. The objective of the present study was to determine the action of nucleotides on the recovery from lactose-induced diarrhea in weaned rats. Thirty-six weanling Fisher rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a standard diet and group 2 received a diet containing lactose in place of starch. On the 10th day, six animals per group were sacrificed for histopathological evaluation. The remaining animals were divided into two other subgroups, each with 6 animals, receiving a control diet, a control diet with nucleotides (0.05% adenosine monophosphate, 0.05% guanosine monophosphate, 0.05% cytidine monophosphate, 0.05% uridine monophosphate and 0.05% inosine monophosphate, a diet with lactose, and a diet with lactose and nucleotides. On the 32nd day of the experiment all animals were sacrificed. Animals with diarrhea weighed less than animals without diarrhea. The introduction of nucleotides did not lead to weight gain. Mean diet consumption was lower in the group that continued to ingest lactose, with the group receiving lactose plus nucleotides showing a lower mean consumption. Animals receiving lactose had inflammatory reaction and deposits of periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in intestinal, hepatic and splenic tissues. The introduction of nucleotides led to an improvement of the intestinal inflammatory reaction. In lactose-induced diarrhea, when the stimulus is maintained - lactose overload - the nucleotides have a limited action on the weight gain and on recovery of intestinal morphology, although they have a protective effect on hepatic injury and improve the inflammatory response.

  3. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Greater Food-Related Stroop Interference Following Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Demos, Kathryn E; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Cournoyer, Sara A; Wunsch, Caroline A; Wing, Rena R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Individuals who have successfully lost and maintained weight have slower reaction times on food-related Stroop tasks, indicating greater cognitive interference to food stimuli compared to obese and normal weight individuals. It remains unclear whether this interference is a preexisting characteristic of weight loss maintainers or if food-interference changes in obese individuals as they lose weight. Method To examine potential changes in food-related interference, a food-Stroop para...

  5. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic Bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 1 - Quantification of the relative number and proportion of leukocyte populations in the spleen and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used in manufacturing of a broad range of consumer products worldwide. Due to its widespread use, human exposure to BPA is virtually ubiquitous. Broad human exposure coupled with a large scientific literature describing estrogenic activity of BPA in animals has raised public health concerns. To comprehensively evaluate the health effects of BPA exposure, a chronic toxicity study using a wide-range of BPA doses (2.5-25000 μg/kg bw/day) was conducted jointly by the NTP, thirteen NIEHS-supported grantees, and the FDA, which is called the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of chronic BPA exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats on the relative number and proportion of defined leukocyte populations in the spleen and the thymus. Toward this end, lymphoid tissues from a total of 641 rats were assayed after being continuously dosed with BPA or controls for up to one year. To comprehensively evaluate the effects of BPA on leukocyte compositions, extensive endpoints that cover major populations of leukocytes were assessed, including B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, of the 530 measurements in BPA-treated rats, 10 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls and were mainly associated with either the macrophage or dendritic cell populations. Most, if not all, of these alterations were found to be transient with no persistent trend over the one-year time period. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and not dose-dependent. Due to the aforementioned, it is unlikely that the observed BPA-mediated changes alone would adversely affect immune competence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of Clavicle In Relation to Weight Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routatal, Rohini V

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives It is a known fact that weight of upper limb is transmitted to the axial skeleton through clavicle. The present study is an attempt to correlate pattern of compact and trabecular bone of clavicle as a weight transmitting bone. Materials and Methods Sixty clavicles were studied from right and left sides of 30 cadavers donated to the Anatomy department, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, India. The study was focused on the thickness of compact bone of clavicle and trabecular pattern of this bone. Results Cancellous bone: Cancellous bone near both ends of clavicle presented meshwork of thin bony plates. Between the conoid tubercle and area for attachment of costo-clavicular ligament, cancellous bone showed a definite pattern. Thickness of compact bone The compact bone was thicker between conoid tubercle and area for attachment of costo-clavicular ligament. At midshaft point thickness of compact bone was maximum. Conclusion The structure of clavicle between conoid tubercle and area for costoclavicular ligament showed thick compact bone and definite pattern of cancellous bone. This structure of clavicle between conoid tubercle and area for attachment of costo-clavicular ligament transmits weight from lateral to medial direction and this knowledge of clavicular structure will also be useful to orthopedic surgeons to deal with clavicular fractures and other abnormalities. PMID:26393112

  7. Effects of Parenting Style and Parent-Related Weight and Diet on Adolescent Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K.; St. George, Sara M.; Schneider, Elizabeth; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the interaction between parental limit setting of sedentary behaviors and health factors (weight status, physical activity [PA], fruit and vegetable [FV] intake) on standardized body mass index (zBMI) in African American adolescents. Methods Data were from 67 parent–adolescent dyads. Parental limit setting, PA and FV intake were assessed via self-report, and objective height and weight measurements were collected. Results Regressions examined the interaction between parental limit setting and BMI, PA, FV intake on adolescent zBMI. The model for parent BMI and FV intake accounted for 31% of the variance in adolescent zBMI. A significant interaction for parent BMI by limit setting showed that as parental BMI increased, higher (vs. lower) limit setting was associated with lower adolescent zBMI. Higher parent FV consumption was associated with lower adolescent zBMI. Conclusion Future interventions should integrate parent limit setting and target parent fruit and vegetable intake for obesity prevention in underserved adolescents. PMID:23248345

  8. Size matters: Spleen and lung volumes predict performance in human apneic diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eSchagatay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans share with e.g. seals the ability to contract the spleen and increase circulating hematocrit, which may improve apneic performance by enhancing gas storage. Seals have large spleens and while human spleen size is small in comparison, it shows great individual variation. Unlike many marine mammals, human divers rely to a great extent on lung oxygen stores, but the impact of lung volume on competitive apnea performance has never been determined. We studied if spleen- and lung size correlated with performance in elite apnea divers. Volunteers were 14 male apnea world championship participants, with a mean(SE of 5.8(1.2 years of previous apnea training. Spleen volume was calculated from spleen length, width and thickness measured via ultrasound during rest, and vital capacity via spirometry. Accumulated competition scores from dives of maximal depth, time and distance were compared to anthropometric measurements and training data. Mean dive performance was 75(4 m for constant weight depth, 5 min 53(39 s for static apnea and 139(13 m for dynamic apnea distance. Subjects’ mean height was 184(2 cm, weight 82(3 kg, vital capacity (VC 7.3(0.3 L and spleen volume 336(32 ml. Spleen volume did not correlate with subject height or weight, but was positively correlated with competition score (r=0.57; P<0.05. Total competition score was also positively correlated with VC (r=0.54; P<0.05. The three highest scoring divers had the greatest spleen volumes, averaging 538(53 ml, while the three lowest scoring divers had a volume of 270(71 ml (P<0.01. VC was also greater in the high-scorers, at 7.9(0.36 L as compared to 6.7(0.19 L in the low-scorers (P<0.01. Spleen volume was reduced to half after 2 min of apnea in the highest scoring divers, and the estimated resting apnea time gain from the difference between high and low scorers was 15 s for spleen volume and 60 s for VC. We conclude that both spleen- and lung volume predict apnea performance in elite

  9. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  10. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pweight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Label Statements § 105.66 Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight... because of usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition labeling in...

  12. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  13. Dietary intake of fruit in relation to body weight management among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults worldwide is high with an increasing trend. Therefore, effective strategies in relation to body weight management, targeting to maintain normal body weight and prevent excessive weight gain, are warranted. Reducing the energy density of the diet...... and culinary use. The overall aim of the present thesis was to examine the potential role of fruit intake in relation to body weight management among adults. The specific objectives were to investigate the association between fruit intake and body weight and aspects of other dietary intake and further...... of fruit intake in body weight management, including the association between fruit intake and body weight and the effect of fruit intake on body weight, among adults was assessed by carrying out a review (paper I) encompassing all human prospective observational, cross-sectional and intervention studies...

  14. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI, food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  16. Associations between weight-related teasing and psychosomatic symptoms by weight status among school-aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, T; Borghese, M M; Janssen, I

    2017-03-01

    Weight-related teasing (WT) is associated with poor mental health. This study examined whether weight status moderates the relationship between WT and psychosomatic symptoms within a representative sample of school-aged youth. Data are from the Canadian 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, a nationally representative sample of youth in Grades 6-10. WT, psychosomatic symptoms and body mass index (BMI) were self-reported. The final sample consisted of 20,277 youth (mean age = 14.2 years; 50.2% female). The prevalence who reported being WT at least once a week was 4.6%, 8.1% and 17.3% among youth with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively ( p  psychosomatic symptoms ( p  psychosomatic symptom z -scores were significantly ( p  psychosomatic symptoms independent of BMI category; however, BMI category did not moderate the association between WT and psychosomatic symptoms.

  17. Preservative spleen surgery and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Cintra, Luiz Cálice; Santos, Maria Carmem Silva; Rodrigues, Hildegardo; Ferrari, Thiago Antunes; Azevedo, Tiago Caetano V de; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da

    2007-01-01

    To assess functional and morphological aspects of spleen auto-implants and of the splenic inferior pole of rats, post-operatively treated or not with hyperbaric oxygen, as well as the survival of these animals, were studied. Seventy-eight male Wistar rats, weighing between 192 and 283 g ( 238,3 +/- 9,6g), were randomly distributed into three groups: Group 1--(n=20), spleen manipulation; group 2--(n=36), spleen auto-implantation; group 3--(n= 22), subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior pole. Each group was subdivided as follows: subgroup a, not submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: 1a(n=10), 2a(n=21), 3a(n= 13); subgroup b, submitted to the therapy: 1b(n=10), 2b(n=15), 3b(n=9). Blood was collected pre-operatively and 11 days after surgery, for the estimation of lipids and immunoglobulins and the counting of platelets and Howell-Jolly corpuscles. The spleen and remains were taken for histological study. The number of surviving animals was significantly higher in groups 1(p 2. The macro and microscopic appearance in subgroup 2b were more viable than in subgroup 2a, and that of group 3 more viable than in group 2. The survival of the animals carrying their whole spleen or its inferior pole was more frequent than that of the auto-implanted animals. Functionality and viability of the whole spleen or of its inferior pole, were better than in the auto-implanted animals. Hyperbaric oxygen-therapy contributed to increased survival frequency of auto-implanted animals, and to improve the functionality and viability of the auto-implants and the function of the inferior splenic pole, and did not interfere in animals carrying their whole spleen.

  18. Thirst distress and interdialytic weight gain: how do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sheena; Locking-Cusolito, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Thirst is a frequent and stressful symptom experienced by hemodialysis patients. Several studies have noted a positive relationship between thirst and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). These factors prompted us to consider ways that we could intervene to reduce thirst and IDWG through an educative, supportive nursing intervention. This paper presents the results of a pilot research project, the purpose of which was to: examine the relationship between thirst distress (the negative symptoms associated with thirst) and IDWG in a sample of our patients, describe patients' strategies for management of thirst, and establish the necessary sample size for the planned intervention study. The pilot research project results showed that in a small sample of 20, there was a mildly positive, though not statistically significant, correlation between thirst distress and IDWG (r = 0.117). Subjects shared a wide variety of thirst management strategies including: limiting salt intake, using ice chips, measuring daily allotment, performing mouth care, eating raw fruits and vegetables, sucking on hard candy and chewing gum. This pilot research project showed that given an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 80%, we will require a sample of 39 subjects to detect a 20% change in IDWG. We will employ these results to plan our intervention study, first by establishing the appropriate sample size and second by incorporating identified patient strategies into an educational pamphlet that will form the basis of our intervention.

  19. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  20. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  1. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Conclusions Our results

  2. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight--factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja

    2011-12-08

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a

  3. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Viktoria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years, recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47. Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status

  4. Effect of Breath Holding on Spleen Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ai; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonographic studies have demonstrated transient reduction in spleen volume in relation to apnea diving. We measured spleen volume under various respiratory conditions by MR imaging to accurately determine the influence of ordinary breath holding on spleen volumetry. Twelve healthy adult volunteers were examined. Contiguous MR images of the spleen were acquired during free breathing and during respiratory manipulations, including breath holding at the end of normal expiration, breath holding at deep inspiration, and the valsalva maneuver, and spleen volume was measured from each image set based on the sum-of-areas method. Acquisition during free breathing was performed with respiratory triggering. The duration of each respiratory manipulation was 30 s, and five sets of MR images were acquired serially during each manipulation. Baseline spleen volume before respiratory manipulation was 173.0 ± 79.7 mL, and the coefficient of variance for two baseline measures was 1.4% ± 1.6%, suggesting excellent repeatability. Spleen volume decreased significantly just after the commencement of respiratory manipulation, remained constant during the manipulation, and returned to the control value 2 min after the cessation of the manipulation, irrespective of manipulation type. The percentages of volume reduction were 10.2% ± 2.9%, 10.2% ± 3.5%, and 13.3% ± 5.7% during expiration breath holding, deep-inspiration breath holding, and the valsalva maneuver, respectively, and these values did not differ significantly. Spleen volume is reduced during short breath-hold apnea in healthy adults. Physiological responses of the spleen to respiratory manipulations should be considered in the measurement and interpretation of spleen volume.

  5. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Pyoderma gangrenosum with aseptic spleen abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, N; Maubec, E; Boccara, O; Marinho, E; Valeyrie-Allanore, L; Lecaille, C; Sebban, V; Hersent, B; Picard-Dahan, C; Descamps, V; Crickx, B

    2009-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis in which systemic involvement is rare. It may be associated with systemic disease. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in the spleen. A 68-year-old man presenting pyoderma gangrenosum with pustules and stage I multiple myeloma was admitted for asthenia and abdominal pain. There were no skin lesions. Laboratory tests showed inflammatory syndrome with polynuclear leucocytes of 25,000/mm(3). CAT scans and abdominal ultrasound revealed a splenic abscess. A spleen biopsy was performed and histological examination showed polynuclear leukocyte infiltration, while cultures were negatives. Diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum with splenic involvement was made. Increased systemic corticosteroid therapy produced a successful outcome. Haematological findings remained unchanged. Spleen involvement in pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare and can mimic an infectious process. In such cases, routine screening is essential for associated diseases, particularly haematological malignancies.

  7. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  8. "Don't eat so much:" how parent comments relate to female weight satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Latimer, Lara A; Pope, Lizzy

    2017-09-01

    How will the words of a parent influence the adult weight of their daughter? This retrospective study evaluates how the recalled comments of parents made about the weight or eating habits of a daughter related to her adult BMI and satisfaction with her weight. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted with 501 young women ranging in age from 20 to 35 (age 26.8, SD 3.1; BMI 25.96, SD 6.2), who were asked to indicate their weight satisfaction, eating habits, and BMI along with their recall of the extent to which they recalled their parents making weight-related or eating-related comments about them as a young girl. Linear regression analyses were run to examine the relationship between parental comments and women's weight satisfaction and BMI. A woman's dissatisfaction with her adult weight was only related to the extent she remembered her parents making any comments about her weight (p eating habits were not significantly related to weight dissatisfaction.

  9. Oral Exposure to Atrazine Induces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Homeostasis Disruption in Spleen of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide atrazine (ATR can cause many adverse effects including immunotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The current study investigated the role of oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis in ATR-induced immunotoxicity in mice. ATR at doses of 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight was administered to Balb/c mice daily for 21 days by oral gavage. The studies performed 24 hr after the final exposure showed that ATR could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the spleen of the mice, increase the level of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP in the host serum, and cause the depletion of reduced glutathione in the serum, each in a dose-related manner. In addition, DNA damage was observed in isolated splenocytes as evidenced by increase in DNA comet tail formation. ATR exposure also caused increases in intracellular Ca2+ within splenocytes. Moreover, ATR treatment led to increased expression of genes for some antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1 and Gpx1, as well as increased expression of NF-κB and Ref-1 proteins in the spleen. In conclusion, it appears that oxidative stress and disruptions in calcium homeostasis might play an important role in the induction of immunotoxicity in mice by ATR.

  10. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  11. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  12. The accuracy of self-reported pregnancy-related weight: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headen, I; Cohen, A K; Mujahid, M; Abrams, B

    2017-03-01

    Self-reported maternal weight is error-prone, and the context of pregnancy may impact error distributions. This systematic review summarizes error in self-reported weight across pregnancy and assesses implications for bias in associations between pregnancy-related weight and birth outcomes. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar through November 2015 for peer-reviewed articles reporting accuracy of self-reported, pregnancy-related weight at four time points: prepregnancy, delivery, over gestation and postpartum. Included studies compared maternal self-report to anthropometric measurement or medical report of weights. Sixty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We extracted data on magnitude of error and misclassification. We assessed impact of reporting error on bias in associations between pregnancy-related weight and birth outcomes. Women underreported prepregnancy (PPW: -2.94 to -0.29 kg) and delivery weight (DW: -1.28 to 0.07 kg), and over-reported gestational weight gain (GWG: 0.33 to 3 kg). Magnitude of error was small, ranged widely, and varied by prepregnancy weight class and race/ethnicity. Misclassification was moderate (PPW: 0-48.3%; DW: 39.0-49.0%; GWG: 16.7-59.1%), and overestimated some estimates of population prevalence. However, reporting error did not largely bias associations between pregnancy-related weight and birth outcomes. Although measured weight is preferable, self-report is a cost-effective and practical measurement approach. Future researchers should develop bias correction techniques for self-reported pregnancy-related weight. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender

    OpenAIRE

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B. R. Simon; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Methods Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n=28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified ...

  14. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  15. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  16. Gender differences in neonatal subcutaneous fat store in late gestation in relation to maternal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihard-Costa, A M; Papiernik, E; Grangé, G; Richard, A

    2002-01-01

    To study gender differences in fat store in human newborns and their relation to duration of gestation and maternal weight gain. The ratios subscapular skinfold thickness/body weight (SST/BW) and tricipital skinfold thickness/body weight (TST/BW) were calculated in a sample of 13609 premature and term neonates from the maternity hospital of Clamart, Hauts-de-Seine, France. Whereas BW, SST and TST increased with gestational age, SST/BW and TST/BW ratios decreased regularly, in males as in females. This result reflects a progressive reduction of subcutaneous fat store per body weight unit as the duration of gestation increases. Males had smaller values of SST/BW and TST/BW ratios than females whatever the gestational age. Increasing maternal weight gain during the third gestational trimester did not improve the subcutaneous fatness per body weight unit of the newborn. Earlier amount of maternal weight gain had an effect on the TST/BW index exclusively in females. In newborns, a gender difference was observed in the ratio of subcutaneous fat per unit of body weight; this ratio is lower in males than in females. This result argues for a gender difference in mobilization of fat store to ensure normal growth in the last weeks of pregnancy: males lose more fat but gain more weight than females in this period. Late maternal weight gain does not affect the proportion of subcutaneous fatness by body weight unit in both genders.

  17. Factors Related to Weight Gain/Loss among Emerging Adults with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ping H; Annesi, James J

    2018-05-01

    We examined the reasons for weight gain and barriers to weight loss among emerging adults with obesity. Eighty-one female undergraduate students with obesity completed 4-open ended questions in 2015-2016. Qualitative responses were analyzed using NVivo 11 Pro software. Most participants experienced weight gain prior to attending college. The most commonly reported reasons for weight gain include a lack of ability to control one's behaviors or overcome barriers (ie, poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, lack of time, easy access to food), emotional/mental health issues, physical health, and influence of significant others. Nearly half reported having a weight loss goal. Most reported having used one or more weight loss methods. Few reached short-term weight loss but quickly regained the lost weight. Major reported barriers reflect a lack of self-regulation skills, negative mood and stress, and lack of self-efficacy for healthy eating or physical activity. Results suggest that the perceived ability to control one's behaviors and overcome barriers, self-efficacy, and mood are important in weight-related behaviors, weight, and weight loss success among emerging adults, especially those enrolled in college.

  18. Incorporating parasite systematics in comparative analyses of variation in spleen mass and testes sizes of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlet, Nicolas; Chaisiri, Kitipong; Claude, Julien; Morand, Serge

    2011-11-01

    Parasite diversity is hypothesized to act on host life-history traits through investment in immunity. In order to incorporate the diversity of the parasite community that an individual host or a host species may face, two indices can be used: Taxonomic Species Richness and Taxonomic Entropy, where the taxonomic information is incorporated with the taxonomic weight. We tested whether these indices correlate with several morphological traits potentially implicated in immune defence and in reproduction, using data on gastrointestinal helminths and their rodent hosts sampled in Southeast Asia. We found no relationship between parasite diversity indices and either spleen mass or testes size at the intraspecific level, i.e. at the level of individuals. At the interspecific level, we found no relationship between the parasite diversity indices and testes size. However, we found that female spleen mass is significantly influenced by the specific species richness of parasites, whereas male spleen mass is influenced by individual mean parasite diversity indices. We concluded that female spleen mass may have evolved in response to gastrointestinal helminth pressure acting at species levels, while in males, the individual spleen mass could be constrained by other factors, such as the blood storage function of the spleen.

  19. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: → Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. → Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. → Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein

  20. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  1. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  2. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and

  3. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palascha, A.; Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the role of dichotomous thinking on eating behavior and its association with restraint eating and weight regain in a wide range of people. In a web-based survey with 241 adults, dichotomous thinking and behavioral outcomes related to eating (restraint eating, weight regain, body

  4. The Impact of Self-Criticism and Self-Reassurance on Weight-Related Affect and Well-Being in Participants of a Commercial Weight Management Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Duarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Certain psychological and emotional factors can undermine attempts at weight management. Previously we have found that shame and self-criticism were significantly associated with disinhibition and perceived hunger in 2,236 participants of a weight management programme. This effect was fully mediated through weight-related negative affect. The present study examined the impact of self-criticism and self-reassurance on well-being and whether it was mediated by weight-related affect in the same population. Methods: Participants completed an online survey of measures of self-criticism and self-reassurance, and negative and positive affect associated with weight and well-being. Results: Path analysis suggested that self-criticism was significantly associated with decreased well-being, both directly and indirectly, mediated by increased negative and decreased positive weight-related affect. Self-reassurance had a stronger association with increased well-being by predicting lower negative and increased positive weight-related affect. All effects were significant at p Conclusion: Self-criticism and self-reassurance were related to well-being in participants attempting to manage their weight, both directly and through their impact on weight-related affect. The positive association between self-reassurance and well-being was stronger than the negative association between self-criticism and well-being. Supporting the development of self-reassuring competencies in weight management programmes may improve weight-related affect and well-being.

  5. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen E.; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L.; Greaney, Mary L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Mezgebu, Solomon; Hunt, Anne T.; Blood, Emily A.; Horan, Chrissy; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Bettencourt, Maria F.; Richmond, Tracy K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting. Objective Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC), a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity. Methods We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools’ socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components. Setting/Participants Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students. Intervention Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV), watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV) and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA) on most days Main Outcome Measures 1) School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2) individual odds of overweight/obesity. Results The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001), TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003) and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02), adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016). Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower

  6. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  7. Wedding-related weight change: the ups and downs of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-03-01

    The present study examined wedding-related weight change in 343 brides recruited from Bridal Expos in South Australia. Demographic measures and questions about weight were assessed over three time points: upon entry into the study (n=343), 1-month pre-wedding (n=130), and 6-months post-wedding (n=112). Although close to 50% of brides-to-be indicated a desire to lose weight before their weddings, linear mixed modelling revealed that their average weight did not change in the lead up to their wedding. However, 6 months after their wedding, participants had gained approximately 2kg. In addition, women who had been told to lose weight before their wedding gained significantly more weight post-wedding compared to participants who had not been told to lose weight. The findings demonstrate that wedding-related weight change may be an important factor in the body image of newlyweds and clinicians should be mindful of potential body dissatisfaction associated with post-wedding weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic predisposition, dietary restraint and disinhibition in relation to short and long-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2014-04-10

    Interindividual differences in response to weight loss and maintenance thereafter are ascribed to genetic predisposition and behavioral changes. To examine whether body weight and short and long-term body weight loss were affected by candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and changes in eating behavior or by an interaction between these genetic and behavioral factors. 150 healthy subjects (39 males, 111 females) aged 20-50 y with a BMI of 27-38 kg/m(2) followed a very low energy diet for 8-weeks, followed by a 3-month weight maintenance period. SNPs were selected from six candidate genes: ADRB2, FTO, MC4R, PPARG, PPARD, and PPARGC1A. Changes in eating behavior were determined with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. A high genetic predisposition score was associated with a high body weight at baseline and more short-term weight loss. From the six selected obesity-related SNPs, FTO was associated with increased body weight at baseline, and the effect allele of PPARGC1A was positively associated with short-term weight loss, when assessed for each SNP separately. Long-term weight loss was associated with a larger increase in dietary restraint and larger decrease in disinhibition. During long-term weight loss, genetic effects are dominated by changes in eating behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI ... was almost 0.5 kg higher in women with Type 2 diabetes and excessive gestational weight gain than in women with Type 2 diabetes and non-excessive weight gain....... kg/m2, respectively). Gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive (exceeding the US Institute of Medicine recommendations) or as non-excessive (within or below the Institute of Medicine recommendations). RESULTS: Excessive and non-excessive gestational weight gain were seen in 61 (43...

  10. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  11. Rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood is related to higher anthropometric measurements in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, H; Shirasawa, T; Ochiai, H; Nomoto, S; Hoshino, H; Kokaze, A

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between rapid weight gain during infancy and/or early childhood and anthropometric measurements [body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in preadolescence by sex. Subjects were fourth-grade school children (aged 9 to 10 years) from elementary schools in Ina-town, Japan, in 2010. Measurements of height, weight, %BF and WC were conducted for each subject. We obtained data on height and weight of subjects at birth, age 1.5 years and age 3 years from the Maternal and Child Health handbook. Rapid weight gain was defined as a change in weight-for-age standard deviation score greater than 0.67 from birth to age 1.5 years (infancy) or from age 1.5 to 3 years (early childhood). All anthropometric variables (BMI, %BF, WC and WHtR) at age 9 to 10 years were significantly higher in the rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood period group than in the no rapid weight gain group, regardless of sex. When compared with the no rapid weight gain group, rapid weight gain during early childhood period had significantly higher BMI and WC in boys and BMI, %BF and WC in girls. Compared with the no rapid weight gain group, the rapid weight gain during infancy group had a significantly higher WC in boys and significantly higher BMI and WC in girls. Rapid weight gain during both infancy and early childhood was related to higher anthropometric measurements, including WHtR, among Japanese preadolescents, regardless of sex. This study suggests that rapid weight gain during infancy and early childhood may be a risk factor for general/abdominal obesity later in life. © 2017 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...... the social patterning of relative weight and obesity by occupational status, educational attainment and marital status between Danish and Finnish women and men. METHODS: Data from the Finnish Survey on Living Conditions and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, both collected in 1994, were compared...

  13. Overeating with and without loss of control: Associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Pisetsky, Emily M; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    The relative importance of loss of control and overeating in the relationship between binge eating and eating-related and general psychopathology has been debated in the literature. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of overeating with and without loss of control within a diverse, population-based sample of adolescents. A highly diverse (81.1% non-White) sample of adolescents (n = 2,793) from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating-related psychopathology, substance use, nonsuicidal self-injury, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Overeating without loss of control was reported by 6.9% of girls and 5.0% of boys, while 9.6% of girls and 6.3% of boys reported overeating with loss of control (binge eating). Overall, overeating (with or without loss of control) was positively associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, dieting, nonsuicidal self-injury, lower body satisfaction, and self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to no overeating. Among girls, binge eating was associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to overeating without loss of control, while in boys, binge eating was associated with greater cigarette usage, lower body satisfaction, and greater depressive symptoms than overeating without loss of control (although cigarette usage was comparable in boys reporting binge eating and no overeating). Any overeating, with or without loss of control, was associated with multiple adverse correlates among adolescents. Loss of control was uniquely associated with multiple health indicators, further highlighting its importance as a marker of severity of overeating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Overeating with and without loss of control: associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Berge, Jerica M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relative importance of loss of control and overeating in the relationship between binge eating and eating-related and general psychopathology has been debated in the literature. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of overeating with and without loss of control within a diverse, population-based sample of adolescents. Method A highly diverse (81.1% non-White) sample of adolescents (n=2,793) from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating-related psychopathology, substance use, non-suicidal self-injury, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Results Overeating without loss of control was reported by 6.9% of girls and 5.0% of boys, while 9.6% of girls and 6.3% of boys reported overeating with loss of control (binge eating). Overall, overeating (with or without loss of control) was positively associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, dieting, non-suicidal self-injury, lower body satisfaction and self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to no overeating. Among girls, binge eating was associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to overeating without loss of control, while in boys, binge eating was associated with greater cigarette usage, lower body satisfaction, and greater depressive symptoms than overeating without loss of control (although cigarette usage was comparable in boys reporting binge eating and no overeating). Discussion Any overeating, with or without loss of control, was associated with multiple adverse correlates among adolescents. Loss of control was uniquely associated with multiple health indicators, further highlighting its importance as a marker of severity of overeating. PMID:26368333

  15. Parental perception of weight an weight-related behaviour in 2-to 4-year-old children in the eastern part of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink-Tuna, H.N.; L'Hoir, M.P.; Beltman, M.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental perception of weight status and weight-related behaviour of their toddler was determined through a questionnaire survey in child health care centres (CHCs). Complete data on weight, length, sex and age were available for 635 of 682 children (93.1%). The median age of the children was 37.0

  16. [The ratio birth-weight, placental weight and the term of delivery. A contribution to the problem of a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, B

    1976-12-10

    It is suggested, that a relative placental insufficiency in late pregnancy is one of the releasing factors of childbirth. Under this assumption 1027 deliveries in term pregnancy (266th-294th day of pregnancy) were inquired on the interrelationship between the ratio brith-weight: placental-weight and the duration of pregnancy. The average birth-weight increases slighly but significantly with the duration of pregnancy just as the average placental-weight. The average ratio birth-weight: placental-weight decreases significantly: The more unfavorable the ratio birth-weight: placental-weight is, the shorter remains the fetus in utero. This underlines the assumption of a relative placental insufficiency as one of the releasing factors of childbirth.

