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Sample records for spleen thymus liver

  1. Role of alkaline endonucleases in the release of soluble chromatin from thymus, spleen and liver nuclei of normal and irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.

    1979-01-01

    Thymus, spleen and liver nuclei released a large fraction of soluble chromatin in vitro when incubation was carried out in sucrose media containing low concentrations of CaCl 2 and/or MgCl 2 . A significant fraction of deoxyribopolynucleotides (DPN) was also extracted from nuclei. After 30 min of incubation at 37 0 C, the maximum release of soluble chromatin was observed near a pH of 8, which corresponds to the optimum pH of the alkaline endonuclease activity from thymus, spleen and liver. The soluble chromatin and DPN were precipitated by increasing the bivalent ion concentration of the medium. The protein/DNA ratio and the molecular weight of DNA suggest that the soluble chromatin and DPN represent nucleosome-like particles. The release of soluble chromatin in the first 4 hours of incubation was significantly increased if the nuclear fraction was isolated from the thymus and spleen of whole-body irradiated mice (1000 rad). This effect was absent in the liver nuclei. (author)

  2. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  3. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  4. Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in vitro by thymus and spleen cells of the rat after hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Spath, A.

    1988-03-01

    The inhibition of the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis caused by hyperthermia (30 to 60 min, 43/sup 0/C) was significantly higher in spleen cells than in thymus cells. The DNA repair synthesis of thymus cells measured at 37/sup 0/C was increased by about two times the initial value after a pre-incubation of 30 to 90 min and 30 to 60 min, respectively, with 37 and 43/sup 0/C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of spleen cells diminished proportionally to the pre-incubation time after a pre-incubation of 30 and 45 min, respectively, with 43 and 37/sup 0/C, respectively. When hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA synthesis or DNA repair (hydroxyurea, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 3', 5'-didesoxythymidine, and 3-aminobenzamide) were combined, overadditive effects - without cellspecific particularities - were seen only in the case of 3-aminobenzamide. Only in thymus cells, the inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II novobiocin caused an overadditive reinforcement of the inhibition induced by hyperthermia of the semiconservative DNA synthesis. The stimulation of DNA repair synthesis in thymus cells caused by novobiocin with the aid of DNA polymerase ..beta.. could be compensated by hyperthermia. The sedimentation of thymus and spleen cell nucleoids was increased after hyperthermia. The results suggest a special importance of DNA topology and of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. activity for the cellular effect of hyperthermia.

  5. Novel contrast agent for liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.; Blau, M.; Adams, D.F.; Janoff, A.; Minchey, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper determines whether the biodistribution and imaging characteristics of a liposome-encapsulated contrast agent, iotrolan-carrying interdigitation fusion (IF) vesicles, were acceptable for a liver-spleen CT contrast agent. IF vesicles with iotrolan in their aqueous phase were prepared by fusing small unilamellar liposomes into larger vesicles. The iodine-to-lipid ratio was 4.7. Biodistribution was measured with I-125 iotrolan-labeled IF vesicles in rats. CT imaging (Somatom Plus, Siemens Medical Systems) was performed in dogs. At the lowest dose (10 mg of iodine and 2.1 mg of lipid per kilogram) 72% of the ID was in the liver, 5% in spleen, and 1% in lungs at 1 hour. At the highest dose, (1,000 mg of iodine and 212 mg of lipid per kilogram), liver values were 68% ID, while spleen rose to 18%, lung 5%. Liver and spleen values stayed at peak for 24 hours then fell; the half-life was 6 days. In dogs, liver and spleen enhancement at 1 hour averaged 652 and 256 HU above baseline per gram of iodine per kilogram, respectively

  6. Thymus repair compared with hemopoiesis repair in spleen after protracted irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.

    1987-01-01

    Matured female mice of ICR strain were irradiated from a 60 Co source with a daily dose rate of 5 Gy till total accumulated dose of 10 Gy for 2 days. Animals were examined in various intervals within 42 days after irradiation. The results revealed that protracted irradiation will induce a massive injury to hemopoiesis. The first repair processes occurred in thymus and were characterized by two phases. The first repair wave peaked about the day 10 and the second about the day 30 after irradiation. The repair processes observed in the red pulp of the spleen reached their highest intensity approximately between the days 14-16 after irradiation. (author)

  7. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Lu; Zhen, Weng-Ya; Wang, Le-Feng; Pan, Meng; Lv, Jia-Qian; Wang, Fan; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is a bioactive compound with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PSG-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results showed that PSG-1 protected mice against CTX-mediated immunosuppression, as evidenced by enhancing the ratios of thymus and spleen weights to body weight, promoting T cell and B cell survival, and increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-2. Apoptosis, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the immune organs of the immunosuppressed animals were ameliorated by PSG-1. The immune benefits of PSG-1 were associated with the enhancement of the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the immune organs, implying that antioxidant activities of PSG-1 may play an important role in PSG-1-evoked immune protection. Taken together, these findings have demonstrated that PSG-1 may ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression through reducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Thymus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The removal of thymus of mice at birth before the leukemia virus was injected ..... finger proteins which mediate the differentiation of erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid .... thymus undergoes an acute loss in thymic architecture and cellu- larity.

  9. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  10. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Malakheeva, L. I.; Prokopenko, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  11. CT numbers of liver and spleen in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    To determine the mean liver CT numbers, and differences between liver and spleen, and liver and back muscle CT numbers in normal children, and to correlate the findings with sex and age. One hundred and five normal children aged 2-14 years underwent pre-contrast CT scanning. Mean CT numbers of the liver, spleen, and back muscles were calculated, as well as the differences in CT numbers between the liver and spleen (liver-spleen CT numbers), and between the liver-back muscle CT numbers were 70.22±6.51 HU, 53.28±3.57 HU, 17.13±6.57 HU, and 11.88±5.94 HU, respectively. Mean liver CT numbers and the difference between liver and back muscle CT numbers were not different by age. By sex, all the CT numbers did not vary according to age. The sex of a subject did not affect the CT number. The children's mean liver CT number was 70.22±6.51 HU and the difference between liver and spleen CT numbers was 17.13±6.57 HU. Younger children had higher liver CT and liver-spleen CT numbers than older children. No CT numbers varied according to sex

  12. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Dey, Manali; Bhattacharya, Shaswati; Sarkar, Samrat; Goswami, Suranjana; Ghosh, Nabanita; Dutta, Anuradha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for human physiological processes. To evaluate the potential adverse health impact/immunotoxicological effects of this metal in situ due to over exposure, Swiss albino mice were treated (via intraperitoneal injections) with copper (II) chloride (copper chloride) at doses of 0, 5, or 7.5 mg copper chloride/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week for 4 wk; these values were derived from LD 50 studies using copper chloride doses that ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg BW (2×/wk, for 4 wk). Copper treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related decreases and increases, respectively, in thymic and splenic weights. Histomorphological changes evidenced in these organs were thymic atrophy, white pulp shrinkage in the spleen, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes; these observations were confirmed by microscopic analyses. Cell count analyses indicated that the proliferative functions of the splenocytes and thymocytes were also altered because of the copper exposures. Among both cell types from the copper treated hosts, flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose related increase in the percentages of cells in the Sub-G 0 /G 1 state, indicative of apoptosis which was further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of selected cell death related genes such as EndoG and Bax in a dose related manner. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there was also increased ubiquitin expression in both the cell types. In conclusion, these studies show that sublethal exposure to copper (as copper chloride) induces toxicity in the thymus and spleen, and increased Sub G 0 /G 1 population among splenocytes and thymocytes that is mediated, in part, by the EndoG–Bax–ubiquitin pathway. This latter damage to these cells that reside in critical immune system organs are likely to be important contributing factors underlying the immunosuppression that has been documented by other

  13. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  14. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H J; San Luis, T Jr; Lange, C E; Thelen, M; Veltman, G; Winkler, C [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten; Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik)

    1977-10-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants, liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and /sup 197/Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices, considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma.

  15. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  17. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  18. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  19. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  20. Scintigraphic evidence of transplanted hepatocytes in spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henne-Bruns, D.; Kremer, B.; Gramminger, K.; Broelsch, C.

    1986-01-01

    In rats suffering from hepatic enzymatic deficiency transplanted hepatocytes could be evidenced scintigraphically in liver, spleen and granulomas. In pigs, however, it is very difficult to demonstrate transplanted hepatocytes by scintiscanning because of the thickness of the tissues and the high background radiation in large animals

  1. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  2. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  3. Comparative investigations about the DNA synthesis by thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and radiomimetic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Schmerold, I.; Pfahler, W.; Goette, A.

    1984-06-01

    In order to further characterize the different repairing behavior of thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), the effect of bleomycine (BM), L-cysteine (CY-E), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), I-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC), dideoxythymidine (ddT), and novobiocine (NB) on the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis as well as on the behavior of DNA under the alkaline elution was studied. The semiconservative DNA synthesis was inhibited by all examined agents except ddT, the restorative DNA synthesis only by NEM, araC, and NB. The stimulation of the restorative DNA synthesis was increased by UV radiation and MMS in spleen cells and by X-rays, BM and CY-E in thymus cells. Under the conditions of alkaline elution, there was a more sensitive reaction of spleen cells than of thymus cells to X-rays, BM and CY-E. The results show that thymus cells are especially qualified for the repair of short chains and spleen cells for the repair of long chains.

  4. Return to play after liver and spleen trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyia, Rushad F; Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-05-01

    Sport-related spleen and liver injuries pose a challenge for the physician. Although rare, these injuries can have serious and even life-threatening outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and managed in a timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on duration and intensity of restricted activity and return to play after spleen and liver injury. In addition, there is controversy on follow-up imaging after injury. PubMed was searched using the terms splenic or spleen and trauma and hepatic or liver and trauma from 1980 to 2013. The citations from sentinel papers were also reviewed. Clinical review. Level 3. Ultrasound is ideal in the unstable athlete. Nonoperative management of blunt splenic and hepatic injuries is recommended for hemodynamically stable patients regardless of injury grade, patient age, or presence of associated injuries. Follow-up imaging is not routinely recommended unless clinically indicated. Athletes may engage in light activity for the first 3 months after injury and then gradual return to unrestricted activity as tolerated. High-level athletes may choose splenectomy or serial imaging for faster return to play. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in stable athletes with blunt abdominal trauma. C.

  5. Signal changes in liver and spleen after Endorem administration in patients with and without liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Helmberger, T.; Reiser, M.; Petsch, R.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effect of Endorem on the signal intensity of the spleen in patients with normal liver tissue and in patients with liver cirrhosis. Thirty patients with normal liver tissue and 47 with liver cirrhosis were examined before and after i. v. Endorem administration. The patients were examined with a 1.5-T magnet system (Magnetom Vision) using a semiflexible cp-array coil. Three different pulse sequences were used: a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence, a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence with spectral fat suppression, and a T2 * -weighted gradient-echo sequence. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of two areas of the liver and spleen were determined. The mean SNRs of the liver and spleen in patients with and without liver cirrhosis were compared. For assessment of statistical significance, the t-test at a level of P * -weighted gradient-echo sequence, the SNRs of the liver and spleen in the noncirrhotic liver group, compared with the cirrhotic liver group, were 126.8 % and 45.6 % less, respectively. The effect of Endorem on the liver in patients with Child C-stage liver cirrhosis was 32.1 % less than in patients with Child B-stage liver cirrhosis. Likewise, the Endorem effect on the spleen was 27.1 % less in patients with Child C-stage compared with Child B-stage liver cirrhosis. Hepatic and splenic uptake of Endorem is significantly decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)

  6. The spleen-to-liver ratios in hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorne, M.; Jurvelin, J.; Vaehaetalo, S.; Himanka, E.

    1984-01-01

    We compared light pen (LPEN) and Region of Interest (ROI) computer methods in determining spleen-to-liver (S/L) ratios both in anterior and posterior images in various liver diseases. The S/L ratio was independent of age or type of colloid used (equal particle size provided). Results with corresponding LPEN and ROI programs did not differ significantly from each other. The sensitivity and specificity were tested and the anterior view yielded somewhat better results than the posterior view but the best results were obtained when both projections were used. The sensitivity for all liver diseases was 60% and the corresponding specificity 93%. In hepatocellular diseases the sensitivity was 80-100%, but the S/L ratio had only 37% sensitivity for hepatic metastases. Hepatomegaly in the anterior view was found in 67% of fatty liver cases, in 25% of cirrhosis cases, in 20% of hepatitis and in 25% of metastatic livers. Splenomegaly was noted in 39-54% of patients with hepatocellular diseases but only in 4-10% of metastatic diseases. (orig.) [de

  7. Homogeneous immunoglobulins in the serum of irradiated and bone marrow reconstituted mice: the role of thymus and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink, J.G.; Radl, J.; Berg, P. van den; Muiswinkel, W.B. van; Oosterom, R. van.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of thymectomy and splenectomy on the frequency and class distribution of homogeneous immunoglobulins (H-Ig) in serum was studied in lethally irradiated (DBA/2 x C57B1/Rij)F 1 mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow. During four follow-up periods in the first 9 months after transplantation, the sham-operated controls and splenectomized animals developed transient H-Ig in an average frequency of 14.2 and 15.7% respectively. There were no marked differences in the incidence of H-Ig within these two groups. In contrast, thymectomized mice and mice both thymectomized and splenectomized showed H-Ig in much higher frequencies (average percentages 31.6 and 36.5 respectively). The highest frequency of H-Ig was observed between 1.5 and 3.5 months after transplantation. H-Ig of the IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses were most frequent in all groups during the first 3.5 months. Later, H-Ig belonging to the IgM class also appeared in somewhat higher numbers. H-Ig of the IgA class was a very rare finding at any time. These results indicate that the presence of the thymus, but not necessarily of the spleen, is an important factor in the regulation of the immunoglobulin heterogeneity during the reconstitution of the immune system in lethally irradiated and bone marrow reconstituted mice. (author)

  8. Sedimentation of nucleoids from thymus and spleen cells of rats after X-irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction to irradiation of thymocytes was tested immediately and 6 hours after whole body X-irradiation of rats with doses from 190 cGy up to 1520 cGy by nucleoid sedimentation. For comparison, examinations of thymus and spleen cells after X-irradiation in vitro were done. Preliminary analyses should find a possible coergism between X-rays on one side and hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA-synthesis or DNA-repair (cytosinearabinoside, dideoxythymidine, 3-amino-benzamide, ethidiumbromide, and novobiocine) on the other side. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1) With respect to the detection of in vivo effects of X-irradiation, the nucleoid sedimentation is less sensitive than biochemical methods. 2) Some hours after sublethal X-irradiation in vivo, free DNA and/or polydesoxyribonucleotides appear. At the same time cross-links can be detected in the chromatin fraction. 3) The reduction of the nucleoid sedimentation immediately after high doses of whole-body irradiation is the result of primary DNA lesions. The changes detectable some hours after are due to the secondary enzymatic changes, that are connected with the interphase death of thymocytes, and coincide with the present opinions about the irradiation induced apoptosis of cells. (orig./ECB) [de

  9. Elastography of the normal canine liver, spleen and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Andrew; Bradley, Kate; Birch, Sally; Browne, William J; Barberet, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Elastography is a simple, expedient and noninvasive technique that may be used to assess the elasticity or stiffness of a tissue, in conjunction with traditional B-mode ultrasonography. Quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness can be made which involves measurement of the shear wave velocity within the tissue of interest. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of elastography for clinical use in the abdomen of conscious small animals and to investigate factors that affect shear wave velocity measurement. Elastography was performed on the liver, spleen, and kidneys of 15 dogs at predefined depths within the parenchyma. Breed, age, gender, neuter status, and weight were documented for each animal. Depth at which measurements were taken had a significant negative relationship with the shear wave velocity value obtained. Individual dog effects, such as weight and gender, also appeared to have a significant effect on the shear wave velocity measurement for specific organs; weight had a significant positive effect on the shear wave velocity for each of the organs examined, whereas the effect of gender was inconsistent between organs (having a positive effect for the liver and a negative effect for the spleen). It is hoped that these results may act as a baseline to guide further work into the field of elastography in companion animals. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, C.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Vincent, L.M.; Peterson, N.P.; Staab, E.V.

    1984-01-01

    Imaging modalities currently available for the evaluation of splenic disorders include /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (TcSC) radionuclide splenic scintigraphy, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). These techniques produce images of the spleen on the basis of reticuloendothelial function, echogenic properties, and x-ray attenuation, respectively. No one technique is clearly superior to another for all clinical situations or disease processes. Each modality has its strengths and limitations that relate to the properties being measured (function, echogenicity, attenuation) and the disease processes involving the spleen. This chapter offers a combined approach to splenic imaging in the evaluation of focal disease, diffuse disease, traumatic disorders, normal variations, congenital anomalies, and perisplenic disorders

  11. Perioperative liver and spleen elastography in patients without chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Sam; Borsiin, Hanna; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Brange, Hannes; Mijovic, Zoran; Sturesson, Christian

    2018-02-27

    To investigate changes in hepatic and splenic stiffness in patients without chronic liver disease during liver resection for hepatic tumors. Patients scheduled for liver resection for hepatic tumors were considered for enrollment. Tissue stiffness measurements on liver and spleen were conducted before and two days after liver resection using point shear-wave elastography. Histological analysis of the resected liver specimen was conducted in all patients and patients with marked liver fibrosis were excluded from further study analysis. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of resection and whether they had received preoperative chemotherapy or not. The relation between tissue stiffness and postoperative biochemistry was investigated. Results are presented as median (interquartile range). 35 patients were included. The liver stiffness increased in patients undergoing a major resection from 1.41 (1.24-1.63) m/s to 2.20 (1.72-2.44) m/s ( P = 0.001). No change in liver stiffness in patients undergoing a minor resection was found [1.31 (1.15-1.52) m/s vs 1.37 (1.12-1.77) m/s, P = 0.438]. A major resection resulted in a 16% (7%-33%) increase in spleen stiffness, more ( P = 0.047) than after a minor resection [2 (-1-13) %]. Patients who underwent preoperative chemotherapy ( n = 20) did not differ from others in preoperative right liver lobe [1.31 (1.16-1.50) vs 1.38 (1.12-1.56) m/s, P = 0.569] or spleen [2.79 (2.33-3.11) vs 2.71 (2.37-2.86) m/s, P = 0.515] stiffness. Remnant liver stiffness on the second postoperative day did not show strong correlations with maximum postoperative increase in bilirubin ( R 2 = 0.154, Pearson's r = 0.392, P = 0.032) and international normalized ratio ( R 2 = 0.285, Pearson's r = 0.534, P = 0.003). Liver and spleen stiffness increase after a major liver resection for hepatic tumors in patients without chronic liver disease.

  12. Detection of immunoglobulins containing plasma cells in the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen of vaccinated broiler chickens with Newcastle disease virus vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Masum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of immunoglobulins (Igs-containing plasma cells (IgA, IgG and IgM in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus was investigated in broiler chickens that were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. In the thymus, the Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the cortex and medulla. Their frequency and distribution were higher at D14 and at D28. The number of IgG- and IgM-positive cells was greater than IgA-positive cells in thymus. In the bursa of Fabricius, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed beneath the capsules; within and around the bursal follicles. Their frequency of occurrence significantly peaked at D14 and at D28 in comparison to day-old chickens, and IgG-positive cells were significantly greater than the IgA- and IgM-positive cells in the bursa of vaccinated chickens. In the spleen, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the white pulp, around the trabeculae, and in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. In this secondary lymphatic tissue, IgG- and IgM-positive cell numbers significantly greater than IgA-positive cells. In conclusion, mobilization of more Igs-positive cells in lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens is due to the effect of NDV vaccine as well as the advancement of age.

  13. A study of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Lyophilized samples of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen were measured at room temperature using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution. An increase in the velocity resolution of Moessbauer spectroscopy permitted us to increase accuracy and decrease experimental error in determining the hyperfine parameters of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen. Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution may be very useful for revealing small differences in hyperfine parameters during biomedical research.

  14. Estimation of the volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Atushi

    1988-01-01

    The volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen were estimated with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-phytate. Clinical usefulness of these parameters was evaluated by comparison with other liver function tests in 87 patients including 25 normal controls, 24 liver cirrhosis and 16 other chronic liver diseases. SPECT images were obtained by Maxi Camera 400T. Cut-off level for reconstruction of images and relationship between counts and activity (mCi) were obtained from phantom studies. Volumes estimated using SPECT and computed tomography were compared in 16 patients. Results obtained were as follows. 1) Optimal cut-off level for measurement of volumes for the liver was 37 % and for the spleen was 42 %. 2) Correlation between organ volumes estimated with CT and SPECT was good (r = 0.92 for the liver and r = 0.96 for the spleen), although volumes measured with SPECT were larger than those with CT. 3) Significant differences of percent uptake were observed between normal controls and liver cirrhosis. 4) Better correlation between spleen volumes and uptake was recognized in cases without liver cirrhosis than in cases with liver cirrhosis. The spleen uptake in liver cirrhosis was higher than those in others in comparison with the volume. 5) The liver/spleen ratio of 99m Tc-phytae uptake could most clearly differentiate liver cirrhosis from others. 6) Negative correlation was observed between liver volume or uptake and ICG (R 15 ). Estimation of volume and uptake of the liver and spleen could be a useful procedure to assess liver function, probably related with effective hepatic blood flow in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  15. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan

    OpenAIRE

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male a...

  16. Dose to the liver and spleen in pediatric patients undergoing technetium-99m sulfur colloid scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R.; Purdom, R.C.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Maxon, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative conjugate view external counting techniques were applied to determine radiation dose to the liver and spleen in pediatric patients undergoing /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans. The effective half-life of /sup99m/Tc-SC was 5.8 +- 0.23 hours and 5.2 +- 0.68 hours in the liver and spleen, respectively. Dose per administered activity ranged from 0.34 to 0.63 rad/mCi (92 to 170 μGy/MBq) for the liver and 0.35 to 1.96 rad/mCi (95.0 to 530.0 μGy/MBq) for the spleen. The spleen to liver dose ratio ranged from 1.0 to 4.9. These values are compared with results extrapolated from published adult data to the pediatric population

  17. Changes in liver and spleen volume in various types of compensated liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hiroshi; Tarao, Kazuo; Ito, Yoshihiko

    1988-01-01

    Liver and spleen volume were measured by computed tomography in 8 healthy voluneteers and in 21 patients of various types of compensated liver cirrhosis. Patients were divided into 3 groups (8 of viral group, 6 of alcoholic group and 6 of combined group) according to the histopathological findings of the liver and also according to the history of blood transfusion, HBs-Ag and alcohol drinking habit. Each volume was calculated by adding together the area measurements obtained from successive transverse abdominal scans. In the liver volume (mean±S.E.) alcoholic group (1381±86cm 3 ) was significantly larger than the healthy volunteers (1027±27cm 3 ) (p 3 ) (p 3 ) (p 3 ) was significantly larger than the healthy volunteers (84±4.7cm 3 ) (p 3 ) was significantly larger than the viral group (302±10um 2 ) (p 2 ) was also significantly larger than viral group (p<0.04). (author)

  18. Influence of apoptosis on liver and spleen resistance in dogs with visceral leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Franciscato, Douglas Augusto; Rossit, Sabrina Micelli; Munari, Danísio Prado; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis and parasite load in the liver and spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), using immunohistochemistry. Liver and spleen samples from 71 dogs with VL were used. The parasite load in the spleen and liver showed significant difference between organs in infected group (P=0.0219). The density of the parasite load in the spleen (median=2.4) was higher than liver (median=0.8). Immunodetection of apoptotic cells was predominant in lymphocytes and differ between the infected and control group in spleen (P=0.0307) and liver (P=0.0346). There was a significant correlation between apoptosis and parasite load (P = 0.0084; r=0.3104) only in the spleen of the infected group, where it was observed that, when increasing the number of apoptotic cells increases the parasitic load. It was concluded that the liver and spleen of infected dogs presented greater numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis (lymphocytes) than the control group, thus suggesting that this process may be contributing towards the survival of Leishmania in these organs, because lymphocyte in apoptosis did not have the ability to present and recognize the antigen, allowing the survival of the parasite.

  19. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  20. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  1. Natural history of nonoperative management for grade 4 and 5 liver and spleen injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeannie C; Sharp, Susan W; Ostlie, Daniel J; Holcomb, George W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2008-12-01

    Nonoperative management is standard treatment of blunt liver or spleen injuries. However, there are few reports outlining the natural history and outcomes of severe blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with nonoperative management of grade 4 or 5 liver and spleen injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with grade 4 or 5 (high-grade) blunt liver and/or spleen injuries from April 1997 to July 2007 at our children's hospital. Demographics, hospital course data, and follow-up data were analyzed. There were 74 high-grade injuries in 72 patients. There were 30 high-grade liver and 44 high-grade spleen injuries. Two patients had both a liver and splenic injury. High-grade liver injuries had a significantly longer length of intensive care and hospital stay compared to high-grade spleen injuries. There were also a significantly higher number of transfusions, radiographs, and total charges in the high-grade liver injuries when compared to the high-grade splenic injuries. The only mortality from solid organ injury was a grade 4 liver injury with portal vein disruption. In contrast, there was only one complication from a high-grade splenic injury-a pleural effusion treated with thoracentesis. There were 5 patients with complications from their liver injury requiring 18 therapeutic procedures. Three patients (10%) with liver injury required readmission as follows: one 5 times, one 3 times, and another one time. Patients with high-grade liver injuries have a longer recovery, more complications, and greater use of resources than in patients with similar injuries to the spleen.

  2. Analysis of iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues in comparison with human liver ferritin by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M.I.; Milder, O.B.; Semionkin, V.A.; Malakheeva, L.I.; Prokopenko, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of iron storage proteins in liver and spleen from normal chicken and chicken with lymphoid leukemia in comparison with human liver ferritin were considered by Moessbauer spectroscopy (preliminary results). Small differences in Moessbauer hyperfine parameters for both normal and lymphoid leukemia chicken liver and spleen were observed. The value of quadrupole splitting for human liver ferritin was higher than those for chicken tissues. A decrease of iron content in lymphoid leukemia chicken tissues was also found, however, the reason of this fact (pathology or feeding) was not clear yet. (author)

  3. A change in the composition of supramolecular DNA-bound phospholipids in thymus and liver of gamma-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasichkova, Z.I.; Strazhevskaya, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of supramolecular DNA (SM DNA)-bound phospholipids (PL) of thymus and liver of intact rats and those 2 min, 2, 6 and 24 h after γ-irradiation (9.7 Gy) was studied. In norm, supramolecular DNA of the thymus was shown to contain 6.7 μg PL/mg DNA, and that of the liver, 6.1 μg PL/mg DNA, the main components of PL being cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PEA). Substantial changes were detected in the PL composition of SM DNA of γ,irradiated rat organs. During the postirradiation period the concentration of PEA and CL in thymus SM DNA changed symbatically and irreversibly decAeased to traces; whereas in SM DNA of the liver, their concentrations changed antibatically and decreased only to a definite level thus maintaining the necessary ''lipid volume''. It was shown that PL were not restored in SM DNA of the radiopesistant liver

  4. The spleen-liver uptake ratio in liver scan: review of its measurement and correlation between hemodynamical changes of the liver in portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Chung, Y. A.; Chung, H. S.; Lee, H. G.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed correlation between changes of the Spleen-Liver Ratio in liver scintigram and hemodynamical changes of the liver in overall grades of portal hypertension by non-invasive, scintigraphic method. And the methods for measurement of the Spleen-Liver Ratio were also reviewed. Hepatic scintiangiograms for 120 seconds with 250-333 MBq of 99mTc-Sn-phytate followed by liver scintigrams were performed in 62 patients group consisted with clinically proven norma and various diffuse hepatocellular diseases. Hepatic Perfusion indices were calculated from the Time-Activity Curves of hepatic scintiangiograms. Each Spleen-Liver Ratios of maximum, average and total counts within ROIs of the liver and spleen from both anterior and posterior liver scintigrams and their geometrical means were calculated. Linear correlations between each Spleen-Liver Ratios and Hepatic Perfusion indices were evaluated. There was strong correlation (y=0.0002x 2 -0.0049x+0.2746, R=0.8790, p<0.0001) between Hepatic Perfusion Indices and Spleen-Liver Ratios calculated from posterior maxium counts of the liver scintigrams. Weaker correlations with either geometrical means of maximum and average count methods (R=0.8101, 0.7268, p<0.0001) or average counts of both posterior and anterior veiws (R=0.8134, 0.6200, p<0.0001) were noted. We reconfirmed that changes of Spleen-Liver Ratio in liver scintigrams represent hemodynamical changes in portal hypertension of diffuse hepatocellular diseases. Among them, the posterior Spleen-Liver Ratio measured by maximum counts will give the best information. And matching with Hepatic Perfusion index will be another useful index to evaluate characteristics splenic extraction coefficient of a certain radiocolloid for liver scintigram

  5. Effect of radiation on the polypeptidsynthetase activity of liver and thymus chromatic of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umanskij, S.R.; Matinyan, K.S.; Tokarskaya, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation with a dose of 800 rad decreases rapidly the polypeptidsynthetase activity (PPSA) of liver and thymus chromatin of rats. The effect is accounted for by the breakdown of poly (ADP - ribose) involved in activation of amino acids within this system. Two hours after exposure PPSA of the chromatin of both organs is restored. When nuclei or chromatin are irradiated in vitro PPSA progressively decreases with dose increase. 18 hours after partial hepataectomy, PPSA of the chromatin of the regenerating liver is twice as high as that in the controls. Exposure of rats to 800 rad 30 min before operation prevents the PPSA increase in the regenerating liver. Possible mechanisms of radiation disturbance of the chromatin PPSA are discussed

  6. Hypersensitive responses of cells in the thymus, spleen, and intestinal crypt of mice to interphase death after treatment with x rays and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuta, Masakatsu

    1986-01-01

    Upon whole-body exposure of mice to X rays or administration of chemical mutagens, cells in thymus, spleen and intestinal crypt undergo sensitive response to interphase death. We developed an effective method for detecting dead cells in the interphase by scoring stained cells in situ in exposed tissues after staining frozen section with erythrosin B. Cell killing was detected at doses as low as 1 % of lethal doses after treatment with X rays and chemicals. Strain N4 was highly sensitive to interphase-cell-death and hybrids of N4 and resistant strain HT or C3H were also sensitive to cell-death, indicating a dominant trait of the sensitive cell-death response. (author)

  7. Ontogenic development of kidney, thymus and spleen and phenotypic expression of CD3 and CD4 receptors on the lymphocytes of cobia (Rachycentroncanadum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTA C. KLOSTERHOFF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study was evaluated the ontogenic of immunocompetent organs of cobia up to 53 days after hatching (dah through histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The kidney was the first lymphohematopoietic organ to appear, at 1 dah, followed by the spleen at 5 dah and the thymus at 7 dah. The first CD3 receptors on the lymphocytes were observed in 27% of the thymic tissue at 7 dah and in 99% at 53 dah. The phenotypic expression of CD3 receptors was registered in 10% of the kidney at 8 dah and in 32% at 53 dah. CD4 receptors were observed in 5% and 63% of the thymic area at 7 and 53 dah, respectively. In the kidney, T4 lymphocytes were first observed at 13 dah in 9% of the organ and in 28% at 53 dah, defining the functional development of the specific system associated with immunological memory capacity.