  17. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  18. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Weight-Related Criticism from Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Hull-Blanks, Elva; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura; Sollenberger, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    Examines weight-related criticism from romantic partners and the importance of the romantic relationship in relation to the body image and self esteem for college freshmen women. Results reveal that self esteem and body image were positively related. Partner importance also predicted self esteem, whereas criticism did not. (Contains 55 references…

  19. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  20. The Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET): development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Many smokers believe that smoking helps them to control their weight, and concerns about weight gain can interfere with smoking cessation. As researchers typically assess general weight concerns, a measure specific to smoking-related weight concerns is needed. The Smoking-related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) was created by generating items from 4 content domains: Hunger, Craving, Overeating, and Body Image. Female undergraduate smokers (N = 280) rated their postcessation weight gain concern and completed the SWEET, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26, Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), and Body Shape Questionnaire. Factor analysis of the initial items suggested a 4-factor solution, suggesting 4 subscales: Smoking to suppress appetite, smoking to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and withdrawal-related appetite increases. Based on these results, the SWEET subscales were revised and shortened. The resulting 10-item SWEET showed excellent internal consistency (total α = .94; mean α = .86) and evidence of validity by predicting smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns (ps < .05). Smoking frequency, eating pathology, and body image concerns were significantly predicted by the SWEET while controlling for existing measures of postcessation weight gain concern. The SWEET appears to be a reliable and valid measure of tendencies to smoke in response to body image concern and nicotine withdrawal and as a way to control appetite and overeating.

  1. Sonographic assessment and grading of spleen index in various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani N

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a useful procedure in evaluation of spleen size in different clinical conditions. In this study, we used it to evaluate spleen size in patients with various heptologic, hematologic and autoimmune diseases. To express spleen size, a spleen index (SI, the product of the transverse diameter and its perpendiculr diameter measured on the maximum-sectional image of the spleen, was used. Splenomegaly was present in high percentages of patients with liver, blood, collagen or autoimmune diseases, even though a majority of these spleens were not large enough to palpate. By grading the SI, characteristic distributions of SI were obtained for patients with different types of diseases. Obtaining and grading the SI by the use of ultrasound appears to be a significant supplemental aid for evaluating spleen size, especially in patients whose spleen are not palpable.

  2. Wandering spleen with a ten-time twisted vascular pedicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Peretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen in children, usually diagnosed with color-Doppler ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography. We report a pediatric case of torsion of wandering spleen.

  3. Parental Feeding Behaviors and Weight-Related Concerns in Children With Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele; Simpson, Pippa; Neff Greenley, Rachel; Zhang, Liyun; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2017-08-01

    Parental feeding behaviors and concern about child weight are associated with obesity among youth who are typically developing. Little is known about this relationship among parents of youth with special needs, despite these children having higher obesity risk. This study used an online survey to explore associations among parental feeding behaviors, parent weight concerns, demographics, and child weight status in a sample of 356 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, spina bifida, and Down syndrome. Specific parental feeding behaviors were significantly related to the child's weight and intensified when the parent was concerned about the child's weight. Child's diagnosis, family income, parent age, and parent gender influenced select feeding behaviors. Obesity has significant health ramifications and negatively affects an individual's ability to self-manage, which is crucial in individuals with special needs. These findings present an opportunity for the health care community to educate and promote healthy feeding practices in this vulnerable population.

  4. Gut permeability is related to body weight, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance in obese individuals undergoing weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damms-Machado, Antje; Louis, Sandrine; Schnitzer, Anna; Volynets, Valentina; Rings, Andreas; Basrai, Maryam; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 43.7 ± 5.2; 78% with moderate or severe liver steatosis] were included in the follow-up intervention study (n = 13 by month 12). All patients reduced their weight to a mean ± SD BMI of 36.4 ± 5.1 within 12 mo. We assessed barrier functions by the oral Lac:Man and the fecal zonulin tests. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA), and liver steatosis by sonography and the fatty liver index (FLI). The Lac:Man ratio and circulating interleukin (IL) 6 concentration decreased during intervention from 0.080 (95% CI: 0.073, 0.093) to 0.027 (95% CI: 0.024, 0.034; P < 0.001) and from 4.2 ± 1.4 to 2.8 ± 1.6 pg/mL (P < 0.01), respectively. At study start, the Lac:Man ratio was higher in patients with moderate or severe steatosis than in those without any steatosis (P < 0.001). The Lac:Man ratio tended to correlate with HOMA (ρ = 0.55, P = 0.052), which correlated with FLI (ρ = 0.75, P < 0.01). A multiple-regression analysis led to a final model explaining FLI best through BMI, waist circumference, and the Lac:Man ratio. Intestinal permeability is increased in obese patients with steatosis compared with obese patients without. The increased permeability fell to within the previously reported normal range after weight reduction. The data suggest that a leaky gut barrier is linked with liver steatosis and could be a new target for future steatosis therapies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01344525. © 2017 American Society

  5. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  6. Effects of weight loss in obese cats on biochemical analytes related to inflammation and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J J; Holden, S L; Morris, P J; Biourge, V; German, A J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to measure circulating metabolic and inflammation-related biochemical analytes in obese cats before and after weight loss. Thirty-seven overweight neutered cats were studied, median body weight 6.85 kg (range, 4.70 to 10.30 kg), representing a range of ages and both sexes. An individualized weight-loss program was devised for each cat and monitored until completion. Body fat mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whereas plasma concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs; eg, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A), hormones (eg, insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin), and enzymes (eg, butyrylcholinesterase and paraoxonase type 1 [PON-1]) associated with inflammation and metabolic compounds (eg, glucose) were also measured. No significant changes were found in APPs after weight loss (P > 0.3), but significant increases in plasma adiponectin (P = 0.021) and IGF-1 (P = 0.036) were seen, whereas insulin (P cats that failed to complete weight loss than cats that were successful, whereas glucose concentration was greater. Finally, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that lean tissue loss during weight management was associated with percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, greater lean tissue loss; R = 0.71, P < 0.001) and plasma adiponectin concentration before weight loss (lesser adiponectin, more lean tissue loss; R = -0.52, P = 0.023). In conclusion, various metabolic abnormalities occur in feline obesity, and these can be linked to outcomes of weight-loss programs. The changes that occur with weight loss suggest an improved metabolic status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping with Weight-related Discrepancies: Initial Development of the WEIGHTCOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; Bartholomew, John B

    2015-01-01

    The present research sought to provide the initial development, validation and reliability for a measure (WEIGHTCOPE) to assess the variation in how women, who are currently trying to lose or maintain weight, cope with common, perceived weight-related discrepancies. To this end, two studies were conducted to 1) develop an initial list of coping responses to common weight-related triggers, 2) create an initial measurement model through exploratory factor analysis (study 1; n = 470), and 3) provide initial validation for the measure through confirmatory factor analysis (study 2; n = 310). Results support the initial validity and reliability of a 38-item, 10-factor structure: Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, Suppressed Eating, Supplement Use, Self-Regulation, Positive Reframing, Social Support, Disengagement, Camouflage, and Comfort Food. The present findings reiterate individual variation in coping choice in response to a perceived weight-related discrepancy, and its prospective assessment with the WEIGHTCOPE. The WEIGHTCOPE can be an integral tool for public health and clinical practice, where triggers are common, and interventions are employed to enhance the use of more positive forms of weight control behaviors and/or avoid negative consequences of weight- and fat-related discrepancies. Future research can use the WEIGHTCOPE to help guide theoretical and pragmatic approaches to various triggering events and potential moderators of coping. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal Response-Related Weighting Matrices to Control Semi-Active Base Isolation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadkhah Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of a semi-active base isolation system, including a magneto-rheological (MR damper and base isolation system for different combinations of response-related weighting matrices, has been studied. To consider all possible sets of response-related matrices, seven H2/linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG control designs have been considered. For a numerical simulation, a six-story shear frame has been subjected to different earthquakes, and the performance of the control system has been evaluated. The results show that the optimal force-related weighting parameter is identical for different sets of response-related weighting matrices and is also independent of earthquake records when minimizing the maximum base drift is considered as the design objective. Also, the results of different sets of response-related weighting matrices show that the optimal sets for the design objective of minimizing the maximum base drift are the velocity and displacement/velocity-related weighting matrices.

  9. Wandering Spleen with Splenic Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wandering spleen is a rare clinical occurrence with fewer than 500 cases reported and an incidence of less than 0.2%1, 2. The spleen is an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is involved in immunological defence and can serve as a storage site for red blood cells3. The spleen is normally ...

  10. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  11. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. PARENTAL PERCEPTION OF BODY WEIGHT IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND AN ANALYSIS OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN SELECTED PARENT-RELATED FACTORS AND THE ASSESSMENT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S WEIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Kamila; Kołodziej, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The efforts parents make to maintain the correct body weight in children indicates parental awareness of overweight and obesity-related health risks. The objective of the analysis was to define the accuracy of the appraisal of weight-to-height proportions in preschool children, as assessed by their parents and to analyse the connection of selected parental factors with the assessment conducted. Data were collected from 230 children (121 males and 109 females aged 6.28 ± 0.56 years) attending preschools in the city of Wroclaw, Poland. Body height and weight were measured to calculate BMI; cut-offs referenced by the International Obesity Task Force were used to determine weight status (underweight, overweight, obese). The participants' parents completed a weight-height assessment of their child and provided information on how often the child's body weight was checked. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used as a statistical measure of inter-rater agreement between actual child weight and parental perception of child weight. Selected parental factors influencing the correctness of assessing child body weight was tested using the chi-square test. This study showed that 42.1% of underweight children and 60.9% overweight and obese children are perceived as having normal weight. In the group of children with normal weight-to-height proportions, 13.3% of the parents declared their normal-weight children to be underweight. No relationship was found in the study between the correct assessment of body weight and the parents' own body weight, their education, or such factors as sex and the frequency of checking the child's body weight. The incompatibility between actual and perceived weight status indicates the need for health education among parents in assessing and monitoring the child's body weight during the developmental period.

  14. Weight-loss strategies of South African female university students and comparison of weight management-related characteristics between dieters and non-dieters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanne Senekal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female university students are at risk for weight gain and use of inappropriate weight-loss strategies. By gaining a greater understanding of the weight-loss strategies used by and weight management related characteristics of these students, effective weight management interventions for this vulnerable group can be developed. Methods Two hundred and fifty female students from South Africa universities, aged 18–25 years, participated in this cross-sectional study; 162 attempted weight loss during the year preceding the study (dieters and 88 were non-dieters. Weight and height were measured and BMI (kg/m2 computed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to record all other variables. Weight loss strategies were described for dieters and compared between BMI groups within the dieters group. Weight management related characteristics were compared between dieters and non-dieters. Statistical tests included Pearson Chi-square test, independent samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test (depending on distribution of the data. Predictors for a higher BMI and being overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were identified using regression models. Results Healthy weight-loss strategies included increased exercise and fruit/vegetable intake and decreased intake of sugar and fat containing items; unhealthy methods included eating little food and skipping meals; and extreme weight loss strategies included laxatives and vomiting. The most commonly used weight-loss product was Herbex. Dieters were characterized by a higher BMI, overestimation of their weight (especially normal weight students, dissatisfaction with weight and select body parts, higher intake of breakfast and healthy foods, lower intake of unhealthy foods, higher levels of vigorous physical activity, higher use of select informal weight-loss information sources and experiencing more pressure to lose weight from mothers, siblings and friends. Predictors of higher BMI and/or increased

  15. Absolute and relative densities of fast-food versus other restaurants in relation to weight status: Does restaurant mix matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Jane Y; Moineddin, Rahim; Dunn, James R; Glazier, Richard H; Booth, Gillian L

    2016-01-01

    Given the continuing epidemic of obesity, policymakers are increasingly looking for levers within the local retail food environment as a means of promoting healthy weights. To examine the independent and joint associations of absolute and relative densities of restaurants near home with weight status in a large, urban, population-based sample of adults. We studied 10,199 adults living in one of four cities in southern Ontario, Canada, who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycles 2005, 2007/08, 2009/10). Multivariate models assessed the association of weight status (obesity and body mass index) with absolute densities (numbers) of fast-food, full-service and other restaurants, and the relative density (proportion) of fast-food restaurants (FFR) relative to all restaurants within ~10-minute walk of residential areas. Higher numbers of restaurants of any type were inversely related to excess weight, even in models adjusting for a range of individual covariates and area deprivation. However, these associations were no longer significant after accounting for higher walkability of areas with high volumes of restaurants. In contrast, there was a direct relationship between the proportion of FFR relative to all restaurants and excess weight, particularly in areas with high volumes of FFR (e.g., odds ratio for obesity=2.55 in areas with 5+ FFR, 95% confidence interval: 1.55-4.17, across the interquartile range). Policies aiming to promote healthy weights that target the volume of certain retail food outlets in residential settings may be more effective if they also consider the relative share of outlets serving more and less healthful foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-sectional associations between weight-related health behaviors and weight misperception among U.S. adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Samantha L; Borton, Kelley A; Sonneville, Kendrin R

    2018-04-18

    Weight misperception occurs when there is a discrepancy between one's actual and perceived weight status. Among adolescents with overweight/obesity, many believe that correcting weight misperception is imperative to inspire weight-related behavior change. However, past research has shown that adolescents with overweight/obesity who misperceive their weight status gain less weight over time compared to accurate perceivers. Therefore, our objective was to examine possible mechanisms underlying this relationship. Specifically, we examined the association between weight misperception and engagement in weight-related health behaviors among adolescents with overweight/obesity. Self-reported data from the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used in analyses restricted to participants with overweight/obesity (n = 4383). Using multivariate logistic models correcting for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school, we examined the cross-sectional associations between weight misperception and engagement in weight-related health behaviors, specifically related to dietary intake, physical activity, and sleep. Adolescents with overweight/obesity who misperceived their weight status were more likely to drink 100% fruit juice two or more times per day (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.94), eat vegetables two or more times per day (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.57), be physically active for 1 hour or more per day for at least 5 days in the week prior (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.72), be on a sports team in the last year (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.97), sleep an average of at least 8 hours per school night (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.72), and less likely to be trying to lose weight (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.20). Misperceivers were more likely to consume breakfast every morning in the week prior and to drink a sports drink at least once per day, though these results were not statistically significant. We observed no difference in fruit intake, soda intake

  17. Plasma cholesterol is related to menstrual status in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between plasma cholesterol and circulating triiodothyronine and oestradiol in 561 adolescent girls aged 11-17 with eating disorders. Plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triodothyronine and oestradiol were measured at assessment, and historical weight data were obtained from growth charts provided by the school health services. Cholesterol levels were related to weight change, menstrual status and serum hormones. Plasma total cholesterol levels of >5.0 mmol/L were found in 38% of the 77 girls who were premenarcheal, 32% of the 199 with secondary amenorrhoea and 17% of those who were still menstruating. These cholesterol levels were inversely related to serum oestradiol and triiodothyronine concentrations, but not weight change, in amenorrhoic girls and were positively related to body mass index and inversely related to weight loss and serum triiodothyronine in girls who were still menstruating. Increased plasma total cholesterol was related to amenorrhoea in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss. Oestrogens appeared to mediate the effect of starvation on cholesterol, most effectively in premenarcheal girls. Re-establishing menstruation is an important goal in the treatment of eating disorders, to avoid dyslipidaemia and the risk of future cardiovascular disease. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: Evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A

    2016-07-01

    Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mediating effects of stress, weight-related issues, and depression on suicidality in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sydney S; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II Web-based survey in Spring 2010. Measures of suicidality, depression, weight-related issues, and life stressors were assessed, along with gender differences. Females reported experiencing more weight loss attempts and total stressors than males. Weight-related issues and stress both significantly predicted depressive symptoms in a path analysis; depressive symptoms, in turn, significantly predicted suicidality. Gender differences were found; depressive symptoms mediate the relation between stress and suicidal behavior for females but not for males. This investigation furthers previous research on suicidality in college students and suggests that all-inclusive interventions that address weight-related issues and stress may help reduce depressive symptoms, which then may reduce suicidal behavior.

  20. Relative contributions of spatial weighting, explicit knowledge and proprioception to hand localisation during positional ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Valeria; Gilpin, Helen R; Stanton, Tasha R; Dagsdóttir, Lilja K; Gallace, Alberto; Lorimer Moseley, G

    2017-02-01

    When vision and proprioception are rendered incongruent during a hand localisation task, vision is initially weighted more than proprioception in determining location, and proprioception gains more weighting over time. However, it is not known whether, under these incongruency conditions, particular areas of space are also weighted more heavily than others, nor whether explicit knowledge of the sensory incongruence (i.e. disconfirming the perceived location of the hand) modulates the effect. Here, we hypothesised that both non-informative inputs coming from one side of space and explicit knowledge of sensory incongruence would modulate perceived location of the limb. Specifically, we expected spatial weighting to shift hand localisation towards the weighted area of space, and we expected greater weighting of proprioceptive input once perceived location was demonstrated to be inaccurate. We manipulated spatial weighting using an established auditory cueing paradigm (Experiment 1, n = 18) and sensory incongruence using the 'disappearing hand trick' (Experiment 2, n = 9). Our first hypothesis was not supported-spatial weighting did not modulate hand localisation. Our second hypothesis was only partially supported-disconfirmation of hand position did lead to more accurate localisations, even if participants were still unaware of their hand position. This raised the possibility that rather than disconfirmation, a simple movement of the hand in view could update the sensory-motor system, by immediately increasing the weighting of proprioceptive input relative to visual input. This third hypothesis was then confirmed (Experiment 3, n = 9). These results suggest that hand localisation is robust in the face of differential weighting of space, but open to modulation in a modality-specific manner, when one sense (vision) is rendered inaccurate.

  1. Spleen and thymic sonography as estimator of the immune response in children with repeated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Jesus; Fundora, Hermes; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2010-01-01

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. The spleen has many functions: IgM class antibody production and phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria. We propose to measure the dimensions of the spleen in children with repeated infections, in order to describe them as a diagnosis marker and to explore the probable correlation between the thymic characteristics and the dimensions of the spleen. We study 81 patients that attended the consultation of Immunology from Aballi hospital with repeated infections and they were from 8 months to 9 years old. Children with nutritional value up to the third percentile and those taking steroids 45 days before the study were excluded. We measured the thymic and splenic areas by mediastinal and abdominal echography. The length, the splenic index and the weight are less in patients with repeated infections. These data were significant in 12 to 23 month of age group. The length and the splenic index were less in patients with depletion of thymic area. The sonographic evaluation of the spleen is very important in patients from 1 to 2 years old and in patients with thymic depletion, because they are on the age of vaccine administration according to the Cuban schedule and having affected a main organ for immune response might be a reason for them to show a deficient response and need special schedules

  2. Outcome of children with blunt liver or spleen injuries: Experience from a single institution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Woon-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, injury pattern, and treatment outcomes among children hospitalized for the management of blunt liver and spleen injury at a single institution in Korea, and to document trends in treatment strategies of children with blunt torso trauma. Children (injuries, hospitalized at our center between May 2010 and February 2016, were included in the present study. Data were retrospectively analyzed for demographic and injury-related information were obtained. During the study period, 34 patients with blunt liver injury and 21 patients with blunt spleen injury presented at the center. The most common cause of liver and spleen injury was motor vehicle collision, followed by fall. Thirty patients (88.2%) with liver injuries and 18 patients (85.7%) with spleen injuries were managed conservatively. No cases of mortality occurred in patients with spleen injury group; one patient (2.9%) died in patients with liver injury due to uncontrolled bleeding. Our data demonstrated that 85.7% of patients with spleen injuries and 88.2% of patients with liver injuries were managed nonoperatively. Operative management was chosen more selectively, being applied in patients with high grade organ injury scores or abrupt changes in vital status. Our findings will contribute to the available data concerning children with traumatic injuries in Korea. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy of the CT-estimated weight of the right hepatic lobe prior to living related liver donation (LRLD) for predicting the intraoperatively measured weight of the graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemke, A.-J.; Brinkmann, M.; Felix, R.; Pascher, A.; Steinmueller, T.; Settmacher, U.; Neuhaus, P.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the shortage of cadaver donors, living related liver donation (LRLD) has emerged as an alternative to cadaver donation. The expected graft weight is one of the main determinants for donor selection. This study investigates the accuracy of preoperatively performed CT-volumetry to predict the actual weight of the right liver lobe graft. Materials and methods: In a prospective study the weight of the right hepatic lobe was calculated by volumetric analysis based on CT in 33 patients (21 females, 12 males, mean age 42.1 years, median age 41 years) prior to living related liver donation. Graft weight was calculated as the product of CT-based graft volume and 1.00 g/ml (the approximated density of healthy liver parenchyma). The calculated weight was compared with the intraoperatively measured weight of the harvested right hepatic lobe. The difference was used to determine a correction factor for estimating the actual graft weight. Results: Based on the assumption of a parenchymal density of 1.00 g/ml, the preoperatively estimated graft weight (mean 980 g ± 168 g) deviated + 33% from the intraoperatively measured right hepatic lobe weight (mean 749 g ± 170 g). By reducing the preoperatively predicted weight of the right hepatic lobe with a correction factor of 0.75, the actual graft weight can be calculated [de

  4. How is weight stigma related to children's health-related quality of life? A model comparison approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Veronica; Mirisola, Alberto; Tomasetto, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a highly stigmatizing condition for both adults and children, and both obesity and stigma experiences are negatively related with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, the relations among these constructs have been modeled in different and sometimes inconsistent terms in past research, and have been the object of surprisingly few studies in pediatric populations. The present study addresses this gap by comparing, in a sample of preadolescent children, four competing models (i.e., additive, mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation models) accounting for the role of stigma experiences in the concurrent relation between body weight and HRQoL. A community sample of 600 children aged 8-11 years completed the Perception of Teasing Scale to assess weight-based teasing experiences and the PedsQL 4.0 to assess HRQoL. Parent-reported height and weight were used to calculate age- and gender-adjusted zBMI. Log-likelihood test, BIC difference, and Wald test were used for model comparisons. The mediation model outperformed both additive and moderation models and was found to be equally informative (but more parsimonious) as compared to the moderated mediation account. The same pattern of results was replicated for both global HRQoL and domain-specific quality of life domains (i.e., physical, emotional, social, and scholastic). The mediation model provided the best fitting and more parsimonious representation of the relations between body weight, stigma experiences, and HRQoL, meaning that an increased likelihood of experiencing weight-based teasing episodes, rather than excess weight per se, is associated with reduced quality of life in middle childhood.

  5. Overweight and obese adults have low intentions of seeking weight-related care: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Jacqueline; Swinkels, Ilse C; De Bakker, Dinny H; Veenhof, Cindy; Seidell, Jaap C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is growing worldwide. Obesity guidelines recommend increasing the level of weight-related care for persons with elevated levels of weight-related health risk (WRHR). However, there seems to be a discrepancy between need for and use of weight-related care. The

  6. Weight-related risk perception among healthy and overweight pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jersey, S J; Callaway, L K; Daniels, L A; Nicholson, J M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate weight-related risk perception in early pregnancy and to compare this perception between women commencing pregnancy healthy weight and overweight. Pregnant women (n=664) aged 29±5 (mean±s.d.) years were recruited from a metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at around 16 weeks of gestation. Height measured at baseline and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were used to calculate body mass index. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted.Differences between groups were assessed using chi-squared tests for categorical variables and t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables depending on distribution. Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy was more important in leading to health problems for women or their child compared with pre-pregnancy weight. Personal risk perception for complications was low for all women, although overweight women had slightly higher scores than healthy-weight women (2.4±1.0 vs 2.9±1.0; Prisk for complications to be below that of an average pregnant woman. Women should be informed of the risk associated with their pre-pregnancy weight (in the case of maternal overweight) and excess GWG. If efforts to raise risk awareness are to result in preventative action, this information needs to be accompanied by advice and appropriate support on how to reduce risk.

  7. RELATION OF WEIGHT GAIN INTERDIALYTIC ANDFOOD CONSUMPTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Delfrate Rodrigues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the papper was to verify the relationship between dietary intake and interdialytic weight gain in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cross-sectional study, in a renal clinic in Irati, Paraná, Brazil. Prehemodialysis weight and weight after hemodialysis were evaluated. Food intake was analyzed according to food frequency and usual food day (DAH. The data were evaluated descriptively and also through the chi-square test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Sixty-one patients (54.1% participated in the study, with a mean age of 57.78±14.58 years, 62.3% of males. The mean pre-hemodialysis weight was 68.28±15.14 kg, while hemodialysis was 65.63±15.01 kg (p0.05. The other food groups (meat, cereals, fats and sweets also had no association with weight gain (p> 0.05. When the nutrients were compared, according to the DAH, there was no relation with the interdialytic weight gain (p>0.05. Thus, it was observed that there was a relationship between interdialytic weight gain and macronutrient consumption; The same was not observed for micronutrients.

  8. The Impact of Self-Criticism and Self-Reassurance on Weight-Related Affect and Well-Being in Participants of a Commercial Weight Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Stubbs, James; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Matos, Marcela; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Certain psychological and emotional factors can undermine attempts at weight management. Previously we have found that shame and self-criticism were significantly associated with disinhibition and perceived hunger in 2,236 participants of a weight management programme. This effect was fully mediated through weight-related negative affect. The present study examined the impact of self-criticism and self-reassurance on well-being and whether it was mediated by weight-related affect in the same population. Participants completed an online survey of measures of self-criticism and self-reassurance, and negative and positive affect associated with weight and well-being. Path analysis suggested that self-criticism was significantly associated with decreased well-being, both directly and indirectly, mediated by increased negative and decreased positive weight-related affect. Self-reassurance had a stronger association with increased well-being by predicting lower negative and increased positive weight-related affect. All effects were significant at p < 0.001. Self-criticism and self-reassurance were related to well-being in participants attempting to manage their weight, both directly and through their impact on weight-related affect. The positive association between self-reassurance and well-being was stronger than the negative association between self-criticism and well-being. Supporting the development of self-reassuring competencies in weight management programmes may improve weight-related affect and well-being. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  10. Parent- and child-reported parenting. Associations with child weight-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate associations of both parent-reported and child-perceived parenting styles and parent-reported parenting practices with child weight and weight-related behaviours. Participants were 175 children (56% female) aged between 7 and 11, and their primary caregivers (91% female), recruited through South Australian primary schools. Children completed measures of parenting style, attitude toward fruit, vegetables, and non-core food, and attraction to physical activity. Parents completed measures of parenting style and domain-specific parenting practices (feeding and activity-related practices) and reported on child dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour. Objective height and weight measurements were taken from children, from which body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Child-reported parenting style and parent-reported parenting practices were uniquely associated with child weight-related outcomes, but styles and practices did not interact in their association with child outcomes. Child-reported parenting style was associated with child food and activity attitudes, whereas parent-reported parenting style was not associated with child outcomes. The findings of the present study generally support the recommendation of a parenting style high in demandingness and responsiveness for supporting healthy child weight-related behaviours, along with appropriate domain-specific practices. The child's perspective should be incorporated into research involving child outcomes wherever possible. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Weight-related abuse: Perceived emotional impact and the effect on disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Bannon, Sarah M; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate theories that (1) weight-related abuse (WRA) plays a unique role in the development of disordered eating, above and beyond general childhood verbal abuse and weight-related teasing, and (2) the perceived emotional impact of WRA mediates the relationship between WRA and current disordered eating. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, weight-related teasing, WRA, and current eating behaviors were administered to a total of 383 undergraduate students. In initial regressions, WRA significantly predicted binge eating, emotional eating, night eating, and unhealthy weight control. WRA continued to significantly predict all 4 forms of disordered eating following the introduction of measures of weight-related teasing and childhood verbal abuse into the regression. Latent variable analysis confirmed that perceived emotional impact of WRA mediated the relationship between WRA and disordered eating, and tests for indirect effects yielded a significant indirect effect of WRA on disordered eating through perceived emotional impact. In sum, WRA is a unique construct and the content of childhood or adolescent maltreatment is important in determining eventual psychopathology outcomes. These findings support the necessity of incorporating information on developmental history and cognitive factors into assessment and treatment of individuals with disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Weight-Related Eating Among Less-Acculturated Latina College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; Gutierrez, Angelica

    2016-10-01

    Less-acculturated Latinos have been found to have unique patterns of weight-related eating attitudes and behaviors. This study examined body mass index (BMI), body image, and various facets of emotional distress as contributors to weight-related eating among less-acculturated female Latina college students. It was hypothesized that unique combinations of BMI, body image, depression, anxiety, and stress would predict routine restraint, compensatory restraint, susceptibility to external cues, and emotional eating in less-acculturated Latina college students. Participants were 141 college students from a rural region in southeastern California who completed questionnaires. Preoccupation with being overweight, a body-image variable, significantly predicted routine and compensatory restraint whereas stress was an important correlate of reasons for eating other than hunger. Implications of the findings include the potential to inform models of weight-related eating among less-acculturated Latina college students. Limitations include homogeneity of sample pertinent to Latino descent. Future directions are discussed.