  8. Ontogenic development of kidney, thymus and spleen and phenotypic expression of CD3 and CD4 receptors on the lymphocytes of cobia (Rachycentroncanadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhoff, Marta C; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Gusmão, Emeline P; Sampaio, Luís A; Tesser, Marcelo B; Romano, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study was evaluated the ontogenic of immunocompetent organs of cobia up to 53 days after hatching (dah) through histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The kidney was the first lymphohematopoietic organ to appear, at 1 dah, followed by the spleen at 5 dah and the thymus at 7 dah. The first CD3 receptors on the lymphocytes were observed in 27% of the thymic tissue at 7 dah and in 99% at 53 dah. The phenotypic expression of CD3 receptors was registered in 10% of the kidney at 8 dah and in 32% at 53 dah. CD4 receptors were observed in 5% and 63% of the thymic area at 7 and 53 dah, respectively. In the kidney, T4 lymphocytes were first observed at 13 dah in 9% of the organ and in 28% at 53 dah, defining the functional development of the specific system associated with immunological memory capacity.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-technefit in radionuclide investigations of liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovdienko, N.I.; Starovojtova, L.P.; Kodina, G.E.; Malysheva, A.O.; Tul'skaya, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the results of an experimental study of pharmacokinetics of a new Soviet drug 99m Tc-technefit for scintigraphy of the liver and spleen. The results of biological distribution of the agent in rat, scintigrams of the liver and spleen in rabbits and dogs have shown a high accumulation of 99m Tc-technefit in the liver (up to 90%). The agent is prepared within one stage from a kit of reagents and 99m Tc-sodium pertechnate obtained using a generator

  10. Usefulness of liposomes carrying losefamate for CT opacification of liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.; Shulkin, P.M.; Adams, D.F.; Davis, M.A.; Hoey, G.B.; Hopkins, R.M.; Bosworth, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Iosefamate, a hepatobiliary contrast agent, was encapsulated into liposomes to increase its ability to opacify the liver and spleen on computed tomographic (CT) images. Multilamellar lipid vesicles containing iosefamate in their aqueous phase were prepared. Seven dogs received intravenous injections of 100-300 mg l/kg in one of three forms; encapsulated, unencapsulated, or a mixture of the two in equal parts. Animals that received the opaque vesicles had marked opacification of their livers, bile ducts, gallbladders, spleens and gastrointestinal tracts. At the high-dose level, liver upake of the encapsulated materials was also greater. Liposome-encapsulated hepatobiliary contrast agents are effective liver and spleen opacifiers for CT imaging in the dog

  11. Synergistic Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Bradykinin Potential Factor Isolated from Venom on Thymus and Spleen of Sublethally Irradiated Guinea Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Sinna, G.; Kafafy, Y.; Nassar, A.Y.; Salman, A.

    2005-01-01

    The buthus occitanus, scorpion venom contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) that augments bradykinin effects through enhancing its release. Based on the cytoprotective ability of BPF, the present work investigates it as a radioprotectant. Sublethal whole-body y-irradiation at 1.5 Gy was used. Bone marrow cells suspension (BM cells) alone or in combination with BPF was utilized. Three to four weeks-aged male Guinea pigs were grouped into two major groups. The first was non-irradiated control that was divided into subgroups treated i.p. with BM cells (2.5xl06 cells), one dose of BPF (lug/g b wt), BM cells+ BPF, one week spaced two doses of BPF, BM cells+ 2 doses of BPF, one week spaced three doses of BPF or BM cells+ 3 doses of BPF. Second major group (irradiated group) at 1.5 Gy that, subdivided and treated similarly. 5 animals from each group were killed at 7, 14 and 21 days from the initiation of treatment (3 h after irradiation). The subgroups of non-irradiated animals showed an increase in spleen wt and colony formation, thymus population, and globulins content particularly in those subgroups that stayed for the later time periods (14 and 21 days) and that treated with combined BM cells+ BPF or that groups that were treated with two or three BPF doses. Irradiation caused dramatic destruction in thymus and the spleen reflected on reduction of the lower globulins content. Treatment with BM cells, BM cells+ double doses of BPF or triple doses of BPF caused complete recovery in all measured indices, the best result was observed in those of subgroups treated with BM cells+ double doses of BPF or treated with triple doses of BPF. They completely normalized the investigated parameters after 14 and 21 days respectively

  12. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  13. Regulation of ODC activity in the thymus and liver of rats by adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, S L; Prahlad, K V; Mitchell, J L

    1986-01-01

    The activity of L-ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17, ODC) has become a useful indicator of hormone responsiveness. Various regimens of dexamethasone, aldosterone and epinephrine, alone or in combination, were administered to adrenalectomized rats either in acute or chronic doses. In addition, adrenalectomized rats, which were chronically treated with aldosterone and epinephrine, were given a single injection of 50 micrograms dexamethasone and sacrificed at various time intervals after hormone treatment. Hepatic and thymic ODC activity was measured. The expected dexamethasone effect, an increase in hepatic and a decrease in thymic ODC, was observed. This study also revealed that aldosterone induced similar responses in these tissues. Epinephrine had the opposite effect since chronic administration of dexamethasone or aldosterone with epinephrine resulted in control levels of ODC. Furthermore, when aldosterone and epinephrine were chronically administered to adrenalectomized rats, to study the acute effects of dexamethasone on rat thymus and liver, the time course of the response in each tissue was found to be distinct. The influence of the adrenal gland on rat thymus and liver is not restricted only to glucocorticoids, but may also involve other hormones which it secretes.

  14. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  15. Effect of adeturone on the concentration of endogenous sulfhydryl groups in mouse spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, T.; Bychvarova, K.

    1981-01-01

    Levels of endogenous sulfhydryl groups (total, protein, and non-protein) in mouse liver and spleen were studied for response to the radioprotective drug Adeturone (AET adenosine triphosphate) as recorded at various time intervals (5 - 90 min) following administration of a 300 mg/kg b.w. dose. Spleen sulfhydryl concentration levels tended to elevation, with the peak effect noted at 45 min post-treatment. In the liver, augmentation was observed only for non-protein sylfhydryl groups, at 10 and 15 min post-treatment (time intervals when Adeturone affords maximum protection against radiation); at the 60 min, however, there was a statistically reliable drop. The findings indicate that Adeturone treatment produces response patterns of opposite directions in liver and spleen endogenous thiols. (A.B.)

  16. Comparative histology in the liver and spleen of three species of freshwater teleost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila F. Sales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe and compare the histology of liver and spleen ofGeophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes, Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes and Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Characiformes, tropical freshwater fishes. InG. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricusthe hepatocytes were arranged in tubular form whereas in H. franciscithey cord-like. In all species, hepatocytes presented glycogen, but in G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus they showed strong stained for hemossiderin in the cytoplasm. InG. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus, melanomacrophage centres (MMCs were associated to hepatic structures and only in G. brasiliensis was observed intrahepatic exocrine pancreas. The spleen, in all species, was characterized by red and white pulp without boundary between the two regions, but only in H. francisci was recorded nodular organization in splenic parenchyma. The G. brasiliensisandH. aff. malabaricuspresented in the white pulp MMCs linked mainly to ellipsoids. Besides, we observed large MMCs in the spleen in relation to liver of G. brasiliensis and H. aff. malabaricus. In liver, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were observed inG. brasiliensis. In spleen, highest values of reticular fibers and collagen were recorded inH. aff. malabaricusandH. francisci, respectively. Histological differences confirm the hypothesis that the phylogenetic distance is reflected in liver and spleen.

  17. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... correlate with portal pressure and can both be used as a non-invasive method to investigate CSPH. Even though external validation is still missing, these algorithms to rule-out and rule-in CSPH using sequential SWE of liver and spleen might change the clinical practice....

  18. Photon activation analysis of trace metals in the livers and spleens of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nondestructive photon activation analysis with 30 MeV bremsstrahlung was applied to determine trace element concentrations in the livers and spleens of five pigs. Samples were freeze-dried, pulverized and fractionated into four groups corresponding mesh size ; smaller than 60 mesh, 60-100 mesh, 100-200 mesh and larger than 200 mesh. Up to 9 elements in each fraction were analyzed. The concentrations of Br, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb and Zn in each liver fractions were almost constant, as were concentrations of Mg and Rb in spleens. (author). 10 refs., 7 tabs

  19. Detection of titanium particles in human liver and spleen and possible health implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.B.; Peters, R.J.B.; Bleys, R.L.A.W.; Lee, van der M.K.; Tromp, P.C.; Kesteren, van P.C.E.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Undas, A.K.; Oomen, A.G.; Bouwmeester, H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced at high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. Recent toxicokinetic modelling indicated the potential of TiO2 to accumulate in human liver and spleen upon daily oral exposure, which is not routinely investigated in chronic animal

  20. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  1. Three-dimensional demonstration of liver and spleen by computer graphics technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiromi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takao; Takayama, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional demonstration system of the liver and spleen has been developed using computer graphics technique. Three-dimensional models were constructed from CT images of the organ surface. The three-dimensional images were displayed as wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. The anatomical surface of the liver and spleen was realistically viewed from any direction. In liver cirrhosis, atrophy of the right lobe, hypertrophy of the left lobe and splenomegaly were displayed vividly. The liver and hepatoma were displayed as wire-frame and solid models respectively on the same image. This combined display clarified the intrahepatic location of hepatoma together with configuration of liver and hepatoma. Furthermore, superimposed display of three dimensional models and celiac angiogram enabled us to understand the location and configuration of lesions more easily than the original CT data or angiogram alone. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for noninvasive evaluation of patho-morphological changes of the liver and spleen. (author)

  2. The safety of low molecular-weight heparin after blunt liver and spleen injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Manley, Justin; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Ahmed, Naveed; Frotan, Mohammad Amin; Mitchell, Ellen; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-07-01

    Anticoagulation is routinely administered to all trauma patients owing to the high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the timing of administration of anticoagulation is not clearly defined when patients have blunt spleen or liver injuries because of the perceived risk of hemorrhage with early administration. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients who sustained blunt liver and/or spleen injuries during the 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Data were collected for all patients managed with nonoperative therapy for these injuries while also receiving routine prophylactic anticoagulation with low molecular-weight heparin. Patients were categorized based on the initiation of enoxaparin therapy after injury: early (72 hours). Primary and secondary outcomes were designated as need for operative or radiologic intervention secondary to spleen or liver hemorrhage, number of transfusions, and incidence of VTE. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were included. There were no enoxaparin-related hemorrhagic complications or hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention. Patients in the early, intermediate, and late groups received an average of .9, .93, and 1.55 units of blood, respectively. There was 1 pulmonary embolism in the early group, and there were 6 VTE complications in the late group (3 deep venous thromboses and 3 pulmonary embolisms). There are currently no standards for the initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation in trauma patients with blunt liver and spleen injuries. Early administration may be safe and reduce the incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with blunt spleen and liver injuries. Prospective studies in this area are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  4. The effect of radiation on processing of nuclear RNA and chromatin ribonuclease activity in rat liver and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, V.I.; Skotnikova, O.I.; Umansky, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the kinetics of nuclear RNA degradation was studied during actinomycin chase. The intranuclear breakdown of RNA in thymus was inhibited for the first 30 to 120 min after 800 R irradiation of rats. In liver the degradation of nuclear RNA was unchanged for 60 min after irradiation. By the second hour, the breakdown of the rRNA precursor accelerated and the processing of D-RNA slowed down. Rat thymus and liver chromatin showed RNAase activity with two optimal pH values - in the acidic (pH 5.0 to 5.5) and weakly alkaline (pH 7.5) regions. The activity of the acidic RNAase of thymus (but not the liver) chromatin fell after 5 to 20 kR irradiation in vitro. The activity of the alkaline RNAase did not change under these conditions. The data indicate that a fall in activity of the acidic RNAase in irradiated thymus chromatin may be related to disturbance in the enzyme-inhibitor interaction. A possible contribution of the chromatin acidic RNAase to the processing of nuclear RNA in control and after irradiation is discussed. (author)

  5. [Relation between PMI and FTIR spectral changes in asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to observe the postmortem degradation process in mechanical asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen for providing a new method of estimating PMI. Rats were sacrificed by mechanical asphyxia and cadavers were kept at (20 +/- 2) degrees C in a control chamber. The liver and spleen were sub-sampled from the same rat at intervals of 0-15 days postmortem and the data were measured by FTIR spectrometer. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish mathematical models by the statistical software. The band absorbance ratios showed increase, decrease and stable with PMI. The cubic model functions showed the strongest correlation coefficient. Compared with the spleen, the liver showed a higher correlation coefficient. The A1541/A1396 of liver showed the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.966). After 6-7 days postmortem, band absorbance ratios showed a steady period. FTIR spectroscopy can be a new and efficient method to estimate PMI within 7 days.

  6. Compartmental analysis of colloidal radiogold kinetics in liver and spleen of patients with hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristanovic, D.; Kostic, K.; Djokic, D.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of colloidal substance kinetics in a five-compartment system is presented. If colloidal radioactive gold sup(198)Au is used, the model can be applied to the patient with enlarged and very active spleen. Radiogold activities in blood samples taken from patient's peripheral vein were measured. An indirect method of finding four out of five rate constants of the system is proposed. The facts presented by this study can be summarized as follows: in hypersplenism, the amount of radiogold, removed from the blood stream by the liver reticuloendothelial system, is about four times higher than the one coursing back from the liver through the hepatic vein into the systemic circulation. The radiogold amount, entering the liver in a given time, is twice as much as the substance amount passing from the systemic circulation to the spleen for the same period of time. The amount of the colloid injected before splenectomy is distributed in such a manner that, on an average, 60% is stored in liver and the rest, in the reticuloendothelial system of the spleen

  7. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  8. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki

    1983-01-01

    Liver and spleen volume were measured by computed tomography (CT) using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indication the accuracy and usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 48 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 subjects with non-hepatobiliary discase. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis but not in alcoholic cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. Alcoholic cirrhosis showed significantly larger liver volume than non-alcoholic cirrhosis. In alcoholic fibrosis, the mean hepatic volume was significantly larger than non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volumes both in alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis were significantly larger than in other disease. A significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiology of chronic liver disease. (author)

  9. Ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver: a prognostic tool in canine cutaneous mast cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, D; Valenti, P; Faverzani, S; Bronzo, V; Fiorbianco, V; Pinto da Cunha, N; Romussi, S; Cantatore, M; Caniatti, M

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical staging of cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT), the diagnosis of metastasis is controversial based on cytological examination of lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and blood. To define the prognostic role of ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver in cMCT. The results of cytological evaluation were compared in relation with survival time. Fifty-two client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of cMCT. Selection of cases was based on cytological evaluation of liver and spleen to detect infiltration at distant sites. The Kaplan Meier method was used to compare survival in dogs with and without infiltration of spleen and liver (log-rank test P dogs with cMCT had mast cell infiltration of spleen, liver, or both and 4 of these dogs had involvement of the regional lymph nodes. The majority of dogs had 2 or more ultrasonographically abnormal findings simultaneously in spleen and liver. Nine dogs had grade II cMCT, and 1 had grade III cMCT. Dogs with positive evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had shorter survival times (34 versus 733 days) compared with dogs negative for mast cell infiltration at distant sites. Dogs with evidence of mast cell infiltration at distant sites have a shorter survival times than dogs without evidence of infiltration at distant sites. This study suggests that cytology of spleen and liver is indicated either for ultrasonographically normal or for ultrasonographically abnormal spleen and liver in dogs with cMCT.

  10. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females.

  11. Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus and fatty liver diagnosed by liver/spleen Hounsfield units on CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Kosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kubo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Akifumi; Arai, Hisakatsu; Kawazu, Shoji; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective The leading cause of liver injuries in diabetes mellitus may be associated with fatty liver. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between fatty liver and diabetes characteristics. Methods Retrospectively, 970 patients with diabetes were analysed. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver/spleen Hounsfield unit ratio by computed tomography was below 0.9. Clinical diabetes characteristics were compared between patients with and without fatty liver. Results Of 970 patients (717 male and 253 female; mean age 64.4 years), 175 males (24.4%) and 60 females (23.7%) had fatty liver. None of the 28 patients with type 1 diabetes had fatty liver. In male patients with type 2 diabetes, age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), albumin, alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and triglycerides were independently associated with fatty liver. In females, age and bilirubin were associated with fatty liver. Conclusions Fatty liver is associated with type 2 diabetes characteristics, including younger age and elevated VAT, albumin, ALT, and triglycerides in males and younger age and elevated bilirubin levels in females. PMID:28553763

  12. The majority of lymphocytes in the bone marrow. Thymus and extrathymic T cells in the liver are generated in situ from their own preexisting precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takao; Sugahara, Satoshi; Oya, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Bannai, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Abo, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Parabiotic pairs of B6.Ly5.1 and B6.Ly5.2 mice were used to investigate how lymphocytes in various organs and various lymphocyte subsets mixed with partner cells. The origin of partner cells was determined by using anti-Ly5.1 mAb in conjunction with immunofluorescence tests. Parabiosis was also produced after the irradiation of B6.Ly5.2 mice at various doses to prepare an immunosuppressive partner. Irrespective of irradiation, lymphocytes and other hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and lymphocytes in the thymus showed a low mixture of partner cells in comparison with those of all other organs tested. On the other hand, lymphocytes in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes became a half-and-half mixture of their own cells and partner cell by 14 days after parabiosis. Among lymphocyte subsets, intermediate CD3 cells (i.e., CD3 int cells) and NKT cells (i.e., NK1.1 + subset of CD3 int cells) in the liver also showed a low mixture of partner cells. The present results raise the possibility that lymphocytes in the bone marrow and thymus, and extrathymic T cells in the liver might be in situ generated from their own preexisting precursor cells. Another observation was that, after irradiation, partner cells showed accelerated mixture even if they showed a low mixture under non-irradiated conditions. However, only lymphocyte subsets with the same phenotype as those of preexisting cells entered the corresponding sites. (author)

  13. The majority of lymphocytes in the bone marrow. Thymus and extrathymic T cells in the liver are generated in situ from their own preexisting precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takao; Sugahara, Satoshi; Oya, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Bannai, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Abo, Toru [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Parabiotic pairs of B6.Ly5.1 and B6.Ly5.2 mice were used to investigate how lymphocytes in various organs and various lymphocyte subsets mixed with partner cells. The origin of partner cells was determined by using anti-Ly5.1 mAb in conjunction with immunofluorescence tests. Parabiosis was also produced after the irradiation of B6.Ly5.2 mice at various doses to prepare an immunosuppressive partner. Irrespective of irradiation, lymphocytes and other hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and lymphocytes in the thymus showed a low mixture of partner cells in comparison with those of all other organs tested. On the other hand, lymphocytes in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes became a half-and-half mixture of their own cells and partner cell by 14 days after parabiosis. Among lymphocyte subsets, intermediate CD3 cells (i.e., CD3{sup int} cells) and NKT cells (i.e., NK1.1{sup +} subset of CD3{sup int} cells) in the liver also showed a low mixture of partner cells. The present results raise the possibility that lymphocytes in the bone marrow and thymus, and extrathymic T cells in the liver might be in situ generated from their own preexisting precursor cells. Another observation was that, after irradiation, partner cells showed accelerated mixture even if they showed a low mixture under non-irradiated conditions. However, only lymphocyte subsets with the same phenotype as those of preexisting cells entered the corresponding sites. (author)

  14. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A case report with atypical liver-spleen scan after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcora, N.; Ilgin, N.; Basaklar, C.

    1992-01-01

    Remodeling of the liver following splenectomy may simulate hypertrophy of an accessory spleen on sulphur colloid scans. There are but a few reports about the persistent splenic activity as a prominent finding during the post-splenectomy period. Splenic simulation may be attributed to the unusual hepatic lobe displacement, as in this case. The clinician should be aware of possible splenic simulation in the post-splenectomy period, if hypersplenism is suspected

  16. Radionuclide imaging in the nonsurgical treatment of liver and spleen trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzker, L.G.; Chun, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    As part of evaluation in patients with abdominal trauma severe enough to require hospital admission but not sufficiently severe to warrant immediate surgery, liver-spleen imaging with Tc-99m sulfur coloid was performed in 30 patients in the following age ranges: 10 mo-5 yr (3 patients), 6-10 yr (11), 11-15 yr (7), and 16-40 yr (9). Routine projections by gamma camera were acquired in the anterior, posterior, lateral, anterior oblique, and posterior oblique projections, supplemented with caudally angulated or upright views when indicated. Scintigraphically, there was a linear defect in ten patients, a round, intraparenchymal or wedge defect in 12, and an edge defect in eight. In 24 patients that underwent subsequent studies, the initial image was positive in 21 and equivocal in three. Of the 21 patients, partial resolution of the defects was seen on the images 2 wk to 7 mo following trauma in 14 patients, and nearly complete resolution in 2 wk to 10 mo in nine patients. Complete resolution was seen in 1-13 mo in nine patients. No defects enlarged over time. These authors presented a decision tree for the initial evaluation and subsequent studies in patients with liver-spleen trauma. They feel that consideration of clinical signs and serial liver-spleen imaging can eliminate some surgery when there is a question of delayed or missed splenic rupture.

  17. Radionuclide imaging in the nonsurgical treatment of liver and spleen trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzker, L.G.; Chun, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    As part of evaluation in patients with abdominal trauma severe enough to require hospital admission but not sufficiently severe to warrant immediate surgery, liver-spleen imaging with Tc-99m sulfur coloid was performed in 30 patients in the following age ranges: 10 mo-5 yr (3 patients), 6-10 yr (11), 11-15 yr (7), and 16-40 yr (9). Routine projections by gamma camera were acquired in the anterior, posterior, lateral, anterior oblique, and posterior oblique projections, supplemented with caudally angulated or upright views when indicated. Scintigraphically, there was a linear defect in ten patients, a round, intraparenchymal or wedge defect in 12, and an edge defect in eight. In 24 patients that underwent subsequent studies, the initial image was positive in 21 and equivocal in three. Of the 21 patients, partial resolution of the defects was seen on the images 2 wk to 7 mo following trauma in 14 patients, and nearly complete resolution in 2 wk to 10 mo in nine patients. Complete resolution was seen in 1-13 mo in nine patients. No defects enlarged over time. These authors presented a decision tree for the initial evaluation and subsequent studies in patients with liver-spleen trauma. They feel that consideration of clinical signs and serial liver-spleen imaging can eliminate some surgery when there is a question of delayed or missed splenic rupture

  18. Liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney involvement by human fascioliasis: imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatdoost Azita

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fasciola hepatica primarily involves the liver, however in some exceptional situations other organs have been reported to be involved. The ectopic involvement is either a result of Parasite migration or perhaps eosinophilic reaction. Case presentation Here we report a known case of multiple myeloma who was under treatment with prednisolone and melphalan. He was infected by Fasciola hepatica, which involved many organs and the lesions were mistaken with metastatic ones. Discussion Presented here is a very unusual case of the disease, likely the first case involving the pancreas, spleen, and kidney, as well as the liver.

  19. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Mili; Gardner, Carol R.; Sun, Richard; Choi, Hyejeong; Lad, Sonali; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b + infiltrating Ly6G + granulocytic and Ly6G − monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G + cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G − cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80 + ) and immature (F4/80 − ) pro-inflammatory Ly6C hi macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C lo ) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3 + macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen and the bone marrow. • Hepatotoxicity is reduced in

  20. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Mili, E-mail: milimandal@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gardner, Carol R., E-mail: cgardner@pharmacy.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sun, Richard, E-mail: fishpower52@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Choi, Hyejeong, E-mail: choi@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Lad, Sonali, E-mail: sonurose92@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mishin, Vladimir, E-mail: mishinv@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b{sup +} infiltrating Ly6G{sup +} granulocytic and Ly6G{sup −} monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G{sup +} cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G{sup −} cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80{sup +}) and immature (F4/80{sup −}) pro-inflammatory Ly6C{sup hi} macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C{sup lo}) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3{sup +} macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen and the

  1. Graft versus host disease in the bone marrow, liver and thymus humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Greenblatt

    Full Text Available Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice. The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/γc(-/- delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model.

  2. Clinical value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Mao, Da-Feng; Zhang, Mei-Wu; Fan, Xiao-Xiang

    2017-12-07

    To explore the relationship of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in patients with liver cirrhosis combined with portal hypertension, and assess the value of liver and spleen shear wave velocity in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension. All 67 patients with liver cirrhosis diagnosed as portal hypertension by hepatic venous pressure gradient in our hospital from June 2014 to December 2014 were enrolled into this study. The baseline information of these patients was recorded. Furthermore, 67 patients were followed-up at 20 mo after treatment, and liver and spleen shear wave velocity were measured by acoustic radiation force impulse at the 1 st week, 3 rd month and 9 th month after treatment. Patients with favorable prognosis were assigned into the favorable prognosis group, while patients with unfavorable prognosis were assigned into the unfavorable prognosis group. The variation and difference in liver and spleen shear wave velocity in these two groups were analyzed by repeated measurement analysis of variance. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate the effect of liver and spleen shear wave velocity on the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension, Cox's proportional hazard regression model analysis was applied. The ability of those factors in predicting the prognosis of patients with portal hypertension was calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The liver and spleen shear wave velocity in the favorable prognosis group revealed a clear decline, while those in the unfavorable prognosis group revealed an increasing tendency at different time points. Furthermore, liver and spleen shear wave velocity was higher in the unfavorable prognosis group, compared with the favorable prognosis group; the differences were statistically significant ( P portal hypertension was significantly affected by spleen hardness at the 3 rd month after treatment [relative risk (RR) = 3.481]. At the 9 th month after treatment, the prognosis

  3. Hydrocortisone and insulin effect on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of liver and spleen th rats exposed to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutkovoj, D.A.; Alferov, A.N.; Letov, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Total-body exposure of rats to fast neutrons (100 rad) elicits an increase in the content of 11-oxycorticosteroids in blood plasma and an appreciable decrease in the respiratory and phosphorylation activity of liver and spleen mitochondria. Administration of hydrocortisone (50 mg/kg) and particularly insulin (2 units/kg) intensifies energy generation in the liver. In the spleen, a beneficial effect was only produced by insulin. Glucocorticoid considerably aggravates the postradiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation

  4. Portal Hypertension in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Spleen Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Yoshitaka; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Youichi; Tomokuni, Junko; Sahara, Akiko; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of spleen stiffness (SS) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in the diagnosis of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis, with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) as a reference standard. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this prospective single-center study. From February 2012 to August 2013, 60 patients with liver cirrhosis (mean age, 70.8 years; age range, 34-88 years; 34 men, 26 women) with HVPG, LS, and SS measurements and gastrointestinal endoscopy and laboratory data were included if they met the following criteria: no recent episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, no history of splenectomy, no history of partial splenic embolization, no history of β-blocker therapy, and absence of portal thrombosis. The efficacy of the parameters for the evaluation of portal hypertension was analyzed by using the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The correlation coefficient between SS and HVPG (r = 0.876) was significantly better than that between LS and HVPG (r = 0.609, P portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 10 mm Hg), severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 12 mm Hg), esophageal varices (EVs), and high-risk EVs were significantly higher (0.943, 0.963, 0.937, and 0.955, respectively) than those of LS, spleen diameter, platelet count, and platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (P portal hypertension, severe portal hypertension, EVs, and high-risk EVs (negative likelihood ratios, 0.051, 0.056, 0.054, and 0.074, respectively). SS is reliable and has better diagnostic performance than LS for identifying portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. [Liver and spleen biometrics in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariento, Andressa; Silva, Marco Felipe C; Tassetano, Priscilla S F; Rocha, Sílvia Maria S; Campos, Lúcia M A; Valente, Marcelo; Silva, Clovis A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate liver and spleen dimensions in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (c-SLE) patients and healthy controls. 30 c-SLE patients and 30 healthy control volunteers underwent abdominal ultrasound. The following two liver measurements were performed in left hepatic lobe: craniocaudal and anteroposterior and three in right hepatic lobe (RHL): posterior craniocaudal (PCC-RHL), anterior craniocaudal and anteroposterior. Three spleen dimension measurements were also evaluated: longitudinal, transverse and anteroposterior. Demographic, clinical and laboratorial data, SLEDAI-2K, ECLAM, SLAM and treatment were assessed. Mean current age was similar in c-SLE and controls (170.31 ± 27.81 vs. 164.15 ± 39.25 months; p = 0.486). The mean of PCC-RHL dimension was significantly higher in c-SLE compared to controls (13.30 ± 1.85 vs. 12.52 ± 0.93, p = 0.044). There were no differences between the other hepatic biometrics and splenic parameters (p > 0.05). Further analysis in c-SLE patients according to PCC-RHL dimension ≥ 13.3cm versus 0.05). Positive correlation was observed between SLEDAI-2K and PCC-RHL (p = 0.001, r = +0.595). Negative correlation was evidenced between disease duration and longitudinal dimension of spleen (p = 0.031, r = -0.394). Our data raises the possibility that disease activity could lead to a subclinical and localized hepatomegaly during the disease course. Long disease duration resulted to spleen atrophy in c-SLE patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Ruptured Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by various underlying problems, such as mononucleosis and other infections, liver disease, and blood cancers. ... cause a ruptured spleen. For instance, people with mononucleosis — a viral infection that can cause an enlarged ...

  7. Shear wave elastography (SWE) of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Inglot, Marcin; Chabowski, Mariusz; Szymańska, Kinga; Inglot, Małgorzata; Patyk, Mateusz; Słonina, Joanna; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Janczak, Dariusz; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the elasticity of the spleen in patients with hepatitis B and C but without liver fibrosis with that of healthy subjects using a shear wave elastography (SWE) examination. Between December 2014 and December 2015, 35 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and 45 patients with (hepatitis C virus) HCV infections and liver stiffness below 7.1 kPa were included in the study. The control group was composed of 53 healthy volunteers without any chronic liver disease, with no abnormal findings in their ultrasound examinations and with an SWE of the liver below 6.5 kPa. The SWE measurements were a part of routine ultrasound abdominal examinations. The examinations were performed using an Aixplorer device by two radiologists with at least 6 years' experience. To compare spleen stiffness between the groups, the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied. To analyze the dependency between liver and spleen elasticity, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated. A total of 133 SWE findings were analyzed. Stiffness of the spleen was significantly higher in patients with HBV and HCV but without significant liver fibrosis than it was in the healthy controls (p = 0.0018 and 0.0000, respectively). This correlation was also present in patients with liver stiffness below 6.5 kPa (p = 0.0041 and 0.0000, respectively). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between liver and spleen stiffness in patients with hepatitis B and C and without significant fibrosis (p = 0.3216 and 0.0626, respectively). Patients with hepatitis B and C but without significant liver fibrosis have stiffer spleens than healthy controls. There is no dependency between liver and spleen elasticity in patients without significant fibrosis. The SWE examination might be an important tool and could be used in addition to conventional imaging. Our study may become a starting point in further investigations into the role of the spleen in HCV and HBV

  8. Disseminated Nonleukemic Myeloid Sarcoma of the Spleen With Involvement of the Liver in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yueli; Wu, Yuanyuan; Dong, Ao; Zhu, Kun; Li, Wei; Cai, Shenyang; Yang, Min; Yan, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Nonleukemic myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare tumor that can occur in several locations without myeloid leukemia. We reported a first case of nonleukemic MS of the spleen involving the liver in a 5-month-old boy presenting with hematochezia, petechial hemorrhage, fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. Bone marrow trephine biopsy and immunophenotypic flow cytometry revealed no evidence of myeloid leukemia. The patient underwent liver biopsy and splenectomy. Clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry suggested a disseminated nonleukemic MS. The patient died of respiratory failure on the seventh postoperative day. Early diagnosis of a disseminated nonleukemic MS may be quite important for patient survival and it should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of hepatosplenomegaly with atypical clinical features.

  9. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  10. Spleen dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a new method for staging liver fibrosis in a piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore spleen hemodynamic alteration in liver fibrosis with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI, and to determine how to stage liver fibrosis with spleen DCE-MRI parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen piglets were prospectively used to model liver fibrosis staged by liver biopsy, and underwent spleen DCE-MRI on 0, 5th, 9th, 16th and 21st weekend after modeling this disease. DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak (TTP, positive enhancement integral (PEI, maximum slope of increase (MSI and maximum slope of decrease (MSD of spleen were measured, and statistically analyzed to stage this disease. RESULTS: Spearman's rank correlation tests showed that TTP tended to increase with increasing stages of liver fibrosis (r = 0.647, P0.05, and decreased from stage 2 to 4 (P0.05. Mann-Whitney tests demonstrated that TTP and PEI could classify fibrosis between stage 0 and 1-4, between 0-1 and 2-4, between 0-2 and 3-4, or between 0-3 and 4 (all P<0.01. MSD could discriminate between 0-2 and 3-4 (P = 0.006, or between 0-3 and 4 (P = 0.012. MSI could not differentiate between any two stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis illustrated that area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of TTP was larger than of PEI for classifying stage ≥1 and ≥2 (AUC = 0.851 and 0.783, respectively. PEI could best classify stage ≥3 and 4 (AUC = 0.903 and 0.96, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spleen DCE-MRI has potential to monitor spleen hemodynamic alteration and classify liver fibrosis stages.

  11. On the effect of small radiation doses: Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and DNA repair of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow cells in the rat after fractionated total body X-ray irradiation. Zur Wirkung kleiner Strahlendosen: Desoxyribonukleinsaeure-(DNA-)Synthese und DNA-Reparatur von Thymus-, Milz- und Knochenmarkszellen der Ratte nach fraktionierter Ganzkoerperroentgenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Ehling, G. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Pharmazie)

    1989-09-01

    After three to seven days following to fractionated total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) (four expositions with doses of 0.3 to 5.0 cGy per fraction at intervals of 24 hours), a maximum 50 percent stimulation of the semiconservative DNA synthesis (SDS) of spleen cells was measured in vitro. This was not dependent of the fact if an acute high-dose (400 and/or 800 cGy) unique irradiation was applied after the fractionated TBI at the moment of stimulation. A significant increase of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of bone marrow and thymus cells was only found when doses of 1.25 cGy per fraction had been used. After fractionated TBI with doses of {ge}5 cGy per fraction, an increase of DNA synthesis resistant to hydroxyurea ('unprogrammed' DNA synthesis, UDS) was demonstrated in spleen cells. The UV-simulated UDS decreased proportionately. The sedimentation of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow nucleoids in a neutral saccharose gradient gave no evidence of an increased DNA repair capacity after fractionated TBI. Whereas the SDS stimulation by fractionated TBI with small doses can be explained by a modified proliferation behavior of exposed cells, the UDS behavior of spleen cells after considerably higher radiation doses suggests regenerative processes correlated with an increased number of cells resistant to hydroxyurea and cells presenting an UV repair deficiency. These findings can be considered to be a further proof of the assumed immune-stimulating effect of small radiation doses. (orig.).

  12. 3D segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekes, G.; Fidrich, M.; Nyul, L.G.; Mate, E.; Kuba, A.

    2007-01-01

    The clinicians often need to segment the abdominal organs for radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation of these organs is very time-consuming, therefore automated methods are desired. We developed a semi-automatic segmentation method to outline liver, spleen and kidneys. It works on CT images without contrast intake that are acquired with a routine clinical protocol. From an initial surface around a user defined seed point, the segmentation of the organ is obtained by an active surface algorithm. Pre- and post-processing steps are used to adapt the general method for specific organs. The evaluation results show that the accuracy of our method is about 90%, which can be further improved with little manual editing, and that the precision is slightly higher than that of manual contouring. Our method is accurate, precise and fast enough to use in the clinical practice. (orig.)

  13. Ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, and urinary tract of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Spotswood, Tim; Wagner, Wencke M; Grimbeek, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the abdomen of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) include those affecting the liver, spleen, and urinary tract. The most common diseases of captive-bred cheetah are gastritis, gastric ulceration, glomerulosclerosis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and are the most frequent causes of mortality in these animals. The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the normal liver, spleen, kidney, and urinary bladder of the anesthetized captive-bred cheetah. Twenty-one cheetahs were examined. Eight of the 21 animals had subclinical evidence of either gastritis or chronic renal disease. The ultrasonographic appearances of the liver, gall bladder, common bile duct, and spleen were evaluated and various measurements made. Statistical analyses of the measurements were performed on all the healthy and subclinically ill animals taking sex, age, mass, and anesthetic protocol into account. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the healthy and subclinically ill animals (P > 0.25) and data were combined for statistical analyses. The mean mass was 41.1kg ( +/- 8.8) and the mean age was 5.0 years (+/- 2.2). The mean thickness of the liver medial to the gall bladder was 67.0 mm (+/- 14.8) and the liver was within the left costal arch in 75% of animals, extended caudal to the right costal arch in 50% of animals for an average of 30 mm, and extended caudal to the sternum in 63% of animals for an average of 32.5 mm. The maximum mean hepatic vein diameter at the entrance to the caudal vena cava was 8.6 +/- 2.8 mm; the mean diameters of the portal vein at the hilus and that of the caudal vena cava as it entered the liver were 7.5 +/- 1.6 and 9.9 +/- 4.1 mm, respectively. The mean diameter of the caudal vena cava was significantly affected by the type of anesthetic used (P < 0.10). The mass of the animals was significant in explaining the variance in maximum portal vein diameters (P < 0.10). The mean maximum velocity of the

  14. Curative effect of spleen homogenate against radiation injury to serum glucose, liver glycogen and plasma protein fractions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Ibrahim, H.A.; Edrees, G.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the spleen homogenate injection as a curative substance against gamma irradiation effects has been investigated in male albino rats. The parameters tested were, life span, serum glucose level, liver glycogen content, serum protein fractions and A/G ratio. The results obtained are as follows: Irradiated group showed 100% mortality over 22 days, this percentage dropped to 60% over 30 days for irradiated group received spleen homogenate treatment. Irradiated animals, recorded initial hyperglycaemia which diminished by time, whereas the liver glycogen concentration showed first to initially increase then to decrease abruptly. Treatment with spleen homogenate after irradiation ameliorated the magnitude of radiation induced hyperglycaemia and liver glycogen depletion. The serum Albumin/Globulin ratio decreased by irradiation due to the decrease in the serum albumin accompanied by an increase in the serum globulin content. This ratio could be restored towards its normal level in irradiated animals received spleen homogenate treatment. The data obtained suggests the possibility of using spleen homogenate for the treatment of accidental radiation syndrome

  15. Studies on hemodynamics in liver diseases by the use of colloidal gold198 uptakes by liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Atsushi

    1983-01-01

    In this study, hepatic blood flow was observed using colloidal gold 198 uptakes by the liver and spleen in the pathogenic conditions in which the uptake was increased in the area of extra hepatic reticuloendothelial systems (especially in splenic RES). The change in the uptake ability of the liver and the contribution to it of intra and extra hepatic shunts were examined. In addition, study was made on the mechanism of how splenic visualization occurred in the colloidal gold 198 scintigram in liver diseases. Out of 84 subjects, 35, 11, 24, and 8 had hepatic cirrhosis and precirrhosis and chronic and acute hepatitis, respectively, and 6 were normal. The results obtained in this study were as follows: (1) The mean value of splenic clearance (splenic blood flow component) in hepatic cirrhosis was 88+-67.5 ml/min. This accounts for approximately 14.6+-11.9 % of the total RES clearance (Classic Effective Hepatic Blood Flow). (2) In hepatic cirrhosis, Classic Hepatic Blood Flow which had been measured up to date was considered to be overestimation by about 19.9+-20.4 % over the mean value of hepatic clearance (hepatic blood flow component) obtained in this study, (3) The hepatic clearance was better indicator of liver disease than the total RES clearance, (4) The ratio between hepatic clearance and cardiac output was considered to be a useful index in assessing the amount of intra and extra hepatic shunts, which had an inverse relationship to the ability of colloid uptake by the liver. (5) Splenic visualization in hepatic cirrhosis was shown to have resulted from the increase in splenic extraction of the colloid, followed by the increase in total splenic blood flow. (author)

  16. The use of DWI to assess spleen and liver quantitative ADC changes in the detection of liver fibrosis stages in chronic viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cece, Hasan, E-mail: hasan_cece@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Ercan, Abdulbasit, E-mail: abdulbasitercan@hotmail.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Yıldız, Sema, E-mail: drsemayildiz@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Ekrem, E-mail: karakasekrem@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Omer, E-mail: dromerkarakas@hotmail.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Boyacı, Fatıma Nurefsan, E-mail: drnurefsan@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Aydogan, Timucin, E-mail: drtaydogan@yahoo.com.tr [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Emel Yigit, E-mail: e.ygtkarakas@yahoo.com.tr [Sanliurfa Training and Research Hospital, Department of İnternal Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Cullu, Nesat, E-mail: nesatcullu77@gmail.com [Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mugla (Turkey); Ulas, Turgay, E-mail: turgayulas@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of İnternal Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2013-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in spleen and liver diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in chronic viral hepatitis patients. The study comprised 47 patients and 30 healthy volunteers. DWIs were obtained. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements were made by transferring the images to the workstation. The measurements of value b 1000 were made from a total of five points of the liver and three points of the spleen. Liver biopsy was performed on the 47 patients. The fibrosis stages of the patients were defined according to the METAVIR scoring system. Student's t-test was used in the comparison of mean ages, liver and spleen ADC values between the patient and the control group. Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney U Test with Bonferroni adjustment was performed in the comparison of mean ADC values of the patients at different stages and the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the patient and control group in respect of liver and spleen mean ADC values (P < 0.05). F3 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control, F1, F2 and F3 group in terms of the mean liver ADC value (P < 0.01). F3 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 group in terms of the mean spleen ADC value (P < 0.01). As a result we believe that the measurement of liver and spleen ADC values may be an indicator in the determination of the level of fibrosis.

  17. Features of the postirradiation regeneration of liver mitochondria of gamma-irradiated mice treated with the Testudo horsfieldi spleen extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Ivanov, V.I.; Trifonov, Yu.A.; Abbasova, I.A.; Usmanov, R.B.

    A study was made of the effect of a drug prepared from a spleen extract of Testudo horsfieldi on energy metabolism and lipid composition of liver mitochondria of irradiated mice (2.06 x 10/sup -1/ C/kg). It was shown that the decompensated low-energy state of liver mitochondria of the exposed mice was changed into the state of the compensated low-energy shift: the physicochemical properties of lipid microenvironment of mitochondria proteins were partially restored.

  18. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ELASTOGRAPHY OF THE LIVER, SPLEEN, KIDNEYS, AND PROSTATE IN CLINICALLY NOR-MAL BEAGLE DOGS [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sunghoon; Lee, Gahyun; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Yu, Dohyeon; Choi, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    Standard ultrasonography is often insensitive for distinguishing normal vs. diseased states for canine abdominal organs. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new technique that is becoming increasingly available and may help to improve sensitivity. This study evaluated the feasibility, repeatability, and reproducibility of strain elastography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in healthy dogs and described the elasticity of each organ using strain values and strain ratios. The reproducibility of strain elastography was excellent, and intraobserver repeatability was moderate to excellent. The strain value of each organ was not significantly different among dogs (liver = 143.38 ± 7.41, spleen = 141.04 ± 9.03, left renal cortex = 141.26 ± 7.50, right renal cortex = 145.80 ± 7.79, and prostate = 135.46 ± 5.80), except for the renal medulla (left = 51.19 ± 4.54 and right = 51.93 ± 5.09) (P spleen, renal cortex, and prostate were similar with no significant difference (liver = 10.20 ± 1.47, spleen = 8.40 ± 1.53, left renal cortex = 9.62 ± 1.56, right renal cortex = 8.29 ± 1.63, and prostate = 8.20 ± 1.21), except for the renal medulla (left = 3.48 ± 0.68 and right = 2.95 ± 0.63) (P spleen, kidneys, and prostate. This study provides basic information for strain values and strain ratios for the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in clinically normal dogs. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. Diagnostic value of Doppler assessment of the hepatic and portal vessels and ultrasound of the spleen in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, John; Ng, Chaan; Catnach, Susan; Farrant, Patricia; Williams, Roger

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the clinical utility and the intra-observer and inter-observer variability of Doppler ultrasound assessment of the hepatic and portal vessels along with measurement of spleen size in the diagnosis of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Ultrasound measurements of portal vein diameter (PVD), portal vein velocity (PVV), hepatic arterial resistance index (HARI), hepatic vein profile (HVP), and spleen size were obtained in 49 controls and 45 patients with liver disease (23 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 22 with hepatitis C) by two experienced observers, who each performed three blinded measurements of each variable. Control values were derived from normal hospital workers. Percutaneous liver biopsies in 41 of the patients showed cirrhosis (14 patients), moderate/severe fibrosis (13 patients), and early disease (14 patients). Seventy-one percent of cirrhotic patients had splenomegaly (> 13.6 cm). The spleen size was significantly larger in cirrhotics (16.0 cm) than in non-cirrhotics (13.0 cm, P HVP was abnormal in 76.9% of cirrhotics, 57.7% of non-cirrhotics and 2.1% of controls (P HVP are useful predictors of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and both can be measured reliably and reproducibly. However, Doppler measurements of PVV, PVD and HARI are not useful in distinguishing patients with chronic liver disease from normal controls.

  20. Relaxation enhancement of the dog liver and spleen by biodegradable superparamagnetic particles in proton magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsson, A; Carlsten, J.; Ericsson, A.; Klaveness, J.; Sperber, G.O.; Thuomas, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Bio-degradable superparamagnetic particles of about 0.5 μm diameter were investigated in 2 dogs as potential intravenous contrast enhancing agents for the reticuloendothelial system. The particles lowered the MRI signal of the liver for all investigated sequences, while the signal of the spleen was lowered only in T2 weighted sequences. No clear effect was seen on signals of fat and muscle. There was a pronounced effect in T2 in both liver and spleen but relatively little effect on T1. Diminishing contrast effect with time indicates that the particles degrade. The particles did not have any adverse effects on the general state of the dogs or on routine liver and kidney function tests. (orig.)

  1. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  2. Evaluation of radiolabeled curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles usage as an imaging agent in liver-spleen scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayan, Arif Kursad [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Yenilmez, Ayse, E-mail: yenilmez2014@gmail.com [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Erzurum Technical University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Eroglu, Hayrettin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2017-06-01

    Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (C-SLNs) were prepared using micro emulsion and ultrasonication methods in the first stage of this study to determine the role of C-SLN on liver-spleen scintigraphy. It was concluded that the curcumin that was encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles had a β′ polymorph structure according to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. İt was concluded that these particles were at nano scale according to the laser diffraction (LD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis suggested an interaction between the curcumin and the solid lipid matrix, and the curcumin was loaded on the solid lipid nanoparticles. Moreover, the particles were concluded to be spherical and at nanoscale according to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. On the other hand, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggested that the curcumin loaded solid nanoparticles were stable against the temperature. C-SLNs were labeled with Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m}Tc) radioisotope in the second stage of the study, then using scintigraphic methods in-vivo studies were performed on New Zealand rabbit and made a comparison with Phytate colloid, routinely used in liver-spleen scintigraphy. After analyzing the images and the biological distributions obtained from the experiments, uptake was observed in the liver and the spleen. Following from the experiment results, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled C-SLNs was concluded to be a possible imaging agent. In particular, it could be a new radiopharmaceutical alternative to {sup 99m}Tc-labeled compounds that are used in liver and spleen imaging in colloid scintigraphy. - Graphıcal abstract: Display Omitted - Hıghlıghts: • Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (C-SLNs) were prepared and examined characterization studies. • The C-SLNs were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and made a comparison with Phytate colloid, routinely used in liver-spleen scintigraphy. • In vivo

  3. The postnatal growth of ICRP target organs in reference humans: Spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to improve radiation dose estimates to infants and children are hampered because of the lack of mathematical models that describe the age variation in anatomical and physiological parameters. Specifically, for one anatomical parameter, organ size, there are no growth models available to the health physics community. In this paper, an empirical mathematical model is introduced for estimating age-specific masses of two ICRP target organs: the spleen and liver. That model, the Power Logistic Additive (PLA) growth model, is fitted to ICRP 23 organ growth data to determine five growth parameters. This model assumes that organs grow under the influence of two main processes: a primary (power function) and a sexual maturation (logistic function) process, which are additive from birth to adulthood. The results show that the model describes the ICRP growth data quite well. Growth parameters and tables listing the predicted masses and mass velocities as a function of age for each organ are provided for application in the ICRP modeling system

  4. High risk of misinterpreting liver and spleen stiffness using 2D shear-wave and transient elastography after a moderate or high calorie meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Jansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    ) and real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). Patients ingested a 625 kcal and a 1250 kcal liquid meal on two consecutive days. We measured liver and spleen elasticity, Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and portal flow at baseline and after 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Sixty......Food intake increases liver stiffness, but it is believed that liver stiffness returns to baseline two hours after a meal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different sized meals on liver stiffness. Liver and spleen stiffness was measured with transient elastography (TE...... patients participated, 83% with alcoholic liver disease. Twenty-eight patients had METAVIR fibrosis score F0-3 and 32 patients had cirrhosis. Liver stiffness, spleen stiffness and CAP increased after both meals for all stages of fibrosis. False positive 2D-SWE liver stiffness measurements caused 36% and 52...

  5. Radiation absorbed-dose estimates for the liver, spleen, and metaphyseal growth complexes in children undergoing gallium-67 citrate scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R.; Gelfand, M.J.; Burns, G.S.; Purdom, R.C.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Maxon, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative conjugate-view external counting techniques were applied to estimate the radiation dose to the liver, spleen, and metaphyseal growth complexes (distal femur and proximal tibia) for ten pediatric patients undergoing gallium-67 scanning procedures. The effective half-life of Ga 67 in these organs was approximately 78 hours. The dose per unit of administered activity for the liver and spleen was between 0.3 and 4.0 rad/mCi (0.08 to 1.08 Gy/GBq) and 0.5 and 7.0 rad/mCi (0.13 to 1.89 Gy/GBq), respectively. For the metaphyseal growth plates, the range was 2.3 to 14.3 rad/mCi (0.62 to 3.86 Gy/GBq)

  6. Spleen/liver colloid take-up ratio in the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse hepatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, N; Lens, E; Janssens, A; Fievez, M [Clinique Reine Fabiola, Montignies-sur-Sambre, Belgium

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for accurate comparison of the uptake of 6 mCi Tc 99m colloidal tin in the spleen and liver. Tests on a sample of 237 patients with suspected or confirmed diffuse hepatic disease indicate that the resulting ratio is an accurate guide to the presence or absence of the disease, with a sensitivity of approximately 85% and a discrimination of up to 92.7% confirmed by clinical, biological and morphohistological examinations.

  7. Nonspecific targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles to the liver, kidney and spleen: A novel approach to achieving specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana Arachchige, Maheshika; Flack, Amanda; Chen, Xuequn; Li, Jing; Oupicky, David; Cheng, Y.-C. Norman; Shen, Yimin; Jena, Bhanu; Lawes, Gavin

    2013-03-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest in developing Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging. One of the major problems in these applications is the undesirable filtration of these materials by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Preliminary magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization studies on hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles injected intravenously into mice confirm that the nanoparticles accumulate in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. To identify whether certain specific proteins are responsible for nanoparticle accumulation in these organs, we exposed hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles to proteins extracted from the liver, spleen, and kidneys, together with blood plasma proteins, then subsequently used gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins binding to the nanoparticles. We find that the unwanted accumulation of nanoparticles in these organs can potentially be attributed to specific binding by a small number of proteins. By appropriately functionalizing the iron oxide nanoparticles, we expect that the nanoparticles uptake in the liver, spleen, and kidneys will be reduced.

  8. Radioprotection by dipyridamole in the aging mouse. Effects on lipid peroxidation in mouse liver, spleen and brain after whole-body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Noritaka

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole in the aging mouse, the lipid peroxide content in aging mouse liver, spleen and brain irradiated by X-ray were measured both before and after injection of dipyridamole. The lipid peroxide content increased with aging from 2 months old to 16 months old in the mouse liver, spleen and brain. The content of lipid peroxide in the liver and spleen of the aging mouse was significantly increased in 7 days after whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy, but was unchanged in the brain. Dipyridamole, given before irradiation, significantly inhibited the increase of lipid peroxide after irradiation. These results suggest that dipyridamole may have radioprotective effects on aging mouse liver and spleen as well as on young mouse, and that inhibition of lipid peroxidation is a possible factor in the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole. (author)

  9. The long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization for portal hypertension due to cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinyuan; Geng Huijie; Wang Baocai; Zhang Xinfang; Du Ruiqing; Wang Lijing; Yin Shumei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization (PSE) in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Methods: PSE was performed in 1720 patients with portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to cirrhosis. The survival rate of 1 - 5 years and the cause of death were observed. The preoperative and postoperative hemodynamics of both the liver and spleen, the blood picture, splenic size and the complications in 600 patients who survived over five years and had integrated document were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Results Obvious changes in hemodynamics at different time after PSE were seen. The frequency and the volume of gastrointestinal bleeding were obviously decreased, while the leucocyte and platelet count was markedly increased. The spleen size began to reduce two months after PSE, which became very obvious in three months. The difference in above items between pre-PSE and post-PSE was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: PSE can definitely improve hepatic and splenic hemodynamics, reduce the pressure of portal vein, alleviate hypersplenism and reduce the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, elongate the life span and improve the living quality. With obvious and reliable long-term efficacy and fewer complications, PSE is a minimallyinvasive, safe and effective therapy. (authors)

  10. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  11. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  12. Correlation of ultrasound findings, liver and spleen cytology, and prognosis in the clinical staging of high metastatic risk canine mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Alison P; Fidel, Janean; Wills, Tamara; Bryan, Jeffrey; Sellon, Rance; Mattoon, John

    2011-01-01

    Cytologic sampling of the ultrasonographically normal spleen and liver is not implemented routinely in the clinical staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and normal ultrasound findings are often accepted as sufficient evidence for ruling out splenic or liver metastasis. Our objective was to define the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound findings for diagnosis of mast cell infiltration when verified with cytologic evaluation, and to define the prognostic role of cytologic evaluation of liver and splenic aspirates. Dogs with a diagnosis of clinically aggressive grade II, or grade III mast cell tumor treated with a combination vinblastine/CCNU chemotherapy protocol, were selected retrospectively based on availability of cytologic evaluation of spleen plus or minus liver for staging. Out of 19 dogs, 10 dogs had a grade II tumor and nine a grade III tumor. Seven dogs had mast cell infiltration of the spleen, liver, or both. The sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting mast cell infiltration was 43% for the spleen and 0% for the liver. Dogs with positive cytologic evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had significantly shorter survival (100 vs. 291 days) than dogs without evidence of mast cell infiltration (Pdogs with a clinically aggressive mast cell tumor. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  13. Quantitative hepatosplenic scintiscanning. Experimental and clinical studies to determine the contents of radioactivity in liver and spleen following administration of 99mTc sulfur colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuchtinger, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hepatosplenic scintiscans were obtained from 78 patients following administration of 99mTc sulfur colloid using a double-head scanner and subjected to quantitative analysis. It was the aim of the study to assess the practicability of quantitative scintiscanning of liver and spleen, to define the range of generally acceptable, normal values for the concentration of 99mTc sulfur colloid in liver and spleen as well as to evaluate the clinical relevance of this method. The following values were determined to be normal: 4.7±1.5 for the liver: Spleen ratio; 31±3% for the proportion of the left hepatic lobe in total liver concentration; 68.7±5.4% and 17.4±3.6% for the active contents of liver and spleen, respectively. Quantitative scintiscanning constitutes a very sensitive method to detect transformation processes in the liver that are associated with a decreased liver: Spleen ratio and an increased ratio between the left hepatic lobe and the total organ. The method is unsuitable to assess pathological accumulation of the tracer substances. The question as to whether the use of the more time-consuming procedure of quantitative scintiscanning is justified by the additional diagnostic information gained remains to be investigated in further studies. (TRV) [de

  14. Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvanç Ergen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn, cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8, moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7, and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6. The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009 and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004. In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001, and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise.