  13. Bariatric surgery patients’ perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings impair post-surgery dietary adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M. Raves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight-related stigma is reported frequently by higher body-weight patients in healthcare settings. Bariatric surgery triggers profound weight loss. This weight loss may therefore alleviate patients’ experiences of weight-related stigma within healthcare settings. In non-clinical settings, weight-related stigma is associated with weight-inducing eating patterns. Dietary adherence is a major challenge after bariatric surgery.Objectives: (1 Evaluate the relationship between weight-related stigma and post-surgical dietary adherence; (2 understand if weight loss reduces weight-related stigma, thereby improving post-surgical dietary adherence; and (3 explore provider and patient perspectives on adherence and stigma in healthcare settings. Design: This mixed methods study contrasts survey responses from 300 postoperative bariatric patients with ethnographic data based on interviews with 35 patients and extensive multi-year participant-observation within a clinic setting. The survey measured experiences of weight-related stigma, including from healthcare professionals, on the Interpersonal Sources of Weight Stigma scale and internalized stigma based on the Weight Bias Internalization Scale. Dietary adherence measures included patient self-reports, non-disordered eating patterns reported on the Disordered Eating after Bariatric Surgery scale, and food frequencies. Regression was used to assess the relationships among post-surgical stigma, dietary adherence, and weight loss. Qualitative analyses consisted of thematic analysis.Results: The quantitative data show that internalized stigma and general experiences of weight-related stigma predict worse dietary adherence, even after weight is lost. The qualitative data show patients did not generally recognize this connection, and health professionals explained it as poor patient compliance.Conclusion: Reducing perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings and weight bias

  14. Bariatric Surgery Patients' Perceptions of Weight-Related Stigma in Healthcare Settings Impair Post-surgery Dietary Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raves, Danielle M.; Brewis, Alexandra; Trainer, Sarah; Han, Seung-Yong; Wutich, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Background: Weight-related stigma is reported frequently by higher body-weight patients in healthcare settings. Bariatric surgery triggers profound weight loss. This weight loss may therefore alleviate patients' experiences of weight-related stigma within healthcare settings. In non-clinical settings, weight-related stigma is associated with weight-inducing eating patterns. Dietary adherence is a major challenge after bariatric surgery. Objectives: (1) Evaluate the relationship between weight-related stigma and post-surgical dietary adherence; (2) understand if weight loss reduces weight-related stigma, thereby improving post-surgical dietary adherence; and (3) explore provider and patient perspectives on adherence and stigma in healthcare settings. Design: This mixed methods study contrasts survey responses from 300 postoperative bariatric patients with ethnographic data based on interviews with 35 patients and extensive multi-year participant-observation within a clinic setting. The survey measured experiences of weight-related stigma, including from healthcare professionals, on the Interpersonal Sources of Weight Stigma scale and internalized stigma based on the Weight Bias Internalization Scale. Dietary adherence measures included patient self-reports, non-disordered eating patterns reported on the Disordered Eating after Bariatric Surgery scale, and food frequencies. Regression was used to assess the relationships among post-surgical stigma, dietary adherence, and weight loss. Qualitative analyses consisted of thematic analysis. Results: The quantitative data show that internalized stigma and general experiences of weight-related stigma predict worse dietary adherence, even after weight is lost. The qualitative data show patients did not generally recognize this connection, and health professionals explained it as poor patient compliance. Conclusion: Reducing perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings and weight bias internalization could

  15. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  16. Disinhibited eating and weight-related insulin mismanagement among individuals with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Rhonda M; Moskovich, Ashley A; Dmitrieva, Natalia O; Pieper, Carl F; Honeycutt, Lisa K; Zucker, Nancy L; Surwit, Richard S; Buhi, Lori

    2014-10-01

    Withholding insulin for weight control is a dangerous practice among individuals with type 1 diabetes; yet little is known about the factors associated with this behavior. Studies of nondiabetic individuals with weight concerns suggest that eating in a disinhibited manner (e.g., binge eating) predicts the use of maladaptive compensatory strategies (e.g., self-induced vomiting). The purpose of this study was to test whether individuals with type 1 diabetes are less restrained in their eating when they think their blood glucose (BG) is low and whether this contributes to insulin omission for weight control purposes and subsequently higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Two-hundred and seventy-six individuals with type 1 diabetes completed an online survey of eating behaviors, insulin dosing and most recent HbA1c. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that disinhibited eating when blood sugar is thought to be low predicts weight-related insulin mismanagement, and this, in turn, predicts higher HbA1c. The majority of participants endorsed some degree of disinhibition when they think their blood glucose is low (e.g., eating foods they do not typically allow) and corresponding negative affect (e.g., guilt/shame). The frequency of disinhibited eating was positively associated with weight-related insulin mismanagement. Controlling for age, sex, education, and insulin pump use, the model explained 31.3% of the variance in weight-related insulin mismanagement and 16.8% of the variance in HbA1c. Addressing antecedents to disinhibited eating that are unique to type 1 diabetes (e.g., perceived BG level) and associated guilt or shame may reduce weight-related insulin omission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is Children’s Pestering for Food Purchases Related to Diet and Weight Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Christina Y.; Reisch, Lucia; Gwozdz, Wencke

    ’s diet and weight. Methods: This study is part of the prospective multi-country IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyleinduced health effects in children and infants) study. The analysis includes 12,969 parent-child dyads with measured height and weight and parent...... and greater BMIs. At the two-year follow-up, children who often asked for items were more likely to become overweight (OR=1.36), while never asking for items was protective against overweight (OR=0.61) and obesity (OR=0.70). Conclusions: Pestering was modestly related to diet and weight. Children whose...... parents avoided shopping with them were heavier and had worse diets, which may suggest reverse causality. The relationship between asking for items from television and weight over time suggests that limiting television advertising may foster healthier outcomes....

  18. Relating shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, and anxiety with weight and perceived physical health among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamody, Rebecca C; Thurston, Idia B; Decker, Kristina M; Kaufman, Caroline C; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-04-17

    Simultaneous contributions of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety to weight and perceived physical health in young adults is understudied. A diverse sample of 424 young adults completed measures of shape/weight based self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and perceived physical health. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Latent profile analysis was conducted to derive patterns of depression, anxiety, and shape/weight based self-esteem. Then, we examined the association of the profiles with weight status and perceived physical health. Three profiles emerged: (1) High Shape/Weight Influence (HSWI); (2) Low Shape/Weight, Depression, & Anxiety Influence (LSWDAI); and (3) High Depression & Anxiety Influence (HDAI). The HSWI profile had significantly higher BMI than the LSWDAI and HDAI profiles, and significantly lower perceived physical health than the LSWDAI profile. Over emphasis on shape/weight, regardless of depression and anxiety, is associated with elevated weight and negative internalized health views. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  20. Parent and family associations with weight-related behaviors and cognitions among overweight adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Taya R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine parent and family variables in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Methods This study examined parent-reported use of weight control behaviors (i.e., healthy and unhealthy behaviors, behavioral changes, other diet strategies), parent psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, body satisfaction, importance of thinness), and family functioning (i.e., cohesion and adaptability) in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness. Surveys were completed by 103 overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) adolescents, ages 12 to 20, and their parents. Height and weight were also measured. Linear regression equations were used for continuous outcomes and logistic regression equations for dichotomous outcomes. Results Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction and engagement in more “severe” or less healthy forms of weight control behavior were associated with parent weight control behaviors. Adolescent report of overeating was associated with lower scores of family cohesion and adaptability. Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction was positively associated with parent report of body satisfaction and self-esteem. Adolescent report of greater importance placed on thinness was associated with parent report of lower self-esteem. Conclusions Findings indicate that several parent and family variables are associated with weight control behaviors, episodes of overeating, and body satisfaction and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Parent weight control behaviors and adolescent cognitions about body image may be important variables to target within intervention research and treatment programs for overweight youth. PMID:20708565

  1. Can mindfulness influence weight management related eating behaviors? If so, how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Katy

    2017-04-01

    Mindfulness is increasingly being used for weight management. However, the strength of the evidence for such an approach is unclear; although mindfulness-based weight management programs have had some success, it is difficult to conclude that the mindfulness components were responsible. Research in this area is further complicated by the fact that the term 'mindfulness' is used to refer to a range of different practices. Additionally, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which mindfulness might exert its effects. This review addresses these issues by examining research that has looked at the independent effects of mindfulness and mindfulness-related strategies on weight loss and weight management related eating behaviors. As well as looking at evidence for effects, the review also considers whether effects may vary with different types of strategy, and the kinds of mechanisms that may be responsible for any change. It is concluded that there is some evidence to support the effects of (a) present moment awareness, when applied to the sensory properties of food, and (b) decentering. However, research in these areas has yet to be examined in a controlled manner in relation to weight management. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of response criteria (tibia ash weight vs. percent) on phytase relative non phytate phosphorus equivalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M; Plumstead, P W

    2015-09-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of using tibia ash percentage or ash weight as the response criteria on estimated phytase relative equivalence. Straight run broilers were fed treatment (Trt) diets from 7 to 21 d age (6 birds/pen, 8 pens/Trt). The corn-soy based Trt were formulated to contain 0.80% Ca and 4 non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) concentrations (0.20, 0.27, 0.34, and 0.40%). Monocalcium phosphate was the inorganic phosphate source added to achieve 4 different dietary nPP concentrations and against which the nPP relative equivalence of phytase was determined. A 6-phytase (Danisco Animal Nutrition, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, UK) was added at 500 or 1,000 phytase unit ( FTU: )/kg to the 0.20% nPP diet resulting 6 total Trts. Tibia ash was determined at 21 d age. Phytase fed at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg increased tibia ash weight and ash percentage compared to that of birds fed 0.20% nPP diet without phytase (Pash (weight and percentage) to calculate phytase nPP relative equivalence. The R2 obtained from pen value regressions were 0.81 and 0.84, for tibia ash weight and percentage, respectively. Ash percentage from birds fed 500 and 1,000 FTU phytase/kg fell within the range obtained with the MCP additions. Ash weight (842 mg/tibia) from birds fed 1,000 FTU phytase/kg exceeded (Pash percentage and weight, respectively (Pash percentage. Results suggested that ash weight better reflects the amount of bone mineralization as compared to ash percentage and using ash percentage may lead to an underestimation of phytase efficacy. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Role of spleen-derived IL-10 in prevention of systemic low-grade inflammation by obesity [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-04-29

    Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen. Splenectomy (SPX) aggravates the inflammatory response in hypothalamus, liver and WAT. These SPX-induced alterations are inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, in IL-10 deficiency, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in these multiple organs. We show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 on inflammatory responses in obesity.

  4. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  5. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  6. Behavioural factors related with successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2012-07-01

    As further understanding is required of what behavioural factors are associated with long-term weight-loss success, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme and which behavioural factors were associated with success. An online survey was completed 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme to assess weight-related behaviours and current weight. Participants were classified as successful if they had lost ≥5 % of their starting weight after 15 months. Commercial users of a web-based weight-loss programme. Participants enrolled in the commercial programme between August 2007 and May 2008. Six hundred and seventy-seven participants completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) weight change was -2·7 (-8·2, 1·6) % of enrolment weight, with 37 % achieving ≥5 % weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found success was associated with frequency of weight self-monitoring, higher dietary restraint score, lower emotional eating score, not skipping meals, not keeping snack foods in the house and eating takeaway foods less frequently. The findings suggest that individuals trying to achieve or maintain ≥5 % weight loss should be advised to regularly weigh themselves, avoid skipping meals or keeping snack foods in the house, limit the frequency of takeaway food consumption, manage emotional eating and strengthen dietary restraint. Strategies to assist individuals make these changes to behaviour should be incorporated within obesity treatments to improve the likelihood of successful weight loss in the long term.

  7. Physician Practice Patterns of Obesity Diagnosis and Weight-Related Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Cooper, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine national physician practice patterns of obesity care and the predictors of these practices. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional clinical encounter data. Obese adults were obtained from the 2005 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (N=2458). Results A third of obese adults received an obesity diagnosis (28.9%) and approximately a fifth received counseling for weight reduction (17.6%), diet (25.2%), or exercise (20.5%). Women (OR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.14, 2.09), young adults ages 18 to 29 (OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 1.37, 4.97), and severely/morbidly obese individuals (class II: OR 2.08; 95%CI: 1.53, 2.83; class III: OR 4.36; 95% CI: 3.09, 6.16) were significantly more likely to receive an obesity diagnosis. One of the biggest predictors of weight-related counseling was an obesity diagnosis (weight reduction: OR = 5.72; 95%CI: 4.01, 8.17; diet: OR = 2.89; 95%CI: 2.05, 4.06; exercise: OR = 2.54; 95%CI: 1.67, 3.85). Other predictors of weight-related counseling included seeing a cardiologist/other internal medicine specialist, a preventive visit, or spending more time with the doctor (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most obese patients do not receive an obesity diagnosis or weight-related counseling. Practice Implications Preventive visits may provide a key opportunity for obese patients to receive weight-related counseling from their physician. PMID:20303691

  8. Suppressive effects of subchronic aluminum overload on the splenic immune function may be related to oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xue; Jia, Shujie; Ma, Qinlong; Zhong, Min; Gao, Peng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Yanwen

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) is widely used in daily life and was recently recognized as a possible source of human intoxication because of its ability to accumulate in organs. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of subchronic Al overload on splenic immune function in mice. Furthermore, we have preliminarily explored its mechanism. The Al overload model was established via intragastric administration of Al once a day for 60 days. The body weight, spleen weight, and splenic coefficient were determined. The concentration of Al in the spleen was detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The cytokine mRNA expression of spleen tissues was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Biochemical methods were used to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in spleen tissue. Body weight, spleen weight, and cytokine mRNA expression of spleen tissues were significantly reduced by Al overload. SOD and GSH-Px activities were also decreased, while the MDA content was increased in subchronic Al overload mice. The results indicate that subchronic exposure to aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) would result in Al accumulation, which suppressed spleen immune function through a mechanism related to oxidative stress.

  9. Modifications in food-group consumption are related to long-term body-weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Vicky; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Allard, Lucie; Fournier, Guy; Leblanc, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2004-07-01

    Dietary patterns play an important role in the control of body weight. The aim of this study was to verify whether changes in some dietary patterns over a 6-y follow-up period would be associated with weight changes. A sample of 248 volunteers of the Québec Family Study were measured twice (visit 1: 1989-1994; visit 2: 1995-2000). Body weight, percentage body fat, subcutaneous skinfold thicknesses, and waist circumference measurements as well as 3-d dietary and physical activity records were obtained at each visit. At visit 2, all participants filled out a food-based questionnaire examining changes in the consumption of 10 food categories. To further investigate the relation between changes in food-group consumption and body-weight changes, a total of 51 food subcategories were identified from dietary records. A self-reported decrease in the consumption of food in the fat group or an increase in consumption in the fruit group from the food-based questionnaire predicted a lower increase in body weight and adiposity indicators over time. A more detailed examination of the change in food groups between diet records revealed that increases in the consumption of whole fruit as well as skimmed milk and partly skimmed milk were the 2 food patterns that negatively correlated with the changes of each body weight-related indicator. These results show that changes in the consumption of some specific food groups are associated with body-weight changes. Such specific eating patterns could help to improve obesity treatment and prevention.

  10. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  11. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  12. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  13. Relative Error Model Reduction via Time-Weighted Balanced Stochastic Singular Perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    A new mixed method for relative error model reduction of linear time invariant (LTI) systems is proposed in this paper. This order reduction technique is mainly based upon time-weighted balanced stochastic model reduction method and singular perturbation model reduction technique. Compared...

  14. Blood chemistry and relative organ weights of rabbits fed neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) based diets on blood and relative organ weight characteristics of rabbits. In the first experiment, 36 rabbit bucks aged 7 to 8 months were distributed into four dietary groups, T1 , T2 T3 and T4 of 9 rabbits using completely randomized design.

  15. Differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the association between smoking and relative body weight by sex, age group and level of education. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: About 36,000 men and women who participated in the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the

  16. Relationships of Sleep Duration With Weight-Related Behaviors of U.S. College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Colby, Sarah; Brown, Onikia; Kidd, Tandalayo; Greene, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    This study describes sleep behaviors of U.S. college students (N = 1,252; 18-24 years old; 59% female) and examines associations of sleep duration with weight-related behaviors. More than one quarter of participants slept college students during office visits and promote good sleep behaviors.

  17. Mediating Effects of Stress, Weight-Related Issues, and Depression on Suicidality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sydney S.; Smith Carter, Jocelyn; Karczewski, Sabrina; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Suffoletto, Shannon; Munin, Art

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Through a holistic health lens, the current study examines the effects of weight-related issues and stress on suicidality while controlling for depressive symptoms in college students. Participants: In total, 872 undergraduate and graduate students at DePaul University completed the American College Health Association-National College…

  18. Analysis of biweight site chronologies: relative weights of individual trees over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters

    1990-01-01

    The relative weights on individual trees in a biweight site chronology can indicate the consistency of tree growth responses to macroclimate and can be the basis for stratifying trees in climate-growth analyses. This was explored with 45 years of ring-width indices for 200 trees from five even-aged jack pine (Pinus hanksiana Lamb.) stands. Average individual-tree...

  19. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of ...

  20. Associations of maternal stress with children’s weight-related behaviors: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Sydney G.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Belcher, Britni R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Margolin, Gayla; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2017-01-01

    Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake and physical activity) among U.S. children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children’s obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behavior (i.e., healthy diet (n=3), unhealthy diet (n=6), physical activity (n=7), sedentary behavior (n=9)). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children’s weight-related behaviors were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children’s healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children’s lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. PMID:28296057

  1. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Dey, Manali; Bhattacharya, Shaswati; Sarkar, Samrat; Goswami, Suranjana; Ghosh, Nabanita; Dutta, Anuradha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for human physiological processes. To evaluate the potential adverse health impact/immunotoxicological effects of this metal in situ due to over exposure, Swiss albino mice were treated (via intraperitoneal injections) with copper (II) chloride (copper chloride) at doses of 0, 5, or 7.5 mg copper chloride/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week for 4 wk; these values were derived from LD 50 studies using copper chloride doses that ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg BW (2×/wk, for 4 wk). Copper treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related decreases and increases, respectively, in thymic and splenic weights. Histomorphological changes evidenced in these organs were thymic atrophy, white pulp shrinkage in the spleen, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes; these observations were confirmed by microscopic analyses. Cell count analyses indicated that the proliferative functions of the splenocytes and thymocytes were also altered because of the copper exposures. Among both cell types from the copper treated hosts, flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose related increase in the percentages of cells in the Sub-G 0 /G 1 state, indicative of apoptosis which was further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of selected cell death related genes such as EndoG and Bax in a dose related manner. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there was also increased ubiquitin expression in both the cell types. In conclusion, these studies show that sublethal exposure to copper (as copper chloride) induces toxicity in the thymus and spleen, and increased Sub G 0 /G 1 population among splenocytes and thymocytes that is mediated, in part, by the EndoG–Bax–ubiquitin pathway. This latter damage to these cells that reside in critical immune system organs are likely to be important contributing factors underlying the immunosuppression that has been documented by other

  2. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Line K; Vik, Torstein; Lydersen, Stian; Løhaugen, Gro C C; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Indredavik, Marit S

    2012-12-05

    Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  3. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  4. Correlates of weight-related quality of life among individuals with binge eating disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Grilo, Carlos M; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) report poorer weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) compared to individuals with obesity alone. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the best available treatment for BED, does not consistently produce weight loss or improvements in weight QOL. The purpose of the current study was to examine baseline and longitudinal associations between eating-related and psychosocial variables and dimensions of weight QOL. We examined associations between predictor variables, including body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, and psychosocial factors, in relation to three dimensions of WRQOL among 171 patients whom received CBT for BED. Participants completed interviews and self-report measures at baseline prior to CBT and at end of treatment. At baseline the following associations were significant: BMI, ED psychopathology, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related self-esteem; gender, BMI, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related public distress (i.e., stigma and worry in public because of one's weight); and age, BMI, and ED psychopathology were associated with weight-related physical function. At end of treatment, the following associations were significant: changes in ED psychopathology and coping predicted weight-related self-esteem; changes in coping and self-esteem predicted weight-related public distress; and changes in BMI and subjective binge eating predicted weight-related physical function. Overall, changes in a number of ED and associated symptoms were associated with improvements in WRQOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacogenetic Associations of Antipsychotic Drug-Related Weight Gain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Lencz, Todd; Zhang, Ryan X.; Nitta, Masahiro; Maayan, Lawrence; John, Majnu; Robinson, Delbert G.; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang; Kahn, Rene S.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kane, John M.; Malhotra, Anil K.; Correll, Christoph U.

    2016-01-01

    Although weight gain is a serious but variable adverse effect of antipsychotics that has genetic underpinnings, a comprehensive meta-analysis of pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-related weight gain is missing. In this review, random effects meta-analyses were conducted for dominant and recessive models on associations of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with prospectively assessed antipsychotic-related weight or body mass index (BMI) changes (primary outcome), or categorical increases in weight or BMI (≥7%; secondary outcome). Published studies, identified via systematic database search (last search: December 31, 2014), plus 3 additional cohorts, including 222 antipsychotic-naïve youth, and 81 and 141 first-episode schizophrenia adults, each with patient-level data at 3 or 4 months treatment, were meta-analyzed. Altogether, 72 articles reporting on 46 non-duplicated samples (n = 6700, mean follow-up = 25.1wk) with 38 SNPs from 20 genes/genomic regions were meta-analyzed (for each meta-analysis, studies = 2–20, n = 81–2082). Eleven SNPs from 8 genes were significantly associated with weight or BMI change, and 4 SNPs from 2 genes were significantly associated with categorical weight or BMI increase. Combined, 13 SNPs from 9 genes (Adrenoceptor Alpha-2A [ADRA2A], Adrenoceptor Beta 3 [ADRB3], Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor [BDNF], Dopamine Receptor D2 [DRD2], Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein [GNB3], 5-Hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin) Receptor 2C [HTR2C], Insulin-induced gene 2 [INSIG2], Melanocortin-4 Receptor [MC4R], and Synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa [SNAP25]) were significantly associated with antipsychotic-related weight gain (P-values antipsychotic exposure (pediatric or first episode patients) and short follow-up (1–2 mo) were associated with larger effect sizes. Individual antipsychotics did not significantly moderate effect sizes. In conclusion, antipsychotic-related weight gain is polygenic and associated with specific genetic

  6. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  7. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  8. Structural relations of harmonic sums and Mellin transforms up to weight w=5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2009-01-15

    We derive the structural relations between the Mellin transforms of weighted Nielsen integrals emerging in the calculation of massless or massive single-scale quantities in QED and QCD, such as anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients, and other hard scattering cross sections depending on a single scale. The set of all multiple harmonic sums up to weight five cover the sums needed in the calculation of the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. The relations extend the set resulting from the quasi-shuffle product between harmonic sums studied earlier. Unlike the shuffle relations, they depend on the value of the quantities considered. Up to weight w=5, 242 nested harmonic sums contribute. In the present physical applications it is sufficient to consider the sub-set of harmonic sums not containing an index i=-1, which consists out of 69 sums. The algebraic relations reduce this set to 30 sums. Due to the structural relations a final reduction of the number of harmonic sums to 15 basic functions is obtained. These functions can be represented in terms of factorial series, supplemented by harmonic sums which are algebraically reducible. Complete analytic representations are given for these 15 meromorphic functions in the complex plane deriving their asymptotic- and recursion relations. A general outline is presented on the way nested harmonic sums and multiple zeta values emerge in higher order calculations of zero- and single scale quantities. (orig.)

  9. Weight-related behavior among adolescents: the role of peer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Heiland, Frank W

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether social interactions in friendship networks influence the following weight-related behaviors of adolescents: exercising regularly, playing an active sport, hours of TV/Video viewing, sleeping six or fewer hours, eating breakfast on weekdays, frequency of eating at fast food restaurants, eating five servings of fruits/vegetables daily, and consuming calorie-dense snacks. Data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents are used to examine the association between peer and individual weight-related behaviors. Evidence from multivariate regression analysis controlling for an extensive list of individual- and family-level factors as well as school-level unobserved heterogeneity is obtained. We find a significant positive association between individuals' and friends' behaviors in terms of sports, exercise and fast food consumption. The estimated associations are robust to controls for individual- and family-level factors, unobserved heterogeneity at the school level and our attempts to account for non-random peer selection. The social transmission of weight-related behaviors is a viable explanation for the spread of obesity in friendship networks documented in recent research. Traditional weight reduction interventions may be fruitfully complemented with strategies that focus on harnessing peer support to modify behaviors.

  10. Weight-related behavior among adolescents: the role of peer effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir M Ali

    Full Text Available To investigate whether social interactions in friendship networks influence the following weight-related behaviors of adolescents: exercising regularly, playing an active sport, hours of TV/Video viewing, sleeping six or fewer hours, eating breakfast on weekdays, frequency of eating at fast food restaurants, eating five servings of fruits/vegetables daily, and consuming calorie-dense snacks.Data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents are used to examine the association between peer and individual weight-related behaviors. Evidence from multivariate regression analysis controlling for an extensive list of individual- and family-level factors as well as school-level unobserved heterogeneity is obtained.We find a significant positive association between individuals' and friends' behaviors in terms of sports, exercise and fast food consumption. The estimated associations are robust to controls for individual- and family-level factors, unobserved heterogeneity at the school level and our attempts to account for non-random peer selection.The social transmission of weight-related behaviors is a viable explanation for the spread of obesity in friendship networks documented in recent research. Traditional weight reduction interventions may be fruitfully complemented with strategies that focus on harnessing peer support to modify behaviors.

  11. Excess weight loss in first-born breastfed newborns relates to maternal intrapartum fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantry, Caroline J; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Peerson, Janet M; Cohen, Roberta J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to describe weight loss in a multiethnic population of first-born, predominantly breastfed, term infants and to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for excess weight loss (EWL). Data on prenatal breastfeeding intentions, demographic characteristics, labor and delivery interventions and outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, formula and pacifier use, onset of lactogenesis, and nipple type and pain were collected prospectively. Logistic regression analyses identified independent predictors of EWL (≥10% of birth weight) by using a preplanned theoretical model. EWL occurred for 18% of infants who received no or minimal (≤60 mL total since birth) formula (n = 229), including 19% of exclusively breastfed infants (n = 134) and 16% of infants who received minimal formula (n = 95). In bivariate analyses, EWL was associated (P lactogenesis (>72 hours), fewer infant stools, and infant birth weight. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only 2 variables predicted EWL significantly, namely, intrapartum fluid balance (adjusted relative risk for EWL of 3.18 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-13.29] and 2.80 [95% CI: 1.17-11.68] with net intrapartum fluid balance of >200 and 100-200 mL/hour, respectively, compared with lactogenesis (adjusted relative risk: 3.35 [95% CI: 1.74-8.10]). EWL was more common in this population than reported previously and was independently related to intrapartum fluid balance. This suggests that intrapartum fluid administration can cause fetal volume expansion and greater fluid loss after birth, although other mechanisms are possible.

  12. CHILDHOOD ABUSE VICTIMIZATION, STRESS-RELATED EATING, AND WEIGHT STATUS IN YOUNG WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Susan M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harlow, Bernard L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Abuse in childhood predicts stress-related overeating and excess weight gain in young women. We investigated whether two stress-related overeating behaviors—binge eating and coping-motivated eating—explain childhood abuse associations with weight status in young women. Methods Analyses included 4377 women participating in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a longitudinal cohort of youth enrolled at age 9–14 years. We used marginal structural models to estimate the effects of abuse prior to age 11 years on weight status at age 22–29 years with and without adjustment for binge eating and coping-motivated eating. Results Women with severe physical, sexual, and emotional abuse had early adult body mass indexes (BMI) that were 0.74 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.33), 0.69 (95% CI: −0.46, 1.83), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.45) kg/m2 higher, respectively, than those without abuse. Adjustment for coping-motivated eating attenuated the excess BMI associated with severe physical abuse, but no other important attenuations were found. Conclusions Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse prior to age 11 years were associated with higher early adult weight status, though the sexual abuse estimate was not statistically significant. Evidence for a role of stress-related eating in abuse–BMI associations was limited and inconsistent across abuse types. PMID:26272779

  13. Latina Mothers’ Beliefs and Practices Related to Weight Status, Feeding and the Development of Child Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine maternal beliefs and practices related to weight status, child feeding, and child overweight in the Latino culture that may contribute to the rising rates of overweight among preschool Latino children in the U.S. Design and sample This two-phase qualitative study relies on data obtained in 6 focus groups with a total of 31 primarily Spanish-speaking, low income mothers, followed by 20 individual, in-depth interviews with women participating in a health promotion educational program. Measures Child-feeding beliefs, practices and weight status perceptions were elicited. Results Findings indicated that most respondents reported personal struggles with weight gain, particularly during and after pregnancy, and were concerned that their children would become obese. Although subjects understood the health and social consequences related to overweight, many discussed the pressures of familial and cultural influences endorsing a “chubby child.” Conclusions Education and interventions that incorporate “culturally mediated” pathways to address mothers’ feeding practices are essential for prevention and control of childhood overweight among low-income Latinos. Nurses should be aware of social and cultural influences on Latina mothers’ beliefs and practices related to weight status and feeding practices and address these in their education approaches to prevent childhood overweight and obesity with this population group. PMID:21442018

  14. Latina mothers' beliefs and practices related to weight status, feeding, and the development of child overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana C; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Peterson, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    To examine maternal beliefs and practices related to weight status, child feeding, and child overweight in the Latino culture that may contribute to the rising rates of overweight among preschool Latino children in the United States. This 2-phase qualitative study relies on data obtained in 6 focus groups with a total of 31 primarily Spanish-speaking, low-income mothers, followed by 20 individual, in-depth interviews with women participating in a health promotion educational program. Child-feeding beliefs, practices, and weight status perceptions were elicited. The findings indicated that most respondents reported personal struggles with weight gain, particularly during and after pregnancy, and were concerned that their children would become obese. Although subjects understood the health and social consequences related to overweight, many discussed the pressures of familial and cultural influences endorsing a "chubby child." Education and interventions that incorporate "culturally mediated" pathways to address mothers' feeding practices are essential for the prevention and control of childhood overweight among low-income Latinos. Nurses should be aware of the social and cultural influences on Latina mothers' beliefs and practices related to weight status and feeding practices and address these in their education approaches to prevent childhood overweight and obesity with this population group. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Experience of weight loss and its related factors of thin females who still wished to lose weight among junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at clarifying the experience of weight loss and its related factors of thin females who still wished to lose weight among junior high school students. The subjects were 1,302 males and females in the second and third grades in 17 junior high schools in A area in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The anonymous self-administered questionnaire included items on attributes, items relevant to weight loss, lifestyle, subjective symptoms, and items relevant to stress. A logistic regression analysis (likelihood ratio) was used with the question items showing a statistically significant difference when comparing the two groups as independent variables to identify the factors related to the experience of weight loss. There were 1,168 respondents (response rate, 89.7%). Eighty females who were less than -10% of the standard for obesity, but who still wished to lose weight, were selected from among 544 females. They were divided into two groups: those who had experienced losing weight (N=31, dieting group) and those who had never experienced losing weight (N=49, nondieting group). Between the two groups, there was a statistically significant difference in eight question items. The logistic regression analysis showed that believing oneself to be heavy by self-assessment, going to bed after midnight, and a short attention span were factors related to the experience of losing weight. Forty percent of the thin females who still wished to lose weight experienced weight loss. Distortion in the self-assessment of one's figure, inappropriate lifestyle, and subjective symptoms were designated as related factors.