  15. Effect of X-irradiation on the alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the liver, kidney and spleen of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungowska-Klin, B; Lozinska, M; Wojtaszek, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT and GPT) activities and the protein content were measured in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of mice exposed to a single whole body X-irradiation with a 900 R dose. The assays were performed in 6 h intervals during the first day and 24 h intervals from the 2nd until the 6th day after the exposure. Significant differences in the enzymatic activity were found in the course of 24 h in control animals and a marked increase of this activity was found after irradiation. This may be explained by changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane for enzyme molecules.

  16. Hot spot(s) of the lung in technetium-99m albumin colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Brandenburg, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Beeler, J.A.; Magoun, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors replaced /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid for /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid as a radiopharmaceutical for liver-spleen imaging and found two instances of hot spot(s) in the lung. The preparation procedure of albumin colloid is easier and more convenient as compared to that of sulfur colloid. Whereas replacement of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid by /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid is inevitable, it should be emphasized that one should avoid blood withdrawal in the syringe containing albumin colloid to prevent formation of clot(s) during the venous puncture for /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid

  17. A novel anti-inflammatory role for spleen-derived interleukin-10 in obesity-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Inoue, Megumi; Masaki, Takayuki; Chiba, Seiichi; Shimasaki, Takanobu; Ando, Hisae; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Katsuragi, Isao; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Seike, Masataka; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Considering that obesity decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the spleen, we assessed the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by the spleen, in the pathogenesis of obesity. Changes in obesity-related pathogenesis, including inflammatory responses in multiple organs, were assessed after systemic administration of exogenous IL-10 to splenectomy (SPX)-treated obese wild-type and IL-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mice. Obesity resulted in the inability of the spleen to synthesize cytokines, including IL-10, and proinflammatory cytokines in obesity are then likely to emerge from tissues other than the spleen because serum levels of IL-10, but not proinflammatory cytokines, decreased despite the expression of these cytokines in the spleen being reduced in high fat-induced obese mice. SPX aggravated the inflammatory response in white adipose tissue (WAT) and the liver and suppressed adiposity in WAT. However, it accentuated adiposity in the liver. These SPX-induced changes were inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in WAT and the liver of IL-10KO mice. These data show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 in diet-induced changes as a result of inflammatory responses in WAT and the liver.

  18. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation ( 0 ) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue. (orig.) [de

  19. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation (< 90/sup 0/) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue.

  20. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic Bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 1 - Quantification of the relative number and proportion of leukocyte populations in the spleen and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used in manufacturing of a broad range of consumer products worldwide. Due to its widespread use, human exposure to BPA is virtually ubiquitous. Broad human exposure coupled with a large scientific literature describing estrogenic activity of BPA in animals has raised public health concerns. To comprehensively evaluate the health effects of BPA exposure, a chronic toxicity study using a wide-range of BPA doses (2.5-25000 μg/kg bw/day) was conducted jointly by the NTP, thirteen NIEHS-supported grantees, and the FDA, which is called the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of chronic BPA exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats on the relative number and proportion of defined leukocyte populations in the spleen and the thymus. Toward this end, lymphoid tissues from a total of 641 rats were assayed after being continuously dosed with BPA or controls for up to one year. To comprehensively evaluate the effects of BPA on leukocyte compositions, extensive endpoints that cover major populations of leukocytes were assessed, including B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, of the 530 measurements in BPA-treated rats, 10 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls and were mainly associated with either the macrophage or dendritic cell populations. Most, if not all, of these alterations were found to be transient with no persistent trend over the one-year time period. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and not dose-dependent. Due to the aforementioned, it is unlikely that the observed BPA-mediated changes alone would adversely affect immune competence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the activity of chicken liver and spleen plasma membrane Ca+2 ATPase during different periods of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamov, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of pre incubative irradiation of chickens on the activity of chicken liver and spleen plasma membrane Ca +2 -ATPase in 13, 15, 17 day embryos and 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 day chickens has been studied. Low doses of radiation are discovered to stimulate liver and spleen enzyme activity. On the basis of data obtained it is suggested that in the cells of radiosensitive and radio resistive organs molecular mechanisms of stimulating effect of low doses are similar. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  2. Determination of metallic traces in kidneys, livers, lungs and spleens of rats with metallic implants after a long implantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Alonso, Maria Cristina; Alonso, Concepcion; Alobera, Miguel Angel; Clemente, Celia; Munuera, Luis; Escudero, Maria Lorenza

    2008-01-01

    Metallic transfer from implants does not stop at surrounding tissues, and metallic elements may be transferred by proteins to become lodged in organs far from the implant. This work presents an in vivo study of metallic implant corrosion to measure metallic element accumulation in organs located far from the implant, such as kidneys, livers, lungs and spleens. The studied metallic implant materials were CoCr alloy, Ti, and the experimental alloy MA956 coated with alpha-alumina. The implants were inserted in the hind legs of Wistar rats. Analysis for Co, Cr, Ti and Al metallic traces was performed after a long exposure time of 12 months by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) with Mass Spectrometry (MS). According to the results, the highest Cr and Ti concentrations were detected in spleens. Co is mainly found in kidneys, since this element is eliminated via urine. Cr and Ti traces increased significantly in rat organs after the long implantation time. The organs of rats implanted with the alpha-alumina coated experimental MA956 did not present any variation in Al content after 12 months, which means there was no degradation of the alumina layer surface.

  3. Significant correlation between spleen volume and thrombocytopenia in liver transplant patients: a concept for predicting persistent thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masahiro; Ishifuro, Minoru; Ide, Kentaro; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy with or without ribavirin treatment is well established as a standard antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, susceptibility to thrombocytopenia is a major obstacle for initiating or continuing this therapy, particularly in liver transplant (LTx) recipients with HCV. Studies have reported that splenectomy performed concurrently with LTx is a feasible strategy for conditioning patients for anti-HCV IFN therapy. However, the relationship between the severity of splenomegaly and alterations in the blood cytopenia in LTx recipients remains to be clarified. Here, we analyzed the relationship between spleen volume (SV) and thrombocytopenia in 45 patients who underwent LTx at Hiroshima University Hospital. The extent of pre-LTx splenomegaly [the SV to body surface area (BSA) ratio in an individual] was inversely correlated with both the post-LTx white blood cell count and platelet (PLT) count (P or= 400), persistent thrombocytopenia is predictable after LTx. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  4. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  5. Ação da melatonina sobre a dinâmica sanguínea de ratas prenhes e sobre a histogênese do baço e do timo da prole The action of melatonin on the blood dynamics of pregnant rats and on the histogenesis of the spleen and thymus of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C. Araújo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a influência da melatonina sobre o hemograma de ratas prenhes e dos filhotes e sobre a histogênese e morfometria do baço e do timo dos filhotes. A melatonina foi administrada na dose 0,5mg/kg de peso corporal, dissolvida em 0,1mL de etanol e diluída em 0,3mL de solução salina. Para análise do hematócrito, contagem total de hemácias e contagem total e diferencial dos leucócitos, amostras de sangue foram coletadas no sétimo, 14ºe 21ºdias de prenhez e aos 10 dias de nascimento dos filhotes. Cortes histológicos do baço e do timo da prole foram utilizados para histoquímica e morfometria. A ausência da melatonina promoveu alterações no hemograma apenas no terço final da gestação, sem interferir no hemograma dos filhotes, e induziu modificações morfológicas e morfométricas no timo e no baço nos primeiros dias de vida dos filhotes. Concluiu-se que a melatonina materna é importante para a modulação do hemograma em ratas prenhes e para o desenvolvimento normal do baço e do timo dos filhotes.We investigated the influence of melatonin on the hemogram of pregnant rats and puppies, and on the histogenesis and morphology of the spleen and thymus of puppies. Melatonin was administered at a dose 0.5mg/kgbody weight, dissolved in 0.1mL of ethanol and diluted in 0.3mL of saline. For hematocrit analysis, total erythrocyte count and total and differential leukocyte count, blood samples were collected on the 7th, 14th and 21st days of pregnancy and the offspring at 10 days of birth. Histological sections of spleen and thymus of the offspring were used for histochemistry and morphometry. The absence of melatonin promoted changes in blood count only in the final third of gestation, without interfering with the hemogram of the puppies, and induced morphological and morphometric changes in the thymus and spleen in the first days of life of the puppies. It was concluded that maternal melatonin is important for the modulation of

  6. Histoautoradiographic and liquid scintillometric studies on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen and tongue after bilateral adrenalectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1981-01-01

    Historadiographies and liquid scintillometries were carried out in 163 male Wistar rats in order to determine the effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and tongue. Both DNA synthesis and mitotic index are significantly increased from the 1st day p.o. onwards, with broad synthesis peaks between the 2nd and the 4th day. The intensity of DNA synthesis shows a gradual decrease with increasing duration of the experiment. In contrast to the adrenalectonized animals, the synthesis rate and mitotic index in the organs of sham-operated animals were significantly lower, although enhanced proliferation was observed after surgery. The enhanced DNA synthesis after bilateral adrenalectomy is interpreted in terms of a disinhibition; corticosteroids are assumed to play a key role. The effects of bilateral adrenalectromy on untreated organs are not organ-specific. The highest synthesis rate was observed in the tubular epithelia of the convoluted main parts, while the DNA synthesis in the tongue. The findings of autoradiography and liquid scintillometry are well correlated. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  8. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  9. Bone marrow response in treated patients with Gaucher disease: evaluation by T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and correlation with reduction in liver and spleen volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terk, M.R.; Dardashti, S.; Liebman, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images can demonstrate response in the marrow of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and to determine whether a relationship exists between liver and spleen volume reductions and visible marrow changes.Patients. Forty-two patients with type 1 Gaucher disease were evaluated on at least two occasions. Thirty-two patients received ERT. Of these patients, 15 had a baseline examination prior to the initiation of ERT. The remaining 10 patients did not receive ERT.Design. T1-weighted and gradient recalled echo (GRE) coronal images of the femurs and hips were obtained. Concurrently, liver and spleen volumes were determined using contiguous breath-hold axial gradient-echo images. T1-weighted images of the hips and femurs were evaluated to determine change or lack of change in the yellow marrow.Results. Of the 32 patients receiving ERT, 14 (44%) demonstrated increased signal on T1-weighted images suggesting an increase in the amount of yellow marrow. If only the 15 patients with a baseline examination were considered, the response rate to ERT was 67%. Using Student's t-test a highly significant correlation (P<0.005) was found between marrow response and reduction in liver and spleen volume.Conclusions. Marrow changes in patients receiving ERT can be detected by T1-weighted images. This response correlated with reductions in visceral volumes (P<0.0005). (orig.)

  10. Wandering spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature.

  11. Wandering spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1987-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature

  12. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10 and parasite density in spleen and liver of L. (L.) chagasi naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE F Michelin, A; Perri, S H V; De Lima, V M F

    2011-07-01

    Dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of L. (L.) chagasi. Once in the vertebrate host, the parasite can cause visceral leishmaniasis, which can also be transmitted to humans. Cytokines are key elements of the host immune response against Leishmania spp. To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 are associated with pattern infection in dogs, these cytokines were quantified in the spleen and liver of dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi, with or without clinical manifestations, and their levels were correlated with the parasite load verified in these organs. A total of 40 adult dogs naturally infected with L. (L.) chagasi were assessed, together with 12 uninfected control dogs. Samples from spleen and liver were used to determine the cytokine levels by capture ELISA and for quantifying parasite load by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using the minimum Chi square method and group means were compared using the Tukey test. TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 levels in infected dogs were higher than in control groups; the liver was the main cytokine-producing organ during infection. The level of splenic TNF-α showed correlation with parasite load and may represent an important marker for infection process evolution, with the participation of IL-10. These results may contribute to a clearer understanding of the immune response in dogs infected with L. (L.) chagasi, which may lead to the development of prophylactic or preventive measures for these animals.

  14. Quantitative magnetic resonance methods for in vivo investigation of the human liver and spleen. Technical aspects and preliminary clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C

    1996-01-01

    and a group of patients with benign hyperplasia and patients with splenomegaly secondary to portal hypertension. Volume-selective proton spectroscopy was developed and used to quantify the liver fat concentration. The accuracy of the method was about 3 g/100 g. With the implementation of a second generation...... contribute to the diagnosis of non-focal liver diseases by estimation of liver fat and liver iron and by assessment of portal vein blood flow. Increased T1 relaxation time is a sign of a disease process in the liver rather than specific for any liver disease...

  15. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  16. Wandering Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.; Sibiany, Abdulrehman M.; Maimani, Abdulraouf A.; Alem, Fayad K.

    2004-01-01

    Cogenital malformations of the spleen are rare. We report 3 cases of wandering spleen presented as abominal or pelvi-abdominal mass. Two patients were suffering from chronic lower abdominal pain with thrombosed splenic pedicle and the third patient had an acute abdomen. All patients underwent splenectomies. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, Doppler's ultrasound, and radioisotpes studies were used to cpnfirm the diagnosis. The clinical, diagnostic and treatment modalities are discussed. (author)

  17. Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P. Arantes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of heavy metals entering aquatic environments can result in high accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which pose a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigated the concentrations of mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans specimens collected from two sites on the Paraopeba River, Brazil. The level of heavy metals concentrations in the tissues was often higher in viscera (i.e. liver and spleen than in muscle, and thus, the viscera should not be considered for human consumption. Correlations between metal concentrations and fish size were not significant. Although the levels of muscle bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb, generally do not exceed the safe levels for human consumption, the constant presence of heavy metals in concentrations near those limits considered safe for human consumption, is a reason for concern, and populations who constantly consume fish from polluted rivers should be warned. Our findings also indicate that in a river network where certain areas are connected to other areas with high rates of environmental pollutants, people should be cautious about the regular consumption of fish, even when the fish consumed are caught in stretches of the basin where contamination levels are considered low, since many of the freshwater fish with high commercial value, such as the catfish surubim, are migratory.

  18. Determination of liver and spleen perfusion by quantitative sequential scintigraphy: results in normal subjects and in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Torres, J.; Thelen, M.; Monzon, O.; Winkler, C.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative sequential hepatosplenic scintigraphy was performed to determine the arterial and portal components of the total liver circulation in 135 patients (no liver disease in 20, liver cirrhosis and portal ;hypertension in 115). Portal circulation in healthy patients is calculated to be 70.4 +/- 6.2% of the total liver blood flow, whereas patients with portal hypertension showed a clear reduction of portal perfusion to 20.2 +/- 10.9%. Thirteen of 20 patients having portosystemic shunt surgery showed no portal perfusion. This new, noninvasive diagnostic technique yields vital information particularly useful in ;the surgical evaluation of portal hypertension. Other indications are also discussed

  19. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57 Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient’s tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57 Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients’ spleen and liver tissues

  20. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  1. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com; Alenkina, I. V. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S. [Ural State Medical University (Russian Federation); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient’s tissues were detected and related to small variations in the {sup 57}Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients’ spleen and liver tissues.

  2. Clinical value of spleen acoustic radiation force impulse, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in predicting esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dakun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the spleen stiffness of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis by spleen acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR, as well as the clinical value of these three noninvasive techniques in predicting esophageal varices (EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 247 patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were enrolled, and ARFI was used to measure real-time spleen stiffness. APRI and AAR were calculated. Gastroscopy was performed within one week before and after measurement to clarify the degree of EV. With the results of gastroscopy as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to compare the clinical value of spleen ARFI value, APRI, and AAR in the diagnosis of EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThere were significant differences between the EV group (n=169 and the non-EV group (n=78 in spleen ARFI stiffness (3.64±0.53 m/s vs 2.97±0.65 m/s, t=-7.93, P<0.001, APRI (0.87±091 vs 0.52±0.80, t=-2.90, P=0.004, and AAR (1.54±0.67 vs 1.29±0.55, t=-2.93, P=0.004. Spleen ARFI, APRI, and AAR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, 0.72, and 0.63, respectively, in predicting EV in patients with liver cirrhosis, there was a significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and AAR (P=0.005, while there was no significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and APRI (P=0.10. ConclusionARFI is a real-time ultrasound elastography technique, and compared with APRI and AAR, spleen stiffness measured by ARFI can predict EV in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis more accurately and noninvasively and thus holds promise for clinical application.

  3. A Novel Predictor of Posttransplant Portal Hypertension in Adult-To-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Increased Estimated Spleen/Graft Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoten, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Shugo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Akihiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kishiwada, Masashi; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT), graft-to-recipient weight ratio of less than 0.8 is incomplete for predicting portal hypertension (>20 mm Hg) after reperfusion. We aimed to identify preoperative factors contributing to portal venous pressure (PVP) after reperfusion and to predict portal hypertension, focusing on spleen volume-to-graft volume ratio (SVGVR). In 73 recipients with ALDLT between 2002 and 2013, first we analyzed survival according to PVP of 20 mm Hg as the threshold, evaluating the efficacy of splenectomy. Second, we evaluated various preoperative factors contributing to portal hypertension after reperfusion. All of the recipients with PVP greater than 20 mm Hg (n = 19) underwent PVP modulation by splenectomy, and their overall survival was favorable compared with 54 recipients who did not need splenectomy (PVP ≤ 20 mm Hg). Graft-to-recipient weight ratio had no correlation with PVP.Multivariate analysis revealed that estimated graft and spleen volume were significant factors contributing to PVP after reperfusion (P portal hypertension was 0.95. In ALDLT, preoperative assessment of SVGVR is a good predictor of portal hypertension after reperfusion can be used to indicate the need for splenectomy before reperfusion.

  4. [Multicentric inflammatory pseudotumor with asynchronic presentation in meninges, liver, spleen and lymph nodes in a patient with seronegative spondiloarthropathy. Case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña-González, R M; Rivera-Salgado, M I; García-Velarde, P M Pasquel; de León-Bojorge, B; Ortiz-Hidalgo, C

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a reactive process in which the etiology and pathogenesis are not well defined, that can be found in any location. The cases with central nervous system affection have been described in meninges, brain, choroid plexus and cranial and spinal nerves. Multicentric cases, synchronous and asynchronous have been described. A 45 years-old woman with a rheumatologic disease (a seronegative spondiloarthropathy) who developed an inflammatory pseudotumor in spleen, liver and abdominal lymph nodes in 1995, associated to fever of unknown origin, six years later she presented with an inflammatory pseudotumor of the meninges in the convexity of the right frontoparietal region, with fever, malaise, and increase of globular sedimentation rate, microcytic hypochromic anemia and thrombocytosis. The clinicopathologic features of this lesion are revised, including the different theories in regard to the etiology and pathogenesis, and the role of cytokines produced by inflammatory cells in the tumor.

  5. Selective accumulation of 147Pm in organism on induction of PCE's micronucleus and SCE of bone marrow cells as well as the chromosome aberrations on fetal liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zheng Siying; Wang Liuyi; Lu Zhongyan; Yang Shuqin

    1989-01-01

    Study of accumulation peculiarity of 147 Pm showed that I.V. different doses of 147 Pm were the same selectively localized in skeleton and liver. Retention of 147 Pm in skeleton and liver was elevated when the radioactive doses of 147 Pm were increased. At the same time absorption does of 147 Pm radiation was heightened. The ability of 147 Pm to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been investigated by IdU labelling methods. A statistically significant elevation of SCEs was observed after 147 Pm intake.In mice the number of SCEs per cell in bone marrow cells was always higher when the animals were maintained on the doses of 37 Bq/g. The injurious effects of 147 Pm, using PCE's micronucleus rates in bone marrow cells were observed. 147 Pm was dominantly deposited on maternal liver. Deposition of 147 Pm in maternal spleen was about quandrantal of the maternal liver. Studies indicated that maternal contamination of 147 Pm could induced chromosome aberrations in fetal liver and spleen cells. Among the type of aberrations induced by 147 Pm, chromatid breakage were predominant. The incidence of chromosome aberrations on fetal liver cells induced by 147 Pm was higher on fetal spleen cells

  6. Visualization of the thymus by substance P receptor scintigraphy in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, P.M. van [Department of Immunology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Breeman, W.A.P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Reubi, J.C. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Postema, P.T.E. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Anker-Lugtenburg, P.J. van den [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kwekkeboom, D.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Laissue, J. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Waser, B. [Department of Pathology, University of Berne (Switzerland); Lamberts, S.W.J. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Visser, T.J. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    In this study we present the results concerning the metabolism of the substance P analogue [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P in man, as well as the visualization of the thymus in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Twelve selected patients were investigated, comprising five with inflammatory bowel disease, one with ophthalmic Graves` disease, one with sclerosing cholangitis, one with Sjoegren`s syndrome, one with rheumatoid arthritis, one with systemic lupus erythematosus and two with myasthenia gravis. After intravenous administration of 150-250 MBq (2.5-5.0 {mu}g) [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P, radioactivity was measured in blood, urine and faeces for 48 h. Planar and single-photon emission tomographic images were obtained 4 and 24 h after injection. After administration of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P, a transient flush was observed in all patients. Degradation of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P started in the first minutes after administration, resulting in a half-life of 10 min for the total plasma radioactivity, and of 4 min for the intact radiopharmaceutical. Urinary excretion accounted for >95% of the radioactivity within 24 h post injection, and up to 0.05% was found in the faeces up to 60 h. In all patients uptake of radioactivity was found in the areolae mammae (in women), liver, spleen, kidneys and urinary bladder. In eight patients a high uptake of [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P was observed in the thymus. We conclude that, despite its short half-life, [{sup 111}In-DTPA-Arg{sup 1}]-substance P can be used to visualize the thymus. This may contribute to the investigation of the role of thymus in immune-mediated diseases. In addition, inflammatory sites in various diseases could be visualized. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Visualization of the thymus by substance P receptor scintigraphy in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, P.M. van; Breeman, W.A.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Postema, P.T.E.; Anker-Lugtenburg, P.J. van den; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Laissue, J.; Waser, B.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we present the results concerning the metabolism of the substance P analogue [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P in man, as well as the visualization of the thymus in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Twelve selected patients were investigated, comprising five with inflammatory bowel disease, one with ophthalmic Graves' disease, one with sclerosing cholangitis, one with Sjoegren's syndrome, one with rheumatoid arthritis, one with systemic lupus erythematosus and two with myasthenia gravis. After intravenous administration of 150-250 MBq (2.5-5.0 μg) [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P, radioactivity was measured in blood, urine and faeces for 48 h. Planar and single-photon emission tomographic images were obtained 4 and 24 h after injection. After administration of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P, a transient flush was observed in all patients. Degradation of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P started in the first minutes after administration, resulting in a half-life of 10 min for the total plasma radioactivity, and of 4 min for the intact radiopharmaceutical. Urinary excretion accounted for >95% of the radioactivity within 24 h post injection, and up to 0.05% was found in the faeces up to 60 h. In all patients uptake of radioactivity was found in the areolae mammae (in women), liver, spleen, kidneys and urinary bladder. In eight patients a high uptake of [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P was observed in the thymus. We conclude that, despite its short half-life, [ 111 In-DTPA-Arg 1 ]-substance P can be used to visualize the thymus. This may contribute to the investigation of the role of thymus in immune-mediated diseases. In addition, inflammatory sites in various diseases could be visualized. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alenkina, I.V.; Semionkin, V.A. [Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Faculty of Experimental Physics, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, M.I. [Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Klepova, Yu.V.; Sadovnikov, N.V. [Faculty of Physiology and Biotechnology, Ural State Agricultural Academy, Ekaterinburg, (Russian Federation); Dubiel, S.M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Application of the Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for a study of iron-containing biological species is of great interest. Improving the velocity resolution allows to reveal small variations in the electronic structure of iron, and to obtain hyperfine parameters with smaller instrumental (systematic) errors in comparison with measurements performed in 512 channels or less. It also allows a more reliable fitting of complex Moessbauer spectra. In the present study the Moessbauer spectroscopy with the high velocity resolution was used for a comparative analysis of ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models as well as iron storage proteins in a chicken liver and a spleen. The ferritin, an iron storage protein, consists of a nanosized polynuclear iron core formed by a ferrihydrite surrounded by a protein shell. Iron-polysaccharide complexes contain {beta}-FeOOH iron cores coated with various polysaccharides. The Moessbauer spectra of the ferritin and commercial products Imferon, MaltoferR and Ferrum Lek as well as those of the chicken liver and spleen tissues were measured with the high velocity resolution at 295 and 90 K. They were fitted using two models: (1) with a homogeneous iron core (an approximation using one quadrupole doublet), and (2) with a heterogeneous iron core (an approximation using several quadrupole doublets). The model (1) can be used as the first approximation fit to visualize small variations in the hyperfine parameters. Using this model, differences in the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were obtained in both 295 and 90 K Moessbauer spectra. However, this model was considered as a rough approximation because the measured Moessbauer spectra had non-Lorentzian line shapes. Therefore, the spectra of the ferritin, Imferon, MaltoferR and Ferrum Lek as well as those of the liver and spleen tissues were fitted again using the model (2) in which a different number of the quadrupole doublets was

  9. Interaction between thymic cells and hemopoietic stem cells. Enhanced repopulation of the irradiated thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daculsi, Richard; Legrand, Elisabeth; Duplan, J.-F.

    1977-01-01

    In irradiated mice engrafted with hemopoietic cells, the thymus is repopulated more rapidly by bone marrow-derived than by spleen-derived cells. Admixing thymic cells with restorative suspension stimulates the thymic repopulation by spleen-derived cells whereas it has no effect on the repopulation by bone marrow-derived cells [fr

  10. A combined model based on spleen stiffness measurement and Baveno VI criteria to rule out high risk varices in advanced chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colecchia, Antonio; Ravaioli, Federico; Marasco, Giovanni; Colli, Agostino; Dajti, Elton; Biase, Annarita Di; Reggiani, Maria Letizia Bacchi; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2018-05-02

    Recently, Baveno VI guidelines suggested that esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) can be avoided in patients with cACLD who have a liver stiffness measurement (LSM) 150,000/mm 3 . We aimed to: assess the performance of spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) in ruling out patients with high-risk varices (HRV); validate Baveno VI criteria in a large population and assess how the sequential use of Baveno VI criteria and SSM could safely avoid the need for endoscopy. We retrospectively analysed 498 cACLD patients who had undergone LSM/SSM by transient elastography (TE) (Fibroscan®), platelet count and EGDs from 2012 to 2016 referred to our tertiary centre. The new combined model was validated internally by a split-validation method, and externally in a prospective multicentre cohort of 115 patients. SSM, LSM, platelet count and Child-Pugh-B were independent predictors of HRV. Applying the newly identified SSM cut-off (≤46 kPa) or Baveno VI criteria, 35.8% and 21.7% of patients in the internal validation cohort could have avoided EGD, with HRV being missed in only 2% in both cases. The combination of SSM with Baveno VI criteria would have led to additionally avoiding 22.5% of EGDs, reaching a final value of 43.8% spared EGDs, with <5% missed HRV. Results were confirmed in the prospective external validation cohort, as the combined Baveno VI/SSM≤46 Model would have safely spared (0 HRV missed) 37.4% of EGDs, compared to 16.5% avoiding Baveno VI Criteria only. A non-invasive prediction model combining SSM with Baveno VI criteria may be useful to rule out HRV and could make it possible to avoid a significantly larger number of unnecessary EGDs compared to Baveno VI criteria only. Spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) assessed by TE, the most widely used electrographic technique, is a non-invasive technique that can help the physician to better stratify the degree of portal hypertension and the risk of oesophageal varices in patients with cACLD. Performing SSM together with LSM

  11. DX5+NKT cells display phenotypical and functional differences between spleen and liver as well as NK1.1-Balb/c and NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Busl, Elisabeth; Farkas, Stefan A; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Hornung, Matthias

    2011-04-29

    Natural killer T cells represent a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. They are a heterogeneous population of specialized T lymphocytes composed of different subsets. DX5+NKT cells are characterized by expression of the NK cell marker DX5 in the context of CD3. However, little is known about the phenotype and functional capacity of this unique cell population. Therefore, we investigated the expression of several T cell and NK cell markers, as well as functional parameters in spleen and liver subsets of DX5+NKT cells in NK1.1- Balb/c mice and compared our findings to NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice. In the spleen 34% of DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L and they up-regulated the functional receptors CD154 as well as CD178 upon activation. In contrast, only a few liver DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L, and they did not up-regulate CD154 upon activation. A further difference between spleen and liver subsets was observed in cytokine production. Spleen DX5+NKT cells produced more Th1 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, while liver DX5+NKT cells secreted more Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4) and even the Th17 cytokine, IL-17a. Furthermore, we found inter-strain differences. In NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice DX5+NKT cells represented a distinct T cell population expressing less CD4 and more CD8. Accordingly, these cells showed a CD178 and Th2-type functional capacity upon activation. These results show that DX5+NKT cells are a heterogeneous population, depending on the dedicated organ and mouse strain, that has diverse functional capacity.

  12. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO) – a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate – in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic ...

  13. Effects of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on oxidative stress and liver, spleen leptin, PARα and FAS mRNA expression in high-fat diet induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bendong; Zhou, Haining; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Wenyan; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Guangshun

    2012-08-01

    We reported that an aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. inhibited high-fat-diet-induced oxidative injury in a dose-dependent manner. Male kunming mice (5-weeks-old, 24 g) were used in this experiment. After a 4-day adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group); Group 1: animals received normal powdered rodent diet; Group 2: animals received high fat diet; Groups 3 and 4: animals received high fat diet and were fed by gavage to mice once a day with aqueous extract at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. In mice fed with high-fat diet, blood and liver lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes activities were markedly decreased compared to normal control mice. Administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently reduced levels of blood and liver lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of blood and liver antioxidant enzymes activities in high fat mice. Moreover, administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently increase liver Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels. Taken together, these data demonstrate that aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. can markedly alleviate high fat diet-induced oxidative injury by enhancing blood and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, modulating Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels in mice.

  14. Thymus dependent immune competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are described which are concerned with changes in cellular immunocompetance in ageing and tumour-bearing animals. The possible therapeutical application of thymic humoral factors in restoration of diminished T cell functions initiated the more fundamental studies on the humoral function of the thymus are also described. Irradiated mice and rats were used. (Auth.)

  15. Thymus-directed immunotoxicity of airborne dust particles from Upper Silesia (Poland) under acute extrapulmonary studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowska, E. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Krzystniak, K. [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Drela, N. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)] [and others

    1996-12-27

    Industrial air pollutants from Upper Silesia, Poland, contain over 250 polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, including mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals that have been shown to from DNA adducts. Over 4 million habitants of Silesia are permanently exposed to the industrial pollution by pulmonary and dermal routes and by contaminated food and water. These chemicals, when examined separately in animals models, were proven immunotoxic. We studied the extrapulmonary immunotoxic potential of a typical mixture of Silesian filter-suspended matter from a selected area, over a specific season and time period. Early changes in the immune system were analyzed in BALB/c mice exposed ip to acute doses of 20-330 mg dust mixture/kg body weight (0.06-1.0 LD50). No major changes were noted for weight and the cellularity of spleen, liver and kidneys. However, dramatic decrease in thymus weight index and thymocyte cell count were noted as early as 24-72 h postexposure, which correlated with almost complete depletion of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes. Changes in spleen were less profound; however, increased depletion of B cells over T cells was noted at high doses of the suspended matter. Exposure to the airborne dust also decreased cytokine production by spleen cells, such as interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). Overall, a single exposure to Silesian dust, even at the relatively low 0.06 LD50 dose, affected lymphokine production, suppressed B-cell proliferative response, and depleted thymuses of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells. A chemical synergism is suspected. To our knowledge, none of the known components of Silesian suspended matter, when examined as a single chemical, was shown to exert such a profound biological effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Appropriate Development of the Liver Treg Compartment Is Modulated by the Microbiota and Requires TGF-β and MyD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neither the early postnatal development of the liver Treg compartment nor the factors that regulate its development has been characterized. We compared the early developmental patterns of Treg cell accumulation in murine liver, thymus, and spleen. A FoxP3EGFP reporter mouse was employed to identify Treg cells. Mononuclear cells were isolated from organs postnatally, stained for CD4, and examined by flow cytometry to enumerate FoxP3+CD4hi cells. To assess roles for TGF-β1, MyD88, and TLR2, gene-specific knockout pups were generated from heterozygous breeders. To test the role of commensal bacteria, pregnant dams were administered antibiotics during gestation and after parturition. The pattern of appearance of Treg cells differed in liver, spleen, and thymus. Notably, at 1-2 weeks, the frequency of CD4hi FoxP3+ T cells in liver exceeded that in spleen by 1.5- to 2-fold. The relative increase in liver Treg frequency was transient and was dependent upon TGF-β1 and MyD88, but not TLR2, and was abrogated by antibiotic treatment. A relative increase in liver Treg frequency occurs approximately 1-2 weeks after parturition that appears to be driven by colonization of the intestine with commensal bacteria and is mediated by a pathway that requires TGF-β1 and MyD88, but not TLR2.

  17. Caspase-3 mediates the pathogenic effect of Yersinia pestis YopM in liver of C57BL/6 mice and contributes to YopM's function in spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Ye

    Full Text Available The virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis has different dominant effects in liver and spleen. Previous studies focused on spleen, where YopM inhibits accumulation of inflammatory dendritic cells. In the present study we focused on liver, where PMN function may be directly undermined by YopM without changes in inflammatory cell numbers in the initial days of infection, and foci of inflammation are easily identified. Mice were infected with parent and ΔyopM-1 Y. pestis KIM5, and effects of YopM were assessed by immunohistochemistry and determinations of bacterial viable numbers in organs. The bacteria were found associated with myeloid cells in foci of inflammation and in liver sinusoids. A new in-vivo phenotype of YopM was revealed: death of inflammatory cells, evidenced by TUNEL staining beginning at d 1 of infection. Based on distributions of Ly6G(+, F4/80(+, and iNOS(+ cells within foci, the cells that were killed could have included both PMNs and macrophages. By 2 d post-infection, YopM had no effect on distribution of these cells, but by 3 d cellular decomposition had outstripped acute inflammation in foci due to parent Y. pestis, while foci due to the ΔyopM-1 strain still contained many inflammatory cells. The destruction depended on the presence of both PMNs in the mice and YopM in the bacteria. In mice that lacked the apoptosis mediator caspase-3 the infection dynamics were novel: the parent Y. pestis was limited in growth comparably to the ΔyopM-1 strain in liver, and in spleen a partial growth limitation for parent Y. pestis was seen. This result identified caspase-3 as a co-factor or effector in YopM's action and supports the hypothesis that in liver YopM's main pathogenic effect is mediated by caspase-3 to cause apoptosis of PMNs.

  18. Ionizing radiation and the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of whole body irradiation with fast fission neutrons and X-rays on the murine thymus are studied. Young adult CBA mice were exposed to whole body irradiation with either fast fission neutrons or X-rays. The results of the investigation of short- and long-term effects of the irradiation on the thymus showed a biphasic regeneration pattern followed by a marked decrease in relative thymus weight and cellularity which lasted up to at least 250 days. This late effect is attributed to possible loss of pluripotent stem cells and residual damage in the surviving stem cells in the bone marrow. The immunohistology of T cell subpopulations in the thymus of normal CBA/H mice was analyzed in order to describe the T cell composition of the irradiated thymus. The effects of irradiation with fast fission neutrons on the stromal cells of the thymus are studied in order to investigate whether the thymic stromal cells are involved in the regeneration process. The effect of graded doses of fission neutrons or X-rays on the lymphoid compartment on the thymus are studied in order to investigate the radiosensitivity of thymocyte subpopulations for these radiation types. Also the effects on the stromal compartment of the thymus are investigated. (Auth.)

  19. Construction of Thymus Organoids from Decellularized Thymus Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Asako; Pradhan, Isha; Geng, Xuehui; Trucco, Massimo; Fan, Yong

    2016-10-12

    One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the development of therapeutics that can modulate immune responses, especially the adaptive arm of immunity, for disease intervention and prevention. While tremendous progress has been made in the past decades, manipulating the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the development and education of T lymphocytes, remains a challenge. One of the major obstacles is the difficulty to reproduce its unique extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that is essential for maintaining the function and survival of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), the predominant population of cells in the thymic stroma. Here, we describe the construction of functional thymus organoids from decellularized thymus scaffolds repopulated with isolated TECs. Thymus decellularization was achieved by freeze-thaw cycles to induce intracellular ice crystal formation, followed by detergent-induced cell lysis. Cellular debris was removed with extensive wash. The decellularized thymus scaffolds can largely retain the 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that can support the recolonization of TECs. When transplanted into athymic nude mice, the reconstructed thymus organoids can effectively promote the homing of bone marrow-derived lymphocyte progenitors and support the development of a diverse and functional T cell repertoire. Bioengineering of thymus organoids can be a promising approach to rejuvenate/modulate the function of T-cell mediated adaptive immunity in regenerative medicine.

  20. The retrorenal spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Chantelois, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An uncommon but potentially disastrous situation for invasive percutaneous renal procedures is the placement of the spleen behind the upper left renal pole. The authors termed this unique anatomic variant ''retrorenal spleen.'' Recently the authors reviewed the CT studies of 85 patients 16-85 years of age scanned in both the supine and prone positions. The relationship of the left kidney and spleen was evaluated. The overall frequency of retrorenal spleen was 12.7% for the supine and 17.9% for the prone studies. Careful correlation was made between the supine and prone studies with respect to the changing anatomic relationship of the kidney and spleen. In addition, the position of the suprarenal spleen was also evaluated in an effort to determine the safety of the subcostal approach

  1. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO)--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and liver

  2. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kubo

    Full Text Available The use of lavender oil (LO--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham, a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules, to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  3. Changing spleen size after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.R.; Aprahamian, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied the incidence and significance of splenic enlargement on serial CT after abdominal trauma. Spleen size and density in 44 trauma patients were studied with serial, contrast-enhanced Ct. In 58% of the patients, ≥ 10% enlargement of the spleen was seen on follow-up scans. Ten patients had >50% enlargement. In several, the initial density of the spleen was less than that of the liver. Spleen density returned to normal on subsequent scans. Correlations between splenic changes and clinical parameters (such as blood replacement, hypotension, and various trauma indexes) were weak. The author's study indicated that serial splenic enlargement was a physiologic return to normal after major trauma, not a pathologic condition requiring splenectomy

  4. Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinwis, G.C.M., E-mail: g.c.m.grinwis@uu.n [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.158, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Wester, P.W. [Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Vethaak, A.D. [Deltares, Unit Coastal and Marine Systems, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    Although the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has been banned, this compound is still a serious pollutant of the marine environment. This paper describes a unique study in which European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were chronically (8 months) exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) in the water under controlled laboratory conditions. Residue levels in selected tissues (liver, muscle) and general health status indices were measured and the effects on several organs (gills, liver, mesonephros, ovary/testis, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract) were examined histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the thymus was performed. The major finding is that exposure of flounder to 5 mug TBTO/l over a period of 8 months, resulting in body burdens comparable to high field levels, induced significant reduction of thymus volume, possibly affecting immunocompetence of the animals. Chronic exposure of European flounder to tributyltin is therefore likely to affect the general health status of this species in heavily polluted aquatic environments. - Current levels of tributyltin antifouling contamination are still likely to affect the general health status of estuarine flatfish in heavily polluted environments.

  5. Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinwis, G.C.M.; Wester, P.W.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has been banned, this compound is still a serious pollutant of the marine environment. This paper describes a unique study in which European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were chronically (8 months) exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) in the water under controlled laboratory conditions. Residue levels in selected tissues (liver, muscle) and general health status indices were measured and the effects on several organs (gills, liver, mesonephros, ovary/testis, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract) were examined histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the thymus was performed. The major finding is that exposure of flounder to 5 μg TBTO/l over a period of 8 months, resulting in body burdens comparable to high field levels, induced significant reduction of thymus volume, possibly affecting immunocompetence of the animals. Chronic exposure of European flounder to tributyltin is therefore likely to affect the general health status of this species in heavily polluted aquatic environments. - Current levels of tributyltin antifouling contamination are still likely to affect the general health status of estuarine flatfish in heavily polluted environments.

  6. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  7. NMR of 19F emulsions: methodological developments and application to evaluation of oxi-metry and dynamic biodistribution in the liver and spleen and to detection of tumor angiogenesis in the rodent brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a method for detection of brain tumors at 7 tesla thanks to 19 F MRI contrast agents. We particularly assessed the potential of this method to highlight tumor angiogenesis with RGD-functionalized contrast agents targeting αvβ3integrin, a bio-marker over-expressed at the surface of new capillary blood vessels. Owing to low local concentrations in contrast agent, the first step consisted in optimizing a multi spin echo sequence dedicated to a well-known biocompatible per-fluorocarbon, perfluoro-octylbromide (PFOB). We show that careful adjustment of sequence parameters allows cancellation of J-modulation and T2 enhancement, and yields an excellent sensitivity in vitro. Our sequence was then tested for oxygenation measurements in the mouse liver and spleen after injection of a PFOB emulsion. The results demonstrate very good accuracy of the measurements after one single infusion of emulsion. We also perform a dynamic biodistribution study in order to monitor emulsion nano-particle uptake in the liver and spleen. Moreover, we show that stealth of emulsions grafted with different quantities of polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be assessed by fitting experimental data with a pharmacokinetic empirical model. Our sequence was finally used to visualize αvβ3-targeted nano-particles in a U87 glioblastoma mouse model. Concentrations found in tumors after injection of an RGD-functionalized emulsion and a control emulsion are compared. Concentrations are found to be significantly higher with the RGD emulsion than with the control emulsion, suggesting specific binding of functionalized nano-particles with αvβ3 integrin. The last part is dedicated to a new diffusion-weighted 19 F NMR spectroscopy sequence. This method aims at suppressing vascular signal coming from circulating PFOB nano-particles in order to evaluate signal coming from bound nano-particles only. (author) [fr

  8. Competitive proliferation in the hematopoietic tissues of irradiated hybrid mice engrafted with parental bone marrow and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, S.; Monnot, P.; Duplan, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    e kinetics of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells differ markedly according to their origin. A study of the ability of CFU from bone marrow (BM) or spleen to repopulate hemopoietic organs has been carried out in lethally irradiated mice restored with BM cells admixed with spleen cells bearing different chromosomal markers. Hemopoietic cells originating from AKR (40 acbrocentrics) and AKR/T1ALD (36 acrocentrics + 2 metacentrics) mice were engrafted into lethally irradiated (AKR x AKR/T1ALD)F1 or (C3H x AKR/T1ALD)F1 hybrid recipients. Within 10 days, the BM-derived elements outnumbered the spleen-derived population in BM and spleen. This held even when the number of injected spleen-CFU was twice that of BM-CFU. This difference of growth rate subsided within 20 days. The first cells to reappear in the thymus bore the recipient karyotype (endoregeneration); they were later replaced by BM-derived elements but spleen-derived cecells were never present in thymus in the case of competitive engraftment. In contrast, the lymph node cells bore the BM karyotype as well as the spleen karyotype. Injecting the spleen cells 3 days prior to the BM cells partially counterbalanced the overgrowth of the BM-derived elements in the BM and spleen but did not affect the thymic repopulation which remained strictly derived from BM-CFU. When mice were injected only with BM-CFU, or only with spleen-CFU, BM-derived cells were found in the thymus as early as 10-12 days after engraftment, whereas the spleen-derived cells did not appear in the thymus until days 18-20. (author)

  9. Computerized spleen volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Mohring, R.; Schertel, L.

    1981-01-01

    We examined in experimental studies and clinical investigations on 34 patients in how far volumetry of the spleen can be carried out with a commonly available program, a whole-body computerized tomograph (SOMATOM) and an analytic equipment (EVALUSKOP). In this connection the authors tried to find also other ways of spleen volumetry by means of this unit combination. Our final result was that the given program for the usage of labelled areas presents itself as the best-suited technique for spleen volumetry which is also applicable in practice. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Effect of irradiation with fast electrons on the uridindiphosphateglucose mechanism of glycogen synthesis in NKly tumours, spleen and liver of mice having tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryukhina, T.A.; Misheneva, V.S.; Burova, T.M.; Seits, I.F.

    1976-01-01

    A marked and stable decrease in the glycogen content of the liver has been observed within the entire 96-hour period after a single exposure to fast electrons (1000 rads) of mice having NKly tumour. Tumour cells maintain a low glycogen level that is peculiar for them. Activity of enzymes (UDPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase and UDPG-glycogensynthetase) considerably changes but, in most cases, there is no parallelism between the glycogen content and glycogensynthetase activity

  11. Genome-wide screening identifies Plasmodium chabaudi-induced modifications of DNA methylation status of Tlr1 and Tlr6 gene promoters in liver, but not spleen, of female C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem S; Delic, Denis; Santourlidis, Simeon; Wunderlich, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming of host genes via DNA methylation is increasingly recognized as critical for the outcome of diverse infectious diseases, but information for malaria is not yet available. Here, we investigate the effect of blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi on the DNA methylation status of host gene promoters on a genome-wide scale using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and Nimblegen microarrays containing 2,000 bp oligonucleotide features that were split into -1,500 to -500 bp Ups promoters and -500 to +500 bp Cor promoters, relative to the transcription site, for evaluation of differential DNA methylation. Gene expression was analyzed by Agilent and Affymetrix microarray technology. Challenging of female C57BL/6 mice with 10(6) P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes resulted in a self-healing outcome of infections with peak parasitemia on day 8 p.i. These infections induced organ-specific modifications of DNA methylation of gene promoters. Among the 17,354 features on Nimblegen arrays, only seven gene promoters were identified to be hypermethylated in the spleen, whereas the liver exhibited 109 hyper- and 67 hypomethylated promoters at peak parasitemia in comparison with non-infected mice. Among the identified genes with differentially methylated Cor-promoters, only the 7 genes Pigr, Ncf1, Klkb1, Emr1, Ndufb11, and Tlr6 in the liver and Apol6 in the spleen were detected to have significantly changed their expression. Remarkably, the Cor promoter of the toll-like receptor Tlr6 became hypomethylated and Tlr6 expression increased by 3.4-fold during infection. Concomitantly, the Ups promoter of the Tlr1 was hypermethylated, but Tlr1 expression also increased by 11.3-fold. TLR6 and TLR1 are known as auxillary receptors to form heterodimers with TLR2 in plasma membranes of macrophages, which recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as, e.g., intact 3-acyl and sn-2-lyso-acyl glycosylphosphatidylinositols of P. falciparum

  12. Suppression of a thymus dependent humoral response in mice by Concanavalin A in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, H.S.; Ekstedt, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Mice treated with Concanavalin A prior to immunization with sheep erthyrocytes exhibit a markedly reduced plaque forming spleen cell response. This immunosuppressive effect could be reversed by using higher doses of antigen or priming the animals with nonimmunizing doses of antigen prior to Concanavalin A injection designed to either by-pass or enhance thymus derived lymphocyte functions. It was also demonstrated that Concanavalin A in vivo activated the thymus derived lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleen, and this activation was dose dependent and correlated with the immunosuppression observed. Animals injected with Concanavalin A at various times prior to whole body lethal irradiation would not support the plaque forming cell response of adoptively transferred normal syngeneic spleen cells. This effect was shown to be time and dose of Concanavalin A dependent. It was also shown that the route of injection of Concanavalin A prior to irradiation determined the results observed, in that the intravenous route resulted in the suppression of transferred cells, while the intraperitoneal route showed no effect. It is suggested that Concanavalin A induced immunosuppression of the humoral, thymus dependent immune response in mice results for the activation of a subpopulation of thymus derived suppressors cells, and that the effect is short lived, radiation resistant, and dose of Concanavalin A and antigen dependent

  13. Overview of the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neisseria meningitidis , and Haemophilus influenzae . Because of this risk, people receive vaccinations to help protect them from infection with these organisms. People should also be sure they receive the influenza vaccine every year, as is now ... the Spleen ...

  14. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  15. Cell Proliferation during Lymphopoiesis in the Thymus of Normal and Continuously Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J. I. [Department of Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1968-08-15

    The patterns of lymphoid cell proliferation in the thymus and spleen in normal and continuously irradiated young C57BL mice have been examined with techniques of flash and repeated labelling with tritiated thymidine and high resolution autoradiography. Changes in percentage labelling indices and labelled mitoses data have provided information on sites and rates of lymphoid cell proliferation in the thymus cortex (reticular cells, large, medium and small lymphocytes) and the spleen white pulp (germinal centre cells, large, medium and small lymphocytes). Labelling rates were fastest in the more primitive cell forms; in both lymphoid organs, the stem-cell labelling - reticular cells and germinal centre cells - reached 100% rapidly, whereas this was not the case for the different lymphocyte populations, and thymic lymphopoiesis was more rapid than splenic lymphopoiesis. Mean cycle times for thymus lymphoid cells were {approx} 12.5 hours for reticular cells, {approx} 9.5 hours for large lymphocytes, and {approx} 10.0 hours for medium and small lymphocytes; in the spleen, representative cycle times were significantly longer. Small lymphocytes were replaced at a greater rate in the thymus than in the spleen. Under continuous {gamma}-irradiation (caesium-137) at 45 rad/day and 75 rad/day for 15 days, there was a progressive depopulation of all lymphoid cell classes, an increase in the relative proportion of the more primitive forms, and a marked decrease in the numbers of small lymphocytes in both tissues. In the thymus and in the spleen, there was an increase in proliferation rates in both stem-cell populations and in all lymphoid cell forms, a decrease in mean cell cycle times to shorter values and a possible reduction in the spread of cell cycle times. In irradiated tissues, there was little evidence for lymphoid cell emigration. Tentative patterns of lymphopoiesis in the normal thymus and spleen based on the autoradiographic data aredescribed and changes in the

  16. T cell progenitors in the mouse fetal liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowich, H.; Umiel, T.; Globerson, A.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen-day mouse fetal liver was found to contain cells capable of giving rise to T as well as B cell functions. The experimental system consisted of congenic C3H/DiSn and (C3H/DiSn X C3H.SW)F1 lethally irradiated (900 R) mice reconstituted with C3H/DiSn fetal liver or bone marrow cells. Assays included thyroid allograft rejection as well as in vitro measurement of reactivity to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) and in a mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) system in spleen, lymph node, and thymus cells. The fetal liver chimeras were found to become as capable as the bone marrow chimeras in responding in these various assays. The T cell responses lagged behind the responses to the B cell mitogens dextran sulfate (DXS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (30 days after reconstitution, as compared with 14 days for DXS and 21 for LPS). The reacting cells were of the donor genotype, as revealed after treatment with C3H/DiSn (H-2k) anti-C3H.SW (H-2b) congenic sera. T cell responses were not manifest in thymectomized (TX) chimeras. Hence, the liver seems to contain cells capable of developing into T cell lineages in a thymus-dependent process

  17. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy,

  18. (3H)leukotriene B4 binding to the guinea pig spleen membranes: a rich tissue source for a high affinity leukotriene B4 receptor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.B.; Kohi, F.; Townley, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    To select a tissue rich for the high affinity leukotriene (LT)B 4 receptor site, they compared binding of 1 nM ( 3 H)LTB 4 (180 Ci/mmol) to the crude membrane preparations of guinea pig spleen, thymus, lung, uterus, bladder, brain, adrenal gland, small intestine, liver, kidney and heart. They found that the membrane preparations from spleen contained the highest binding activity per mg protein. They characterized the LTB 4 binding to the spleen preparation in detail. LTB 4 binding was rapid, reversible, stereoselective and saturable. The data from equilibrium experiments showed a linear Scatchard plot with a K/sub d/ of 1.6 nM and a binding site density of 259 fmol/mg prot. The rank order of agents competing for spleen ( 3 H)LTB 4 binding at 25 0 C was: LTB 4 (K/sub i/ = 2.8 nM) > 20-OH-LTB 4 (23 nM) > LTA 4 (48 nM) > LTA 4 methyl ester (0.13 μM) > 20-COOH-LTB 4 (> 6.6 μM) ≥ arachidonic acid (0.15 mM) similarly ordered FPL-55,712 (0.11 mM). At 4 0 C, LTB 4 (2.3 nM) competed at least 10x more effectively than 20-OH-LTB 4 (29 nM) and 20-COOH-LTB 4 (> 6.6 μM). HPLC analysis indicated that incubation of 84 ng LTB 4 with the spleen membrane at 25 0 C did not result in the formation of 20-OH-LTB 4 ( 3 H)LTB 4 receptor binding sites

  19. Anatomical variations of the thymus in relation to the left brachiocephalic vein, findings of necropsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Oscar Alonso; Moreno, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    Two cases of anatomical variations of the thymus are presented with respect to the anatomical relations with the left brachiocephalic vein and found during the necropsy process. Less than 2 days after birth with Noonan Syndrome, when the left brachiocephalic vein was scanning behind the upper thymus horns, there were other adjacent lesions consisting of three supernumerary spleens and three hepatic veins. The second case was an 8-year-old infant with child malpractice who died from urinary sepsis due to obstructive uropathy, in which case the upper lobes of the thymus were fused and formed a ring through which the left brachiocephalic vein passed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of low molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation processes of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, T.V.; Skobel'tsyna, E.S.; Grinberg, S.M.; Kruglikov, I.L.; Korotaev, G.K.; Tepelina, O.M.; Il'ina, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on blood formation in mice irradiated at 4 Gy was studied. It is shown that injection of low-molecular fraction of thymus hymoral factor to irradiated animals affects proliferative processes in spleen and bone marrow, however the degree of the effect depends on the injection scheme of the preparation. Application of mathematical planning methods of the experiment enables to analyze various injection schemes of low-molecular fraction of thymus humoral factor on the investigated indices. The optimal scheme of preparation injection is determined: 1st injection with the dose of 10 mkg/kg following 4 hour after irradiation, 2d injection - with the same dose in 7-21 days

  1. Radiology of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, F.; Leander, P.; Ekberg, O.

    2001-01-01

    The spleen is generally not considered a challenge to the radiologist. Most often it poses a problem by anomalies or an irregular but normal contrast enhancement; however, a variety of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases may involve the spleen. CT and ultrasonography are screening modalities for the spleen. For problem solving, MR imaging can be helpful, especially due to its free choice of the imaging plane and because of the high resolution in contrast MR imaging. Splenic angiography as a diagnostic tool has generally been replaced by CT, ultrasound, or MR and is now used as an interventional method, e.g., in non-surgical management of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia or in patients with splenic trauma. This article reviews the radiology of the spleen, including anatomy, embryology, splenomegaly, splenic injury, infarction, cysts, tumors, abscesses, sarcoidosis, and AIDS. Knowledge about the use of different imaging modalities and underlying gross and microscopic pathologic features leads to a better understanding of the radiologic findings. (orig.)

  2. de Thymus fontanesii Boiss & Reut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Les huiles essentielles sont conservées à 4°C et à l'abri de la lumière. 2-3. Analyse physicochimique de l'huile essentielle du. Thymus fontanesii. Ces analyses sont faites en conformité aux normes A.F.N.O.R [4] Nous avons déterminé les: Caractères physiques : densité, indice de réfraction, pouvoir rotatoire, solubilité dans.

  3. Recovery response of dividing cells in the thymus of whole-body γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Maniu, M.