  16. Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n = 420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (β = 0.36, p teamwork beliefs and weight management practices. The final model constructed in this study demonstrated a good fit to the data [χ2 (14) =13.90, p = 0.46; GFI = 0.99; AGFI = 0.98; NNFI = 1.00; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA = 0.00; AIC = 57.90], accounting for 38.4% and 43.2% of the variance in weight management practices and self-efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy may be effective in promoting RNs’ professional performance in managing overweight and obese patients. PMID

  17. Succession of the turkey gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome related to weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Danzeisen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of concerns related to the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, antibiotic-free alternatives are greatly needed to prevent disease and promote animal growth. One of the current challenges facing commercial turkey production in Minnesota is difficulty obtaining flock average weights typical of the industry standard, and this condition has been coined “Light Turkey Syndrome” or LTS. This condition has been identified in Minnesota turkey flocks for at least five years, and it has been observed that average flock body weights never approach their genetic potential. However, a single causative agent responsible for these weight reductions has not been identified despite numerous efforts to do so. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community composition within the small intestines of heavy and light turkey flocks using 16S rRNA sequencing, and to identify possible correlations between microbiome and average flock weight. This study also sought to define the temporal succession of bacteria occurring in the turkey ileum. Based upon 2.7 million sequences across nine different turkey flocks, dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified and compared between the flocks studied. OTUs that were associated with heavier weight flocks included those with similarity to Candidatus division Arthromitus and Clostridium bartlettii, while these flocks had decreased counts of several Lactobacillus species compared to lighter weight flocks. The core bacterial microbiome succession in commercial turkeys was also defined. Several defining markers of microbiome succession were identified, including the presence or abundance of Candidatus division Arthromitus, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Clostridium bartlettii. Overall, the succession of the ileum bacterial microbiome in commercial turkeys proceeds in a predictable manner. Efforts to prevent disease and promote growth in

  18. Serum PCT and its Relation to Body Weight Gain in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p body weight gain, p gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis.

  19. Is Children’s Pestering for Food Purchases Related to Diet and Weight Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Christina Y.; Reisch, Lucia; Gwozdz, Wencke

    diet and weight. Methods: This study is part of the prospective multi-country IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyleinduced health effects in children and infants) study. The analysis includes 12,969 parent-child dyads with measured height and weight and parent......-reported information on diet and behavior at baseline and 7,562 dyads after two years. Results: At baseline, most parents (60%) reported “sometimes” purchasing their children’s requests, with some differences by country. Children whose parents often acquiesced consumed greater proportions of sugar and fat...... and greater BMIs. At the two-year follow-up, children who often asked for items were more likely to become overweight (OR=1.36), while never asking for items was protective against overweight (OR=0.61) and obesity (OR=0.70). Conclusions: Pestering was modestly related to diet and weight. Children whose...

  20. Body weight concerns: Cross-national study and identification of factors related to eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wanderson Roberto da; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2017-01-01

    Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Factorial, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability, were assessed. Cross-national invariance was tested by means of multigroup analysis. Structural models were tested using the WCS as the dependent variable, while demographic and academic variables and body mass index were used as independent variables. Logistic models were tested to estimate the likelihood of eating disorders being developed in specific groups. Participants were 2,068 female students. The psychometric properties of the WCS were adequate for the Portuguese sample; however, for the Brazilian and Mozambican samples, it was necessary to correlate the errors of two items to improve model fit. The WCS did not show cross-national invariance. The variables "thoughts about dropping out of college," "medication use because of studies," "medication and supplements use for body change," "body mass index," "socioeconomic status," "age," and "performance in course" were significant predictors of body weight concerns. Overall, 24.4% (95% confidence interval = 22.9-26.7) of the students were likely to develop eating disorders. Students under 21 years old, who use medication and supplements for body change, and who were classified as overweight/obese have increased likelihood of developing eating disorders. The WCS showed good psychometric properties with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students; however, it did not show cross-national invariance. We identified important aspects for investigating body weight

  1. System model network for adipose tissue signatures related to weight changes in response to calorie restriction and subsequent weight maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Montastier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrigenomics investigates relationships between nutrients and all genome-encoded molecular entities. This holistic approach requires systems biology to scrutinize the effects of diet on tissue biology. To decipher the adipose tissue (AT response to diet induced weight changes we focused on key molecular (lipids and transcripts AT species during a longitudinal dietary intervention. To obtain a systems model, a network approach was used to combine all sets of variables (bio-clinical, fatty acids and mRNA levels and get an overview of their interactions. AT fatty acids and mRNA levels were quantified in 135 obese women at baseline, after an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD and after 6 months of ad libitum weight maintenance diet (WMD. After LCD, individuals were stratified a posteriori according to weight change during WMD. A 3 steps approach was used to infer a global model involving the 3 sets of variables. It consisted in inferring intra-omic networks with sparse partial correlations and inter-omic networks with regularized canonical correlation analysis and finally combining the obtained omic-specific network in a single global model. The resulting networks were analyzed using node clustering, systematic important node extraction and cluster comparisons. Overall, AT showed both constant and phase-specific biological signatures in response to dietary intervention. AT from women regaining weight displayed growth factors, angiogenesis and proliferation signaling signatures, suggesting unfavorable tissue hyperplasia. By contrast, after LCD a strong positive relationship between AT myristoleic acid (a fatty acid with low AT level content and de novo lipogenesis mRNAs was found. This relationship was also observed, after WMD, in the group of women that continued to lose weight. This original system biology approach provides novel insight in the AT response to weight control by highlighting the central role of myristoleic acid that may account for the

  2. System Model Network for Adipose Tissue Signatures Related to Weight Changes in Response to Calorie Restriction and Subsequent Weight Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Hlavaty, Petr; Tvrzicka, Eva; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Kunesova, Marie; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics investigates relationships between nutrients and all genome-encoded molecular entities. This holistic approach requires systems biology to scrutinize the effects of diet on tissue biology. To decipher the adipose tissue (AT) response to diet induced weight changes we focused on key molecular (lipids and transcripts) AT species during a longitudinal dietary intervention. To obtain a systems model, a network approach was used to combine all sets of variables (bio-clinical, fatty acids and mRNA levels) and get an overview of their interactions. AT fatty acids and mRNA levels were quantified in 135 obese women at baseline, after an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) and after 6 months of ad libitum weight maintenance diet (WMD). After LCD, individuals were stratified a posteriori according to weight change during WMD. A 3 steps approach was used to infer a global model involving the 3 sets of variables. It consisted in inferring intra-omic networks with sparse partial correlations and inter-omic networks with regularized canonical correlation analysis and finally combining the obtained omic-specific network in a single global model. The resulting networks were analyzed using node clustering, systematic important node extraction and cluster comparisons. Overall, AT showed both constant and phase-specific biological signatures in response to dietary intervention. AT from women regaining weight displayed growth factors, angiogenesis and proliferation signaling signatures, suggesting unfavorable tissue hyperplasia. By contrast, after LCD a strong positive relationship between AT myristoleic acid (a fatty acid with low AT level) content and de novo lipogenesis mRNAs was found. This relationship was also observed, after WMD, in the group of women that continued to lose weight. This original system biology approach provides novel insight in the AT response to weight control by highlighting the central role of myristoleic acid that may account for the beneficial

  3. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  4. Factors Related with Adiponectinemia in Obese and Normal-Weight Women and with Its Variation in Weight Loss Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silva-Nunes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess different factors influencing adiponectinemia in obese and normal-weight women; to identify factors associated with the variation (Δ in adiponectinemia in obese women following a 6-month weight loss program, according to surgical/non-surgical interventions. Methods: We studied 100 normal-weight women and 112 obese premenopausal women; none of them was on any medical treatment. Women were characterized for anthropometrics, daily macronutrient intake, smoking status, contraceptives use, adiponectin as well as IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations. Results: Adiponectinemia was lower in obese women (p 2 = 0.436. After weight loss interventions, a significant modification in macronutrient intake occurs followed by anthropometrics decrease (chiefly after bariatric procedures and adiponectinemia increase (similar after surgical and non-surgical interventions. After bariatric intervention, Δ adiponectinemia was inversely correlated to Δ waist circumference and Δ carbohydrate intake (r2 = 0.706. Conclusion: Anthropometrics, diet, smoking, and TNF-α levels all influence adiponectinemia in normal-weight women, although explaining less than 50% of it. In obese women, anthropometrics modestly explain adiponectinemia. Opposite to non-surgical interventions, after bariatric surgery adiponectinemia increase is largely explained by diet composition and anthropometric changes.

  5. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

  6. Peer similarity and influence for weight-related outcomes in adolescence: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaly, Daryaneh

    2013-12-01

    Weight-related problems, including obesity and disordered eating, have emerged as major public health concerns for adolescents. To address these deviations from healthy eating and weight regulation, prevention and intervention efforts have targeted the influence of peers. Yet, evidence that peers influence weight-related outcomes, often inferred from similarity among peers, is inconsistent. This meta-analytic review evaluated peer similarity and influence not only for body size and symptoms of disordered eating, but also for key determinants of obesity (food intake and physical activity levels) and eating pathology (body dissatisfaction and weight control strategies). For each of the six outcomes, data was summarized from 9 to 24 independent studies. Results revealed significant, non-trivial similarity among peers across outcome variables, with the exception of disordered eating. Findings indicated that resemblances among peers were unlikely to be solely the reflection of cognitive biases or the selection of alike friends, but may be partially due to influence. To better understand the influence of peers, further longitudinal research is needed, particularly focusing on the factors that moderate susceptibility to conformity. © 2013.

  7. Patient–Physician Gender Concordance and Weight-Related Counseling of Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Bleich, Sara N.; Cooper, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity affects approximately one third of Americans. Patient and provider characteristics such as gender may influence obesity care. Gender concordance has been associated with clinical practice patterns in chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, but its role in obesity care is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of patient–physician gender concordance with weight-related counseling among obese adults. Methods A cross-sectional study using the 2005–2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was conducted in 2010. Postvisit data from the clinical encounters of 5667 obese individuals and their physicians were analyzed to determine the association between patient– physician gender concordance (categorized using patient gender as the reference point as female gender-concordant, male gender-concordant, male gender-discordant and female gender-discordant) and three types of weight-related counseling (diet/nutrition, exercise, and weight reduction). Results Diet/nutrition, exercise, and weight reduction counseling was provided to 30%, 23%, and 20% of obese patients, respectively. Patients in male gender-concordant patient–physician pairs had significantly higher adjusted odds of receiving diet/nutrition (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.40) and exercise counseling (1.76; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.74) than female gender-concordant pairs. There were no significant differences in any form of weight-related counseling between female gender-concordant and gender-discordant pairs. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that male patient–physician gender concordance is positively associated with diet/nutrition and exercise counseling. PMID:21565652

  8. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  9. The node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify elements of cancer-related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yahui; Ma, Chenkai; Halgamuge, Saman

    2017-12-28

    Cancer constitutes a momentous health burden in our society. Critical information on cancer may be hidden in its signaling pathways. However, even though a large amount of money has been spent on cancer research, some critical information on cancer-related signaling pathways still remains elusive. Hence, new works towards a complete understanding of cancer-related signaling pathways will greatly benefit the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. We propose the node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways at the level of proteins. This new approach has advantages over previous approaches since it is fast in processing large protein-protein interaction networks. We apply this new approach to identify important elements of two well-known cancer-related signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt and MAPK. First, we generate a node-weighted protein-protein interaction network using protein and signaling pathway data. Second, we modify and use two preprocessing techniques and a state-of-the-art Steiner tree algorithm to identify a subnetwork in the generated network. Third, we propose two new metrics to select important elements from this subnetwork. On a commonly used personal computer, this new approach takes less than 2 s to identify the important elements of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in a large node-weighted protein-protein interaction network with 16,843 vertices and 1,736,922 edges. We further analyze and demonstrate the significance of these identified elements to cancer signal transduction by exploring previously reported experimental evidences. Our node-weighted Steiner tree approach is shown to be both fast and effective to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, it may provide new perspectives into the identification of signaling pathways for other human diseases.

  10. Weight and its relationship to adolescent perceptions of their providers (WRAP): A qualitative and quantitative assessment of teen weight-related preferences and concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc L.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship of body weight to satisfaction with care in adolescents, and to obtain qualitative data on preferences for general and weight-related medical care in normal weight and overweight adolescents. Methods The Weight and its Relationship to Adolescent Perceptions of their Providers survey, a 4-page questionnaire containing previously validated satisfaction scales and open-ended qualitative questions regarding health care preferences, was administered to 62 severely overweight (body mass index [BMI] 38.9 ± 8.4 kg/m2) and 29 normal weight (BMI 22.5 ± 4.0 kg/m2) adolescents (age 13.9 ± 1.7 years; 57% female; 50% Caucasian, 47% African-American, 3% Hispanic). Results The affective subscale of the medical satisfaction scale was negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score (r = −.22, p teens. Seventy-nine percent of overweight adolescents stated their health care provider discussed their weight with them; however, only 41% of overweight adolescents desired to discuss their weight. Compared to normal-weight adolescents, overweight teens were more likely to report that their provider raised topics of weight (p teens expressed concerns regarding the public location of their provider’s office scale. Conclusions Satisfaction with affective aspects of the provider-patient relationship is negatively correlated with BMI standard deviation score. Length of experience with one’s provider is also a strong predictor of teen satisfaction with their medical care. Teens prefer the term “overweight” for those with high body weight. Sensitivity to confidentiality, privacy, and embarrassment regarding physical examination and weight are important for teen satisfaction. PMID:16026727

  11. The Relationship between Body Weight and Perceived Weight-Related Employment Discrimination: The Role of Sex and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehling, Mark V.; Roehling, Patricia V.; Pichler, Shaun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides unique empirical evidence regarding a growing concern internationally: weight discrimination in the workplace. Using survey data from a national sample of 2838 American adults, it responds to Puhl and Brownell's [Puhl, R., & Brownell, K. D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. "Obesity Research, 9", 788-805]…

  12. Perioperative spleen embolization as a useful tool in laparoscopic splenectomy for simple and massive splenomegaly in children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Veken, E; Laureys, M; Rodesch, G; Steyaert, H

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the efficiency of perioperative spleen embolization prior to laparoscopic splenectomy indicated for hypersplenism. We conducted a prospective study exploring a technique combining ultra-selective perioperative embolization and splenectomy. Between January 2008 and March 2013, 16 splenectomies were performed in children suffering from hypersplenism due to varying hematologic diseases. Spleen embolization was performed by an interventional radiologist in the operating room (OR) just before splenectomy and during the same general anesthesia. Ages varied from 3 to 17 years. Spleen volume was measured by preoperative ultrasound. One patient underwent a laparotomy because of suspected adhesions due to previous surgery. All other operations were performed laparoscopically. One complication arose from embolization: a perforation of the splenic artery. After immediately placing a platinum coil proximal to the perforation, the splenectomy was carried out as usual. Fourteen children (87.5 %) had splenomegaly, of which eight (50 %) had massive splenomegaly. There were no deaths, no conversions to laparotomy, no reoperations and none of these patients had to be transfused. Perioperative spleen embolization performed in the OR by an interventional radiologist makes laparoscopic splenectomy a safer procedure. We propose a preoperative method for spleen measurement that is adapted to children: simple and massive splenomegaly is defined through patient body weight and a preoperative ultrasound. We conclude that spleen size is no more a limiting factor for laparoscopic splenectomy in children.

  13. EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON DRY WEIGHT AND RELATIVE CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN GREENINGMAIZE AND SUNFLOWER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Várallyay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements that can be found in the environment. Excessive uptake of arsenic may cause physiological changes in plants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different arsenic treatments on relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of shoot and root of maize and sunflower in the early phases of plant development. Seedlings were grown in climatic room in nutrient solution under strictly regulated environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to 3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1arsenic, whereas there was no arsenic treatment on the control plants. We applied arsenic in the form of arsenite (NaAsO2 and arsenate (KH2AsO4, respectively. After 14 days of arsenic treatments, changes in relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of maize shoots and roots were recorded. In the case of sunflower these physiological parameters were measured after 21 day. The applied arsenic decreased the relative chlorophyll content of maize and sunflower leaves, especially at concentration of30 mg kg-1. The increasing amount of As treatment were resulted the lower weight of the experimental plants, which was more considerable in the case of the roots. The results indicate that the sunflower plants is more sensitive to arsenic toxicity than maize plants and all data demonstrate that the As(III is more toxic to these crop plants than the As(V.

  14. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

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    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  15. Food-related parenting practices and adolescent weight status: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-05-01

    To examine food-related parenting practices (pressure-to-eat and food restriction) among mothers and fathers of adolescents and associations with adolescent weight status within a large population-based sample of racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse parent-adolescent pairs. Adolescents (N = 2231; 14.4 years old [SD = 2.0]) and their parents (N = 3431) participated in 2 coordinated population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight status and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Adolescents completed anthropometric measurements and surveys at school. Parents (or other caregivers) completed questionnaires via mail or phone. Findings suggest that the use of controlling food-related parenting practices, including pressure-to-eat and restriction, is common among parents of adolescents. Mean restriction levels were significantly higher among parents of overweight and obese adolescents compared with nonoverweight adolescents. However, levels of pressure-to-eat were significantly higher among nonoverweight adolescents. Results indicate that fathers are more likely than mothers to engage in pressure-to-eat behaviors and boys are more likely than girls to be on the receiving end of parental pressure-to-eat. Parental report of restriction did not differ significantly by parent or adolescent gender. No significant interactions by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status were seen in the relationship between restriction or pressure-to-eat and adolescent weight status. Given that there is accumulating evidence for the detrimental effects of controlling feeding practices on children's ability to self-regulate energy intake, these findings suggest that parents should be educated and empowered through anticipatory guidance to encourage moderation rather than overconsumption and emphasize healthful food choices rather than restrictive eating patterns.

  16. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  17. Wandering spleen: Case report | Mwango | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the ...

  18. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  19. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Misawa T, Yoshida K, Shiba H, Kobayashi S, Yanaga K. Wandering spleen with chronic torsion. Am J Surg. 2008 Apr;195(4):504-5. This article on PubMed. 7. Fiquet-Francois C, Belouadah M, Ludot H, Defauw B. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study. J Pediatr Surg. 2010.

  20. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  1. A true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen: a very rare anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, T; Tollens, T; Aelvoet, Chr; Vanrykel, J P

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to a wandering or ectopic spleen which is vascularized by the original splenic vessels this case describes a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis. To our knowledge this anomaly has never been described in the literature before.

  2. Weight lifting for women at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ahmed, Rehana L; Troxel, Andrea B; Cheville, Andrea; Lewis-Grant, Lorita; Smith, Rebecca; Bryan, Cathy J; Williams-Smith, Catherine T; Chittams, Jesse

    2010-12-22

    Clinical guidelines for breast cancer survivors without lymphedema advise against upper body exercise, preventing them from obtaining established health benefits of weight lifting. To evaluate lymphedema onset after a 1-year weight lifting intervention vs no exercise (control) among survivors at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). A randomized controlled equivalence trial (Physical Activity and Lymphedema trial) in the Philadelphia metropolitan area of 154 breast cancer survivors 1 to 5 years postunilateral breast cancer, with at least 2 lymph nodes removed and without clinical signs of BCRL at study entry. Participants were recruited between October 1, 2005, and February 2007, with data collection ending in August 2008. Weight lifting intervention included a gym membership and 13 weeks of supervised instruction, with the remaining 9 months unsupervised, vs no exercise. Incident BCRL determined by increased arm swelling during 12 months (≥5% increase in interlimb difference). Clinician-defined BCRL onset was also evaluated. Equivalence margin was defined as doubling of lymphedema incidence. A total of 134 participants completed follow-up measures at 1 year. The proportion of women who experienced incident BCRL onset was 11% (8 of 72) in the weight lifting intervention group and 17% (13 of 75) in the control group (cumulative incidence difference [CID], -6.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.2% to 5.2%; P for equivalence = .04). Among women with 5 or more lymph nodes removed, the proportion who experienced incident BCRL onset was 7% (3 of 45) in the weight lifting intervention group and 22% (11 of 49) in the control group (CID, -15.0%; 95% CI, -18.6% to -11.4%; P for equivalence = .003). Clinician-defined BCRL onset occurred in 1 woman in the weight lifting intervention group and 3 women in the control group (1.5% vs 4.4%, P for equivalence = .12). In breast cancer survivors at risk for lymphedema, a program of slowly progressive weight lifting

  3. Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kelly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating, and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada. Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight, and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight

  4. Eating in the absence of hunger is related to loss-of-control eating, hedonic hunger, and short-term weight gain in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Emily H; Piers, Amani D; Kral, Tanja V E; Lowe, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    Eating beyond physiological need contributes to obesity onset. Measuring this behavior could help identify those at risk for weight gain. This study measured eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and its relationship with weight change and self-report measures related to appetite and eating behavior. EAH was assessed in 46 lean young women (69% pre-selected for weight gain proneness) after lunch and defined as the number of calories subsequently consumed from snacks. Participants also completed questionnaires, and their body weights were measured regularly over the next year. Participants consumed a mean 188 calories (±140) during the EAH test. Caloric intake during the EAH test was associated with hedonic hunger (p emotional eating, disinhibition, and longer-term weight change. Amount of the test meal eaten in a hungry state was unrelated to these variables. While EAH has mainly been examined in children, these results expand its utility to adults. EAH seems to reflect naturalistic eating behavior, as shown by its relationship with short-term weight gain, drive to overconsume foods, and loss of control over eating. EAH may be a useful test to identify young adults at risk for weight gain and/or disordered eating, and may be a target for intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environment versus individual social and early life factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carter

    Full Text Available To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors.Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors.FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors.In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

  6. [Body weight evolution and classification of body weight in relation to the results of bariatric surgery: roux-en-Y gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera Junior, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the evolution and classification of body weight in relation to the results of bariatric surgery in women who underwent the procedure more than two years ago. A total of 141 women underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The participants were divided according to the time elapsed since surgery and the percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL): 75. The women in the group with %EWL 75 (36.2%) ranged from normal to pre-obese and presented lower late weight gain than the women in the other groups. Weight evolution two or more years after surgery showed the expected reductions, with some individuals responding better to surgery than others. This shows that it is necessary to monitor, investigate and intervene to obtain the desired results.

  7. Millennials at work: workplace environments of young adults and associations with weight-related health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the workplace environments of young adults and examine associations with diet, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional data were collected (2008-2009) from 1538 employed young adult participants in Project EAT (Eating and Activity among Teens and Young Adults), a diverse population-based sample. Survey measures assessed height, weight, diet, moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA and perceptions of the workplace food and PA environments (eg, soda availability, coworker support). Healthful characteristics were summed to reflect overall workplace healthfulness. Modified Poisson regression analyses conducted in 2015 identified associations between workplace food and PA environments and diet, PA and BMI. The healthfulness of workplace environments was suboptimal. Greater exposure to healthful workplace characteristics was related to more young adults engaged in favourable diet and PA behaviours and a lower prevalence obesity. For example, adjusted rates of obesity were 24% and 17% among those reporting low (≤1 characteristic) versus high (≥3 characteristics) exposure to healthful food environments, respectively (p<0.05). Workplace characteristics independently associated with weight-related outcomes included soda availability, proximity to a fast food outlet, living close to work and perceived ease of eating a healthy diet or being active at work. A more healthful workplace environment overall, including physical attributes and perceived social norms, may contribute to more favourable weight-related behaviours and lower prevalence of obesity among young adults. Employer-initiated and community-initiated policies may represent one way to create healthier workplace environments for young adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  9. Preschool Weight and Body Mass Index in Relation to Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test the associ......BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test...... the associations between preschool weight and body mass index (BMI) and adult BMI, central obesity and metabolic alterations. METHODS: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 4111) is a population-based cohort. Preschool weight (age 5 months and 1 year) and BMI (age 2-5 years) were studied...... in relation to metabolic syndrome as well as BMI, waist circumference, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at the age of 31 years. Linear regression models and generalized linear regression models with log link were used. RESULTS: Throughout preschool ages, weight and BMI were significantly...

  10. Serum vaspin concentrations in relation to insulin sensitivity following RYGB-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handisurya, Ammon; Riedl, Michaela; Vila, Greisa; Maier, Christina; Clodi, Martin; Prikoszovich, Thomas; Ludvik, Bernhard; Prager, Gerhard; Luger, Anton; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2010-02-01

    Recently, vaspin was identified as a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects that might be implicated in endogenous glucose regulation. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of acute weight loss and metabolic changes on serum vaspin concentrations in morbidly obese subjects following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Longitudinal, clinical intervention study in 33 morbidly obese subjects before and 12 months after RYGB was conducted. Fasting serum concentrations of vaspin were measured by a commercially available ELISA and correlated with BMI, parameters of insulin sensitivity, and other biochemical measurements. Fasting insulin sensitivity was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance. RYGB-induced weight loss resulted in a reduction of circulating vaspin, leptin, insulin, and C-peptide levels as well as of BMI, HbA1c, and HOMA (p RYGB-induced changes in BMI. Following RYGB surgery, changes in serum vaspin concentrations correlate significantly with the reduction of circulating leptin, insulin, and C-peptide levels and with the amelioration of insulin sensitivity. However, further studies have to elucidate whether vaspin is only a biomarker for body-weight-related changes of insulin sensitivity or whether it is implicated in the regulation of human glucose homeostasis.

  11. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-07

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  12. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dietze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding. Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  13. Height, Weight, and Aerobic Fitness Level in Relation to the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness. We conducted a national cohort study to examine interactions between height or weight and level of aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximal age, 62 years). Increased height, weight, and aerobic fitness level (but not muscular strength) at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level (for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs. the lowest, relative excess risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.62; ratio of hazard ratios = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.65). High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least 186 cm (6 feet, 1 inch) tall but were protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk (for the highest tertiles vs. the lowest, adjusted hazard ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.80). These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups.

  14. Mycophenolate Mofetil-Related Enterocolitis and Weight Loss: A Pediatric Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. H. Dykes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF is an immunosuppressive medication utilized in the management of both autoimmune and solid organ transplant patients. Diarrhea is a common gastrointestinal side effect of MMF, but more severe forms of GI symptoms are described in renal transplant patients with a distinct pattern of histopathologic change, similar to graft-versus-host disease or Crohn’s disease. This rare entity, commonly referred to as “MMF-related enterocolitis,” has been described in adult patients, mostly in renal transplant patients, and in only two pediatric renal transplant patients. In previously reported cases, symptoms and abnormal histopathology improve with dose reduction of MMF. We describe a series of three pediatric patients with varied underlying disease process who presented with severe diarrhea and histopathologic findings characteristic of MMF-related enterocolitis, who share a novel finding of weight loss as a complication of MMF-related enterocolitis in pediatric patients.

  15. Relationships of cognitive load on eating and weight-related behaviors of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Koenings, Mallory; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra K

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight-related behaviors and cognitive load (working memory available to complete mental activities like those required for planning meals, selecting foods, and other health-related decisions). Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore associations between cognitive load and eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference of college students. College students (n=1018) from 13 institutions completed an online survey assessing eating behaviors (e.g., routine and compensatory restraint, emotional eating, and fruit/vegetable intake), stress level, and physical activity level. BMI and waist circumference were measured by trained researchers. A cognitive load score was derived from stress level, time pressure/income needs, race and nationality. High cognitive load participants (n=425) were significantly (Peat eating in response to external cues and emotional eating. Both males and females with high cognitive load scores had a non-significant trend toward higher BMIs, waist circumferences, and drinking more alcohol than low cognitive load counterparts. In conclusion, cognitive load may be an important contributor to health behaviors. Understanding how cognitive load may affect eating and other weight-related behaviors could potentially lead to improvements in the effectiveness of obesity prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  17. On the dynamic estimation of relative weights for observation and forecast in numerical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Grace; Deepak, A. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The problem of merging direct and remotely sensed (indirect) data with forecast data to get an estimate of the present state of the atmosphere for the purpose of numerical weather prediction is examined. To carry out this merging optimally, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the relative weights to be given to the observations and forecast. It is possible to do this dynamically from the information to be merged, if the correlation structure of the errors from the various sources is sufficiently different. Some new statistical approaches to doing this are described, and conditions quantified in which such estimates are likely to be good.

  18. Health Related Quality of Life and Weight Self-Efficacy of Life Style among Normal-Weight, Overweight and Obese Iranian Adolescents: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Fatemeh Miri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying and investigating the factors influencing self-efficacy and eventually health related quality of life (HRQoL can be an important step toward the prevention and treatment of the obesity. The aim of the study was to compare weight self-efficacy and HRQoL among normal-weight, overweight and obese Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, 118 obese and overweight adolescents (case group and 118 adolescents with normal weight (control group were recruited. Adolescent's anthropometric characteristics were measured. The Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL, pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0 and self-reported physical activity were completed by the adolescents. Results: Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for various confounders indicated that overweight and obese adolescents were less likely to be physically active (adjusted odds ratio, AOR= 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.911, had lower ability to cope with social pressure (AOR= 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.93, involved in less positive activities (AOR= 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.75, and felt more negative emotions (AOR= 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.36 than their normal-weight counterparts. Moreover, obese and overweight adolescents were more likely to report deteriorated quality of life in all PedsQL subscales than those with normal weight P

  19. One-year health-related quality of life outcomes in weight loss trial participants: comparison of three measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolotkin Ronette L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL in weight loss studies is inconsistent, and few studies use more than one type of measure. The purpose of the current study was to compare one-year changes in HRQOL as a function of weight change using three different measures: a weight-related measure (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite [IWQOL-Lite] and two generic measures (SF-36; EQ-5D. Methods Data were obtained from 926 participants (mean Body Mass Index (BMI (kg/m2 = 35.4; 84% female; mean age = 49.5 years in a placebo-controlled randomized trial for weight loss. At baseline and one-year, participants completed all three HRQOL measures. HRQOL was compared across weight change categories (≥ 5% and 0–4.9% gain, 0–4.9%, 5.0–9.9% and ≥ 10% loss, using effect sizes. Results The weight-related measure of HRQOL exhibited greater improvements with one-year weight loss than either of the generic instruments, with effect sizes ranging from 0.24 to 0.62 for 5–9.9% weight reductions and 0.44 to 0.95 for ≥ 10% reductions. IWQOL-Lite Self-Esteem also showed a small improvement with weight gain. Changes in the two generic measures of HRQOL were inconsistent with each other, and in the case of the SF-36, variable across domains. For participants gaining ≥ 5% of weight, the greatest reductions in HRQOL occurred with respect to SF-36 Mental Health, MCS, and Vitality, with effect sizes of -0.82, -0.70, and -0.63 respectively. Conclusion This study found differences between weight-related and generic measures of health-related quality of life in a one-year weight loss trial, reflecting the potential value of using more than one measure in a trial. Although weight loss was generally associated with improved IWQOL-Lite, physical SF-36 subscale and EQ-5D scores, a small amount of weight gain was associated with a slight improvement on weight-specific HRQOL and almost no change on the EQ-5D, suggesting the

  20. The small spleen: sonographic patterns of functional hyposplenia or asplenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, Christian; Eichkorn, Miriam; Zugmaier, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Functional hyposplenia or asplenia (FAS) can be associated with potential fatal infections. The diagnosis of FAS is traditionally made on liver-spleen scintigraphy and finding Howell-Jolly bodies within erythrocytes. In this retrospective study, our goal was to identify any characteristic sonographic findings of the spleen in patients with FAS in an attempt to determine whether the diagnosis of FAS can be made sonographically. In a review of all medical and sonographic records from the period of January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2001, we identified 24 patients (11 men, 13 women) in whom FAS had been diagnosed by liver-spleen scintigraphy (n = 13) or the finding of Howell-Jolly bodies (n = 11). The following sonographic parameters were determined: size of spleen (small, normal, or large), echotexture of the spleen (homogeneous versus inhomogeneous), echogenicity (isoechoic versus hyperechoic), presence of focal splenic lesions, and patterns of splenic vascularization as determined by color Doppler sonography (absent flow, hilar flow, or parenchymal flow). The spleen was small in 20 patients (83%) and normal in the other 4 (17%). Echotexture was homogeneous in 13 patients (54%) and inhomogeneous in 11 (46%). The spleen was isoechoic in 18 cases (75%) and hyperechoic in 6 (25%). Six patients (25%) had focal lesions. Color Doppler sonography showed absent flow in 4 patients (17%), hilar flow in 17 (71%), and hilar and parenchymal vascularization in 3 (12%). Sonographic findings in the spleen of patients with FAS are characterized predominantly by a small spleen with absence of parenchymal vascularization on color Doppler sonography in most cases. Future prospective studies will be necessary to confirm these findings and to determine whether FAS can be diagnosed reliably with sonography. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 31:152-155, 2003

  1. Shear mechanical properties of the spleen: experiment and analytical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Noguer, L; Palierne, J-F

    2012-05-01

    This paper aims at providing the first shear mechanical properties of spleen tissue. Rheometric tests on porcine splenic tissues were performed in the linear and nonlinear regime, revealing a weak frequency dependence of the dynamic moduli in linear regime and a distinct strain-hardening effect in nonlinear regime. These behaviours are typical of soft tissues such as kidney and liver, with however a less pronounced strain-hardening for the spleen. An analytical model based on power laws is then proposed to describe the general shear viscoelastic behaviour of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  3. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  4. Relation between Protein Intrinsic Normal Mode Weights and Pre-Existing Conformer Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Beytullah; Ozdemir, E Sila; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2017-04-20

    Intrinsic fluctuations of a protein enable it to sample a large repertoire of conformers including the open and closed forms. These distinct forms of the protein called conformational substates pre-exist together in equilibrium as an ensemble independent from its ligands. The role of ligand might be simply to alter the equilibrium toward the most appropriate form for binding. Normal mode analysis is proved to be useful in identifying the directions of conformational changes between substates. In this study, we demonstrate that the ratios of normalized weights of a few normal modes driving the protein between its substates can give insights about the ratios of kinetic conversion rates of the substates, although a direct relation between the eigenvalues and kinetic conversion rates or populations of each substate could not be observed. The correlation between the normalized mode weight ratios and the kinetic rate ratios is around 83% on a set of 11 non-enzyme proteins and around 59% on a set of 17 enzymes. The results are suggestive that mode motions carry intrinsic relations with thermodynamics and kinetics of the proteins.

  5. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  6. Optimal weighted averaging of event related activity from acquisitions with artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollero, Luca; Petrichella, Sara; Innello, Giulio

    2016-08-01

    In several biomedical applications that require the signal processing of biological data, the starting procedure for noise reduction is the ensemble averaging of multiple repeated acquisitions (trials). This method is based on the assumption that each trial is composed of two additive components: (i) a time-locked activity related to some sensitive/stimulation phenomenon (ERA, Event Related Activity in the following) and (ii) a sum of several other non time-locked background activities. The averaging aims at estimating the ERA activity under very low Signal to Noise and Interference Ratio (SNIR). Although averaging is a well established tool, its performance can be improved in the presence of high-power disturbances (artifacts) by a trials classification and removal stage. In this paper we propose, model and evaluate a new approach that avoids trials removal, managing trials classified as artifact-free and artifact-prone with two different weights. Based on the model, a weights tuning is possible and through modeling and simulations we show that, when optimally configured, the proposed solution outperforms classical approaches.

  7. Eating- and weight-related parenting of adolescents in the context of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-09-01

    Food insecurity is hypothesized to influence mothers' use of parenting strategies to regulate children's eating. Little is known about the parenting practices directed toward adolescents in food-insecure households. Our aim was to examine the differences in use of eating- and weight-related parenting practices among mothers of adolescents by household food-security status. This was a cross-sectional study. A sociodemographically diverse sample of mothers and adolescents from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, metropolitan area who participated in the Eating and Activity Among Teens 2010 and Project Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens studies in 2009 to 2010 (dyad n=2,087). Seventy percent of mothers identified as nonwhite. We examined mother-reported use of parenting practices, including pressuring children to eat, restricting high-calorie foods, and encouraging dieting. Logistic regression models were used to determine the predicted probabilities of parenting practices among food-secure, low food-secure, and very-low food-secure households. Sociodemographic characteristics, mothers' body mass index, and adolescents' body mass index-for-age percentile were examined as confounders. In unadjusted models, food-insecure mothers were more likely than food-secure mothers to frequently encourage their children to diet, comment on their child's weight, be concerned about their child's weight, use restrictive feeding practices, and use pressured feeding practices. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and mothers' and children's body mass index, compared to food-secure mothers, mothers with low food security were more likely to frequently comment on their sons' weight (41.5% vs 32.9%, prevalence difference=8.6; 95% CI 0.9 to 16.3) and mothers with very low food security were more likely to be concerned about their sons' weight (48.8% vs 35.1%; prevalence difference=13.7; 95% CI 3.5 to 23.9). Mothers with very low food security were more likely to

  8. Occupation is related to Weight and Lifestyle Factors among Employees at Worksites Involved in a Weight Gain Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M.; Salkeld, Judith; Risica, Patricia Markham; Lenz, Erin; Burton, Deborah; Mello, Jennifer; Bell, Johanna P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between job type, weight status and lifestyle factors that are potential contributors to obesity including, diet, physical activity and perceived stress among employees enrolled in the Working on Wellness (WOW) project. Methods Randomly selected employees at 24 worksites completed a baseline survey (n=1700); some also an in-person survey and anthropometric measures (n=1568). Employees were classified by US Labor standards as: white collar (n=1297), blue collar (n=303), or service worker (n=92), 8 unknown. Associations were analyzed using Chi-Square, GLM procedures, and adjusted for demographics using Logistic Regression. Results In unadjusted models, BMI of service workers was higher than white collar workers; F&V intake was higher for service and blue collar than white collar; white collar workers reported highest stress levels in job and life. However, in models adjusted for demographics, the only significant difference was to physical activity (i.e., MET/min per week), with blue collar workers reporting higher levels of physical activity than service workers, who reported higher levels than the white collar workers. Conclusions Future research should further examine the relationship between health and job status to corroborate the results of the current study and to consider designing future worksite health promotion interventions that are tailored by job category. PMID:26461872

  9. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  10. Good intentions gone awry? Effects of weight-related social control on health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Julie A; Overup, Camilla S; Nguyen, Mai-Ly; Novak, Sarah A; Smith, C Veronica

    2014-01-01

    A negative body image has been associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes. Social pressures from others, in the form of weight-related social control, may serve to exacerbate this effect, especially for college-aged women. Undergraduate students (N=399) completed a variety of questionnaires assessing weight-related social control, well-being, and diet and exercise behaviors. The results suggest that weight is associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes and particularly for women, weight-related social control is also associated with these negative effects. In addition, men of higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or higher self-perceived weight did not experience negative health and well-being outcomes to the same degree that overweight women did. Parents in particular seem to instigate weight-related social control to change students' diet and exercise behaviors. These results help clarify the effects of weight-related social control in a college population, where weight may be especially important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term effects of consumption of a novel fat emulsion in relation to body-weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepvens, K; Soenen, S; Steijns, J; Arnold, M; Westerterp-Plantenga, M

    2007-06-01

    To assess weight maintenance after weight loss by consumption of yoghurt with a novel fat emulsion (Olibra) including effects on body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation, hunger feelings and satiety hormones. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel design. A 6-week weight loss period (2.1 MJ/day) was followed by 18 weeks weight maintenance with test (Olibra) or placebo yoghurt. Fifty overweight women (age: 18-58 years, body mass index (BMI) 25-32 kg/m2). In weeks 1, 7 and 25, a satiety test with questionnaires and blood samples for analysis of satiety hormones. In weeks 2, 8 and 26, REE, body weight and body composition. During weight maintenance after significant body weight reduction, there was no significant increase in body weight in the test group (1.1+/-3.4 kg); the placebo group did gain weight (3.0+/-3.1 kg, Pweight maintenance compared to placebo, which can be explained by the relatively higher REE as a function of FFM, relatively higher decrease in FM and the relatively lower increase in hunger.

  12. Green tea polyphenols reduce body weight in rats by modulating obesity-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwen Lu

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.

  13. Exercise, bodyweight perception and related weight loss behavior among adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babwah, Terence

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the real and perceived body weight, exercise habits and weight-altering dietary supplement use by adolescents attending schools in Trinidad and Tobago. A de novo questionnaire was administered prospectively to 15-19-year-old to determine their exercise habits, their perceived body weights, and their use of any weight gain or weight loss supplements. A subset of students had their actual height and weights recorded and BMI calculated. Five hundred and eighty-three students did the questionnaire (88% response rate), and 363 students had BMI calculated. Some 14.9% (54/363) of the students were overweight, and 15.4% (56/363) were obese, and more than 75% of the obese students had attempted weight loss in the past. These measures included exercise in the majority of the students and use of dietary supplements in the minority. Only 6% of the obese students exercised five or more times per week. About 28% of the students misclassified their body weights, and perception of body weight influenced weight loss behaviors more than actual body weights. Almost one third of the students were overweight or obese. Overweight students were motivated to lose weight, and these students need to have some structured health promotion program, which educates them on correct exercise habits, safe measures to lose weight, and which informs them of their actual body weight.

  14. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  15. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  16. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  17. Torsion of a wandering spleen | Carapinha | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare and difficult diagnosis in the paediatric population, with death a possible outcome. In this paper we present our experience of a single case and discuss the embryology and management thereof.

  18. Health-related quality-of-life in patients with morbid obesity after gastric banding for surgically induced weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M.; de Weerd, Sabina; de Wit, Laurens T.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Physical, emotional, and social functioning are impaired in obesity. It is unknown whether and, if so, to what extent and in which domain obese subjects who lose weight may catch UP to normal-weight levels. Our objective was to compare the health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) of obese

  19. A New Sampling Method for Spleen Stiffness Measurement Based on Quantitative Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for Noninvasive Assessment of Esophageal Varices in Newly Diagnosed HCV-Related Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we evaluated the feasibility of a new sampling method for splenic stiffness (SS measurement by Quantitative Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography (Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTTQ.We measured SS in 54 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis of whom 28 with esophageal varices (EV, 27 with Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC F1–F3, and 63 healthy controls. VTTQ-SS was significantly higher among cirrhotic patients with EV (3.37 m/s in comparison with controls (2.19 m/s, P<0.001, CHC patients (2.37 m/s, P<0.001, and cirrhotic patients without EV (2.7 m/s, P<0.001. Moreover, VTTQ-SS was significantly higher among cirrhotic patients without EV in comparison with both controls (P<0.001 and CHC patients (P<0.01. The optimal VTTQ-SS cut-off value for predicting EV was 3.1 m/s (AUROC = 0.96, sensitivity 96.4%, specificity 88.5%, positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 96%, positive likelihood ratio 8.36, and negative likelihood ratio 0.04. In conclusion, VTTQ-SS is a promising noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool to screen cirrhotic patients for EV and reduce the need for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. By using our cut-off value of 3.1 m/s, we would avoid endoscopy in around 45% of cirrhotic subjects, with significant time and cost savings.

  20. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  1. Centroid Localization of Uncooperative Nodes in Wireless Networks Using a Relative Span Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Laurendeau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly ubiquitous wireless technologies require novel localization techniques to pinpoint the position of an uncooperative node, whether the target is a malicious device engaging in a security exploit or a low-battery handset in the middle of a critical emergency. Such scenarios necessitate that a radio signal source be localized by other network nodes efficiently, using minimal information. We propose two new algorithms for estimating the position of an uncooperative transmitter, based on the received signal strength (RSS of a single target message at a set of receivers whose coordinates are known. As an extension to the concept of centroid localization, our mechanisms weigh each receiver's coordinates based on the message's relative RSS at that receiver, with respect to the span of RSS values over all receivers. The weights may decrease from the highest RSS receiver either linearly or exponentially. Our simulation results demonstrate that for all but the most sparsely populated wireless networks, our exponentially weighted mechanism localizes a target node within the regulations stipulated for emergency services location accuracy.

  2. Weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age in relation to fetal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Li, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia.

  3. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, Ppermissive feeding style (-1.04, Ppermissive feeding style (0.14, Pparent's use of food restriction (0.21, Ppermissive feeding style (0.16, Pparenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of Social Media-based Interventions on Weight-related Behaviors and Body Weight Status: Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Ji, Mengmeng; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-11-01

    We reviewed scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of social media-based interventions about weight-related behaviors and body weight status. A keyword search were performed in May 2017 in the Clinical-Trials.gov, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of social media-based interventions on weight-related outcome measures. We identified 22 interventions from the keyword and reference search, including 12 randomized controlled trials, 6 pre-post studies and 3 cohort studies conducted in 9 countries during 2010-2016. The majority (N = 17) used Facebook, followed by Twitter (N = 4) and Instagram (N = 1). Intervention durations averaged 17.8 weeks with a mean sample size of 69. The meta-analysis showed that social media-based interventions were associated with a statistically significant, but clinically modest reduction of body weight by 1.01 kg, body mass index by 0.92 kg/m2, and waist circumstance by 2.65 cm, and an increase of daily number of steps taken by 1530. In the meta-regression there was no doseresponse effect with respect to intervention duration. The boom of social media provides an unprecedented opportunity to implement health promotion programs. Future interventions should make efforts to improve intervention scalability and effectiveness.

  5. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  6. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  7. Cognitive and weight-related correlates of flexible and rigid restrained eating behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenhoefer, Joachim; Engel, Daniel; Holst, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance.......Examine the association between components of restrained eating, cognitive performance and weight loss maintenance....

  8. The effects of antipsychotics on weight gain, weight-related hormones and homocysteine in children and adolescents: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Inmaculada; Vigo, Laura; de la Serna, Elena; Calvo-Escalona, Rosa; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rodríguez-Latorre, Pamela; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2017-01-01

    To analyze weight gain, metabolic hormones, and homocysteine (Hcys) levels in children and adolescents on antipsychotics (AP) during a year-long follow-up. 117 patients, AP-naïve or quasi-naïve (less than 30 days on AP), were included. Weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score (z-BMI), and levels of leptin, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, ghrelin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and Hcys were measured at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months, while patients remained on the same AP. Patients (mean age: 14.4 ± 3 years; 64.1 % male) were on risperidone (N = 84), olanzapine (N = 20) or quetiapine (N = 13) from baseline up to 1-year follow-up and significantly increased weight (5.8 ± 4.3 kg at 3-month, 8.1 ± 6.1 kg at 6-month, and 11.6 ± 7.0 kg at 1 year), BMI, and z-BMI. Leptin levels significantly increased from baseline to 3 and 6 months, as did TSH levels from baseline to 3 months, while FT4 levels decreased from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Patients with BMI >85th percentile at baseline (N = 16) significantly increased weight, BMI, and z-BMI, more than patients with normal BMI over time. Higher baseline levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and leptin were associated with increased weight/BMI during follow-up, while higher baseline levels of FT4, adiponectin, and ghrelin were associated with lower weight/BMI during follow-up. All AP were associated with increased weight and BMI/z-BMI in all of the assessments; however, at 1-year assessment, this increase was significantly higher for patients on quetiapine. Both higher baseline levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and leptin, as well as being overweight/obese at baseline were associated with increased weight/BMI during 1-year follow-up in children and adolescents on AP. Awareness of weight-related parameters in this population may help inform decisions regarding AP prescriptions.

  9. Parents' perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Melissa Maria Romero; Melo, Tatiana Rocha; Pinto, Rogério Melo Costa; Morales, Nívea Macedo Oliveira; Mendonça, Tânia Maria Silva; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n=170) and with overweight/obesity (n=127), from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (pde Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. 'I feel fat': weight-related stigma, body esteem, and BMI as predictors of perceived competence in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2010-02-01

    Efforts toward increasing participation in physical activity to prevent and treat overweight and obesity have as yet proved unsuccessful. Among the many barriers that discourage participation are weight-related stigmas. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between consciousnesses of weight-related stigma and perceived competence in physical activity. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the potential mediation effects of body esteem and body mass index (BMI) on the relationship. Consciousness of weight stigma, body esteem, and BMI are explored as predictors of perceived competence in physical activity. Participants included 76 adults who were enrolled in a weight management program. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Path modeling was used to assess the relationships between stigma consciousness and perceived physical activity competence, and the potential mediation effects of BMI and body esteem. Tests indicated that body esteem, but not BMI, mediated the relationship of consciousness of weight-related stigma and perceived physical activity competence. Consciousness of weight stigma, regardless of objective weight status, may negatively affect individuals' willingness to participate in physical activity. Findings such as these are important in furthering understanding the factors that affect behavior, and subsequently conducting programs to overcome perceptions of weight and physical activity to encourage participation. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence...

  12. 9 CFR 381.480 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 381.480 Section 381.480 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements. Any product that purports to be or is represented for special dietary use because of usefulness in reducing body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition labeling in...

  13. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  14. 9 CFR 317.380 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 317.380 Section 317.380 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements. Any product that purports to be or is represented for special dietary use because of usefulness in reducing body weight shall bear: (1) Nutrition...

  15. Socioeconomic position and low birth weight among mothers exposed to traffic-related air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP in São Paulo, Brazil.Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers' addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10. Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP.This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers.

  16. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Sunyer F Xavier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. Methods In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. Results The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62 and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36 at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97 but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of

  17. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Barriers and Health Beliefs Related to Weight Management Among Veterans With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Shannon; Dinatale, Emily; Hartley, Sarah; St Jacques, Monica; Oursler, Kris Ann

    2017-01-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program. Institutional review board approval was granted before the start of the study. All participants were recruited from the Infectious Disease clinic if they met national inclusion criteria for the MOVE weight management program and had not previously participated in the program. Transcribed audio recordings were independently analyzed and coded by four of the researchers using an exploratory process to obtain consensus regarding themes. An interrater reliability analysis for the Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency among raters. The relationship between physical activity self-efficacy scores and nutrition self-efficacy scores was tested using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The median age of the sample was 56 with high rates of diabetes (36%), hypertension (73%), hyperlipidemia (36%), and tobacco use history (82%). External barriers to participation were discussed in addition to 8 other themes, which influence treatment engagement for Veterans with obesity and HIV including adaptation, stigma, self-management, and support. Veterans held strong beliefs about responsibility and commitment to their health and wanted to assume an active and informed role in their health care. Veterans with high levels of perceived

  19. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity.......Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity....

  20. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  1. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  2. The longitudinal association between weight change and health-related quality of life in adults and children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M; Baxter, H; Müller-Nordhorn, J; Hohls, J K; Muckelbauer, R

    2017-12-01

    This systematic review examined longitudinal associations between weight change (weight gain and loss) and both physical and mental aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared with stable weight in adults and children of the general population. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched. Longitudinal observational studies measuring HRQOL with six predefined instruments were synthesized according to type of association: weight change and change in HRQOL (change-on-change association) and weight change and HRQOL at follow-up (predictive association). Twenty studies of adults (n = 15) or children (n = 5) were included. Fifteen studies used the SF-12 or SF-36. Results of nine studies in adults examining the change-on-change association were combined through a tallying of 606 analyses. Weight gain was most often associated with reduced physical, but not mental HRQOL, across all baseline body mass index categories and in both men and women. Weight loss may be associated with improved physical, but not mental HRQOL, among adults with overweight and obesity. Weight gain was more strongly associated with HRQOL than weight loss, implicating a greater need for preventative strategies to tackle obesity. Results in children and for the predictive association generally reflected these findings but require further research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Unfolding the mechanism of cisplatin induced pathophysiology in spleen and its amelioration by carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sinha, Krishnendu; Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sil, Parames C

    2018-01-05

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) is an effective chemotherapeutic and is widely used for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. Bio-distribution of cisplatin to other organs due to poor targeting towards only cancer cells constitutes the backbone of cisplatin-induced toxicity. The adverse effect of this drug on spleen is not well characterized so far. Therefore, we have set our goal to explore the mechanism of the cisplatin-induced pathophysiology of the spleen and would also like to evaluate whether carnosine, an endogenous neurotransmitter and antioxidant, can ameliorate this pathophysiological response. We found a dose and time-dependent increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the spleen tissue of the experimental mice exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin. The increase in inflammatory cytokine can be attributed to the activation of the transcription factor, NF-ĸB. This also aids in the transcription of other pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. Exposure of animals to cisplatin at both the doses resulted in ROS and NO production leading to oxidative stress. The MAP Kinase pathway, especially JNK activation, was also triggered by cisplatin. Eventually, the persistence of inflammatory response and oxidative stress lead to apoptosis through extrinsic pathway. Carnosine has been found to restore the expression of inflammatory molecules and catalase to normal levels through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, NF-ĸB and JNK. Carnosine also protected the splenic cells from apoptosis. Our study elucidated the detailed mechanism of cisplatin-induced spleen toxicity and use of carnosine as a protective agent against this cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Infant growth patterns in the slums of Dhaka in relation to birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, S E; Black, R E; Caulfield, L E; Antelman, G; Baqui, A H; Nahar, Q; Alamgir, S; Mahmud, H

    2000-10-01

    Relations between size and maturity at birth and infant growth have been studied inadequately in Bangladesh, where the incidence of low birth weight is high and most infants are breast-fed. This study was conducted to describe infant growth patterns and their relations to birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and prematurity. A total of 1654 infants born in selected low-socioeconomic areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh, were enrolled at birth. Weight and length were measured at birth and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. The infants' mean birth weight was 2516 g, with 46.4% weighing birth weight, SGA, or preterm categories were retained throughout infancy. Mean z scores based on the pooled breast-fed sample were -2.38, -1. 72, and -2.34 at birth, 3 mo, and 12 mo. Correlation analysis showed greater plasticity of growth in the first 3 mo of life than later in the first year. Infant growth rates were similar to those observed among breast-fed infants in developed countries. Most study infants experienced chronic intrauterine undernourishment. Catch-up growth was limited and weight at 12 mo was largely a function of weight at birth. Improvement of birth weight is likely to lead to significant gains in infant nutritional status in this population, although interventions in the first 3 mo are also likely to be beneficial.

  5. Factors related to rapid weight loss practices among international-style wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Brandon L; Landers, Daniel M; Carlson, John; Scott, James R

    2004-02-01

    The deaths of three intercollegiate wrestlers in 1997 prompted the NCAA and governing bodies that oversee high school sports to adopt new policies prohibiting unsafe weight loss practices. Similar policies have not yet been adopted for international style wrestling, a style that attracts thousands of youth once the regulated scholastic season is over. Therefore, this study examined the rapid weight loss practices in high school wrestlers participating in international style wrestling. To do this, rapid weight gain (RWG), an index that reflects the degree of rapid weight loss (RWL), was examined. Wrestlers (N = 2638) participating in the 1997 and 1998 National wrestling championships were randomly selected to be weighed at matside with electronic scales. The methods wrestlers used to accomplish weight loss were also assessed in a subsample of wrestlers. Wrestlers gained an average of 3.4 kg, which represents a 4.81% gain of body weight. The range across weight classes and age groups was -2.68 kg (-2.1% loss of body weight) to +16.73 kg (13.4% gain of body weight). No differences in RWG existed as a function of the represented state teams. In addition, wrestlers who were older and more successful (i.e., placers) gained significantly more weight that their younger and less successful counterparts (P international style wrestling, and similar policies to those recently instituted by the NCAA are warranted.

  6. The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Sentence Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic temporal envelope (E cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80–7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8.2% to 16.3% when E information from only one region was available, the scores ranged from 57.9% to 87.7% when E information from two frequency regions was presented, suggesting a synergistic effect among the temporal E cues in different frequency regions. Next, the relative contributions of the E information from the five frequency regions to sentence perception were computed using a least-squares approach. The results demonstrated that, for Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, the temporal E cues of Frequency Region 1 (80–502 Hz and Region 3 (1,022–1,913 Hz contributed more to the intelligence of sentence recognition than other regions, particularly the region of 80–502 Hz, which contained fundamental frequency (F0 information.

  7. Beyond personal responsibility: effects of causal attributions for overweight and obesity on weight-related beliefs, stigma, and policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Lebowitz, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the effects of different causal attributions for overweight and obesity, among individuals with overweight and obesity, on weight-related beliefs, stigmatising attitudes and policy support. In Study 1, an online sample of 95 US adults rated the extent to which they believed various factors caused their own weight status. In Study 2, 125 US adults read one of three randomly assigned online passages attributing obesity to personal responsibility, biology, or the 'food environment.' All participants in both studies were overweight or obese. All participants reported beliefs about weight loss, weight-stigmatising attitudes, and support for obesity-related policies. In Study 1, biological attributions were associated with low weight-malleability beliefs and blame, high policy support, but high internalised weight bias. 'Food environment' attributions were not associated with any outcomes, while 'personal responsibility' attributions were associated with high prejudice and blame. In Study 2, participants who received information about the food environment reported greater support for food-related policies and greater self-efficacy to lose weight. Emphasising the role of the food environment in causing obesity may promote food policy support and health behaviours without imposing the negative consequences associated with other attributions.

  8. The 2010 patent landscape for spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Alessandro F; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Kaila, Neelu; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Thorarensen, Atli

    2012-05-01

    Discovery of small molecular inhibitors for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a major ongoing effort within the pharmaceutical industry. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is one of leading small molecular targets with regard to clinical development primarlly due to efforts by Rigel and Portola. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the SYK patent landscape. The patent literature we evaluated relates to any organization that has filed applications that imply that SYK is the intended target. The interest in SYK was initiated in the early 2000's with many organizations, including several large pharmaceutical companies, and has been active for years. In general, the structural theme of most of the compounds in these applications is a traditional ATP competitive inhibitor with each organization having a different hinge binding element. In general, the attachment to the hinge is an aryl amine that is decorated with a solubilizing group. The other substituents are broadly variable across the numerous companies indicating that SYK has significant flexibility in its interactions in that portion of the kinase. This overview of the SYK patent literature and the learnings of the inhibitors' substitution patterns would be an important reference for anyone working in this area.

  9. The effect of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Lisa; Rollo, Megan; Hauck, Yvonne; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Wood, Lisa; Hutchesson, Melinda; Giglia, Roslyn; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare

    2015-01-01

    What are the effects of weight management interventions that include a diet component on weight-related outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women?The primary objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions which include a diet component and are aimed at limiting gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women.The second objective of this systematic review is to investigate included intervention components with respect to effect on weight-related outcomes. This may include, but is not limited to: length of intervention, use of face-to-face counselling, group or individual consultations, use of other interventions components including exercise, use of goals and use of support tools like food diaries, coaching, including email or text message support. Around half of all women of reproductive age are either overweight or obese, with women aged 25-34 years having a greater risk of substantial weight gain compared with men of all ages. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) may play a significant role in long term obesity. Having one child doubles the five- and 10-year obesity incidence for women, with many women who gain excessive weight during pregnancy remaining obese permanently. Excessive GWG and/or PPWR can also significantly contribute to short- and long-term adverse health outcomes for mother, baby and future pregnancies.Maternal obesity increases the risk of pregnancy related complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, stillbirth and the rate of caesarean section. Childhood obesity is a further long term complication of maternal obesity for offspring, which may persist in to adulthood. Excess GWG is also a risk factor for PPWR both in the short and long-term. Nehring et al. conducted a meta-analysis with over 65,000 women showing that, compared to women who gained weight within recommendations during pregnancy, women with GWG

  10. Weight-Related Correlates of Psychological Dysregulation in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Females with Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Methods Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI=48.71 kg/m2; Mage=18.29, R=15–21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Results Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3–4 times/week). Eating out was common (4–5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Conclusions Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may

  11. Relation between body weight, growth rate, chronological age and puberty in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Guisado, R; González, D; López, F

    1984-03-01

    Body weight, growth rate, chronological age and puberty in female and male rats from litters of 8 and 12 offsprings/mother have been studied. Age and body weight at the moment of vaginal opening (VO) and balanopreputial separation (BPS) were analyzed. Results show that animals reared in smaller groups grew faster than others. After weaning there was an increase in growth rate. VO and BPS occurred at the same age in groups with different growth rates and different body weights. In conclusion this work evidences that external signs of sexual maturation are not linked to a "critical weight" or to a "growth rate".