    1976-01-01

    Mice were irradiated with different doses of γ-rays 30 min after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate. The dose-response curves determined at 72 hours after exposure showed an inflection point in the total activity present in the DNA in thymus and spleen. In the low dose-range, the dose-response curves have D 0 = 55 rad(n = 2.5) for thymus and D 0 = 95 rad (n = 2.5) for the spleen. Thirty minutes after the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate, the dividing cells from thymus were partially synchronized by the administration of 80 mg per kg body-weight hydroxyurea. At different time-intervals, the mice were irradiated with 80 rad, and the total activity of DNA was determined at 72 hours after synchronization. A significant maximum of recovery was found at 5 hours (S phase) after the administration of hydroxyurea. In similar conditions, the dose-response curves corresponding to the G 1 , S and M phase of the division cycle were also determined. The synchronization of dividing cells induced by hydroxyurea failed in the spleen. (author)

  4. Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria A; Carboni, Fabio; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen is a very rare tumor, with 14 isolated reports. It was our aim to review our experience and compare it with all the reported cases in an attempt to standardize surgical treatment, adjuvant treatment and follow-up protocol of this infrequent condition. A consecutive case series study, with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Five patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent simple splenectomy for hemangiopericytoma limited to the spleen followed by adriamycin-based chemotherapy in one patient. All the patients are alive and free from disease. For tumors confined to the spleen, simple splenectomy can be considered curative, without any need for further adjuvant treatment. On review of the medical literature, cure can still be achieved with complete resection of recurrences, when feasible, with adjuvant chemotherapy being also indicated. The slow-growing pattern of the tumor suggests a 10-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  6. Regenerating computer model of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumb, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    This computer model simulates the cell population kinetics of the development and later degeneration of the thymus. Nutritional factors are taken into account by the growth of blood vessels in the simulated thymus. The stem cell population is kept at its maximum by allowing some stem cells to divide into two stem cells until the population reaches its maximum, thus regenerating the thymus after an insult such as irradiation. After a given number of population doublings the maximum allowed stem cell population is gradually decreased in order to simulate the degeneration of the thymus. Results show that the simulated thymus develops and degenerates in a pattern similar to that of the natural thymus. This simulation is used to evaluate cellular kinetic data for the the thymus. The results from testing the internal consistency of available data are reported. The number of generations which most represents the natural thymus includes seven dividing generations of lymphocytes and one mature, nondividing generation of small lymphocytes. The size of the resulting developed thymus can be controlled without affecting other variables by changing the maximum stem cell population allowed. In addition, recovery from irradiation is simulated

  7. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of spleen for the treatment of hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuxuan; Zhang Yanfang; Zheng Xuefen; Zhang Yuanhua; Kong Jian; Shen Xinying; Dou Yongchong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical effect and experience of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes in the treatment of hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Methods: CT-guided RFA of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes was performed in 15 patients with hypersplenism associated with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The routine blood count was studied both before and after the procedure. Enhanced CT or MR scanning was reexamined after the treatment to determine the ablated volume of the spleen. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The ablated volume of the spleen accounted for (31.0 ± 4.6)% of the whole spleen. Before the treatment the platelet count was (62 ± 9.8) x 10 9 /L. One month after the treatment, the platelet count was increased to (96 ± 11) x 10 9 /L, which was significantly higher than that before the treatment (P<0.05). One patient developed portal thrombosis four months after RFA, and no other serious complications occurred. Conclusion: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes is an effective and safe treatment for hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. (authors)

  8. Binding of /sup 125/I alpha-bungarotoxin to the thymus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, F.; Kondo, K.; Tsubaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    Alpha-bungarotoxin is known to bind with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscle. Binding of iodine 125-labeled alpha bungarotoxin to the murine thymus, muscle, and liver was estimated. The toxin was bound to the muscle. The thymus was also capable of binding a considerable amount of the toxin, and the binding was obviously blocked by tubocurarine chloride. Binding to the liver, an organ containing no nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was very slight. These results may indicate the presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the thymus, which could have implications in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Degenerating myoid cells and their receptors may represent autoantigens that induce an immunological cross-reaction with the receptors of skeletal muscles, giving rise to myasthenia gravis.

  9. Binding of 125I alpha-bungarotoxin to the thymus of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, F.; Kondo, K.; Tsubaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    Alpha-bungarotoxin is known to bind with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscle. Binding of iodine 125-labeled alpha bungarotoxin to the murine thymus, muscle, and liver was estimated. The toxin was bound to the muscle. The thymus was also capable of binding a considerable amount of the toxin, and the binding was obviously blocked by tubocurarine chloride. Binding to the liver, an organ containing no nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was very slight. These results may indicate the presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the thymus, which could have implications in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. Degenerating myoid cells and their receptors may represent autoantigens that induce an immunological cross-reaction with the receptors of skeletal muscles, giving rise to myasthenia gravis

  10. CT findings of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1987-01-01

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  11. CT findings of the thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Woun Kyun; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    In 14 cases of normal and abnormal thymus proved surgically and histopathologically in korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 6 years, the clinical and CT findings were analyzed. 1. Of 14 cases, 2 cases were normal thymus, 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases were benign thymoma, 2 case were malignant thymoma and 1 case was thymic cyst. 2. Of 14 cases, 10 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis, and 7 of these 10 cases were 3rd to 5th decades females. Among 10 cases with myasthenia gravis. 5 cases were thymic hyperplasia, 1 case was benign thymoma, 2 cases were malignant thymoma, and 2 cases were normal thymus. 3. All 5 thymic hyperplasia were associated with myasthenia gravis. CT findings of thymic hyperplasia were normal in 4 cases and increased lobe thickness in 1 case. 4. Of 4 cases of benign thymoma, only 1 case was associated with myasthenia gravis, and all 4 cases were positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, and 1 case had punctuate calcifications. 5. Of 2 cases of malignant thymoma, all 2 cases were associated with myasthenia gravis and positive findings in CT scan. CT findings of malignant thymoma were anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass with obliteration of the normal fat planes surrounding great vessels. SVC compression, and pleural tumor implants. 6. CT yielded significant diagnostic information of differential diagnosis between thymoma and thymoma hyperplasia in myasthenia gravis patients. Also CT was highly sensitive test in detection of thymoma and determined the extent and invasiveness of thymoma.

  12. Spleen Stiffness Correlates with the Presence of Ascites but Not Esophageal Varices in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although spleen stiffness has recently been identified as potential surrogate marker for portal hypertension, the relationship between spleen stiffness and portal hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We attempted to determine the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and the presence of ascites or esophageal varices by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. A total of 33 chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients (median age 68; range 51–84 were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and indicators of portal hypertension as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers were used for validating the accuracy of AFRI imaging. The liver and spleen stiffness increased significantly with progression of liver disease. A significant positive correlation was observed between the liver and spleen stiffness. However, spleen stiffness, but not liver stiffness, was significantly associated with the presence of ascites (, while there was no significant association between the spleen stiffness and spleen index/presence of esophageal varices in CHC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on the spleen stiffness was 0.80. In conclusion, spleen stiffness significantly correlates with the presence of ascites but not esophageal varices in CHC patients.

  13. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases

  14. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases.

  15. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  16. Cortisol decreases 2[125I] iodomelatonin binding sites in the duck thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, A.M.S.; Liu, Z.M.; Tang, F.; Pang, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effect of chronic glucocorticoid treatment on 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding in the duck thymus was studied. Two-week-old ducks were injected intraperitoneally with either 1 mg of cortisol per day (experimental group) or an equivalent volume of vehicle (control group) in the middle of the light period for seven days. 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding assays were performed on thymic membranes. Cortisol injection reduced the body weight gain, size of the bursa of Fabricius and absolute weights of the primary lymphoid organs but had no effect on the spleen weights. The relative weights of the spleen were increased while those of the primary lymphoid organs were unchanged. The density of the thymus 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding sites was decreased while the affinity was not affected. The modulation of the thymic 2[ 125 I] iodomelatonin binding sites by changes in the immune status of the duck suggests that these binding sites represent physiologically relevant melatonin receptors and that melatonin exerts its action on the lymphoid tissues directly. The authors findings support the hypothesis that the thymus is the target site for the immunomodulatory interactions between the pineal melatonin and the adrenal steroids. A possible inhibitory influence of adrenal steroids on the immuno-enhancing effect of melatonin is also suggested. 34 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  18. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  19. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barbarulo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility complex (MHC-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC development, and thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.

  20. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  1. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Guk Hee [Insung Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness.

  2. CT evaluation of thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Guk Hee; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and the thymus was well establish and myasthenia gravis occurs in the presence of thymic hyperplasia or thymoma or occasionally in histologically normal thymus. Since not every patients with myasthenia gravis is a candidate for thymectomy, unless a thymoma is present, the differentiation of normal and hyperplastic thymus from thymoma becomes important. Authors reviewed retrospectively clinical records and chest CT scans of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis who underwent thymectomy during recent 5 years, to evaluate the role of CT scan. The results were as follows. 1 Of total 18 cases, 5 cases had normal thymus, 6 cases had thymic hyperplasia, 4 cases had benign thymoma and 3 cases had malignant thymoma. 2. Of 5 cases of normal thymus, no false positive cases were noted in CT scan. 3. Of 6 cases of thymic hyperplasia, CT findings were normal except 1 cases of thickened left thymic lobe. 4. Of 7 cases of thymoma, no false negative cases were noted in CT scan. 5. CT findings of benign thymoma were round or oval shaped, discrete, slightly enhancing soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum. 6. CT findings of malignant thymoma were lobulated contoured, infiltrative, soft tissue mass lesion in anterior mediastinum with calcifications, pleural tumor implants, and SVC compression. CT yielded valuable information on differential diagnosis of thymoma, thymic hyperplasia and normal thymus. Also CT was a highly sensitive method in the detection of thymoma and determining the extent and invasiveness

  3. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  4. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoori, Simon; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Breitenstein, Stefan; Doert, Aleksis; Pozdniakova, Viktoria; Koh, Dow-Mu; Gutzeit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  5. The effect of thymus cells on bone marrow transplants into sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, J.A.; Szcylik, C.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow cells formed similar numbers of 10-days spleen colonies in sublethally (6 Gy) irradiated C57B1/6 mice as in lethally (7.5 Gy) irradiated mice i.e. approximately 20 per 10 5 cells. Numbers of 10 day endogenous spleen colonies in sublethally irradiated mice (0.2 to 0.6 per spleen) did not differ significantly from the numbers in lethally irradiated mice. Yet, transplants of 10 7 coisogenic marrow cells into sublethally irradiated mice resulted in predominantly endogenous recovery of granulocyte system as evidenced by utilization of ''beige'' marker for transplanted cells. Nevertheless, transplanted cells engrafted into sublethally irradiated mice were present in their hemopoietic tissues throughout the observation period of 2 months never exceeding 5 to 10% of cells. Thymus cells stimulated endogenous and exogenous spleen colony formation as well as endogenous granulopoietic recovery. Additionally, they increased both the frequency and absolute numbers of graft-derived granulocytic cells in hemopoietic organs of transplanted mice. They failed, however, to essentially change the quantitative relationships between endogenous and exogenous hemopoietic recovery. These results may suggest that spleen colony studies are not suitable for prediction of events following bone marrow transplant into sublethally irradiated mice. Simultaneously, they have strengthened the necessity for appropriate conditioning of recipients of marrow transplants. (orig.) [de

  6. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  7. The Spleen: A forgotten organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillon German; Montoya Maria del Pilar; Echeverri Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The spleen has traditionally been regarded as an orphan organ. Its embryological development is described together with the digestive system, although it is not part of the gastrointestinal tract. Its main function is during the early fetal development when it produces both red and white blood cells, losing this function during the late fetal life. Nevertheless, the spleen continues to work as a filter for blood cells and also has important immune functions. As it is not necessary for the preservation of vital life functions, the spleen receives limited attention by both radiologists and clinicians. It is, however, an organ with multiple pathological conditions that have representation in the different diagnostic imaging modalities; radiologists, therefore, must be aware of these conditions and their radiological characteristics. This article provides a diagnostic approach to the most common diseases affecting the spleen using tomography and magnetic resonance.

  8. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.; Nutt, L.H.; Hobbs, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-[N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl]iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities

  9. PrP protein is associated with follicular dendritic cells of spleens and lymph nodes in uninfected and scrapie-infected mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, P. A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Kraal, G.; Fraser, H.; Bruce, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Abnormal forms of a host protein, PrP, accumulate in the central nervous system in scrapie-affected animals. Here, PrP protein was detected immunocytochemically in tissue sections of spleen, lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and pancreas from uninfected mice and from mice infected with a range of

  10. Thymus function in drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R L; Salomon, D R; Guerrero, R S

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmunity develops when a lupus-inducing drug is introduced into the thymus of normal mice, but the relevance of this model to the human disorder is unclear in part because it is widely assumed that the thymus is non-functional in the adult. We compared thymus function in 10 patients with symptomatic procainamide-induced lupus to that in 13 asymptomatic patients who only developed drug-induced autoantibodies. T cell output from the thymus was quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction that detects T cell receptor DNA excision circles in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Despite the advanced age of the patient population under study, newly generated T cells were detected in all subjects. Although there was no overall quantitative difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, we found a positive correlation between the level of T cell receptor excision circles in peripheral lymphocytes and serum IgG anti-chromatin antibody activity in patients with drug-induced lupus. The association between autoantibodies and nascent peripheral T cells supports the requirement for T cells in autoantibody production. Our observations are consistent with findings in mice in which autoreactive T cells derived from drug-induced abnormalities in T cell development in the thymus.

  11. Interactions between Biliverdin, Oxidative Damage, and Spleen Morphology after Simulated Aggressive Encounters in Veiled Chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Stressors frequently increase oxidative damage--unless organisms simultaneously mount effective antioxidant responses. One putative mitigative mechanism is the use of biliverdin, an antioxidant produced in the spleen during erythrocyte degradation. We hypothesized that both wild and captive-bred male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus, which are highly aggressive to conspecifics, would respond to agonistic displays with increased levels of oxidative damage, but that increased levels of biliverdin would limit this increase. We found that even just visual exposure to a potential combatant resulted in decreased body mass during the subsequent 48-hour period, but that hematocrit, biliverdin concentration in the bile, relative spleen size, and oxidative damage in plasma, liver, and spleen were unaffected. Contrary to our predictions, we found that individuals with smaller spleens exhibited greater decreases in hematocrit and higher bile biliverdin concentrations, suggesting a revision to the idea of spleen-dependent erythrocyte processing. Interestingly, individuals with larger spleens had reduced oxidative damage in both the liver and spleen, demonstrating the spleen's importance in modulating oxidative damage. We also uncovered differences in spleen size and oxidative damage between wild and captive-bred chameleons, highlighting environmentally dependent differences in oxidative physiology. Lastly, we found no relationship between oxidative damage and biliverdin concentration, calling into question biliverdin's antioxidant role in this species.

  12. Spleen: development and functional evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Conway, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the fact that the spleen has multiple functions, only one has been widely used for evaluation of the organ by imaging techniques (phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid). The usual splenic uptake of this radiocolloid can by used to determine the size, location, and integrity of the organ. A major use of splenic radiocolloid imaging has been in the study of congenital defects. Thus, eventration of the diaphragm, accessory spleens, splenogonadal fusion, the asplenia and polysplenia syndromes, and the wandering spleen are amenable to study by means of intravenously administered radiocolloid. Interference with the splenic uptake of radiocolloid can be either focal or generalized (as in functional asplenia). Imaging of the spleen has a major role in evaluating suspected trauma of the organ and in following its clinical course. The return of splenic function after splenectomy (splenosis or accessory spleens) can be documented by radionuclide imaging, and likely by hematologic techniques when the volume of tissue is sufficiently large. The detection of intrasplenic lesions is important in tumor staging and as an alerting sign to an ongoing process. 96 references

  13. Semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Ho; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Sanghyun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kye, Heewon; Song, Gi-Won; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we determined the relative accuracy of semiautomated spleen volumetry with diffusion-weighted (DW) MR images compared to standard manual volumetry with DW-MR or CT images. Semiautomated spleen volumetry using simple thresholding followed by 3D and 2D connected component analysis was performed with DW-MR images. Manual spleen volumetry was performed on DW-MR and CT images. In this study, 35 potential live liver donor candidates were included. Semiautomated volumetry results were highly correlated with manual volumetry results using DW-MR (r = 0.99; P volumetry was significantly shorter compared to that of manual volumetry with DW-MR (P volumetry with DW-MR images can be performed rapidly and accurately when compared with standard manual volumetry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    of the thymus relevant to its function and could measurement of the thymus be a useful immunological diagnostic tool in the investigation of thymic function in humans with a depressed immune system? Conclusion: Studies using the size of the thymus as an immunological diagnostic tool should be encouraged....

  15. Inter-specific relationships among two Tunisian Thymus taxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between two sympatric species Thymus capitatus Hoffm. et Link. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Thymus hirtus Willd. subsp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut.) were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eighteen natural populations from different geographical and ...

  16. Hydatid disease of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H.

    1992-01-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG)

  17. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  18. Visualization of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Midori; Tanaka, Makoto; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku; Heshiki, Atsuko

    1982-01-01

    We investigated whether CT had any advantage over pneumomediastinography (PMG) for the visualization of thymus in twenty-one patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). In two cases of thymoma which had been suspected with chest radiography, CT demonstrated an anterior mediastinal tumor distinguishable from other mediastinal organs, and for these cases PMG was not performed. Excluding three patients who were submitted to PMG only, CT of the anterior mediastinum was carried out in sixteen patients of MG, revealing thymic shadows in seven (44%). PMG followed by conventional tomography was done subsequently in three of these seven cases, for whom thymectomy was indicated because of uncontrollable myasthenic symptoms, and in all patients finger-like thymic shadows were disclosed. The vertical extension of thymus was more easily demonstrable by PMG than CT. PMG was carried out in six of nine patients in whom CT was negative, and in all cases thymic shadows were obvious with subsequent conventional tomography. Consequently, false negative rate of CT was at least 38% (6/16) with regard to the visualization of the nontumorous thymus. Although CT of the anterior mediastinum is useful as a screening method because of its non-invasiveness, its negative result does not rule out an absence of the pathologic thymus in view of its high false negative rate. In this regard, PMG is still necessary for the final determination of the thymic configuration in the MG patients. (J.P.N.)

  19. Gigantic enlargement of the thymus gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regal, Mohamed A.

    2007-01-01

    True massive thymic hyperplasia is a very rare entity, characterized by an increase in the size and weight of the thymus gland without an apparent cause. Surgery has been required in patients with severe respiratory distress. We present an idiopathic true massive thymic hyperplasia in a 5-month-old boy. (author)

  20. Alotransplante de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos submetidos a manipulação tímica com células não-parenquimatosas Allogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver after allogenic nonparenchymal cells injection in the thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Chaib

    2006-12-01

    éticos, antes do alotransplante de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado, ao contrário de inibir a reação do receptor contra o enxerto, prolongando a sobrevida média das ilhotas e, possivelmente, levando ao estado de tolerância imunológica, induziu ao processo de rejeição aguda precoce.BACKGROUD: The major indication for pancreas or islet transplantation is diabetes mellitus type I. This process has to supply the insulin necessity keeping glucose under control AIM: We studied allogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver, Wistar (RT1u to Lewis (RT1¹ as a recipient. Control group (n = 8 and nonparenchymal cell group (n = 8 respectively with injection of Hanks solution and nonparenchymal cells in the thymus before islet transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With the method of isolation and purification of the islets we obtained both in the control group 3.637 ± 783,3 islets with purity of 85 ± 3,52% and nonparenchymal cell group 3.270 ± 770 islets with purity of 84,25 ± 2,76%. The nonparenchymal cells were retrieved from the liver and we obtained 2 x 106 cells. Diabetes was induced by i.v. streptozotocin RESULTS: Control group the transplantation of 3.637 ± 783,3 islets in the rat liver normalized glucose test, 7,21 ± 0,57 mmol/L in the 2nd postoperative day. Acute rejection came in the 6th postoperative day with significantly increase of glucose test in nonparenchymal cell group, the transplantation of 3.270 ± 770 islets in the rat liver, almost normalized the glucose test was 17,95 ± 5,33 mmol/L in the 2nd postoperative day. From the 4th postoperative day to 10th postoperative day. The glucose test increase significantly showing an early acute rejection CONCLUSION: The injection of nonparenchymal cells in the thymus before allogenic islet transplantation in the rat liver lead to an early acute rejection.

  1. O papel da oxigenação hiperbárica na estrutura do fígado e baço após ligadura das veias hepáticas: estudo em ratos The role of hyperbaric oxygenation in the liver and spleen structure after hepatic vein ligation: study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa-Val

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação morfológica do fígado e baço de ratos submetidos à oxigenoterapia hiperbárica após a ligadura das veias hepáticas. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 30 animais machos adultos da espécie Holtzman, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 15 animais cada, assim designados: grupo 1 - ligadura das veias hepáticas; grupo 2 - ligadura das veias hepáticas associada à oxigenoterapia hiperbárica. Todos os animais foram submetidos à anestesia geral por meio de solução contendo cloridrato de cetamina (40 mg/ml e cloridrato de meperidina (10 mg/ml na dose de 50 mg/kg/peso, laparotomia mediana e ligadura das veias hepáticas. A oxigenoterapia hiperbárica foi aplicada nos animais do grupo 2, a partir da oitava hora do pós-operatório, por 120 minutos, sendo 90 minutos sob pressão de 2,5 atmosferas e 15 minutos no início e final da terapêutica, para promover a compressão e descompressão gradativa no período de 20 dias consecutivos. No 21° dia de pós-operatório, os animais foram mortos por inalação de éter e submetidos à laparotomia e extirpação dos fígados e baços para exame histológico. Foram comparados os resultados da histologia hepática e esplênica aplicando-se o teste exato de Fisher, considerando-se a diferença significante de P OBJECTIVE: Liver and spleen morphologic evaluation of rats submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy after hepatic vein ligation. METHOD: Thirty Holtzman adult male rats were used, distributed into two groups of 15 animals: group 1 - hepatic vein ligation; group 2 - hepatic vein ligation associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. All animals received general anesthesia by a solution composed of ketamine chloride (40 mg/ml and meperidine chloride (10 mg/ml in a dose of 50/mg/weight, and were submitted to median laparotomy and hepatic vein ligation. Group 2 animals were submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 8 hours after the operation, 90 minutes at 2.5 atmosphere pressure

  2. Rapid and preferential distribution of blood-borne αCD3εAb to the liver is followed by local stimulation of T cells and natural killer T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingender, Gerhard; Schumak, Beatrix; Schurich, Anna; Gessner, J Engelbert; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Knolle, Percy A

    2006-01-01

    Dissemination of soluble molecules or antigens via the blood stream is considered to lead to a uniform distribution in the various organs of the body, but organ-specific microarchitecture and vascularization may influence this. Following intravenous injection of αCD3ε antibody (αCD3εAb) we observed clear differences in antibody binding to Fcγ receptor (FcγR)+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or T lymphocytes in different organs. Significant binding of blood-borne αCD3εAb was only detected in the spleen and liver and not in the thymus or lymph node. In the spleen, only 10% of dendritic cells/macrophages and 40% of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β+ cells were positive for αCD3εAb, and, dependent on FcγR-mediated cross-linking of αCD3εAb, a similar percentage of splenic TCR-β+ cells were stimulated and became CD69+. Stimulation of TCR-β+ cells in the liver was at least as efficient as in the spleen, but almost all T cells and all scavenger liver sinusoidal endothelial cells bound αCD3εAb. In contrast to CD69 up-regulation, only CD4+ natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD11ahigh CD8+ T cells were activated by αCD3εAb and expressed interferon (IFN)-γ. Again, IFN-γ release from NKT/T cells was at least as efficient in the liver as in the spleen. Taken together, our results support the notion that the combination of extensive hepatic vascularization and very high scavenger activity allows the liver to fulfill its metabolic tasks and to promote stimulation of the large but widely distributed hepatic population of NKT/T cells. PMID:16423047

  3. Immunohistochemical evidences showing the presence of thymulin containing cells located in involuted thymus and in peripheral lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45. In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  4. Liver scanning in diffuse liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiginger, P.; Atefie, K.; Scherak, O.; Wolf, A.; Hoefer, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of liver scans performed with sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid in 169 patients suffering from diffuse liver diseases and in 48 normal controls were evaluated. The patients with reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis, fatty liver and fibrosis of the liver show only minimal deviations from the scintigraphic pattern. On the contrary, highly increased colloid uptake in the spleen is found in cases of chronic aggressive hepatitis, whilst the intrahepatic distribution of the colloid is approximately normal. In cases of liver cirrhosis, increased colloid uptake is found in the left lobe of the liver as well as in the spleen and in the bone marrow. Either normal findings or cirrhosis-like changes of the colloid distribution are observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  5. Cellular aspects of tolerance. V. The in vivo cooperative role of acceessory and thymus derived cells in responsiveness and unresponsiveness of SJL mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Cinader, B.

    1974-01-01

    Adult (8-week-old) SJL mice reach a relatively low degree of tolerance when injected with aggregate free rabbit γ-globulin (RGG). To analyze this phenomenon, we first examined indirect plaque-forming responses (PFC) in terms of participation of accessory and thymus-derived cells. Double transfer experiments were used; accessory cells were removed from donor cells by filtration over glasswool and their capacity reduced in recipients by 3 day preirradiation or by horse erythrocyte-mediated blockage. Using this type of experimental arrangement we found that the antibody response to RGG required the cooperation of accessory and thymus-derived cells. The induction of tolerance was affected by the presence of accessory cells. Preirradiated secondary recipients were reconstituted with spleen cells from accessory cell-deprived donors which had received thymus and bone marrow cells. In some experiments, the thymus and bone marrow cells were passed over glasswool. The primary recipients were left untreated or were given tolerogen. A more profound state of tolerance (reduction in plaque forming response) was the consequence of the incapacitation or removal of accessory cells. The magnitude of the reduction in PFC was directly related to the completeness of accessory cell removal and incapacitation. Responsiveness could be restored by administration of irradiated spleen cells as a source of accessory cells. The need for thymus-derived (T) cells in the antibody response was demonstrated by double transfer experiments in which the primary recipient was restored with thymus cells alone, bone marrow cells alone, or with a mixture of cell types

  6. Development of interleukin-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells is reduced by ICOS signaling in the thymus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Terkild Brink; Schmidt, Jonas Damgård; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, we have investigated the role of inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) on the development of γδ T cells. We show that ICOS is expressed by a population of immature Vγ2+CD45RBlow γδ T cells predisposed to interleukin-17 (IL-17) production. We found that treatment with ICOS specific antibodies...... drastically reduces fetal development of IL-17-producing γδ T cells by agonistic actions, and that ICOS deficient mice have a significant increase in the population of IL-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells in the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and skin and exhibit exacerbated sensitization responses to 2......,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that development of IL-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells is reduced by ICOS signaling in the thymus....

  7. Immunoregulatory changes induced by total lymphoid irradiation. II. Development of thymus-leukemia antigen-positive and -negative suppressor T cells that differ in their regulatory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.P.; Strober, S.

    1981-01-01

    BALB/c mice treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) develop non-antigen-specific suppressor cells of the adoptive secondary antibody response and of the mixed leukocyte reaction. Suppressors of the adoptive anti-DNP response were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 or anti-thymus-leukemia (TL) antiserum and complement before cell transfer. Thymectomy before TLI prevented the appearance of the latter suppressor cells. On the other hand, suppressors of the MLR were eliminated by incubation of spleen cells with anti-Thy-1.2 but not anti-TL antiserum and complement. Thymectomy before TLI did not prevent their subsequent development. Thus, two subpopulations of suppressor T cells that differ in the expression of the TL surface antigen, dependence on the presence of the thymus, and in regulatory functions develop after TLI. The TL+, thymus-dependent cell suppresses the adoptive antibody response, and the TL-, thymus-independent cell suppresses the MLR

  8. Protection of lethally irradiated mice with allogeneic fetal liver cells: influence of irradiation dose on immunologic reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulunay, O.; Good, R.A.; Yunis, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    After lethal irradiation long-lived, immunologically vigorous C3Hf mice were produced by treatment with syngeneic fetal liver cells or syngeneic newborn or adult spleen cells. Treatment of lethally irradiated mice with syngeneic or allogeneic newborn thymus cells or allogeneic newborn or adult spleen cells regularly led to fatal secondary disease or graft-versus-host reactions. Treatment of the lethally irradiated mice with fetal liver cells regularly yielded long-lived, immunologically vigorous chimeras. The introduction of the fetal liver cells into the irradiated mice appeared to be followed by development of immunological tolerance of the donor cells. The findings suggest that T-cells at an early stage of differentiation are more susceptible to tolerance induction than are T-lymphocytes at later stages of differentiation. These investigations turned up a perplexing paradox which suggests that high doses of irradiation may injure the thymic stroma, rendering it less capable of supporting certain T-cell populations in the peripheral lymphoid tissue. Alternatively, the higher and not the lower dose of irradiation may have eliminated a host cell not readily derived from fetal liver precursors which represents an important helper cell in certain cell-mediated immune functions, e.g., graft-versus-host reactions, but which is not important in others, e.g., allograft rejections. The higher dose of lethal irradiation did not permit development or maintenance of a population of spleen cells that could initiate graft-versus-host reactions but did permit the development of a population of donor cells capable of achieving vigorous allograft rejection

  9. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be 99 /sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning

  10. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ya-Qi; Liang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on splenic thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In this article, we review the evolution and current status of radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of spleen diseases. All publications from 1990 to 2011 on radiofrequency and microwave ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism were retrieved by searching PubMed. Thermal ablation in the spleen for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism can preserve part of the spleen and maintain splenic immunologic function. Thermal ablation for assisting hemostasis in partial splenectomy minimizes blood loss during operation. Thermal ablation for spleen trauma reduces the number of splenectomy and the amount of blood transfusion. Thermal ablation for splenic metastasis is minimally invasive and can be done under the guidance of an ultrasound, which helps shorten the recovery time. Thermal ablation for hypersplenism increases platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and improves liver function. It also helps to maintain splenic immunologic function and even improves splenic immunologic function in the short-term. In conclusion, thermal ablative approaches are promising for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In order to improve therapeutic effects, directions for future studies may include standardized therapeutic indications, prolonged observation periods and enlarged sample sizes.