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus-related encephalitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Arim; Suh, Sang-il; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Gyu-Ri; Lee, Nam-Joon [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing acute respiratory infection in children. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of RSV-related encephalitis, a major neurological complication of RSV infection. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging findings of the patients over the past 7 years who are admitted to our medical center and are tested positive for RSV-RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. In total, 3,856 patients were diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis, and 28 of them underwent brain MRI for the evaluation of neurologic symptoms; 8 of these 28 patients had positive imaging findings. Five of these 8 patients were excluded because of non-RSV-related pathologies, such as subdural hemorrhage, brain volume loss due to status epilepticus, periventricular leukomalacia, preexisting ventriculomegaly, and hypoxic brain injury. The incidence of RSV-related encephalitis was as follows: 3/3,856 (0.08 %) of the patients are positive for RSV RNA, 3/28 (10.7 %) of the patient underwent brain MRI for neurological symptom, and 3/8 (37.5 %) of patients revealed abnormal MR findings. The imaging findings were suggestive of patterns of rhombenmesencephalitis, encephalitis with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and limbic encephalitis. They demonstrated no diffusion abnormality on diffusion-weighted image and symptom improvement on the follow-up study. Encephalitis with RSV bronchiolitis occurs rarely. However, on brain MRI performed upon suspicion of neurologic involvement, RSV encephalitis is not infrequently observed among the abnormal MR findings and may mimic other viral and limbic encephalitis. Physicians should be aware of this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and neurologic care of RSV-positive patients. (orig.)

  13. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  14. Differences in Weight-Related Behavioral Profiles by Sexual Orientation Among College Men: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-11-01

    To identify and describe homogenous classes of male college students based on their weight-related behaviors (e.g., eating habits, physical activity, and unhealthy weight control) and to examine differences by sexual orientation. Study design was a cross-sectional sample of 2- and 4-year college students. Study setting was forty-six 2- and 4-year colleges in Minnesota. Study subjects comprised 10,406 college males. Measures were five categories of sexual orientation derived from self-reported sexual identity and behavior (heterosexual, discordant heterosexual [identifies as heterosexual and engages in same-sex sexual behavior], gay, bisexual, and unsure) and nine weight-related behaviors (including measures for eating habits, physical activity, and unhealthy weight control). Latent class models were fit for each of the five sexual orientation groups, using the nine weight-related behaviors. Overall, four classes were identified: "healthier eating habits" (prevalence range, 39.4%-77.3%), "moderate eating habits" (12.0%-30.2%), "unhealthy weight control" (2.6%-30.4%), and "healthier eating habits, more physically active" (35.8%). Heterosexual males exhibited all four patterns, gay and unsure males exhibited four patterns that included variations on the overall classes identified, discordant heterosexual males exhibited two patterns ("healthier eating habits" and "unhealthy weight control"), and bisexual males exhibited three patterns ("healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control"). Findings highlight the need for multibehavioral interventions for discordant heterosexual, gay, bisexual, and unsure college males, particularly around encouraging physical activity and reducing unhealthy weight control behaviors. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  15. Menstrual cycle loss and resumption among patients with anorexia nervosa spectrum eating disorders: Is relative or absolute weight more influential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Feig, Emily H; Witt, Ashley A; Lowe, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    Prior research suggests that both body mass index (BMI) and weight suppression (highest past weight minus current weight; WS) are important in determining adult anorexia nervosa (AN) severity. We examined associations between amenorrhea and WS, DSM-5 BMI severity category, and highest premorbid BMI among patients with AN. Participants (N = 69) were adult female AN-spectrum patients at two residential treatment facilities. At admission, height, and weight were measured, and participants completed questionnaires assessing menstrual status and weight history. Greater WS, adjusted for BMI, was associated with menstrual function at admission. First amenorrhea onset occurred at a normal BMI for 38.5% of participants. Premorbid highest BMI positively correlated with BMI at amenorrhea onset, and higher BMI at amenorrhea onset was associated with higher BMI at menses resumption. These findings add to the literature indicating that relative and absolute weight status are dual indicators of illness severity in AN, and preliminarily suggest that a large proportion of adults who present for treatment initially may have shown symptoms of starvation at a normal BMI. Results underscore the need to focus on weight loss in early detection efforts and may inform target weight setting in the treatment of AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ultrasonographic parameters of the liver, spleen and kidneys among a cohort of school children in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Dianne Tania Dayanthi; Peries, Pattiya Pathirennahalage Uddika Chamila; Rathnasekara, Yaddehi Arachchillage Chaminda; Jayawardena, KaluArachchige Thushari Madurika; Upasena, Angappulige; Wickremasinghe, Anada Rajitha

    2017-11-16

    Liver, spleen and kidney dimensions on ultrasonography vary with the age, weight and ethnicity. Reference standards of these parameters for normal Sri Lankan children are not available. Our aim was to establish normative data for longitudinal length of liver, spleen and kidneys in healthy children. Three hundred fifty-seven children, 5-13 years of age were selected from two randomly selected schools in the Gampaha district in the western province of Sri Lanka. A questionnaire was administered to the parents after obtaining informed written consent. Participants were screened for risk factors for organomegaly and were examined by a trained officer. Children with a past history of infective, inflammatory, haematological, malignant, congestive, collagenous or congenital conditions that can affect the size of the organs were excluded as well as those with clinically evident malnutrition, anemia, lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Ultrasonographic assessment was done using a high resolution real-time scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer by a trained officer. Children with ultrasonographic abnormalities of organs were also excluded from the study and referred for further evaluation. The study comprised 332 children comprising 176 girls (53%). There was a significant difference in the longitudinal dimension of the liver between the two sexes with a higher value recorded among females (Mann Whitney U = 11,830.5, p = 0.037). Body weight was correlated with the dimensions of the liver, the spleen and the kidneys. On multiple regression analysis body weight significantly associated with all the organs. (p < 0.01) Percentile graphs for longitudinal length of liver, spleen, right and left kidneys were formed according to the body weight. The organ dimensions showed the highest correlation with body weight. We hope the normal ultrasonographic values of healthy Sri Lankan children will assist in interpretation of sonographic examinations in daily clinical practice.

  17. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2009-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  18. Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring body mass index and obesity from infancy through adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2010-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood.......Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood....

  19. Birth weight in relation to leisure time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific...

  20. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  1. Studies on biscoclaurine alkaloids in relation to radiation damage of hemopoietic tissue, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Sosuke

    1984-01-01

    After a whole-body irradiation at a single dose of 500R, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.1mg of cepharanthin (CR) every day for 20 days. Endogenous spleen colonies (CFU-S) were counted on Day 10, and the spleen and thymus weight was measured, peripheral leukocytes counted and hematocrit value determined for 30 days after the irradiation. The number of CFU-S increased remarkably in CR injected mice compared with control mice. Decreased spleen weight by irradiation recovered in excess by Day 30. In CR administered mice, the spleen weight increased transitorily along with the proliferation of CFU-S. After irradiation, the recovery of thymus weight was delayed compared with the spleen. Therefore, the effect of CR administration was not clear. Peripheral leukocytes decreased in number successively up to Day 10 and recovered linearly from Day 20 through Day 30, especially in CR injected mice. The hematocrit value was reduced to a minimum on Day 10 and almost recovered by Day 20 in irradiated mice. CR had no effect on the hematocrit value. The effect of cepharanthin was discussed in relation to radiation damage of hemopoietic tissue. (author)

  2. Parental influences on weight-related health behaviors in western and eastern cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J

    2017-03-01

    Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P authoritarian and permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P authoritarian parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Racial and ethnic minority patients report different weight-related care experiences than non-Hispanic Whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina H. Lewis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare patients' health care experiences, related to their weight, across racial and ethnic groups. In Summer 2015, we distributed a written survey with telephone follow-up to a random sample of 5400 racially/ethnically and geographically diverse U.S. adult health plan members with overweight or obesity. The survey assessed members' perceptions of their weight-related healthcare experiences, including their perception of their primary care provider, and the type of weight management services they had been offered, or were interested in. We used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity and responses to questions about care experience. Overall, 2811 members (53% responded to the survey and we included 2725 with complete data in the analysis. Mean age was 52.7 years (SD 15.0, with 61.7% female and 48.3% from minority racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMI was 37.1 kg/m2 (SD 8.0. Most (68.2% respondents reported having previous discussions of weight with their provider, but interest in such counseling varied by race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic blacks were significantly less likely to frequently avoid care (for fear of discussing weight/being weighed than whites (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26–0.90. Relative to whites, respondents of other race/ethnicities were more likely to want weight-related discussions with their providers. Race/ethnicity correlates with patients' perception of discussions of weight in healthcare encounters. Clinicians should capitalize on opportunities to discuss weight loss with high-risk minority patients who may desire these conversations.

  4. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  5. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  6. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  7. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  8. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  9. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  10. Communicating with children and families about obesity and weight-related topics: a scoping review of best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, A C; Hamilton, J; Kingsnorth, S; Knibbe, T J; Peters, M; Swift, J A; Krog, K; Chen, L; Steinberg, A; Ball, G D C

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare professionals have called for direction on how best to communicate about weight-related topics with children and families. Established scoping review methodology was used to answer the question: 'How can healthcare professionals best communicate with children and their families about obesity and weight-related topics?' We searched four scientific databases, two grey literature repositories and 14 key journals (2005-2016). Inclusion criteria were (i) children up to and including 18 years of age and/or their parents; (ii) communication about healthy weight, overweight, obesity or healthy/active living; and (iii) healthcare setting. Thirty-two articles were included. Evidence-based best practices were largely absent from the literature, although the following guiding principles were identified: (i) include all stakeholders in discussions; (ii) raise the topic of weight and health early and regularly; (iii) use strengths-based language emphasizing health over weight; (iv) use collaborative goal-setting to engage children and parents and (v) augment discussions with appropriate tools and resources. Guidance on how to implement these principles and how to negotiate relevant contextual factors (e.g. age, culture and disability) is still needed. Despite agreement on a number of guiding principles, evidence-based weight-related communication best practices are lacking. Rigorous, empirical evaluations of communication approaches are urgently required, especially those that include children's perspectives. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Sibutramine treatment in obesity: initial eating behaviour in relation to weight loss results and changes in mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, Kristina; Rössner, Stephan; Barkeling, Britta; Rooth, Pål

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to study the role of initial eating behaviour for subsequent weight loss in treatment with sibutramine (Reductil, Meridia) an anti-obesity drug enhancing satiety, and also to assess changes in mood during the treatment. The participants were 36 obese patients with a mean BMI of 39 kg m(-2). Eating behaviour was assessed with the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ), and depressive features with the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale (CPRS). Sibutramine (15 mg) was administered daily. The TFEQ restraint scale was negatively related to 6 months weight loss. In particular, strategic dieting behaviour and a more controlled attitude towards self-regulation were negatively related to weight loss. A positive non-placebo controlled change in mood was found already after 2 months treatment. The changes in mood were not related to the weight loss. Patients with more unrestrained eating seem to have reduced their amount of food intake more radically with enhanced satiety, manifested by greater weight loss. Physiologically enhanced satiety could have the greatest weight loss effect for patients whose eating is more governed by hunger drives and appetite rather that by conscious efforts and cognitive control.

  12. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on cell death in frog spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.Yu.; Vojtovich, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the number of dead cells in frog spleen by means of coloration with trypan blue which allowed to estimate last stage of apoptosis dead of cells.The investigated frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in september 1997 at radionuclide contamination territory (the Gomel Region, the Khojniki District). Control animals were caught in village Ratamka of the Minsk District. The percent of dead cells was less in control group in 1,5 times. Under additional irradiation (2 Gy) the number of dead cells in spleen also differs significantly in the investigated and control groups

  14. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  16. Changes in Gut Microbiota-Related Metabolites and Long-term Successful Weight Loss in Response to Weight-Loss Diets: The POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Smith, Steven R; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake. We examined associations of 6-month changes in blood metabolites (TMAO, choline, and l-carnitine) with improvements in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat composition, fat distribution, and resting energy expenditure (REE). Individuals with a greater reduction of choline ( P < 0.0001) and l-carnitine ( P < 0.01) rather than TMAO showed significant losses of BW and WC at 6 months. The reduction of choline was significantly predictive of decreases in body fat composition, fat distribution, and REE. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the baseline diabetes risk status, such as the presence of hyperglycemia (31% of the total participants) and fasting glucose levels, did not modify the associations. Early changes in choline and l-carnitine were significantly predictive of weight loss over 2 years ( P < 0.05 for all). Individuals with increases in choline or l-carnitine were 2.35-times (95% CI 1.38, 4.00) or 1.77-times (1.06, 2.95) more likely to fail to lose weight (-5% or more loss) at 2 years. Overweight and obese individuals who showed decreases in circulating choline or l-carnitine levels achieved greater improvements of adiposity and energy metabolism by eating a low-calorie weight-loss diet, suggesting that such metabolites are predictive of individuals' response to the treatment. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our findings, particularly in a population with prediabetes that is more representative of the U.S. population with

  17. Overweight and weight dissatisfaction related to socio-economic position, integration and dietary indicators among south Asian immigrants in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-05-01

    To investigate how socio-economic position, demographic factors, degree of integration and dietary indicators are related to BMI/waist:hip ratio (WHR) and to weight dissatisfaction and slimming among South Asians in Oslo, Norway. Cross-sectional study consisting of a health check including anthropometric measures and two self-administered questionnaires. Oslo, Norway. Pakistanis and Sri Lankans (n 629), aged 30-60 years, residing in Oslo. BMI was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.004) and Pakistani origin (P integration (measured by a composite index, independent of duration of residence; P = 0.017). One-third of those with normal weight and most of those obese were dissatisfied with their weight. Among these, about 40 % had attempted to slim during the past year. Dissatisfaction with weight was positively associated with education in women (P = 0.006) and with integration in men (P = 0.026), and inversely associated with physical activity (P = 0.044) in men. Women who had made slimming attempts had breakfast and other meals less frequently than others (P < 0.05). Weight dissatisfaction exists among South Asian immigrants. More research is needed regarding bodily dissatisfaction and the relationship between perception of weight and weight-change attempts among immigrants in Norway, in order to prevent and treat both obesity and eating disorders.

  18. The benefits of body weight loss on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Pan

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: Obesity can cause impaired HRQOL, which can be improved through BMI intervention. In addition to the benefits of biomedical aspect, this could be an incentive goal for keeping body weight control.

  19. Gut microbiota composition may relate to weight loss rate in obese pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieler, Ida Nordang; Bin Shamzir Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Vitger, Anne Désiré

    2017-01-01

    Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight......-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention. Faecal samples were...... collected and the dogs were weighed at week 0, week 6 and week 12. GM composition was determined using MiSeq-based tag-encoded 16S rRNA gene high-throughput amplicon sequencing, and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by gas-liquid chromatography. Total weight loss, food allowance and GM were...

  20. Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider sequences of orthogonal polynomials arising in the analysis of birth-death processes with killing. Motivated by problems in this stochastic setting we discuss criteria for convergence of certain weighted sums of the polynomials.

  1. Parity‑related Changes in Body Weight May Influence the Zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Micronutrient replacement is done indiscriminately, without recourse to peculiar socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables. Particularly, the relationship between parity, body weight, and some micronutrients has received minimal attention in Nigeria. Aim: To determine the relationship between parity, ...

  2. A Multidisciplinary Study of Ciguatoxin and Related Low Molecular Weight Toxins from Marine Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Prorocentrum lima . Bull. Jpns. Soc. Sci. Fish. 4a:69-72, 1982. 11. Banner, A.H., S. Sasaki, P. Helfrich, C.B. Nender and P.J. Scheuer. Bioassay of...Ln ADa I iic Ek A MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF CIGUATOXIN AND SRELATED LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT TOXINS FROM MARINE SOURCES ANNUAL REPORT LESLIE E. BAILEY...MOLECULAR WEIGHT TOXINS FROM MARINE SOURCES ANNUAL REPORT LESLIE E. BAILEY YOSHITSUGI HOKAMA JAMES T. MIYAHARA PAUL J. SCHEUER AUGUST 1986 Supported by

  3. [Eating attitudes, attitudes related to weight gain, and body satisfaction of pregnant adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliboni, Carolina Marques; Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    To assess attitudes about eating, weight gain and body image of pregnant adolescents. Pregnant adolescents (n=67) were assessed using the Body Image Questionnaire, the Attitude towards Weight Gain during Pregnancy scale (AWGP) and questions about risk behaviors for eating disorders and unhealthy weight control practices. Associations between variables were analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson and Spearman tests. The influence of the independent variables regarding skipping meals, body satisfaction and binge eating was evaluated by logistic regression. The average age of the adolescents was 15.3 years (SD=1.14) and their average gestational age was 21.9 weeks (SD=6.53). The average AWGP score was 52.6 points, indicating a positive attitude towards weight gain, and 82.1% of the pregnant girls were satisfied with their bodies. Obese girls had more body dissatisfaction (p=0.001), and overweight girls thought more about food (p=0.02) and eating (p=0.03). The frequency of reported binge eating was 41.8%, and the frequency of skipping meals was 19%. Regression analysis showed that the current Body Mass Index (p=0.03; OR=1.18) and the importance of body awareness and fitness before pregnancy (p=0.03; OR=4.63) were predictors of skipping meals. Higher socioeconomic level (p=0.04; OR=0.55) and greater concern with weight gain (p=0.03; OR=0.32) predicted binge eating. Even though the majority of the pregnant adolescents had positive attitudes toward weight gain and body satisfaction, those heavier and more concerned with weight gain had a higher risk of unhealthy attitudes, while those of lower social class, less concerned with weight gain and less embarrassed about their bodies during pregnancy, had a lower risk of unhealthy attitudes.

  4. Associations between different forms of body dissatisfaction and the use of weight-related behaviors among a representative population-based sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Weight management strategies have two components: weight goals and behaviors to reach weight goals. In the literature, weight goals and weight-related behaviors have both been linked with body dissatisfaction separately, but have rarely been examined simultaneously. This paper examines the associations between different forms of body dissatisfaction and various weight-related behaviors and investigates the moderating role of weight goals in these associations. Measures included weight goals (matching or mismatching current weight status), self-reported frequencies of use of weight-related behaviors, and a body dissatisfaction measure (strength of aspiring for weight gain or weight loss) from a representative population-based sample of adolescents (n = 2,346, 51 % female). Sex-specific multilevel logistic and ordinal regression analyses indicated that aspiring for a thinner body among girls was associated with more frequent use of healthy and unhealthy behaviors, whereas body dissatisfaction of any type among boys was linked to more frequent use of unhealthy behaviors. Girls aspiring for substantial weight loss and boys aspiring for substantial weight gain were more likely to use disordered health behaviors. Aiming for a goal that is mismatched with current weight status increases the use of unhealthy behaviors among body dissatisfied adolescents. We conclude that in order to elaborate interventions aimed at promoting health, research should focus on processes leading to specific forms of body dissatisfaction which in turn produce varying frequencies of use of weight-related behaviors.

  5. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brewis, Alexandra; Laska, Melissa; Todd, Michael; Hruschka, Daniel; Schaefer, David R; Whisner, Corrie M; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-08-30

    The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  6. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Bruening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. Methods The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month. University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Discussion Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  7. Parents' perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with excess weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Maria Romero Nascimento

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n = 170 and with overweight/obesity (n = 127, from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50 were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. RESULTS: Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (p < 0.01; d = 0.49, self-esteem (p < 0.01; d = 0.38, parental impact-emotional (p < 0.05; d= 0.29, family cohesion (p < 0.05; d = 0.26, physical summary score (p < 0.05;d = 0.29, and psychosocial summary score (p < 0.05; d = 0.25. In the multiple regression models, the variables with the highest contribution to the variation in HRQOL scores were: in the physical functioning domain, parental impact-time (ß = 0.23; p < 0.05; self-esteem, nutritional status (ß = -0.18;p ≤ 0.01; emotional impact on parents, impact on parents' time (ß = 0.31; p < 0.05; and in family cohesion, global behavior (ß = 0.30;p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A negative impact on HRQOL of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity was observed in the physical and psychosocial aspects. The nutritional status was the variable with the greatest contribution for the assessment the self-esteem of children and adolescents in this study.

  8. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version o...

  9. Depressive symptoms in women's midlife in relation to their body weight before, during and after childbearing years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    . Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Compared with normal-weight, we found that underweight, overweight and obesity were associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms (1.29, 1.24 and 1.73, respectively). Compared......OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine how weight and weight changes related to pregnancy were associated with depressive symptoms 11-16 years after childbirth. METHOD: We followed 16,998 first-time mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort up till 16 years after birth and estimated...... associations between depressive symptoms and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (kg m(-2)), weight changes in different time periods, and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 years after birth (WCBMI, cm). Depressive symptoms were estimated by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression 10-item scale...

  10. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Lu; Zhen, Weng-Ya; Wang, Le-Feng; Pan, Meng; Lv, Jia-Qian; Wang, Fan; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is a bioactive compound with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PSG-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results showed that PSG-1 protected mice against CTX-mediated immunosuppression, as evidenced by enhancing the ratios of thymus and spleen weights to body weight, promoting T cell and B cell survival, and increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-2. Apoptosis, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the immune organs of the immunosuppressed animals were ameliorated by PSG-1. The immune benefits of PSG-1 were associated with the enhancement of the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the immune organs, implying that antioxidant activities of PSG-1 may play an important role in PSG-1-evoked immune protection. Taken together, these findings have demonstrated that PSG-1 may ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression through reducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Laparoscopic Resection of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1 were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

  12. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  13. Effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the growth, immune function and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency up-regulated the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), Fas ligand (FasL), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase -2, -3, -7, -8 and -9, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), whereas it depressed the glutathione (GSH) contents and antioxidant enzymes activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and tight junction complexes to attenuate fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesions morbidity. Finally, based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and the ability to combat skin hemorrhage and lesions, the dietary available phosphorus requirements for young grass carp (254.56-898.23 g) were estimated to be 4.10 and 4.13 g/kg diet, respectively. In summary, phosphorus deficiency decreases the growth

  14. Prolyl carboxypeptidase in Agouti-related Peptide neurons modulates food intake and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bruschetta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism by inactivating hypothalamic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH levels. Although detected in the arcuate nucleus, limited PRCP expression has been observed in the arcuate POMC neurons, and its site of action in regulating metabolism is still ill-defined. Methods: We performed immunostaining to assess the localization of PRCP in arcuate Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related Peptide (NPY/AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic explants were then used to assess the intracellular localization of PRCP and its release at the synaptic levels. Finally, we generated a mouse model to assess the role of PRCP in NPY/AgRP neurons of the arcuate nucleus in the regulation of metabolism. Results: Here we show that PRCP is expressed in NPY/AgRP-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus. In hypothalamic explants, stimulation by ghrelin increased PRCP concentration in the medium and decreased PRCP content in synaptic extract, suggesting that PRCP is released at the synaptic level. In support of this, hypothalamic explants from mice with selective deletion of PRCP in AgRP neurons (PrcpAgRPKO showed reduced ghrelin-induced PRCP concentration in the medium compared to controls mice. Furthermore, male PrcpAgRPKO mice had decreased body weight and fat mass compared to controls. However, this phenotype was sex-specific as female PrcpAgRPKO mice show metabolic differences only when challenged by high fat diet feeding. The improved metabolism of PrcpAgRPKO mice was associated with reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and hypothalamic α-MSH levels. Administration of SHU9119, a potent melanocortin receptor antagonist, selectively in the PVN of PrcpAgRPKO male mice increased food intake to a level similar to that of control mice. Conclusions: Altogether, our data indicate that PRCP is released at the synaptic levels and that PRCP in AgRP neurons contributes to

  15. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Soyama

    Full Text Available Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa.We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage.Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38% developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00, need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25, and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13 were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage.In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to

  16. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Takano, Masashi; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa. We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38%) developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00), need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25), and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13) were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to investigate whether

  17. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  18. Histopathological study and audit of the spleen in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    underreporting both the gross and microscopic changes in the organ by pathologists. This paper therefore is a study on spleen specimens with a view to auditing the gross and microscopic description and analysing the pathological findings in splenectomy specimens with respect to gender and age. Materials and Methods.

  19. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits of the spleen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... Tables 2 and 3 show a direct relationship of the spleen length with both age and body size indices. Table 3 shows a. Pearson correlation matrix of the splenic length with other variables. The splenic length correlated best with BSA, followed by WT. The splenic length was established to be longer in males.

  20. Differential expression of heparan sulfate domains in rat spleen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the spleen is composed of a meshwork of reticulum cells and their matrix. Heparan sulfates (HS) are important components of this meshwork and are involved in processes such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytokine/growth factor binding. The expression of HS epitopes

  1. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  2. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  3. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  4. Sonographic Dimensions of the Spleen in Healthy School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spleen is the largest recticuloendothelial organ in the body which increases in size with several pathologies. Its average length and other dimensions have been documented in adults but none in children in our environment. This study is aimed at investigating with Ultrasonography the normal splenic dimensions in ...

  5. Family functioning and quality of parent-adolescent relationship: cross-sectional associations with adolescent weight-related behaviors and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horton, Nicholas J; Kleinman, Ken; Bauer, Katherine W; Davison, Kirsten K; Walton, Kathryn; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E; Gillman, Matthew W

    2016-06-14

    Little is known about how factors within the general family environment are associated with weight and related behaviors among adolescents/young adults. We studied 3768 females and 2614 males, 14-24 years old in 2011, participating in the Growing Up Today Study 2. We used generalized mixed models to examine cross-sectional associations of family functioning and quality of mother- and father-adolescent relationship with adolescent/young adult weight status, disordered eating, intake of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages, screen time, physical activity, and sleep duration. In all models, we included participant's age and family structure. Eighty percent of participants reported high family functioning and 60% and 50% of participants reported high-quality mother and father relationship, respectively. Among both males and females, high family functioning was associated with lower odds of disordered eating (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] females = 0.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.45-0.63; AOR males = 0.48; CI = 0.39-0.60), insufficient physical activity, i.e., less than 1 h/day, (AOR females = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89; AOR males = 0.73; CI = 0.58-0.92), and insufficient sleep, i.e., less than 7 h/day, (AOR females = 0.56; CI = 0.45-0.68; AOR males = 0.65; CI 0.5-0.85). High family functioning was also associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese (AOR = 0.73; CI = 0.60-0.88) and eating fast food one or more times/week (AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89) among females only. Among females, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese and disordered eating, eating fast food, and insufficient sleep and the magnitude of associations were similar for mother and father relationship quality (AOR range 0.61-0.84). Among males, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of disordered eating, insufficient physical activity

  6. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John M

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  7. Creating computer aided 3D model of spleen and kidney based based on Visible Human Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldur, Muhammad M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of computer aided 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique on visualization and modeling of gross anatomical structures with an affordable methodology applied on the spleen and kidney. From The Visible Human Project Dataset cryosection images, developed by the National Library of Medicine, the spleen and kidney sections were preferred to be used due to their highly distinct contours. The software used for the reconstruction were Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac and Cinema 4D X L version 7.1 for Mac OS X. This study was carried out in May 2004 at the Department of Anatomy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of this study, it is determined that these 2 programs could be effectively used both for 3D modeling of the mentioned organs and volumetric analyses on these models. It is also seen that it is possible to hold the physical models of these gross anatomical digital ones with stereolithography technique by means of the data exchange file format provided by the program and present such images as anaglyph. Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac OS and Cinema 4 DXL version 7.1 for Mac OS X can be used effectively for reconstruction of gross anatomical structures from serial parallel sections with distinct contours such as spleen and kidney and the animation of models. These software constitute a highly effective way of getting volumetric calculations, spatial relations and morphometrical measurements of reconstructed structures. (author)

  8. Like Mother, Like Child: The Influences of Maternal Attitudes and Behaviors on Weight-Related Health Behaviors in Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Guo, Jia; Esquivel, Jill Howie; Chesla, Catherine A

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity has become a global health issue, yet little is known about the influence of maternal factors on children's weight-related health behaviors (dietary habits and physical activity), especially in China. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of maternal factors on children's eating behaviors and physical activity in Chinese preschool-age children. A cross-sectional study was utilized to describe weight-related health behaviors among preschool-aged children and identify maternal factors that are associated with children's weight-related health behaviors in China. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding family eating and activity habits, child feeding practices, and maternal self-efficacy regarding their child's health-related health behaviors. A total of 222 mother-child dyads participated in this study. Maternal health-related behavior and attitudes regarding feeding practices and self-efficacy were associated with children's health-related behaviors, including eating behaviors and physical and sedentary activities. The influence of maternal behaviors and attitudes were domain specific. Improvement of children's health behaviors, promoting a healthy lifestyle of the mother and self-efficacy, and providing health home environment for the child are critical in obesity prevention. Because children's health is critical to the health of the nation and to global development, understanding the factors related to children's health-related behaviors is an important first step toward development of tailored, culturally sensitive interventions for promoting a healthy lifestyle and preventing obesity.