  12. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  13. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Sakaguchi, Kozo; Tomoyasu, Hiroshi; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Matsushita, Hisashi [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of `reticular pattern`, many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of `reticular pattern` on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author).

  14. Computed tomography of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Sakaguchi, Kozo; Tomoyasu, Hiroshi; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Matsushita, Hisashi

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of preoperative CT diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis for the thymus were studied in 39 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 29 without thymoma confirmed at the operation. CT diagnosis was 11 thymomas, 18 thymic hyperplasias and 10 normal thymuses. Eleven thymomas revealed histopathologically 9 thymomas, one follicular lymphoid hyperplasia (FLH) and one involved thymus. Out of 18 thymic hyperplasias 15 cases were FLH and 3 involved thymus. There were 5 involved thymuses, 4 FLHs and one thymoma in the 10 normal thymuses on CT. The finding of 'reticular pattern', many small nodules scattered reticularly in the thymus, in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting FLH of the thymus. The accuracy of this finding of CT was 83% for FLH. The finding of thymoma on CT revealed 82% of the accuracy. Therefore, CT was very useful in the diagnosis of the localization of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of FLH of the thymus. Nevertheless the finding of 'reticular pattern' on CT was helpful in the diagnosis of FLH. (author)

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  16. Thymus species in Ethiopia: Distribution, medicinal value, economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant specimens from these localities were authenticated by experts in the National Herbarium of Addis Ababa University as Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi. The plants were rated by local informants as treatments for ailments like blood pressure (30.7%), general pain syndrome (10%), influenza (10%), ...

  17. Thymus transplantation for complete DiGeorge syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, E Graham; Cheung, Melissa; Gilmour, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS). METHODS: Twelve patients with cDGS underwent transplantation with allogeneic cultured thymus. OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a ...

  18. Thymus: The site for Development of Cellular Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The immune system protects our bodies against infectionsand cancers. This review introduce readers to the thymus. – a primary lymphoid organ – which is the site of developmentand maturation of functional T lymphocytes. Progenitorstem cells arise from the bone marrow and undergo sequentialdevelopment in the thymus ...

  19. CD34+CD38dim cells in the human thymus can differentiate into T, natural killer, and dendritic cells but are distinct from pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Res, P.; Martínez-Cáceres, E.; Cristina Jaleco, A.; Staal, F.; Noteboom, E.; Weijer, K.; Spits, H.

    1996-01-01

    Recently we reported that the human thymus contains a minute population of CD34+CD38dim cells that do not express the T-cell lineage markers CD2 and CD5. The phenotype of this population resembled that of CD34+CD38dim cells present in fetal liver, umbilical cord blood, and bone marrow known to be

  20. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  2. Effects of combined treatment of rats with cadmium and ionizing radiation on nucleic acids in the kidneys, liver and haemopoietic organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovinska, L.; Kropacova, K.; Kolesarova, M.; Misurova, E.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of Cd (1 mg/rat CdCl 2 i.p.) and/or gamma radiation (6 Gy) on RNA and DNA content and/or concentration in the intact kidney and hypertrophic kidney (on the 44th hour after unilateral nephrectomy - UN) and in other slowly and quickly proliferating organs was studied. The period between administration of Cd and ionizing irradiation (Ir) in the group with combined treatment was 30 min, between treatment (administration of Cd, Ir and combination of both treatments - Cd + Ir) and UN it was 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. The total extent of damage caused by the treatments in the investigated organs was following: intact kidney < liver < hypertrophic kidney and bone marrow < spleen < thymus. In the intact and hypertrophic kidney and liver, the administration of Cd caused more extensive changes in comparison with gamma irradiation and the effects of combination of the treatments were similar to those of Cd alone. In the bone marrow, spleen and thymus, more profound changes were observed after Ir in comparison with Cd administration, and the effects of combined treatment were similar to the effects of Ir alone. The changes in the hypertrophic kidney after administration of Cd and/or Ir were more extensive than in the intact kidney, which suggests latent injury induction in the rat kidney by these noxa. The higher effectiveness of the treatments in the hypertrophic kidney than in the intact one was manifested mostly by the decrease in the RNA and DNA content, which was mainly due to inhibition of growth induced by UN and not by a real decrease in DNA and RNA contents caused by loss of damaged cells. (author)

  3. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; Čaplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Boča, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 μm in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization.

  4. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Dinkel, E.; Wimmer, B.; Grosser, G.; Schildge, J.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus. (orig.) [de

  5. Radioisotope spleen scan in patients with splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishalany, H.G.; Miller, J.H.; Woolley, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technetium /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan is a valuable aid in diagnosis and treatment of patients with splenic injury. After reviewing the charts of 47 patients who were ill as a result of splenic trauma, we came to the following conclusions: (1) the scan identified the injury, accurately mapped its extent, and indicated the presence or absence of associated liver injuries; (2) the scans were useful in following the extent and rate of healing of the splenic injury; (3) the scan is an indirect measurement of of return of splenic fuction; (4) the procedure can be performed in a reasonable time frame with no serious morbidity; and (5) the indications, contraindications, and timing of scans are now reasonably well established

  6. Radioisotope spleen scan in patients with splenic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishalany, H.G.; Miller, J.H.; Woolley, M.M.

    1982-09-01

    The technetium /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid liver-spleen scan is a valuable aid in diagnosis and treatment of patients with splenic injury. After reviewing the charts of 47 patients who were ill as a result of splenic trauma, we came to the following conclusions: (1) the scan identified the injury, accurately mapped its extent, and indicated the presence or absence of associated liver injuries; (2) the scans were useful in following the extent and rate of healing of the splenic injury; (3) the scan is an indirect measurement of of return of splenic fuction; (4) the procedure can be performed in a reasonable time frame with no serious morbidity; and (5) the indications, contraindications, and timing of scans are now reasonably well established.

  7. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovsky, Natalia, E-mail: natalias@hadassah.org.il [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel); Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-11-15

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14-78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  8. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14–78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  9. Phosphorylation of rat thymus histones, its control and the effects thereon of γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonagy, A.; Ord, M.G.; Stocken, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The phosphate content of rat thymus histones was determined. As expected for a replicating tissue, histones 1 and 2B were more phosphorylated and had higher 32 P uptakes than did histones from resting liver nuclei; the other histones all showed 32 P uptake, but the phosphate content and uptake of histone 2A was about half that for liver histone 2A. When thymus nuclei were incubated in a slightly hypo-osmotic medium, non-histone proteins and phosphorylated histones were released into solution; this was enhanced if ATP was present in the medium. [γ- 32 P]ATP was incorporated into non-histone proteins, including Pl, and into the ADP-ribosylated form of histone 1; negligible 32 P was incorporated into the other, bound, histones. Histones 1 and 2B added to the incubation medium were extensively, and histones 2A and 4 slightly, phosphorylated. Histones released by increasing the ionic strength of the medium were phosphorylated. Added lysozyme and cytochrome c were neither bound nor phosphorylated, but added non-histone protein Pl was phosphorylated, causing other histones to be released from the nuclei, especially histones 2A and 3. The released histones were phosphorylated. γ-irradiation decreased 32 P uptake into the non-ADP-ribosylated histones 1 and 4; phosphorylation of histone 1 in vitro was unaffected. The importance of non-histone proteins, ATP availability and nuclear protein kinases to the control of histone phosphorylation in vivo is discussed. (author)

  10. Spleen-lung interface as diagnostic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, S.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Left anterior, lateral, and posterior views on 50 consecutive /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung scans were examined. Normal patients had continuity of activity between the left lung and the spleen on all three views. Patients with subphrenic abscess or large left pleural effusions showed no continuity between lung and spleen activity on any view, while other abnormalities, most commonly cardiomegaly, accounted for lack of lung-spleen continuity on the anterior view only. It is suggested that in all combined /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung studies, the left side be examined as well as the right for abnormalities adjacent to the left diaphragm. (auth)

  11. CT number of the fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kawai, Takeshi; Kanasaki, Yoshiki; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1981-01-01

    This report is studied on CT number and CT images of the eight cases with fatty liver. Five of these cases showed the reversal of densities of the liver and vessels. In these cases, the diagnoses of the fatty liver were easible. In other cases, the diagnoses were possible only by comparison of the CT number of the liver and spleen because the CT number of normal liver were higher than those of the spleen. In the results which we examined the correlation of the CT number and specific gravities of the blood, normal saline, distilled water, mayonnaise, eatable iol, ethyl alcohol and lard, we observed the linear relationship between CT number and specific gravities. And so, we think that the diagnosis of the fatty liver and the degree of fatty infiltration can be guessed by the CT number of the liver and spleen. (author)

  12. Neuro-immune modulation of the thymus microenvironment (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignini, Fiorenzo; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Mattioli, Laura; Cosenza, Monica; Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    The thymus is the primary site for T-cell lympho-poiesis. Its function includes the maturation and selection of antigen specific T cells and selective release of these cells to the periphery. These highly complex processes require precise parenchymal organization and compartmentation where a plethora of signalling pathways occur, performing strict control on the maturation and selection processes of T lymphocytes. In this review, the main morphological characteristics of the thymus microenvironment, with particular emphasis on nerve fibers and neuropeptides were assessed, as both are responsible for neuro-immune‑modulation functions. Among several neurotransmitters that affect thymus function, we highlight the dopaminergic system as only recently has its importance on thymus function and lymphocyte physiology come to light.

  13. 81-92, 2015 81 Thymus species in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 1: Data/Sample Collection Sites of Thymus species for the present study ..... ly reduced level of Systolic Atrial Pressure (SAP) and ... T. schimperi is a big challenge owing to their suitabil- .... of Local Hybrid Maize Seed Production and.

  14. Sonographic evaluation of normal thymus in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, L.; Marconi, V.; Remy, J.; Avni, F.

    1987-05-01

    Sonography has been used to evaluate 50 'asymptomatic' infants (aged from birth up to two years) with typical appearing thymus on chest X-ray. The ultrasonic features of the normal gland are described. Moreover, the contribution of ultrasound is illustrated by five cases of partially ectopic thymus and by one case of prominent gland in a teenager. Ultrasound may help in differentiating normal gland from mediastinal masses by defining echogenicity, location and extension.

  15. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Irimoto, Masahiro; Matsushita, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. (author)

  16. Liver Hypertension: Causes, Consequences and Prevention

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Liver Hypertension: Causes, Consequences and Prevention · Heart Pressure : Blood Pressure · Slide 3 · If you continue to have high BP · Doctor Measures Blood Pressure (BP): Medicines to Decrease BP · LIVER ~ ~ LIFE Rightists vs. Leftists · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Liver Spleen - Splanchnic ...

  17. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl 2 (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 + CD25 − (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 − CD25 + (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1 + ). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed. ► Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell populations. ► The antibody response of a streptococcal vaccine showed numerous changes.

  18. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed. ► Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell populations. ► The antibody response of a streptococcal vaccine showed numerous changes.

  19. Positive Selection of γδ CTL by TL Antigen Expressed in the Thymus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Kunio; Takahashi, Toshitada; Morita, Akimichi; Hasegawa-Nishiwaki, Hitomi; Iwase, Shigeru; Obata, Yuichi

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the function of the mouse TL antigen in the thymus, we have derived two TL transgenic mouse strains by introducing Tla a -3 of A strain origin with its own promoter onto a C3H background with no expression of TL in the thymus. These transgenic mouse strains, both of which express high levels of Tlaa-3-TL antigen in their thymus, were analyzed for their T cell function with emphasis on cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation. A T cell response against TL was induced in Tg.Tlaa-3-1, Tg.Tlaa-3-2, and control C3H mice by skin grafts from H-2K b/T3 b transgenic mice, Tg.Con.3-1, expressing T3b-TL ubiquitously. Spleen cells from mice that had rejected the T3b-TL positive skin grafts were restimulated in vitro with Tg.Con.3-1 irradiated spleen cells. In mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), approximately 20% and 15% of Thy-1+ T cells derived from Tg.Tlaa-3-1 and Tg.Tlaa-3-2, respectively, expressed TCRγδ, whereas almost all those from C3H expressed TCRαβ. The MLC from Tg.Tlaa-3-2 and C3H demonstrated high CTL activity against TL, while those from Tg.Tlaa-3-1 had little or none. The generation of γδ CTL recognizing TL in Tg.Tlaa-3-2, but not C3H mice, was confirmed by the establishment of CTL clones. A total of 14 γδ CTL clones were established from Tg.Tlaa-3-2, whereas none were obtained from C3H. Of the 14 γδ CTL clones, 8 were CD8+ and 6 were CD4−CD8− double negative. The CTL activity of all these clones was TL specific and inhibited by anti-TL, but not by anti-H-2 antibodies, demonstrating that they recognize TL directly without antigen presentation by H-2. The CTL activity was blocked by antibodies to TCRγδ and CD3, and also by antibodies to CD8α and CD8β in CD8+ clones, showing that the activity was mediated by TCRγδ and coreceptors. The thymic origin of these γδ CTL clones was indicated by the expression of Thy-1 and Ly-1 (CD5), and also CD8αβ heterodimers in CD8+ clones on their surfaces and by the usage of TCR Vγ4 chains in 12 of

  20. Intrathymic T cell differentiation in radiation bone marrow chimeras and its role in T cell emigration to the spleen. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Hitomi, K.; Utsuyama, M.

    1985-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were made on the regeneration of T cells of host- and donor-type in the thymus and spleen of radiation bone marrow chimeras by using B10- and B10.BR-Thy-1 congenic mice. In Thy-1 congenic chimeras, thymocytes of donor bone marrow origin, were first recognized at day 7, when the thymus involuted to the smallest size after the irradiation. The thymocytes of donor-type then proliferated exponentially, showing a slightly faster rate when higher doses of bone marrow cells were used for reconstitution, reaching a level of 100 million by day 17 and completely replacing the cortical thymocytes of host origin by day 21. The replacement of medullary thymocytes from host- to donor-type occurred gradually between days 21 and 35, after the replacement in the cortex was completed. In the spleen, about 1 million survived cells were recovered at day 3 after the irradiation, and approximately 60% of them were shown to be host-type T cells that were observed in the white pulp areas. The host-type T cells in the spleen increased gradually after day 10, due to the influx of host-type T cells from the regenerating thymus. Thus a pronounced increase of T cells of host-type was immunohistochemically observed in the splenic white pulp between days 21 and 28, when thymocytes of host-type were present mainly in the thymic medulla. These host-type T cells were shown to persist in the spleen for a long time, as long as 420 days after the treatment. Phenotypically, they were predominantly Lyt-1+2+ when examined at day 28, but 5 mo later, they were about 50% Lyt-1+2+ and 50% Lyt-1+2-

  1. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid nanoencapsulation of a synthetic coumarin: Cytotoxicity and bio-distribution in mice, in cancer cell line and interaction with calf thymus DNA as target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Paul, Saili; De, Arnab; Das, Durba; Samadder, Asmita; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Several naturally occurring coumarin compounds, including scopoletin (7 hydroxy-6 methoxycoumarin), of plant origin have been reported to have anti-cancer potentials. A related but chemically synthesized coumarin, 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin (SC), was also shown to have similar anti-cancer potentials. In the present study, to test if nano-encapsulated SC could be a more potent anti-cancer agent, we encapsulated SC with poly lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (Nano Coumarin; NC) and tested its potentials with a variety of protocols. NC demonstrated greater efficiency of drug uptake and showed anti-cancer potentials in melanoma cell line A375, as revealed from scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. To test its possible interaction with target DNA, the combined data of circular dichroism spectra (CD) and melting temperature profile (T m ) of calf thymus DNA treated with NC were analyzed. Results indicated a concentration dependent interaction of NC with calf thymus DNA, bringing in effective change in structure and conformation, and forming a new complex that increased its stability. Particle size and morphology of NC determined through polydispersity index and zeta potential using dynamic light scattering qualified NC to be a more potent anti-cancer agent than SC. Further, SC and NC showed negligible cytotoxic effects on normal skin cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mice. Distribution assay of PLGA nanoparticles in different tissues like brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen in mice revealed the presence of nanoparticles in different tissues including brain, indicating that the particles could cross the blood brain barrier, significant information for drug design. - Graphical abstract: Nanoencapsulated coumarin (NC) were characterized for their size and morphology by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopies (AFM).The physical interaction of the NC with calf thymus DNA was studied through circular dichroism

  2. Histopathology and immunocytochemical study of type 3 and type 4 complement receptors in the liver and spleen of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi Histopatologia e estudo imunocitoquímico dos receptores do tipo 3 e 4 do complemento no fígado e baço de cães natural e experimentalmente infectados com Leishmaniose Visceral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Luiz Tafuri

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the histopathological changes and expression of CR3 and CR4 in the liver and spleen of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with L. chagasi. The basic histopathological lesions observed mainly in naturally infected dogs were: epithelioid hepatic granulomas, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of Kupffer cells, Malpigui follicles and mononucleated cells of the red pulp of the spleen. Sections from the liver and spleen by immunocytochemistry technique showed the presence of CD11b,cCD 18 antigens in the control and infected animals and no qualitative or quantitative differences in the liver. Nevertheless, CD18 was always increased in the spleen of naturally and experimentally infected dogs. These results indicate that there is a difference in the activaton of CD 18 in both experimental and natural cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis that should play an important role in the immunological response to Leishmania chagasi infection.Os objetivos deste trabalho visaram uma análise comparativa das alterações histopatológicas e da expressão de CR3 e CR4 no fígado e baço de cães natural e experimentalmente infectados com L. chagasi. As lesões histopatológicas fundamentais observadas principalmente nos cães naturalmente infectados foram: os granulomas epitelióides hepáticos, a hiperplasia e a hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, dos folículos de Malpighi e das células mononucleadas da polpa vermelha do baço. Os cortes de fígado e baço corados pela técnica de imunocitoquímica mostraram a presença dos antígenos CD11b,cCD18 nos animais controles e infectados, sem diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas no fígado. Entretanto, no baço dos cães natural e experimentalmente infectados a expressão de CD 18 (subunidade beta2 da molécula comum aos leucócitos foi sempre aumentada. Em leishmaniose a resposta imune celular é considerada a mais importante na resolução da doença. A expressão de CD

  3. [Induced thymus aging: radiation model and application perspective for low intensive laser radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevost'ianova, N N; Trofimov, A V; Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on morphofunctional state of thymus is rather like as natural thymus aging. However gamma-radiation model of thymus aging widely used to investigate geroprotectors has many shortcomings and limitations. Gamma-radiation can induce irreversible changes in thymus very often. These changes are more intensive in comparison with changes, which can be observed at natural thymus aging. Low intensive laser radiation can not destroy structure of thymus and its effects are rather like as natural thymus aging in comparison with gamma-radiation effects. There are many parameters of low intensive laser radiation, which can be changed to improve morphofunctional thymus characteristics in aging model. Using low intensive laser radiation in thymus aging model can be very perspective for investigations of aging immune system.

  4. Studies on the termination of immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Immunological tolerance in the mouse thymus cell population induced by the intravenous injection of deaggregated bovine gamma globulin was terminated by whole body irradiation. After irradiation, the weight of the thymus recovered biphasically, and the termination of tolerance occurred as early as in the first phase. Both Thy-1 antigen expression and helper activity of the thymus cell population in irradiated mice recovered in parallel with the recovery of the thymus weight. Sensitivity of the regenerating thymus cells to the tolerogen was not different from that of the normal thymus cells. The first phase of thymus regeneration may be caused by the proliferation and differentiation of relatively radioresistant and tolerogen insensitive precursors residing in the thymus. Tolerogen and/or immunogen reactive thymus cells may originate from the precursor. (author)

  5. The entry of the prothymocyte into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, A.H.; Visser, J.W.M.; Zoetelief, J.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1988-01-01

    The time of entry of prothymocytes into the thymus after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was determined by exposing the thymus only or the whole body with the thymus shielded to a second irradiation after different intervals. The repopulation of the thymus by donor type cells was determined by a thymus repopulation assay using donor specific markers. Reirradiation of the thymus kills the prothymocytes that have entered the thymus during the interval. It was found that reirradiation of the thymus from 48 hours after BMT onwards increasingly delayed thymus regeneration. This shows that donor prothymocytes do not enter the thymus until about 2 days after BMT and that they continue to do so during at least 3 subsequent days. In the second reirradiation protocol thymus regeneration occurred earlier in the shielded thymus than in thymuses of whole body irradiated mice. Earlier thymus regeneration was not seen in mice that were reirradiated at 24 hours after BMT, but occurred only when irradiation took place at 48 hours and later. These data are consistent with those obtained in the first protocol. The results are in contradiction with results of direct homing experiments, which showed entrance of donor cells within 3 hours after BMT. A functional assay demonstrated that the early appearing cells cannot be prothymocytes. In retransplantation experiments it was shown that the bone marrow may indeed be the initial homing site of prothymocytes. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  6. Effects of proteolysis on the adenosinetriphosphatase activities of thymus myosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, N.D.; Wagner, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Limited proteolysis was used to identify regions on the heavy chains of calf thymus myosin which may be involved in ATP and actin binding. Assignments of the various proteolytic fragments to different parts of the myosin heavy chain were based on solubility, gel filtration, electron microscopy, and binding of 32 P-labeled regulatory light chains. Chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved within the head of thymus myosin to give a 70,000-dalton N-terminal fragment and a 140,000-dalton C-terminal fragment. These two fragments did not dissociate under nondenaturing conditions. Cleavage within the myosin tail to give heavy meromyosin occurred more slowly. Cleavage at the site 70,000 daltons from the N-terminus of the heavy chain caused about a 30-fold decrease in the actin concentration required to achieve half-maximal stimulation of the magnesium-adenosinetriphosphatase (Mg-ATPase) activity of unphosphorylated thymus myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of this digested myosin was only slightly affected by light chain phosphorylation. Actin inhibited the cleavage at this site by chymotrypsin. In the presence of ATP, chymotrypsin rapidly cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain at an additional site about 4000 daltons from the N-terminus. Cleavage at this site caused a 2-fold increase in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-ATPase activity and 3-fold decreases in the Ca 2+ - and Mg-ATPase activities of thymus myosin. Thus, cleavage at the N-terminus of thymus myosin was affected by ATP, and this cleavage altered ATPase activity. Papain cleaved the thymus myosin heavy chain about 94,000 daltons from the N-terminus to give subfragment 1. Although this subfragment 1 contained intact light chains, its actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by light chain phosphorylation

  7. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  8. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  9. Extra-adrenal myelolipoma presenting in the spleen: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Aguilera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myelolipoma is a rare neoplasm composed of mature fat and bone marrow occurring most frequently in the adrenal gland with rare occurrences in extra adrenal locations including lung, liver, retroperitoneum, mediastinum and testes. Splenic myelolipomas are seen most commonly in non-human species including cat and dog. Only rare cases of splenic myelolipoma in humans have been reported previously. We present two cases of myelolipoma in the spleen. The first is a 62 year old female presenting with abdominal pain and a splenic mass. The second is a 44 year old male presenting with hematuria and a mass in the spleen. Both cases showed trilineage bone marrow elements with mature fat. These cases demonstrate that myelolipoma do rarely occur in human spleen and we highlight the distinction from extramedullary hematopoiesis, mature extramedullary myeloid tumor (myeloid sarcoma, lipoma and well differentiated liposarcoma.

  10. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  11. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. 125 I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal

  12. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  13. Blunt trauma to the spleen: ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doody, O. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Lyburn, D. [Department of Radiology, Cheltenham General Hospital (United Kingdom); Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Govender, P. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Monk, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital (Canada); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: william.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2005-09-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in adults who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Splenic trauma accounts for approximately 25% to 30% of all intra-abdominal injuries. The management of splenic injury has undergone rapid change over the last decade, with increasing emphasis on splenic salvage and non-operative management. Identifying the presence and degree of splenic injury is critical in triaging the management of patients. Imaging is integral in the identification of splenic injuries, both at the time of injury and during follow-up. Although CT remains the gold standard in blunt abdominal trauma, US continues to play an important role in assessing the traumatized spleen. This pictorial review illustrates the various ultrasonographic appearances of the traumatized spleen. Correlation with other imaging is presented and complications that occur during follow-up are described.

  14. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  15. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells: correlation in rat thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Cavallotti, Carlo; Cavallotti, Daniela

    2002-10-21

    The interactions between adrenergic nerve fibres and mast cells (MCs) were studied in the thymus of adult and old rats by morphological methods and by quantitative analysis of images (QAIs). The whole thymus was drawn in adult (12 months old) rats: normal, sympathectomized or electrostimulated. Thymuses from the above-mentioned animals were weighed, measured and dissected. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange for detection of microanatomical details and with Bodian's method for identification of the whole nerve fibres. Thymic MCs were stained with Astrablau. Histofluorescence microscopy was used for staining of adrenergic nerve fibres. Finally, all morphological results were submitted to the QAIs and statistical analysis of data. Our results suggest that after surgical sympathectomy, the greater part of adrenergic nerve fibres disappear while related MCs appear to show less evident fluorescence and few granules. On the contrary, electrostimulation of the cervical superior ganglion induced an increase in the fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibres and of related MCs.

  17. Liver enlargement demonstrated by scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiger, L.H.; Gordon, M.H.; Ehrlich, G.E.; Shapiro, B.

    1976-03-01

    Scintigraphic scanning employing technetium-99m sulfur colloid was used to assess the size of the liver and spleen in 32 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The data were correlated with clinical and laboratory assessment. Seven patients had enlarged livers, three enlarged spleens. An expected correlation of liver enlargement with Sjogren's syndrome did not materialize. Splenic enlargement and liver enlargement were discordant. Liver enlargement correlation best with elevations of rheumatoid factor as measured by latex fixation. As liver enlargement is not an appreciated feature of rheumatoid arthritis, these findings suggest that hepatomegaly need not necessarily imply adverse treatment results or the development of lymphoproliferative disorders.

  18. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  19. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial...... in Guinea-Bissau. RESULTS: Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or were vaccinated...... thymus size remained a strong and independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.18 to 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Small thymus size at age 6 months is a strong risk factor for mortality. To prevent unnecessary deaths, it is important to identify preventable factors...

  20. PRIMARY GIANT HYDATID DISEASE OF THE SPLEEN: A RARE CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common organ involved in hydatid disease is the liver, followed by the lungs. Hydatid disease of spleen is a rare clinical condition, as even in the endemic region the frequency is reported to be 0.5 – 4% of abdominal hydatid diseases. Most commonly splenic involvement is secondary i.e., along with other organs. Primary hydatid diseases in s pleen is rare, here we are reporting a rare case of primary splenic hydatid disease

  1. Evaluation of protective and treatment of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil on Toxocara vitulorum infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; El-Kabany, H.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara vitulorum (T.vitulorum) is a nematode parasite of the small intestine of cattle and water buffalo, particularly buffalo calves between one and three months of age, causing high morbidity and mortality. Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) oil has used in the Middle East as a traditional medicine for several complaints. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical, parasitological, histopathological and hematological changes in Toxocara vitulorum-infected rat after treatment with Thymus vulgaris oil. In the present study, 50 rats divided into 4 groups. The first group: normal control, the second group :animals given with thyme oil, the third group: rats infected with 1500 T.vitulorum eggs/rat, the fourth group: rats treated with (42.5 mg/kg body weight ) thyme oil for 7 consecutive days pre-infection with T.vitulorum eggs, the fifth group: infected with T.vitulorum and treated with thyme orally for 7 days starting 1hour from infection. Rats were scarified at 7th and 14th days after last treatment. Blood were collected for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver, kidney and heart were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Larvae of Toxocara were counted in a part of the studied organs tissues. In the present study, Toxocara infection resulted in decrease in RBCs count and Hb %, lymphocyte %, and MCHC% while a remarkable increase was observed in WBCs count and monocytes % and granulocytes %. Also, there was increase in lipid peroxidation concentration as malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in organs tissue. Serum biochemical parameters showed a significant increase in the activities, Asparta amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, albumin and globulin of untreated infected rats in untreated infected rats compared to normal control. Administration of thyme pre , or after infection ameliorate the observed changes occurred by

  2. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garly, May-Lill; Trautner, Sisse Lecanda; Marx, Charlotte; Danebod, Kamilla; Nielsen, Jens; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, Cesário Lourenco; Balé, Carlito; Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida Maria

    2008-11-01

    To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in Guinea-Bissau. Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or were vaccinated with BCG in the preceding 4 weeks before inclusion into the study had larger thymuses. Children who had malaria or had been treated with chloroquine or Quinimax in the previous week before inclusion had smaller thymuses. Controlled for background factors associated with thymus size and mortality, small thymus size remained a strong and independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.18 to 0.52). Small thymus size at age 6 months is a strong risk factor for mortality. To prevent unnecessary deaths, it is important to identify preventable factors predisposing to small thymus size.