  9. Calorie Labels on the Restaurant Menu: Is the Use of Weight-Control Behaviors Related to Ordering Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    There is emerging evidence that calorie information on restaurant menus does not similarly influence the ordering decisions of all population groups and may have unintended consequences for individuals who struggle with disordered eating or other weight-related concerns. This study describes demographic patterns in the use of calorie information on restaurant menus and investigates relationships between using this information to limit calorie intake and measures of restaurant visit frequency and weight-related concerns and behavior. There were 788 men and 1042 women (mean age=31.0±1.6 years) who participated in the fourth wave of the Project EAT study. Participants were initially recruited from Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, schools and completed EAT-IV surveys online or by mail from 2015 to 2016. Participants self-reported weight-related concerns, restaurant eating, intuitive eating, dieting, healthy (eg, exercise) and unhealthy (eg, use of laxatives) weight-control behaviors, and binge eating. Descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression models accounting for demographics and weight status. Approximately half of participants (52.7%) reported they had noticed calorie information while purchasing a meal or snack in a restaurant within the previous month. Among individuals who noticed calorie information, 38.2% reported they did not use it in deciding what to order. The most common use of calorie information was to avoid high-calorie menu items (50.1%) or to decide on a smaller portion (20.2%). Using menu labels to limit calories was related to binge eating among women and was associated with more weight-related concerns, dieting, and unhealthy weight-control behaviors among both women and men. Nutrition educators and other health care professionals should talk with clients who struggle with disordered eating or weight-related concerns to learn about their use of calorie information at restaurants, address any potential unintended consequences, and promote

  10. A postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of urban Aboriginal women's description of pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-02-01

    Excessive weight gain and physical inactivity in pregnancy have been identified as risk factors for negative health outcomes for mothers and fetuses, particularly among Aboriginal women. In this paper we engage with postcolonial feminist theory and critical discourse analysis to examine the question, "how do urban Aboriginal women understand pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity." We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 25 urban Aboriginal pregnant or postpartum women between the ages of 16 and 39 in Ottawa, Canada. Three prominent discourses emerged: Aboriginal women have different pregnancies than non-Aboriginal women because Aboriginal women gain more weight and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes; Aboriginal women feel personally responsible for and shameful about excessive weight gain; finally, Aboriginal women need culturally safe pregnancy resources. Our results illuminate the complex and often paradoxical ways in which discourses around weight gain and physical activity are produced and taken-up by Aboriginal women and their healthcare providers. Based on these findings, we argue there is a lack of accessible and culturally safe resources for urban Aboriginal women, specifically concerning weight gain and physical activity in pregnancy. We recommend the development of resources that are created for/by/with Aboriginal women to better address that issues that urban Aboriginal women themselves identify as being of key importance. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Severe obesity and comorbid condition impact on the weight-related quality of life of the adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Inge, Thomas H; Modi, Avani C; Jenkins, Todd M; Michalsky, Marc P; Helmrath, Michael; Courcoulas, Anita; Harmon, Carroll M; Rofey, Dana; Baughcum, Amy; Austin, Heather; Price, Karin; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Brandt, Mary L; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    To assess links between comorbid health status, severe excess weight, and weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) in adolescents with severe obesity and undergoing weight-loss surgery (WLS) to inform clinical care. Baseline (preoperative) data from Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery, a prospective multicenter observational study of 242 adolescents with severe obesity (MedianBMI = 50.5 kg/m(2); Meanage = 17.1; 75.6% female; 71.9% white) undergoing WLS, were used to examine the impact of demographics, body mass index (BMI), presence/absence of 16 comorbid conditions, and a cumulative comorbidity load (CLoad) index on WRQOL scores (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids). WRQOL was significantly lower than reference samples of healthy weight, overweight, and obese samples. Of 16 comorbid conditions, the most prevalent were dyslipidemia (74.4%), chronic pain (58.3%), and obstructive sleep apnea (56.6%). Male subjects had a greater CLoad (P = .01) and BMI (P = .01), yet less impairment in total WRQOL (P conditions (eg, stress urinary incontinence) also emerged as contributors to lower WRQOL. WRQOL impairment is substantial for adolescents with severe obesity undergoing WLS, with predictors varying by sex. These patient-data highlight targets for education, support, and adjunctive care referrals before WLS. Furthermore, they provide a comprehensive empirical base for understanding heterogeneity in adolescent WRQOL outcomes after WLS, as weight and comorbidity profiles change over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Weight control behaviors in dieting adolescent girls and their relation to body dissatisfaction and obsession with thinness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M Liliana A; Morán, Javier K; Frez, Scarlett H; Lagos, Carola O; Marín, María Paz F; de los Ángeles Pinto B, María; Suzarte, Érika A

    2015-01-01

    Obsession with thinness and body dissatisfaction can lead adolescents to follow unsupervised diets, which could result in risky weight control behaviors such as fasting, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives. The aim of the current study is to examine weight control behaviors in dieting adolescents and relate them to body dissatisfaction (BD) and obsession with thinness (OT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 adolescents from Valparaiso public schools to investigate risky weight control behaviors due to BD and OT scales from the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), comparing restrained eaters and non-restrained eaters. A total of 43% adolescents had followed a weight loss diet without medical supervision. The dieters had higher BD and OT values. Moderate to severe food restriction, based on expert judgment, was observed in 29.6%, and differences in the presence and severity of purging behaviors were found between the 2 groups. One third of the adolescents studied followed diets without professional supervision and had higher BD and OT values, as well as risky weight control behaviors. Overweight and obese adolescents followed more restrictive diets and developed riskier weight control behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Metabolic adaptation following massive weight loss is related to the degree of energy imbalance and changes in circulating leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Nicolas D; Johannsen, Darcy L; Tamboli, Robyn A; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A; Huizenga, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Abumrad, Naji N; Ravussin, Eric; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-12-01

    To measure changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition in obese subjects following massive weight loss achieved via bariatric surgery or calorie restriction plus vigorous exercise. Body composition and RMR were measured in 13 pairs of obese subjects retrospectively matched for sex, body mass index, weight, and age who underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) or participated in "The Biggest Loser" weight loss competition (BLC). Both groups had similar final weight loss (RYGB: 40.2 ± 12.7 kg, BLC: 48.8 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.14); however, RYGB lost a larger proportion of their weight as fat-free mass (FFM) (RYGB: 30 ± 12%, BLC: 16 ± 8% [P Calorie restriction along with vigorous exercise in BLC participants resulted in preservation of FFM and greater metabolic adaption compared to RYGB subjects despite comparable weight loss. Metabolic adaptation was related to the degree of energy imbalance and the changes in circulating leptin. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. Weight-related correlates of psychological dysregulation in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E; Zeller, Meg H

    2016-04-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI = 48.71 kg/m(2); Mage = 18.29, R = 15-21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3-4 times/week). Eating out was common (4-5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may have a multidimensional

  15. Prevalence of adolescents' self-weighing behaviors and associations with weight-related behaviors and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Loth, Katie; MacLehose, Richard; Linde, Jennifer A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    To examine the relationships between self-weighing frequency, and weight-related behaviors and psychological well-being in a population-based sample of adolescents. This study compared weight-related behaviors between infrequent and frequent self-weighers, stratified by weight status and gender. Data were from Project EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study of 2,778 adolescents. Approximately 14% of girls and boys weighed themselves frequently (weekly or more). In comparison to girls who were infrequent self-weighers, girls who were frequent self-weighers were more likely to diet, engage in unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, use unhealthy muscle-enhancing behaviors, and have lower self-esteem and greater body dissatisfaction. In comparison to boys who were infrequent self-weighers, boys who were frequent self-weighers were more likely to diet, engage in unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors, use unhealthy muscle-enhancing behaviors, and report greater depressive symptoms. Among overweight adolescents, in addition to being associated with these harmful outcomes, frequent self-weighing was associated with the use of healthy weight control behaviors and with higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous activity. Findings indicate that adolescents who frequently self-weigh themselves are at increased risk for a number of problematic health behaviors and poorer psychological outcomes. For overweight adolescents, frequent self-weighing was additionally associated with a number of positive outcomes. Based upon these findings, any recommendations for weight monitoring should be made cautiously; all adolescents, including overweight adolescents, should be advised not to engage in frequent self-weighing behaviors. Furthermore, any adolescents engaging in frequent self-weighing behaviors should be monitored for problematic outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  17. The function of the spleen in adults after ligation of the splenic artery of the traumatized spleen in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Dimitrios C; Soutis, Michael

    2003-05-01

    Ligation of the splenic artery (LSA) has been successfully used as a spleen-saving procedure in rare cases of splenic trauma in children in which management with splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomy alone was not possible. There are no data regarding the long-term effects of the procedure on the functional status of the spleen. The purpose of this study is to present and discuss our clinical and laboratory findings in adults who underwent LSA in childhood. Our first 2 patients in whom LSA was done at ages 4 and 2 years in 1977 underwent the following examinations in the year 2000: 1, imaging of the spleen; 2, immunologic studies; and 3, peripheral blood tests. Their ages at reexamination were 27 and 25 years, respectively. Results were as follows: triplex ultrasound revealed normal size and echomorphology; Doppler techniques revealed normal vasculature; 99mTc-Tin colloid scanning revealed normal uptake. Immunoglobulins (IgG1 to IgG4, IgA, IgM, IgE), complement fraction (C3, C4), antibodies response to vaccinations, and peripheral blood tests all had normal results. No Howell-Jolly bodies were found. Laboratory investigations in adults with LSA during childhood disclosed undisturbed function of the spleen. LSA can be used as an adjunct to splenorrhaphy in children with rare splenic injuries involving major hilar vessels.

  18. Long-Term Normal Renal Function after Drastic Weight Reduction in Patients with Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpta Serra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: No long-term studies of renal function evolution in morbidly obese (MO patients after weight loss are available. The aim of our work was to ascertain the long-term influence of drastic weight reduction on renal function in MO patients with obesity-related glomerular lesions. Methods: 92 MO patients with normal renal function and biopsy evidence of mild obesity-related glomerulopathy underwent bariatric surgery (BS and subsequent drastic weight loss. A long-term prospective follow-up (mean duration: 76 ± 42 months was carried out. Basal renal biopsies and basal and long-term metabolic and renal function studies were performed in all cases. Linear mixed models were applied. Results: Blood pressure dropped early after BS and remained stable thereafter. Creatinine clearance and BMI fell in the first 2 years, rose slightly after 5 years and then remained stable. Serum creatinine and albuminuria decreased throughout the follow-up period. Renal function and albuminuria evolution showed non-significant differences in relation to the number of glomerular lesions. Conclusions: Drastic weight loss in BS-treated MO patients with pre-surgical normal renal function and mild obesity-related glomerular lesions is associated with short- and long-term maintenance of normal renal function and improvement in both arterial hypertension and albuminuria.

  19. Changes in body weight in relation to mortality in 6441 European middle-aged men : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E T; Seidell, J C; Menotti, A.; Arayanis, C; Dontas, A; Fidanza, F; Karvonen, M.; Nedeljkovic, S; Nissinen, A.; Buzina, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the relation between changes in body weight and subsequent mortality. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Population study. SUBJECTS: 6441 men aged 40-59 y at baseline participating in the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The men were divided into groups

  20. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  1. A Comparison of Weight-Related Behaviors among High School Students Who Are Homeless and Non-Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Mary E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Samples, Cathryn L.; Goodenow, Carol S.; Wylie, Sarah A.; Corliss, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that youth who are homeless engage in high-risk behaviors. However, there has been little information published on nutritional and physical activity behaviors in this population, and studies comparing homeless youth in school with their non-homeless peers are scarce. This study compares weight-related risk…

  2. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  3. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Fall, C. H. D.; van Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and

  4. Associations of Adolescent Weight Status and Meeting National Obesity-Related Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica A.; McCormick, Emily V.; Mickiewicz, Theresa E.; Davidson, Arthur J.; Main, Deborah S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adolescent overweight and obesity are serious health risks, with prevalence varying by sociodemographic group. Studies link children's weight status and sex/race-ethnic differences with meeting recommendations for physical activity and diet. But, research examining the intersection of sociodemographic characteristics, behavior, and…

  5. Gender Orientation and Alcohol-Related Weight Control Behavior among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L.; Barr, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants: Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Method: Weight…

  6. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  7. Childhood Height and Birth Weight in Relation to Future Prostate Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Gamborg, Michael; Aarestrup, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Adult height has been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the exposure window of importance is currently unknown and assessments of height during earlier growth periods are scarce. In addition, the association between birth weight and prostate cancer remains undetermined. We...

  8. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73

  9. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  10. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  11. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F.; Wise, Lauren A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in black compared to white women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. Design We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged less than age 55 in the longitudinal Black Women’s Health Study which began in 1995. Main Outcome Measures We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). Results The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity for was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Conclusions Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk. PMID:22764643

  12. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia E; Wise, Lauren A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for Black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in Black compared to White women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged Women's Health Study, which began in 1995. We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk.

  13. Histopathological effects of sodium nitrite on the spleen of male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Juibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrite and nitrate are common additives in meat processed products. In spite of all technological advantages of nitrite, creation of nitrosamine carcinogenic substances causes a lot of concerns for use of these additives. In this study, the histopatological effects of sodium nitrite on the splenic tissue in adult male and female rats were evaluated. Material and method: In recent studies, 60 adult male and female rats strain Vistar, divided in 6 groups of 10. They were examined for 60 day, and they (male and female rats separately were divided in 175 mg/kg/day dose recipient group, 350 mg/kg/day dose recipient group and control group which was absorbed nitrite through drinking water. At the end of day 60, using cotton dipped in ether in the jar of anesthesia, were anesthetized. After anesthesia, blood from the left ventricle was taken .the spleen was taking out of body, and then tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. The samples were stained with Hematoxilin- Eozin method. In both sex, factors like morphometric and morphologic from spleen tissue, body weight changes before and after test and blood NOx level was checked. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 17 with using Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. P value of less than 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. Result: The results showed that consume of sodium nitrite, cause background inflammation type of Mononuclear in both sex, especially around the pulp. Also, in both sex NOx levels in the blood of animals in the group receiving 350 mg/ kg and group receiving 175 mg of sodium nitrite per kg compared with the control group, significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Considering of this study and other studies, Nitrite can cause damage to blood vessels, liver, spleen and other organs. Also sodium nitrite has to switching to other food preservatives.

  14. Mouse B- and T-cell colony formation in vitro. I. Separation of colony-promoting and -inhibiting activities in concanavalin A rat spleen conditioned medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claësson, M H; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Röpke, C

    1984-01-01

    Rat spleen cell cultures exposed for 24 h to concanavalin A (Con A-CM) contain, in addition to interleukin 2 (IL-2), factors that promote colony formation in vitro by mouse T cells (TCPA) and B cells (BCPA). TCPA and BCPA are separable on a Sephadex G-75 column. TCPA has a molecular weight of 15...

  15. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Managing cancer-related venous thromboembolic disease: low-molecular-weight heparins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Casey L; Liebman, Howard A

    2008-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of patients with cancer. For patients undergoing cancer surgery, several trials support the safety and efficacy of unfractionated heparin and of low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism, while data regarding the efficacy and safety of these agents in the setting of medical hospitalization is less definitive and must be extracted from trials including noncancer patients with different thrombotic risk factors. Randomized clinical studies confirm that patients with cancer who develop venous thromboembolism have superior outcomes when treated with long-term low-molecular-weight heparin as compared with warfarin. Novel anticoagulants that are orally bioavailable and function by directly inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin are entering the market. To date, data regarding the efficacy and safety of these novel anticoagulants as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and treatment in cancer patients are not available and must be extracted from larger trials with heterogeneous patient populations.

  17. Trauma and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in relation to obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week...... of treatment, 17 participants (57%) qualified for the diagnosis of PTSD when measured by a standardised checklist for PTSD symptoms. By week 16, only 6 participants (20%) qualified for the PTSD diagnosis. The findings are discussed in terms of cognitive theories of PTSD....

  18. Depressive symptoms in women's midlife in relation to their body weight before, during and after childbearing years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, A.; Kirkegaard, H.; Olsen, J.; Sørensen, T. I. A.; Nohr, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective This study aimed to examine how weight and weight changes related to pregnancy were associated with depressive symptoms 11–16 years after childbirth. Method We followed 16,998 first‐time mothers from the Danish National Birth Cohort up till 16 years after birth and estimated associations between depressive symptoms and pre‐pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (kg m−2), weight changes in different time periods, and BMI‐adjusted waist circumference 7 years after birth (WCBMI, cm). Depressive symptoms were estimated by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression 10‐item scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results Compared with normal‐weight, we found that underweight, overweight and obesity were associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms (1.29, 1.24 and 1.73, respectively). Compared with weight change ±1 BMI unit during the total follow‐up period, greater odds for depressive symptoms were observed with weight loss (OR 1.14, 0.96–1.36) or gain of 2–2.99 kg m−2 (OR 1.11, 0.92–1.33) or gain of ≥3 kg m−2 (OR 1.68, 1.46–1.94). WCBMI > 2.2 cm was associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms (OR 1.16, 0.99–1.36) than waist circumference as predicted by BMI. Conclusion Low and high pre‐pregnancy BMI, weight changes and WCBMI larger than predicted were associated with more depressive symptoms in midlife. PMID:28090347

  19. Association between weight and risk of crash-related injuries for children in child restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-12-01

    To determine the association between weight and the risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) for children 1 through 8 years of age who were using child restraints. This was a cross-sectional study of children 1 to 8 years of age in MVCs, in which cases from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used. Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of ≥2 indicated clinically significant injuries. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System study sample included 650 children 1 to 5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints who weighed 20 to 65 lb and 344 children 3 to 8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats who weighed 30 to 100 lb. With adjustment for seating position, type of vehicle, direction of impact, crash severity, and vehicle model year, there was no association between absolute weight and clinically significant injuries in either age group (odds ratio: 1.17 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.42] for children 1-5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints and 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.55] for children 3-8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats). The risk of clinically significant injuries was not associated with weight across a broad weight range in this sample of children in MVCs who were using child restraint systems. Parents should continue to restrain their children according to current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  20. A Multidisciplinary Study of Ciguatoxin and Related Low Molecular Weight Toxins from Marine Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    1982) examined the constituents of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima , he made the surprising discovery that on TLC analysis one of the...dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima . Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 48:69-72. NuKINA, M., L. M. KOYANArI, AND P. J. SCHEUER. 1984. Two interchangeable forms of...Weight Toxins frou, Marine Sources 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bailey, Leslie E., Hokama, Yoshitsugi, Miyahara, James T., and Scheuer, Paul J. 13, TYPE OF

  1. Sex differences in the relation of weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms to weight loss success in a residential obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women.

  2. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simiao Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses, with consideration of body mass index (BMI at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”, ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women. For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan. A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF increased gradually; body fat (BF remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL and body lean (BL declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan.

  3. A Mindfulness-Based Decentering Technique Increases the Cognitive Accessibility of Health and Weight Loss Related Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Tapper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a mindfulness-based decentering technique can help individuals resist eating chocolate over a 5-day period. However, it is unclear how this technique exerts its effect. This study explored one potential mechanism; that decentering increases the cognitive accessibility of relevant goals. Male and female participants (n = 90 spent 5 min practicing either a decentering or relaxation (control technique. They then viewed a picture of a chocolate bar for 3 min whilst either applying the decentering technique or letting their mind wander (control. Finally, all participants completed 20 letter strings, rated their motivation for weight loss and for healthy eating, and indicated whether or not they were dieting to lose weight. As predicted, those who had applied the decentering technique produced a greater number of health and weight loss related words when completing the letter strings, compared to those who had simply let their mind wander (p < 0.001. However, contrary to predictions, these effects were not significantly greater amongst those who were more motivated to lose weight or eat healthily, or amongst those who were dieting to lose weight, though the means were in the predicted directions. The results suggest that this particular mindfulness technique may increase the accessibility of relevant goals. Further research would be needed to (a compare effects with other strategies that prompt individuals to remember their goals, (b examine other potential mechanisms of action, and (c confirm that effects on self-control are mediated by increased goal accessibility.

  4. Changes in mouse thymus and spleen after return from the STS-135 mission in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daila S Gridley

    Full Text Available Our previous results with flight (FLT mice showed abnormalities in thymuses and spleens that have potential to compromise immune defense mechanisms. In this study, the organs were further evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after Space Shuttle Atlantis returned from a 13-day mission. Thymuses and spleens were harvested from FLT mice and ground controls housed in similar animal enclosure modules (AEM. Organ and body mass, DNA fragmentation and expression of genes related to T cells and cancer were determined. Although significance was not obtained for thymus mass, DNA fragmentation was greater in the FLT group (P<0.01. Spleen mass alone and relative to body mass was significantly decreased in FLT mice (P<0.05. In FLT thymuses, 6/84 T cell-related genes were affected versus the AEM control group (P<0.05; up: IL10, Il18bp, Il18r1, Spp1; down: Ccl7, IL6; 15/84 cancer-related genes had altered expression (P<0.05; up: Casp8, FGFR2, Figf, Hgf, IGF1, Itga4, Ncam1, Pdgfa, Pik3r1, Serpinb2, Sykb; down: Cdc25a, E2F1, Mmp9, Myc. In the spleen, 8/84 cancer-related genes were affected in FLT mice compared to AEM controls (P<0.05; up: Cdkn2a; down: Birc5, Casp8, Ctnnb1, Map2k1, Mdm2, NFkB1, Pdgfa. Pathway analysis (apoptosis signaling and checkpoint regulation was used to map relationships among the cancer-related genes. The results showed that a relatively short mission in space had a significant impact on both organs. The findings also indicate that immune system aberrations due to stressors associated with space travel should be included when estimating risk for pathologies such as cancer and infection and in designing appropriate countermeasures. Although this was the historic last flight of NASA's Space Shuttle Program, exploration of space will undoubtedly continue.

  5. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  6. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...... of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas....

  7. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  8. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  9. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  11. Comparative study on glucocerebrosidase in spleens from patients with Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Donker-Koopman, W. E.; Brul, S.; van Weely, S.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.; Schram, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Gaucher disease (glucosylceramide lipidosis), deficiency of glucocerebrosidase causes pathological storage of glucosylceramide, particularly in the spleen. A comparative biochemical and immunological analysis has therefore been made of glucocerebrosidase in spleens from normal subjects (n = 4)

  12. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  13. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  14. Cardiovascular mortality in relation to birth weight of children and grandchildren in 500,000 Norwegian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Oyvind; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Hoff, Dominic A; Nystad, Wenche; Magnus, Per; Tverdal, Aage; Davey Smith, George

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been related to low birth weight, suggesting the foetal environment may program future risk. Alternatively, common genetic factors for both low birth weight and CVD could explain such associations. We investigated associations between offspring birth weight and paternal and maternal cardiovascular mortality and offspring birth weight and cardiovascular mortality among all four grandparents, and further assessed the mediating role of maternal smoking during pregnancy. All births from 1967 to 2008 that could be linked to parents and grandparents comprised the population (n = 1,004,255). The mortality follow-up among parents was from 1970 to 2008 and among grandparents from 1960 to 2008. The association of grandparental mortality with maternal smoking during pregnancy was analysed in a subpopulation of those born after 1997 (n = 345,624). Per quintile higher in birth weight was related to 0.82 (0.75-0.89) hazard ratio from coronary heart disease in mothers and 0.94 (0.92-0.97) in fathers. For stroke, these were 0.85 (0.78-0.92) and 0.94 (0.89-1.00), respectively. In grandparents for cardiovascular causes, the effects were 0.95 (0.93-0.96) (maternal grandmother), 0.97 (0.96-0.98) (maternal grandfather), 0.96 (0.94-0.98) (paternal grandmother), and 0.98 (0.98-1.00) (paternal grandfather). Adjusting for maternal smoking in pregnancy in the subpopulation accounted for much of the effect on grandparental cardiovascular mortality in all categories of birth weight. For grandparental diabetes mortality, U-shaped associations were seen with grandchild birth weight for the maternal grandmother and inverse associations for all other grandparents. Associations between CVD mortality in all four grandparents and grandchild birth weight exist, and while genetic and environmental factors may contribute to these, it appears that there is an important role for maternal smoking during pregnancy (and associated paternal smoking) in generating these

  15. Birth-Weight, Pregnancy Term, Pre-Natal and Natal Complications Related to Child's Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.

  16. Comparison of gestational weight gain-related pregnancy outcomes in American primiparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to determine whether these tradeoffs also differ by parity among women in a contemporary American birth cohort. DESIGN: Data from 822 primiparous and 2055 multiparous American women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007), a national cohort study, were analyzed......: These findings extend the concept of a lower optimal GWG among multiparous than primiparous women to American women....

  17. Low birth weight: Is it related to assisted reproductive technology or underlying infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Laxmi A.; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, we have witnessed a successful evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), with improvement of the pregnancy rates and a growing demand. However, in recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding its safety due to the potential health impact on its infants. The raise of the developmental origins of adult disease has positioned low birth weight (LBW) as a significant health issue. Despite multiple studies have associated ART with LBW, the etiology of this association remains largely unknown. This paper reviews the potential association between different components of ART and infertility with LBW, while acknowledging the limitations to interpretation of the existing literature. PMID:23375144

  18. SOME RELATED FACTORS AND SITUATION OF BODY WEIGHT IN ATATÜRK UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat VANÇELİK

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the weight situations of the students of Atatürk University, and to reveal the factors which might influence body of weight. The study was carried out between May and June 2004. The population of the study consisted of seventeen thousands students attending their formal education in Atatürk University Campus. It was determined that the number of the students including in the study was 1250, but the participation rate in the study was 89.6% (1120 person. With simple randomized method, which classroom of each faculty would be included in the sampling was determined. All the students in determined classroom were included in the study content. Percent of the male students were 60.6 % and single students were 96.6% . Mean age of students were 21.6 ± 1.9 year, average body mass index (BMI value was 21.9 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher in the male students, and the thinness were higher in female students. It was found out that there was no statistically significant distinction in terms of BMI values averages according to their making regular sport, using alcohol and smoking and taking nutrition education. There was significant correlation between BMI score and monthly personal income.

  19. Binge Eating and Weight-Related Quality of Life in Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Keil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exist regarding the association between binge eating and quality of life (QOL in obese adolescent girls and boys. We, therefore, studied binge eating and QOL in 158 obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile adolescents (14.5 ± 1.4 years, 68.0% female, 59% African-American prior to weight-loss treatment. Youth completed an interview to assess binge eating and a questionnaire measure of QOL. Controlling for body composition, binge eating youth (n = 35, overall, reported poorer QOL in domains of health, mobility, and self-esteem compared to those without binge eating ( ps < 0.05. Also, girls, overall, reported poorer QOL than boys in activities of daily-living, mobility, self-esteem, and social/interpersonal functioning (ps < 0.05. Girls with binge eating reported the greatest impairments in activities of daily living, mobility, self-esteem, social/interpersonal functioning, and work/school QOL (ps < 0.05. Among treatment-seeking obese adolescents, binge eating appears to be a marker of QOL impairment, especially among girls. Prospective and treatment designs are needed to explore the directional relationship between binge eating and QOL and their impact on weight outcomes.

  20. IgG4-related kidney disease: MRI findings with emphasis on the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Jin Hee, E-mail: kimjhrad@amc.seoul.kr; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To investigate the imaging findings of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to evaluate the usefulness of DWI in lesion detection. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 31 patients with IgG4-KD who underwent MRI covering both kidneys. Two radiologists reviewed in consensus the MR images to determine the distribution pattern (location, laterality, and multiplicity) and the visually assessed signal intensity (hypointense, isointense or hyperintense) of the renal lesions compared to the normal renal parenchyma on each sequence. Per-patient sensitivity for detecting IgG4-KD and the number of detectable lesions were compared in T2-weighted images, DWI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Results: IgG4-KD typically manifested as bilateral (83.9%), multiple (93.5%), and renal parenchymal (87.1%) nodules appearing isointense (93.5%) on T1-weighted images, hypointense (77.4%) on T2-weighted images, hyperintense (100%) on DWI (b = 1000), and hypointense (83.3%) in the arterial phase and with a progressive enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced images. The sensitivity of DWI for detecting IgG4-KD was significantly higher than that of T2-weighted images (100% vs. 77.4%, P = 0.034). The median number of detectable lesions was significantly greater in DWI (n = 9) than in T2-weighted images (n = 2) and dynamic contrast-enhanced images (n = 5) (P ≤ 0.008). Conclusions: The characteristic MRI findings of IgG4-KD were bilateral, multiple, renal parenchymal nodules with T2 hypointensity, diffusion restriction, and a progressive enhancement pattern. As DWI was useful in the detection of IgG4-KD, adding DWI to conventional MRI for patients suspected of having IgG4-KD may enhance the diagnosis.

  1. A comparison of weight-related behaviors among high school students who are homeless and non-homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Mary E; Austin, S Bryn; Samples, Cathryn L; Goodenow, Carol S; Wylie, Sarah A; Corliss, Heather L

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has shown that youth who are homeless engage in high-risk behaviors. However, there has been little information published on nutritional and physical activity behaviors in this population, and studies comparing homeless youth in school with their non-homeless peers are scarce. This study compares weight-related risk behaviors of public high school students in Massachusetts based on homeless status. We obtained data from 3264 9th through 12th grade students who participated in the 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Multivariable logistic regression, controlling for gender, grade, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation, was performed to assess the relationship between homeless status as defined by the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and weight-related indicators. Analyses were weighted and adjusted for the multistage complex sampling design. Of this sample, 4.2% reported being homeless (n = 152). Higher prevalence of homelessness was found among males, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual minorities, and students who were not in a traditional grade level. The distribution of body mass index was similar among students who were homeless and non-homeless (underweight 4.0 and 3.0%, and overweight 27.1 and 27.1%, respectively). Homeless students were more likely than non-homeless students to report disordered weight-control behaviors including fasting (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5) and diet pill use (aOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6-6.9). More than 4% of public high school students in Massachusetts meet the federal definition of homelessness. These students are at high risk for disordered weight-control behaviors. Policy decisions at the school, state, and federal levels should make a concerted effort to target these students with social services and nutritional interventions.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: Developmental Trajectories of Eating and Weight-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...

  3. Weight, socio-demographics, and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in first year university students

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine differences in socio-demographics and health behaviour between Belgian first year university students who attended all final course exams and those who did not. Secondly, this study aimed to identify weight and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in those students who attended all course exams. Methods: Anthropometrics of 101 first year university students were measured at both the beginning of the first (T1) and second (T2) s...

  4. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvin Antoine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight for body mass index (BMI. Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059 for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04. Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting

  5. Contextual care of the patient following weight-loss surgery: Relational views and maintenance activities of couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu Alegría, Christine; Larsen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Weight-loss surgery (WLS) is a popular means toward achieving weight loss. Numerous studies report on the psychological and physical benefits of the procedure. Patients who have supportive others often demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to those who may not have support. The present study examines relationship maintenance activities that may contribute to a couple's positive adjustment following WLS, along with relational views that may modify and evolve as patients continue to lose weight. Eleven heterosexual couples in which the female had WLS participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews. A deductive method of analysis was used to categorize relationship maintenance activities; an inductive method was used to examine relational views. Six types of relationship maintenance activities proved beneficial following WLS: (1) openness, (2) assurances, (3) food/meals as shared tasks, (4) joint activities, (5) antisocial, and (6) affection. In describing their relational views, participants spoke to the increasing independence, confidence, and self-focus of those who had had WLS. A persistent fat identity was also reported. The findings can provide advanced practice nurses and other clinicians additional insight into, and strategies to assist, couples who have experienced, or will experience, WLS within their relationship. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  7. Cross channel infections: nostalgia, spleen and the construction of national character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    In the nineteenth century, both spleen and nostalgia were considered clinical categories, and each associated with the character of a nation. English medical commentators boasted of their compatriots' resistance to nostalgia, an often fatal form of homesickness, while the French in turn argued that the splenetic English were flocking to France to escape their own insalubrious climate. Behind such jingoistic claims were broader concerns, on both sides of the channel but particularly acute for the French, about the impact of modernity on subjectivity, the relation between home, homeland and empire, and the fitness of both nations to succeed in the modern age.

  8. Selective spleen scintigraphy to evaluate frequency of splenosis after posttraumatic splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, A.; Tischler, E.; Mahlstedt, J.; Wolf, F.; Meier, H.

    1981-01-01

    In 60 patients having had posttraumatic splenectomy between 9 months and 12 years ago frequency of splenosis was investigated in comparison to immunological and hematological parameters. Selective spleen scintigraphy was performed with sup(99m)-Tc-labelled heat-damaged auto-erythrocytes. In 46,7% of the patients splenosis was found without age dependence. Between patients with and without splenosis no significant differences concerning the immunological and hematological parameters were seen. Therefore, the lack of pathological manifestations after posttraumatic splenectomy is not to be related to autotransplantation of splenic tissue. (orig.) [de

  9. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size......, affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment...... in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (1985-1996). For each birth, maternal prepregnancy BMI and WC were measured at year 0 (baseline), 2, 5, or 7 examinations. Recalled GWG and breastfeeding behavior were collected at years 7 and 10. GWG was analyzed by using linear regression...

  10. [Relative weight of the recipient's benefits and the donor's costs in determining the magnitude of indebtedness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, A

    1988-02-01

    Greenberg (1980) proposed that the magnitude of indebtedness (I) was a function of the recipient's benefits (B) from the aid attempt plus the donor's costs (C). This relationship is expressed by the equation I = x1B + x2C, x1 greater than x2, where x1 and x2 are empirically determined weights. The present study examined the validity of this equation. The subjects, 272 university students, were asked to place themselves in the role of a hypothetical student confronted with each of 32 different situations in which the student needed some aid from others, and to answer a series of questions regarding their reactions. A multiple regression analysis validated the equation in 23 out of the 32 situations. In situations in which the outcome of the aid attempt was successful with low cost for the donor, there was a tendency for the subjects to estimate x1 to be smaller than x2(x1 less than x2).

  11. Modeling the relation between obesity and sleep parameters in children referred for dietary weight reduction intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Rebecca; Althouse, Andrew; Yaqub, Yasir; Nugent, Kenneth; Raj, Rishi

    2014-08-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have demonstrated that short sleep periods increase the likelihood of obesity in children. This study was designed to identify other less-clearly defined sleep and behavioral patterns associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) in obese children referred for interventions. We retrospectively reviewed the clinic records of children with obesity and children at risk for developing obesity who were referred for counseling and weight loss. Information on sleep habits, pediatric quality of life, pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ), and the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale were analyzed, and children were distributed into three behavior groups using cluster analysis. Our sample contained 48 girls and 29 boys with an age range of 2.7 to 16.8 years. The mean BMI was 33.08 ± 7.37 kg/m(2), and mean sleep duration was 9.09 ± 1.09 hours. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant interaction between sleep duration and age when the child was older than 12 years. A 1-hour increase in sleep in older children was associated with a decrease in BMI of 1.263 kg/m(2). Higher (more abnormal) pediatric quality-of-life school scores, higher PSQ1 and PSQ2 scores, and higher pediatric daytime sleepiness scale scores were associated with an increased BMI in univariate analyses but not in the multivariate analysis using the behavior group as an independent predictor. Children who shared a bedroom had a lower BMI in univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis. Longer sleep periods are associated with a decreased BMI, even in children who already meet the criteria for obesity. These children have poor-quality sleep, diurnal behavioral problems, and increased diurnal sleepiness. This study suggests that studies in obese children using questionnaires about sleep habits and quality of life provide useful information that could lead to better weight loss intervention studies.

  12. Is resected stomach volume related to weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagat Pal; Tantia, Om; Chaudhuri, Tamonas; Khanna, Shashi; Patil, Prateek H

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was initially performed as the first stage of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch for the treatment of super-obese or high-risk obese patients but is now most commonly performed as a standalone operation. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate outcomes after LSG according to resected stomach volume. Between May 2011 and April 2013, LSG was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Two patients were excluded, and data from the remaining 100 patients were analyzed in this study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the following resected stomach volume: 700-1,200 mL (group A, n = 21), 1,200-1,700 mL (group B, n = 62), and >1,700 mL (group C, n = 17). Mean values were compared among the groups by analysis of variance. The mean percentage excess body weight loss (%EBWL) at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery was 37.68 ± 10.97, 50.97 ± 13.59, 62.35 ± 11.31, and 67.59 ± 9.02 %, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean %EBWL among the three groups. Resected stomach volume was greater in patients with higher preoperative body mass index and was positively associated with resected stomach weight. Mean %EBWL after LSG was not significantly different among three groups of patients divided according to resected stomach volume. Resected stomach volume was significantly greater in patients with higher preoperative body mass index.

  13. Relative shrinkage of adipocytes by paraffin in proportion to plastic embedding in human adipose tissue before and after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; van Dijk, Paul; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Adipocyte size is a major modulator of endocrine functioning of adipose tissue and methods allowing accurate determination of adipocyte size are important to study energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the relative shrinkage of adipocytes before and after weight loss by comparing adipose tissue from the same subjects embedded in paraffin and plastic. 18 healthy subjects (5 males and 13 females) aged 20-50 y with a BMI of 28-38 kg/m² followed a very low energy diet for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue biopsies were taken prior to and after weight loss and were processed for paraffin and plastic sections. Parameters of adipocyte size were determined with computer image analysis. Mean adipocyte size was smaller in paraffin compared to plastic embedded tissue both before (66 ± 4 vs. 103 ± 5 μm, P paraffin embedded tissue in proportion to plastic embedded tissue was not significantly different before and after weight loss (73 and 69%, respectively). Shrinkage due to the type of embedding of the adipose tissue can be ignored when comparing before and after weight loss. Plastic embedding of adipose tissue provides more accurate and sensitive results. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Acute illness following chicken pox: spleen infarction as a complication of varicella zoster infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeninga, Nynke; Willemze, Annemieke J; Emonts, Marieke; Appel, Inge M

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause temporary acquired protein S or C deficiency via cross reacting antibodies and consequently inducing a hypercoagulable state. A 6-year-old girl with a history of congenital cardiac disease was seen at an Emergency Department with acute chest pain, dyspnoea and fever, seven days after developing chicken pox. Diagnostic tests revealed massive infarction of the spleen, and a protein S and C deficiency. In addition, blood cultures revealed a Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). The patient recovered fully after treatment with low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics. In this patient, septic emboli caused splenic infarction. Thromboembolic complications should be suspected in children with VZV who present with acute symptoms, in particular if bacterial superinfection is found.

  15. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2014-01-01

    and at follow-up about 5 years later were analyzed with multiple linear regression and dietary macronutrient substitution models. Interactions between dietary protein and baseline body mass index (BMI) and baseline WC adjusted for BMI (WCBMI ) (divided in tertiles; nine groups total), were analyzed in relation...... protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  16. Bulk protein biosynthesis of the spleen and some splenic cell populations after induction of splenomegaly by application of Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammenschneider, D.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies and liquid scintillation counting were carried out in female NMRI mice just reaching maturity. All animals had received a single injection, either of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or of pertussis organism (PO) or BSA + PO. The animals were sacrificed 4 d and 10 d after this pretreatment. 2 h before decapitation, a single dose of 3 H-l phenyl alamine was applied intraperitoneally. The following results were obtained: The splenic index (splenic weight in mg/mouse weight in g) increased as a result of splenomegaly caused by PO. Morphometric data suggested an enlarged cell and nuclear area with enhanced cellular amino acid turnover and migration of RNP-containing matter into the nucleus, especially in the megakaryocytes and in lymphocytoid blastic cells. Incorporation of 3 H-l-phenylalanine per unit of dry weight of the spleen is slowed down during the experiment while amiro acid incorporation by the total spleen increases with PO-induced splenomegaly. Incorporation of amino acid per unit of dry weight is constant in all experimental and control animals. The increased amino acid incorporation in lymphocytoid blastic cells is probably caused by the immunological situations during the experiment. An explanation of total cell increase and cell increase of megakaryocytic splenic cells is attempted. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Smoking cessation-related weight gain--beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Reznick, Abraham Z; Keidar, Zohar; Karkabi, Khaled; Aizenbud, Dror

    2015-02-01

    To examine the effects of smoking cessation on body composition and muscle strength in comparison with continued smoking. Twelve-month longitudinal study of adult smokers conducted in Haifa, Israel. Eighty-one smokers recruited from a smoking cessation programme combining group counselling and varenicline treatment. Measurements were taken at the beginning of the programme and after 12 months. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength was measured by handgrip dynamometry and predicted one-repetition maximum tests. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were estimated using questionnaires. Smoking status was determined by urine cotinine. The effect of smoking cessation was assessed using univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. Forty-one participants (age 44 ± 12 years) completed all baseline and follow-up measurements (76% continued smokers; 24% quitters). All measures of body composition and muscle strength were increased among quitters when compared with continued smokers. Adjusted differences [95% confidence interval (CI)] between quitters and smokers were: body weight 4.43 kg (1.56-7.31 kg); lean mass 1.26 kg (0.24-2.28 kg); fat mass 3.15 kg (0.91-5.39 kg); bone mineral content 48.76 g (12.06-85.54 g); bone mineral density 0.024 g/cm(2) (0.004-0.043 g/cm(2) ); handgrip strength 3.6 kg (1.12-6.08 kg); predicted one-repetition maximum of chest press 7.85 kg (1.93-13.76 kg); and predicted one-repetition maximum of leg press 17.02 kg (7.29-26.75 kg). Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain mainly through accumulating extra fat, but is also associated with increased muscle mass, muscle strength and bone density. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  19. Changes in arm tissue composition with slowly progressive weight-lifting among women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Brown, Justin C; Paskett, Electra D; Zemel, Babette S; Cheville, Andrea L; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-07-01

    Studies in breast cancer-related lymphedema (BRCL) have exclusively examined total arm volume, but not the specific tissue composition that contributes to total volume. We evaluated baseline differences in arm tissue composition [fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD)] between the affected and unaffected arms in women with BRCL. We compared changes in arm tissue composition and self-reported lymphedema symptoms after 1 year of weight-lifting versus control. We utilized data from physical activity and lymphedema trial that included 141 women with BRCL. Arm tissue composition was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The severity of lymphedema was quantified using self-report survey. Weight-lifting was performed at community fitness facilities. At baseline, the affected arm had more fat (∆ = 89.7 g; P arm. After 12 months of weight-lifting, composition of the affected arm was improved: lean mass (71.2 g; P = 0.01) and BMD (14.0 mg/cm 2 ; P = 0.02) increased, arm fat percentage decreased (-1.5%; P = 0.003). Composition of the unaffected arm was only improved in lean mass (65.2 g; P = 0·04). Increases in lean mass were associated with less severe BCRL symptoms. Among women with BRCL, slowly progressive weight-lifting could improve arm tissue composition. Changes in arm tissue composition predict changes in symptom burden. Investigating the combined effects of exercise and weight loss on arm tissue composition and BCRL symptoms may provide additional insight into the benefits of lifestyle modification on lymphedema biology.

  20. The Effects of Twitter Users' Gender and Weight on Viral Behavioral Intentions Toward Obesity-Related News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Nasser; Alhabash, Saleem; Hellmueller, Lea; Willis, Erin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, male and female participants were exposed to identical news stories covering obesity topics paired with tweets from Twitter users. Our study aimed at understanding how obesity-related news combined with user-generated social media posts (i.e., tweets) affect consumers' evaluations of online content and viral behavioral intentions (the intentions to like, share, and comment). An experiment (N = 316) explored how gender and weight of a Twitter user (tweeter) affect participants' evaluations and viral behavioral intentions toward news stories. Participants differed in their evaluations of and viral behavioral intentions for news stories as a function of Twitter users' gender and weight, as well as participants' gender. While participants expressed more favorable attitudes toward news stories paired with tweets by overweight than healthy females (with the opposite true for tweets by male users), participants expressed greater viral behavioral intentions for news stories paired with tweets by healthy weight than overweight user. These effects were more pronounced among male than female participants. Findings are discussed within the context of social media posts and their persuasive effects in relation to attitude and behavior changes.

  1. Selective weighting of action-related feature dimensions in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Anna; Schubö, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Planning an action primes feature dimensions that are relevant for that particular action, increasing the impact of these dimensions on perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether action planning also affects the short-term maintenance of visual information. In a combined memory and movement task, participants were to memorize items defined by size or color while preparing either a grasping or a pointing movement. Whereas size is a relevant feature dimension for grasping, color can be used to localize the goal object and guide a pointing movement. The results showed that memory for items defined by size was better during the preparation of a grasping movement than during the preparation of a pointing movement. Conversely, memory for color tended to be better when a pointing movement rather than a grasping movement was being planned. This pattern was not only observed when the memory task was embedded within the preparation period of the movement, but also when the movement to be performed was only indicated during the retention interval of the memory task. These findings reveal that a weighting of information in visual working memory according to action relevance can even be implemented at the representational level during maintenance, demonstrating that our actions continue to influence visual processing beyond the perceptual stage.

  2. Taeyeumjoweetang Affects Body Weight and Obesity-Related Genes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Woo Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taeyeumjoweetang (TYJWT is a herbal medication that was mentioned in Jema Lee's Donguisusebowon, which is a book about Sasang constitutional medicine. Tae-eumnis, one of the four constitutions, tend to suffer from metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. It is widely used to treat the digestive problems and obesity of Tae-eumins. We divided mice that were fed a normal diet for 48 days into control, TYJWT 250 mg kg-1 and TYJWT 500 mg kg-1 groups. After carrying out the experiments, the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and resistin were measured. The results showed that TYJWT significantly reduced the weights of mice that were fed a normal diet, and that this was due to a decrease in food intake. Also, the two TYJWT groups had lower serum levels of leptin compared to the control group, and the ghrelin levels were proportionately increased by the dosage of TYJWT given. These results show that TYJWT has obesity-suppressing effects similar to those previously reported using high fat diets. In addition, these results also provide evidence that TYJWT has anti-obesity effects.

  3. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Ashley-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1 maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2 GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75. Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56 and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40 concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. Adolescent Weight Status and Related Behavioural Factors: Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Storey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition. Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents.

  5. A socioecological framework to understand weight-related issues in Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D; Hanley, Anthony J G; Delormier, Treena

    2012-02-01

    Obesity prevention efforts in Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) communities in Canada should focus predominantly on children given their demographic significance and the accelerated time course of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Aboriginal population. A socioecological model to address childhood obesity in Aboriginal populations would focus on the numerous environments at different times in childhood that influence weight status, including prenatal, sociocultural, family, and community environments. Importantly, for Aboriginal children, obesity interventions need to also be situated within the context of a history of colonization and inequities in the social determinants of health. This review therefore advocates for the inclusion of a historical perspective and a life-course approach to obesity prevention in Aboriginal children in addition to developing interventions around the socioecological framework. We emphasize that childhood obesity prevention efforts should focus on promoting maternal health behaviours before and during pregnancy, and on breastfeeding and good infant and child nutrition in the postpartum and early childhood development periods. Ameliorating food insecurity by focusing on improving the sociodemographic risk factors for it, such as increasing income and educational attainment, are essential. More research is required to understand and measure obesogenic Aboriginal environments, to examine how altering specific environments modifies the foods that children eat and the activities that they do, and to examine how restoring and rebuilding cultural continuity in Aboriginal communities modifies the many determinants of obesity. This research needs to be done with the full participation of Aboriginal communities as partners in the research.

  6. Correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight older adults: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Felici, Elisa; Gagliardi, Cristina; Marcellini, Fiorella; Boscaro, Marco; De Robertis, Marco; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Faloia, Emanuela; Tirabassi, Giacomo

    2014-01-15

    Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease, which also has an impact on quality of life. The aim of this paper is to identify the correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight Italians older adults. 205 subjects at the age ≥ 60 yrs. were recruited into the Division of Endocrinology of the Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona (Italy). A protocol of questionnaires was constructed for data collection, and included domains such as physical activity, quality of life, socio-psychological aspects. The association of the latter variables with SF-36 Health Survey physical component (PCS-36) were evaluated in the whole sample. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the effect of independent variables on PCS-36 and the physical subscales of SF-36. PCS-36 showed a lower score in the obese and overweight subjects than the normal weight group (post-hoc test, p obesity in the elderly.

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the

  8. Segmentation of liver and spleen based on computational anatomy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhua; Chen, Yen-Wei; Foruzan, Amir Hossein; Lin, Lanfen; Han, Xian-Hua; Tateyama, Tomoko; Wu, Xing; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Huiyan

    2015-12-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs is a key step in developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Probabilistic atlas based on human anatomical structure, used as a priori information in a Bayes framework, has been widely used for organ segmentation. How to register the probabilistic atlas to the patient volume is the main challenge. Additionally, there is the disadvantage that the conventional probabilistic atlas may cause a bias toward the specific patient study because of the single reference. Taking these into consideration, a template matching framework based on an iterative probabilistic atlas for liver and spleen segmentation is presented in this paper. First, a bounding box based on human anatomical localization, which refers to the statistical geometric location of the organ, is detected for the candidate organ. Then, the probabilistic atlas is used as a template to find the organ in this bounding box by using template matching technology. We applied our method to 60 datasets including normal and pathological cases. For the liver, the Dice/Tanimoto volume overlaps were 0.930/0.870, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 2.906mm. For the spleen, quantification led to 0.922 Dice/0.857 Tanimoto overlaps, 1.992mm RMSE. The algorithm is robust in segmenting normal and abnormal spleens and livers, such as the presence of tumors and large morphological changes. Comparing our method with conventional and recently developed atlas-based methods, our results show an improvement in the segmentation accuracy for multi-organs (p<0.00001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-03-19

    Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant. Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed

  10. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  11. Anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Ferraz de Melo, A; de Souza, W Machado; Rodrigues, R Felipe; Alves, F Ribeiro; Rici, R Eli Graci; Guerra, R Romão; Favaron, P Oliveira; Miglino, M Angélica; Di Dio, L John Aphonso

    2011-08-01

    With 2 figures The anatomosurgical segmentation of the arteries of the spleen was studied in 31 deer of the species Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus by means of vascular injection with latex and vinyl acetate and radiographic examination. The arteria lienalis penetrated through the hilus lienis in 87% of the cases, whereas an extrahilar artery was present in the other cases. An extraparenchymal division of the lineal artery into two, three or four segmental arteries was observed in 74% of the cases. Anastomoses between intraparenchymal arterial branches were rare and of a reduced calibre. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  13. Antitumor effect of a Coliolus preparation, PSK: induction of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) in spleens of tumor bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, K; Majima, T; Ebina, T

    1992-01-01

    The effect of administration of PSK (Polysaccharide Kureha), a Coliolus preparation, in Meth-A solid tumors was analyzed in BALB/c mice. Spleen cells prepared from normal, non-treated Meth-A bearing, PSK-treated normal and PSK-treated tumor bearing mice were examined for induction of macrophage chemotatic factor (MCF). Only spleen cells from the latter mice produced MCF after 48 hrs of cultivation in the presence of Meth-A cells or concanavalin A (Con A). MCF-producing cells were indicated to be Lyt-1 positive, L3T4 positive and Lyt-2 negative cells in the negative elimination assay. There were no differences in the production of other cytokines including interleukin-2, interferon and tumor necrosing factor, spleen cells obtained other different groups of mice. The antitumor effect of either crude or purified MCF (molecular weight 100,000) was examined by daily consecutive intratumoral injections into Meth-A tumor tissues, and a significant inhibitory effect was detected.

  14. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  15. How Adolescent Subjective Health and Satisfaction with Weight and Body Shape Are Related to Participation in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Eriksen Dyremyhr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical exercise has positive effects on health. However, its associations with self-rated health and body image, which are important predictors for adolescents’ wellbeing and later morbidity, are complex. Methods. Cross-sectional survey among 2527 Norwegian adolescents. We examined the relations between self-reported gender, body size, amount and type of exercise and measures of self-rated health, drive for thinness, and desire to change body, with binary logistic regression analyses. Results. Girls and overweight students reported to a greater extent than their peers impaired self-rated health, weight concerns, and desire to change their body. Increasing amount of time spent on sports was related to improved self-rated health in a dose-response manner. Both girls and boys who engaged in individual sports with an advantage of leanness, but only girls engaged in team sports, reported an increased desire to change the body. However, weight concern was not related to amount or type of sports. Conclusions. Physical exercise is positively related to self-reported health but has negative associations with body image for many adolescents. Health promotion efforts should consider this paradox and stimulate physical activity and sports along with body acceptance.

  16. Sexual inactivity and occurrence of STIs in relation to weight status in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunge, Vibeke B; Juul, Kirsten E; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sexual inactivity and occurrence of selected sexually transmitted infections in relation to body mass index. We used data from two large Danish population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in 1991-1995 (HPV study: 6869 women, aged 22-32 years) and in 200...

  17. A Latent Class Analysis of Weight-Related Health Behaviors among 2-and 4-Year College Students and Associated Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2-and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health…

  18. Self-reported recall and daily diary-recorded measures of weight monitoring adherence: associations with heart failure-related hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine D; Holmes, George M; DeWalt, Darren A; Erman, Brian; Wu, Jia-Rong; Cene, Crystal W; Baker, David W; Schillinger, Dean; Ruo, Bernice; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Hawk, Victoria; Broucksou, Kimberly; Pignone, Michael

    2014-01-31

    Weight monitoring is an important element of HF self-care, yet the most clinically meaningful way to evaluate weight monitoring adherence is uncertain. We conducted this study to evaluate the association of (1) self-reported recall and (2) daily diary-recorded weight monitoring adherence with heart failure-related (HF-related) hospitalization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among 216 patients within a randomized trial of HF self-care training. All patients had an initial self-care training session followed by 15 calls (median) to reinforce educational material; patients were also given digital scales, instructed to weigh daily, record weights in a diary, and mail diaries back monthly. Weight monitoring adherence was assessed with a self-reported recall question administered at 12 months and dichotomized into at least daily versus less frequent weighing. Diary-recorded weight monitoring was evaluated over 12 months and dichotomized into ≥80% and review. Over 12 months in 216 patients, we identified 50 HF-related hospitalizations. Patients self-reporting daily or more frequent weight monitoring had an incidence rate ratio of 1.34 (95% CI 0.24-7.32) for HF-related hospitalizations compared to those reporting less frequent weight monitoring. Patients who completed ≥80% of weight diaries had an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.75) for HF-related hospitalizations compared to patients who completed <80% of weight diaries. Self-reported recall of weight monitoring adherence was not associated with fewer HF hospitalizations. In contrast, diary-recorded adherence ≥80% of days was associated with fewer HF-related hospitalizations. Incorporating diary-based measures of weight monitoring adherence into HF self-care training programs may help to identify patients at risk for HF-related hospitalizations.

  19. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus petal ethanolic extract on hematology, antibody response, and spleen histology in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Babaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6 were used in a completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC and different white blood cells (WBC and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD. Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology. Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.

  20. Design of a light weight fabric from natural cellulosic fibers with improved moisture related properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukali Ozturk, M.; Berkalp, O. B.; Nergis, B.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigated moisture related comfort properties of woven fabrics from natural cellulosic fibers, namely cotton, linen, and Crailar. The comfort properties of the fabrics were measured in accordance with the relevant standards, and the results were comparatively discussed. In addition to that, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) together with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed to determine the most preferable fabric based on comfort properties.

  1. Serum sex steroids and steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in skeletal muscle during experimental weight gain in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Samocha-Bonet, D; Handelsman, D J; Fujita, S; Wittert, G A; Heilbronn, L K

    2014-12-01

    Low-circulating testosterone is associated with development of type 2 diabetes in obese men. In this study, we examined the effects of experimental overfeeding and weight gain on serum levels of sex hormones and skeletal muscle expression of steroidogenic enzymes in healthy men with (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of type 2 diabetes. Following a 3-day lead in energy balanced diet, FH+ (n = 9) and FH- men (n = 11) were overfed by 5200 kJ/day (45% fat) for 28 days. Body weight, fasting glucose, insulin, sex steroid, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp) and body fat (DXA) were assessed in all individuals at baseline and day 28, and sex steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in vastus lateralis biopsies was examined in a subset (n = 11). Body weight, fat mass and fasting insulin levels were increased by overfeeding (P muscle expression of enzymes involved in the formation of testosterone in skeletal muscle. Men with a family history of T2DM were more susceptible to deleterious outcomes of overfeeding with greater reductions in serum testosterone and DHT and greater increases in markers of insulin resistance, which may contribute to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

  3. Dynamics of Red Cells in Spleen: How Does Vesiculation Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Salehyar, Sara; Cabrales, Pedro; Asaro, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Vesiculation of red blood cells as a result of local separation between lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton is known to happen in vivo, most likely inside spleen where they sustain large mechanical loads during the passage through venus slits. There is, however, little knowledge about the detailed scenario and condition. We address this question via a fluid-cell interaction model by coupling a multiscale model of the cell membrane (including molecular details) with a fluid dynamics model based on boundary-integral equations. A numerical flow channel is created where the cell is driven through a narrow slit by pressure (imitating the transit through venus slits in spleen). The concentration is the occurrence of large dissociation (negative) pressure between the skeleton/membrane connection that promotes separation, a precursor of vesicle formation. Critical levels for the negative pressure are estimated using published data. By following the maximum range of pressure, we conclude that for vesiculation to happen there must be biochemical influences (e.g. binding of degraded haemoglobin) that significantly reduce effective attachment density. This is consistent with reported trends in vesiculation that are believed to occur in cases of various hereditary anemias and during blood storage. Our findings also suggest the criticality of understanding the biochemical phenomena involved with cytoskeleton/membrane attachment.

  4. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; San Luis, T. Jr.; Lange, C.E.; Thelen, M.; Veltman, G.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1977-01-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and 197 Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma. (orig.) [de

  5. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  6. Effect of gender on the association between weight status and health-related quality of life in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsergent Emilie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and health-related quality of life (HRQoL among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique (PRALIMAP trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%, and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042. All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=β=+6.17, p=0.0010, and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (β=−3.89 and β=−5.90, respectively, p Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence.

  7. Characterization and Analysis of Whole Transcriptome of Giant Panda Spleens: Implying Critical Roles of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Peng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Giant pandas, an endangered species, are a powerful symbol of species conservation. Giant pandas may suffer from a variety of diseases. Owing to their highly specialized diet of bamboo, giant pandas are thought to have a relatively weak ability to resist diseases. The spleen is the largest organ in the lymphatic system. However, there is little known about giant panda spleen at a molecular level. Thus, clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of spleen could help us further understand the immune system of the giant panda as well as its conservation. Methods: The two giant panda spleens were from two male individuals, one newborn and one an adult, in a non-pathological condition. The whole transcriptomes of mRNA, lncRNA, miRNA, and circRNA in the two spleens were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. EBseq and IDEG6 were used to observe the differentially expressed genes (DEGs between these two spleens. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses were used to annotate the function of DEGs. Furthermore, networks between non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes were constructed to investigate the relationship between non-coding RNAs and immune-associated genes. Results: By comparative analysis of the whole transcriptomes of these two spleens, we found that one of the major roles of lncRNAs could be involved in the regulation of immune responses of giant panda spleens. In addition, our results also revealed that microRNAs and circRNAs may have evolved to regulate a large set of biological processes of giant panda spleens, and circRNAs may function as miRNA sponges. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of lncRNAs and circRNAs in giant panda, which could be a useful resource for further giant panda research. Our study reveals the potential functional roles of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in giant panda spleen.

  8. Characterization and Analysis of Whole Transcriptome of Giant Panda Spleens: Implying Critical Roles of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rui; Liu, Yuliang; Cai, Zhigang; Shen, Fujun; Chen, Jiasong; Hou, Rong; Zou, Fangdong

    2018-01-01

    Giant pandas, an endangered species, are a powerful symbol of species conservation. Giant pandas may suffer from a variety of diseases. Owing to their highly specialized diet of bamboo, giant pandas are thought to have a relatively weak ability to resist diseases. The spleen is the largest organ in the lymphatic system. However, there is little known about giant panda spleen at a molecular level. Thus, clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of spleen could help us further understand the immune system of the giant panda as well as its conservation. The two giant panda spleens were from two male individuals, one newborn and one an adult, in a non-pathological condition. The whole transcriptomes of mRNA, lncRNA, miRNA, and circRNA in the two spleens were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. EBseq and IDEG6 were used to observe the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these two spleens. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses were used to annotate the function of DEGs. Furthermore, networks between non-coding RNAs and protein-coding genes were constructed to investigate the relationship between non-coding RNAs and immune-associated genes. By comparative analysis of the whole transcriptomes of these two spleens, we found that one of the major roles of lncRNAs could be involved in the regulation of immune responses of giant panda spleens. In addition, our results also revealed that microRNAs and circRNAs may have evolved to regulate a large set of biological processes of giant panda spleens, and circRNAs may function as miRNA sponges. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lncRNAs and circRNAs in giant panda, which could be a useful resource for further giant panda research. Our study reveals the potential functional roles of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in giant panda spleen. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Judge of surgical indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen by CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Yokoyama, Toshimitsu; Suga, Hiroyasu; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Muraoka, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masatake; Suzuki, Tadashi.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that the findings of injuries of parenchimatous organs suc