  3. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  4. Effect of Euphorbia hirta and Thymus vulgaris powders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ban placed on the long term use of commercial antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels for diseases control and growth promotion in livestock production necessitated a worldwide search for available, cost effective and efficacious alternatives. Accordingly, the effects of Euphorbia hirta (EH) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) ...

  5. The size of the thymus: an important immunological diagnostic tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    The report on the influence of seasonal factors on thymic size in early life describes a pattern of ultrasonographically measured thymic growth in Gambian infants including the finding of a smaller thymus in the hungry season. These factors raise a number of important questions: Is the size...

  6. Structural changes in the regenerating rat thymus after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Tetsuo; Wang, Yu-Hsueh; Hashimoto, Noriko; Tokuda, Nobuko; Sawada, Tomoo [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    The structural changes of the rat thymus after irradiation were examined. Thymocytes regenerate rapidly after irradiation and the mechanism responsible for this rapid regeneration was examined analyzing vascular and immunohistochemical changes in the thymus. Following results were obtained: Vascular fine mesh works in the cortex were destroyed on day 3 after 6 Gy irradiation, while on day 5 these changes appeared to be restored to almost normal. Massive macrophage accumulations were observed in the cortex on day 3-5 after irradiation. This may be due to clean up the damaged thymocytes, although other possibility, as production of cytokines which may contribute to the rapid proliferation must be intensively examined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti MHC class II molecule showed relatively strong staining in the medulla compared to the cortex in the normal thymus, while this finding was reversed and cortex stained heavily compared to the medulla on day 5-7 after irradiation suggesting the importance of the cortical MHC class II positive thymic epithelial cells in regeneration of thymocytes. Anti FTS antibody stained relatively strongly in the irradiated and recovering thymus compared to the normal. These results may partly explain the abrupt proliferation of thymocytes after irradiation and further studies on cytokine message changes and thymic epithelial characterization responsible to produce the cytokines for the effective thymocyte proliteration are on the way of analysis. (author)

  7. Effects of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium on colour, nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Mentha pulegium (mentha) powders on meat colour, nutrient composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) where broiler chickens were under heat stress. Two hundred one-day-old male chicks were used in a completely randomized design with ...

  8. Dark reticular cells in the thymus of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaerplid, B [Foersvarets Forskningsanstalt, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1974-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of dark reticular cells in the thymus of normal mice, of irradiated mice, and of mice with thymic lymphoma are described. It is concluded that dark cells are epithelial reticular cells and the hypothesis is suggested that dark and light epithelial reticular cells may be different modes of expression of the same cell type. (auth)

  9. Effect of a velogenic newcastle disease virus on body and organ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were weighed before being sacrificed and their internal organs (liver, spleen, thymus, heart, bursa of Fabricius, brain and adrenal glands) were removed and weighed. Sections of these organs were taken and stored in Bouin's solution for 24 h and lat er sent for histology. The liver, spleen, thymus, heart and adrenal ...

  10. Updates in MRI characterization of the thymus in myasthenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, G A; Preda, E M; Scheau, C; Vilciu, C; Lupescu, I G

    2012-06-12

    To evaluate the imaging appearance of the thymus in the myasthenic patients by using chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging, and, to correlate the chemical shift ratio (CSR) with pathologic findings after surgical excision. In the past year, a total of 11 myasthenic patients (4 males, 7 females; age range of 26-65 years), have been investigated by MRI centered at the thymic lodge. Our protocol included a Dual-Echo technique, T1-weighted In-phase/Opposed-phase MR images in all patients. A chemical shift ratio (CSR) was calculated by comparing the signal intensity of the thymus gland with that of the chest wall muscle for quantitative analysis. For this purpose, we have used standard region-of-interest electronic cursors at a slice level of the maximum axial surface of the thymus. We have identified two patients groups: a thymic hyperplasia group and a thymic tumoral group. With the decrease in the signal intensity of the thymus gland at chemical shift, the MR imaging was evident only in the hyperplasia group. The mean CSR in the hyperplasia group was considerably lower than that in the tumor group, 0,4964 ± 0,1841, compared with 1,0398 ± 0,0244. The difference in CSR between the hyperplasia and tumor groups was statistically significant (P=0,0028). MR imaging using T1-weighted In-phase/Opposed-phase images could be a useful diagnostic tool in the preoperative assessment of the thymic lodge and may help differentiate thymic hyperplasia from tumors of the thymus gland.

  11. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a simultaneous wandering spleen along with an ectopic accessory spleen. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Rizzuto

    Full Text Available Background: Wandering spleen and accessory spleen are uncommon entity occurring during embryonic development. Wandering spleen results in an excessive mobility and migration of the spleen from its normal position in the left hypochondrium while accessory spleen is characterized by ectopic splenic masses or tissue disjointed from the main body of spleen.Due to the nonspecific and multiple symptoms the clinical diagnosis of both conditions is uncertain even with imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI. The coexistence of both diseases (wandering spleen ad accessory spleen is uncommon. Case report: A 17–year old European female with a history of minor beta thalassemia and recurrent attacks of abdominal pain. Pre- operative management consisted of routine laboratory tests, ultrasound, CT scan. An ectopic spleen along with an accessory spleen were diagnosed. After a multidisciplinary board a laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. Post-operative recovery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 6th post-operative day with the indication to continue the therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH for 30 days Conclusions: This case represents a simultaneous condition of wandering splenomegaly along with an ectopic wandering spleen. The coexistence of these two rare conditions is peculiar such as the age of the patient, as literature reports such diseases to affect children or more commonly people in the range of 20–40 years of age. Laparoscopic treatment for this particular condition is also unusual. Keywords: Ectopic spleen, Wandering spleen, Laparoscopic splenectomy

  12. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  13. Value of radiologic imaging of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glathe, S.; Neufang, K.F.R.; Haupt, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Radiologic imaging in myasthenia gravis is used for the evaluation of pathologic changes of the thymus gland. Computed tomography can demonstrate tumors of the anterior mediastinum in nearly 90% and is therefore superior to conventional radiography.Because of the variety of size and shape of the normal thymus gland, differentiation between normal thymus, follicular hyperplasia and thymoma is rarely possible especially in younger patients. In elderly patients with myasthenia gravis and involution of the thymus gland tumors of the thymus are reliably detected by computed tomography, whereas the ability of computed tomography to predict the histological diagnosis is poor even with intravenous administration of contrast media. (orig.) [de

  14. Migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, Andree; Lenaerts, Patrick; Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated mice, thymus repopulation is due first to the proliferation of surviving thymocytes followed by the multiplication of bone marrow derived prothymocytes. The migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus after a single sublethal whole-body X irradiation was studied by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a cell marker. Irradiation increases the permissiveness of the thymus to the immigration of bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the post-Rx regenerating bone marrow cells exhibit migration capacities greater than the normal ones. The radiation induced changes in the bone marrow thymus interaction might play an important role in thymus regeneration after sublethal irradiation [fr

  15. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  16. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  17. Use of the dog spleen for studying effects of irradiation and chemotherapeutic agents, with suggested uses of other organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, L.D.; De Rose, G.; Cooke, D.

    1976-01-01

    The irradiation of the exteriorized spleen of the dog, with the animal lead-shielded, produced constant changes in the white blood cells. The time of recovery from the irradiation effect was determined. The normal canine spleen could handle live pneumococci injected into the splenic artery, as proven by sterile cultures of splenic vein samples. The size of the bolus used was determined by repeated trials and proved to be one billion pneumococci per pound of body weight. The capacity of the irradiated spleen to handle this number of pneumococci was impaired. It was found that whole body irradiation, nitrogen mustard, thio-tepa, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vinblastine, and azothioprine all impaired this capacity of the spleen. The dose of the chemotherapeutic agent was the same in milligrams per kilogram as that used in the cancer clinic. A method for determining the recovery time following the use of one or more agents was developed with the repeated use of the spleen model. By extending the methods used with the spleen it was found that similar use could be made, usually without surgery, of the liver, gut, and lungs

  18. Clinical evaluation of computed tomography in various liver diseases with diffuse pathological alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Eiichi

    1983-01-01

    Twenty seven cases of acute hepatitis 120 of chronic hepatitis 133 of liver cirrhosis 79 of fatty liver 28 of alcoholic liver injury 5 of intrahepatic cholestasis 22 of obstructive jaundice and 100 normal adults were studied. EMI CT 5005 whole body scanner was used to obtain scan of the liver and spleen, and CT number of them was measured in EMI units, so L/S ratio was calculated by dividing both EMI number. In the patients with obesity, the EMI number of the liver and/or spleen were higher than normal controls. In acute hepatitis, EMI number of the liver, spleen and L/S ratio were no significant differences compared with controls. In chronic hepatitis inactive and active type, EMI number of the liver and spleen were no significant differences between chronic hepatitis and controls, but L/S ratio was lower than that of controls. In cirrhosis of the liver, EMI number of the liver and L/S ratio were lower than that of controls, but EMI number of the spleen had no significant differences compared with controls. In patients with fatty liver, EMI number of the liver and L/S ratio were lower than any other diffuse liver diseases. In alcoholic liver injury had no significant differences from normal controls in liver EMI number, spleen EMI number and L/S ratio. In intrahepatic cholestsis, there was weak inverse corelation between liver EMI number and serum total bilirubin, and in obstructive jaundice strong inverse corelation was seen. In diffuse liver diseases, fatty infiltration, liver cell necrosis, fibrosis or jaundice may decrease the EMI number of the liver and/or L/S ratio, but except for fatty liver, it seems difficult to diagnose the diffuse liver diseases by CT scanner. (J.P.N.)

  19. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  20. Gap junction modulation by extracellular signaling molecules: the thymus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are intercellular channels which connect adjacent cells and allow direct exchange of molecules of low molecular weight between them. Such a communication has been described as fundamental in many systems due to its importance in coordination, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, it has been shown that gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC can be modulated by several extracellular soluble factors such as classical hormones, neurotransmitters, interleukins, growth factors and some paracrine substances. Herein, we discuss some aspects of the general modulation of GJIC by extracellular messenger molecules and more particularly the regulation of such communication in the thymus gland. Additionally, we discuss recent data concerning the study of different neuropeptides and hormones in the modulation of GJIC in thymic epithelial cells. We also suggest that the thymus may be viewed as a model to study the modulation of gap junction communication by different extracellular messengers involved in non-classical circuits, since this organ is under bidirectional neuroimmunoendocrine control.

  1. Effect of Interleukin 1b on rat thymus microenvironment

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    M Artico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of interleukin 1b on the thymus of control and chemically sympathectomized adult and aged rats was studied with the aim of assessing the importance of adrenergic nerve fibres (ANF in the regulation of some immunological functions.The whole thymus was removed from normal, sympathectomized (with the neurotoxin 6-OH-dopamine and treated (interleukin 1b rats. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange (for the recognition of microanatomical details of the thymic microenvironment and with Bodian’s method for staining of nerve fibres. Histofluorescence microscopy was employed for staining ANF and immunofluorescence was used for detecting NPY-like immunoreactivity. All images were submitted to quantitative morphometrical analysis and statistical analysis of data. Moreover, the amount of proteins and noradrenaline was measured on thymic homogenates. The results indicate that in normal conditions the formation of the thymic nerve plexi in the rat is complex: the majority of ANF are destroyed after chemical sympathectomy with 6-OH-dopamine and do not change after treatment with interleukin 1b; on the contrary, treatment with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the fresh weight of the thymus, the thymic microenvironment, thymic nerve fibers, ANF, NPY-like positive nerve fibres, and on the total amount of proteins and noradrenaline in rat thymic tissue homogenates.Immunostimulation with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the whole thymus, in its microenvironment and in ANF and NPY-like nerve fibres. After chemical sympathectomy, no significant immune response was evoked by interleukin 1b, since the majority of ANF was destroyed by chemical sympathectomy.

  2. Quantitative analysis of thymus lymphoid cells during murine radioleukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniver, J.; Simar, L.J.; Courtoy, R.; Betz, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation by four doses of 150 R leads to the development of lymphoma in the thymus of C57BL mice, after a long latent period (4 to 12 months) during which thymic subcapsular blast cells undergo neoplastic transformation. Electron microscope studies on this blast cell population have revealed several types that are distinguishable on the basis of nuclear ultrastructure and activity in the cell cycle. These blast cells are lymphoblasts, ring-shaped nucleolus cells, and x-cells. A stereological analysis demonstrates that the result of the irradiations is not an increase of the thymic blast cell number during the preleukemic period, as generally thought before, but important modifications in the relative proportion of the three cell types forming the blastic population. X-cells, which essentially appear in S phase, are more numerous after the third and fourth doses of radiation. They might be more ''sensitive'' to the action of the leukemogenic virus and facilitate the leukemogenic process. In contrast, in the preleukemic atrophic thymus just before the appearance of the lymphoma, x-cells are scarce, and ring-shaped nucleolus cells are more frequent than in the controls, suggesting important changes in thymus cell kinetics. The only modification detected in the blast cells at any time after irradiation concerns the surface of Golgi membranes, which decreases in x-cells and ring-shaped nucleolus cells of the atrophic thymus. Because the same change is observed later on in the lymphomatous cells, it is suggested that the change might be related to the transformation of the thymic blast cells into cancerous cells

  3. Prognosis of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Chanchan; Li, Tao; Li, Chengyan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the post-thymectomy prognosis in different conditions of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with thymus hyperplasia. Collecting medical record and carrying out the follow-up study of 123 myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who have underwent thymectomy during the period between 2003 and 2013. Dividing into different groups based on gender, age of onset, duration of disease and Myasthenia Gravis Association of America (MGFA) clinical classification to analyze different prognosis in different groups. Complete stable remission (CSR) was achieved in 71 of 123 patients (59.5%). There is no gender-related difference in achieving CSR. Patients with early onset of MG (≤40 years old) or disease duration less than 12 months had significantly higher CSR rates than those with late onset of MG (>40 years old) or disease duration more than 12 months respectively, while no difference was found in remission rate between MGFA clinical classification I and MGFA II. Myasthenia gravis patients with thymus hyperplasia who had thymectomy are proved to possess greater chance of achieving CSR. The onset age of disease and duration are the prognostic factors.

  4. Contrasting feature in the repopulation of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P and P----F1 radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Utsuyama, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration and persistence of host- and donor-derived T cells were examined in the thymus as well as the spleen of mouse radiation bone marrow chimeras of two semiallogeneic combinations (F1----P, P----F1) with different Thy-1 markers on T cells of donor and host origins. An unexpectedly large number of host-type T cells were recovered from the spleens of F1----P chimeras, amounting to as high as 45 and 25% of total T cells at 6 and 14 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), respectively. To the contrary, the residual host-type T cells in the spleens of P----F1 chimeras disappeared quickly, resulting in less than 0.1% of total T cells at 6 weeks after BMT. It was also revealed that the number of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P chimeras decreased in proportion to increase of radiation dose given to the recipients

  5. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  6. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  7. Focal changes of the spleen in one case of Gaucher disease - assessed by ultrasonography, CT, MRI and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspestrand, F.; Charania, B.; Scheel, B.; Kolmannskog, F.; Jacobsen, M.

    1989-01-01

    Focal lesions of the spleen in one case of Gaucher disease are demonstrated by ultrasonography, CT, MRI and angiography. The sonographic and angiographic features differ from the findings presented in previous reports. The Gaucher manifestations in the spleen as demonstrated by CT, do not seem to have been reported previously. An earlier report on the MR findings in the liver and spleen in this disease did not disclose any focal abnormalities. In this case, ultrasonography and MRI revealed a targetlike configuration of the focal lesions. An attempt is made to analyze the more complex patterns disclosed by MRI against the background of the manifestations by the other imaging modalities and previous reports. (orig.) [de

  8. Autoradiographic study of gamma-irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitsov, L.G.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Burneva, V.G.; Martinova, J.Sh.; Viklichka, S.

    1978-01-01

    Study on the kinetics of the cells in the mouse spleen during the primary immune response against thymusdependent antigen after sublethal irradiation was carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep erythrocytes one day after their irradiation with 700 r gamma rays. On the 5th day after the immunization, tritium labelled thymidine was injected three times at two hourly intervals. Mice were killed two hours after the third injection for preparation of routine histological samples and autoradiographs. Immunized, but not irradiated mice were utilized as controls. Extensive zones of lymphocyte destruction were observed in the spleen of the irradiated mice - accumulation of picnotic lymphocyte nuclei, surrounded by reticulo-histocyte elements. The number of the labelled cells and the intensity of labelled are lower than that of the germinal centres in control animal. There is no marked cell destruction in the periarteriolar zone nor labelled cells, whereas in the controls there is a considerable number of labelled blast cells. In the red pulp of the irradiated animals islands of erythroblasts were found, whereas in the controls - parallely to the erythroblast islands, there are islands of proliferating lymphocytes and plasmocytes. The decrease of lymphocyte number in irradiated mice is connected with their destruction and with the altered lymphocytopoiesis in the red pulp. It is assumed that the observed preservation of the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths in an expression of a higher radioresistance of the T-cells as compared to the B-cells in the white pulp. This study contributes for elucidation of the irradiation immunosuppressive effect. It points out also that the post-irradiation lymphopaenia is due not only to the cell death but also to the exclusion of part of the T-lymphocytes from the circulation and their selective deposition in the thymus-dependent zones of the peripheral lymphoid organs. (A.B.)

  9. Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation effects on regeneration and T-cell-inducing function of the thymus were studied in three sets of experiments. When TXB mice were grafted with 1-week-old thymus which had been previously irradiated at various doses, an exponential decrease was observed in the morphological regeneration of the thymus grafts and in their T-cell-inducing function at doses of 600 R and over, showing about 10% that of the control at 1500 R. When in situ thymus of adult mice was locally irradiated, the radiation effect on T-cell-inducing function was less pronounced as compared with the first experiment; i.e., about 40% of the control at 1797 R. When in situ thymus of 1-day-old newborn mice was locally irradiated, regeneration potential of 1-day-old newborn thymus was highly resistant to radiation exposure and no effect on immunological functions was observed even by local irradiation of 2000 R

  10. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PIGMENTS ON REGENERANTS FROM IN VITRO AND SPONTANEOUS FLORA OF THYMUS sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M. ROŞU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quantitative determination of pigments extract of Thymus sp. from in vitro culture and spontaneous flora. For in vitro culture were used phytohormones (indoleacetic acid-IAA, indole-3-butyric acid-IBA and benzylaminopurine-BAP in order to obtain a high yield in development of Thymus sp. plants. The source of spontaneous flora of Thymus sp. was Bacau (Magura, Romania. The biochemical investigations realised on Thymus sp. using Thin Layer Chromatography and the UV-Vis spectrophotometry showed that the production of assimilating pigments is influenced by growth and lighting conditions of plants.

  12. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  13. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  14. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

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    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (μm2, perimeter (μm, maximum and minimum diameter (μm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  15. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (µm2, perimeter (µm, maximum and minimum diameter (µm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  16. Serum ferritin in patients with cancer: determination with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.M.; Worwood, M.; Jacobs, A.

    1980-01-01

    Some malignant tissues and cell lines contain acidic isoferritins and it has been suggested that the assay of such isoferritins in serum may be of value in the diagnosis of malignancy. This paper describes a radioimmunoassay for acidic ferritin purified from HeLa cells. Examination of purified heart, kidney, liver and spleen ferritin showed that the assay was highly specific for acidic isoferritins. Ferritin concentrations have been measured with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin in extracts of normal and tumour tissue. Although the tumours contained more HeLa type ferritin than the corresponding normal tissue the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was low. HeLa-type ferritin concentrations have been compared with values obtained with anti-spleen ferritin in over 1000 sera from normal subjects and patients with cancer and leukaemia. HeLa-type ferritin was not detected (<2 μg/l) in most normal sera. Concentrations of up to 53 μg/l were found in sera from patients with malignant disease but the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was always very low. There appears to be little application for antibodies to HeLa cell or heart ferritin in the diagnosis or monitoring of cancer. (Auth.)

  17. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus. Normal and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C.; Dinkel, E.; Wimmer, B.; Grosser, G.; Schildge, J.

    1987-09-01

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus.

  18. Effects of mesenchymal stem cells on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongyan; Qi Yali; Gong Shouliang; Song Xiangfu; Liu Liping; Chen Yubing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the migration,colonization and repairing effects of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on thymus tissue injury induced by ionizing radiation in mice. Methods: MSCs of C57BL/6 mice were isolated, purified and cultivated in vitro. Their migration and colorization were observed with laser confocal microscopy 1, 5 and 10 d after DAPI labeled. MSCs were injected into the thymus tissue of mice through tail vein. The model of thymus tissue injury induced by whole-body X-irradiation was established. The mice were divided into four groups: normal, irradiation, irradiation+saline, and irradiation+MSCs groups. The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the repairing effect of MSCs on thymus tissue injury was observed by histological method 3 months later. Results: The occurrence of MSCs in the thymus was observed 1 d after MSCs injection, the diffusion of MSCs in the thymus appeared 5 d later, and widely dispersed 10 d later. The apoptotic rate of thymocytes in irradiation group was higher than that in normal (P<0.05) and was lower than that in MSCs group (P<0.05). The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were clear in mice in normal group, there were a large number of lymphocytes in the cortex and small number of lymphocytes in the medulla. The structures of cortex and medulla of thymus were unclear in mice in both irradiation, irradiation and saline groups. The lymphocytes in thymus showed extensive coagulation necrosis. There were remnants or newborn lymphoid tissue in the cortex and medulla in mice in irradiation+MSCs groups. Conclusion: MSCs can be rapidly enriched in thymus tissue and promote regeneration and repair of damaged thymus. (authors)

  19. Effect Of Small Doses On THE Thymus In Pediatric Chest X - Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Dj.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Anzic, S. A.; Zagar, I.

    2015-01-01

    The thymus, pyramid-shaped lymphoid organ is immediately beneath the breastbone at the level of the heart, therefore chest X-ray covers the position of thymus. The thymus is divided into two lobes, lying on either side of the midline of the body. Unlike most other lymphoid structures, the thymus grows rapidly and attains its greatest size relative to the rest of the body during fetal life and the first years after birth. The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system. It has big responsibility helping the body protect itself against autoimmunity diseases. It is well known from literature data that thymus size reduced at radiotherapy irradiation. After many years of experience in X-ray chest diagnostics with children a fairly regular thymus size reduction after exposure to diagnostic low doses was noticed. Therefore it was analysed at what percentage of children patients their control radiograms would exhibit a thymus shade decrease compared to the primary image taken at the illness out-set. In the Children Hospital Srebrnjak in one year 1972 children in the age group 0 - 5 years underwent X-ray exam. In our earlier study at PA and profile projections of lung examinations of this age group 0.15 mSv and 0.11 mSv average doses were measured on the back and on the chest, respectively. From this group the radiograms of those 119 children were analysed who were exposed, according to medical indication, to control examinations. 58 of the investigated patients showed enlarged thymus at the first exam. It could be seen from the control radiogram that 52 children of these 58 patients had significant or discrete decrease in size of thymus. Taking into account that thymus has very important role in maturity of T-lymphocytes and development of immunology tolerance these empiric statements are important for radiation protection of children in X-ray diagnostic of chest. (author).

  20. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  1. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  2. Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood. Report of two cases with unusual involvement of the gastric antrum and spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orduna, M.; Gonzales de Orbe, G.; Gordillo, M.I.; Serrano, C.; Collado, J.M.; Miralles, M.; Fernandez-Epifanio, J.L.

    1989-02-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) of childhood is a rare entity. The disease is characterized by recurrent infections with granuloma and abscess formation caused by an inherited defective neutrophil leukocyte function. The most common sites of involvements are the lungs, lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen and bones. Rarely are other organs affected. Two children with CGD are presented. The children were cousins, the older with bone, lung and splenic involvement. The younger had circumferential thickening of the gastric antrum. (orig./GDG).

  3. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  4. Tolerance induction to a thymus-dependent antigen in vitro: treatment of nonadherent cells with tolerogen biologically filtered in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, J.W.; Kong, Y.M.

    1974-01-01

    Highly tolerogenic bovine gamma globulin (BGG), a thymus-dependent antigen, was prepared by biologic filtration in vitro. It readily induced tolerance in vivo in BALB/c mice and also rendered their nonadherent lymph node cells tolerant after in vitro incubation. Biologic filtration in vitro was carried out by incubating 2.5 x 10 7 lymph node cells with 10 mg of nontolerogenic BGG in 10 ml of Eagle's medium containing 2 percent normal mouse serum at 37 0 C for 6 hr. The BGG-containing medium was clarified by centrifugation and was used without further dilution. For tolerance induction in vitro, lymph node cells were separated into adherent and nonadherent populations on Falcon plastic. These cells were incubated for 0 to 18 hr at 37 0 C with biologically filtered BGG (bBGG). After incubation, the cells were washed three times and (2 to 2.5) x 10 7 nonadherent or 4 x 10 6 adherent cells were injected iv with their untreated counterpart into lethally irradiated mice which had received 10 6 bone marrow cells. The recipients were then challenged with 300 μg of aggregated BGG, and tolerance was assayed by the elimination of labeled BGG, rosette formation, and passive hemagglutination. Spleen cells were similarly treated for comparison. Our findings show that tolerance was not induced in vitro in adherent lymph node cells. However, in the nonadherent populations, those from the lymph node but not the spleen were rendered tolerant. The acquisition of tolerance in vitro was gradual. It was dependent upon the length of exposure to bBGG and required at least 6 hr

  5. Study of ultrasonic imagine of spleen in patients with leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhou Chunyan; Jiang Ju; Luo Liying; Huang Yanhong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate spleen ultrasonic imagine in patients with leukemia and to provide basis information for preventing and treat disease,the spleens imaging of 158 patients with leukemia were detected by B mode ultrasonicgraphy and the data of clinical medical examination were analyzed.The results showed that the spleens' ultrasonic imagine of patients with leukemia were not related to the degree of anemia.The ultrasonic imagines of spleen in patients with chronic leukemia were different to the other kinds of leukemia.The ultrasonic imagine of spleens in leukemia patients are related to types and development of leukemia.The B-ultrasound screening should be used to help clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with leukemia. (authors)

  6. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  7. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by

  8. Palliative Spleen Irradiation: Can we Standardize its Technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAZMY, M.S.; RADWAN, A.; MOKHTAR, M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the pattern of practice of palliative splenic irradiation (PSI) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University. Patients and Methods: The medical records of patients referred for PSI during the time period from 1990 to 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. We compared the three most common planning techniques (two parallel opposing, single direct field, anterior and lateral fields). Results: Eighteen patients who received PSI were identified. Thirteen patients were diagnosed as CML and 5 as CLL. The mean age of the patients was 44 (±16) years and the majority were men (60%). Spleen enlargement was documented in all cases. The single direct anterior field was the most commonly used technique. The dose per fraction ranged from 25 c Gy to 100 c Gy. The total dose ranged from 125 c Gy to 1200 c Gy and the median was 200 c Gy (mean 327 c Gy). There was no significant difference between CML and CLL patients regarding the dose level. Three out of 5 CLL patients and only one out of 13 CML patients received re-irradiation. All patients showed subjective improvement regarding pain and swelling. There was a significant increase in the hemoglobin level and a significant decrease in the WBC count. The single direct field shows variations in the dose from 56 to 102%; however, it is the simplest and the best regarding the dose to the surrounding normal tissues especially the kidney and the liver. Conclusion: PSI has a significant palliative benefit. Although the most widely accepted technique is the 2 parallel opposing anterior-posterior fields, single anterior field is also considered as a suitable option. Higher doses are needed for CLL patients compared to CML patients

  9. T cell precursor migration towards beta 2-microglobulin is involved in thymus colonization of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunon, D; Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) attracts hemopoietic precursors from chicken bone marrow cells in vitro. The cell population responding to beta 2m increases during the second period of thymus colonization, which takes place at days 12-14 of incubation. The precursors from 13.5 day old embryos were...... isolated after migration towards beta 2m in vitro and shown to be able to colonize a 13 day old thymus in ovo, where they subsequently acquire thymocyte markers. In contrast these beta 2m responsive precursors did not colonize embryonic bursa, i.e. differentiate into B lymphocytes. During chicken...... embryogenesis, peaks of beta 2m transcripts and of free beta 2m synthesis can only be detected in the thymus. The peak of free beta 2m synthesis in the thymus and the increase of beta 2m responding bone marrow cells both occur concomitantly with the second wave of thymus colonization in chicken embryo, facts...

  10. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, V.N.; Bel' chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involution, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia.

  11. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.N.; Bel'chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E.

    1983-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

  12. Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in rats irradiated with sup 60 Co-. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongjian, Geng; Zijun, Mao; Zhiwei, Yin [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1990-03-01

    Adhesion of thymus lymphocytes to aortic endothelial cells in Wistar rats irradiated with {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays was preliminarily investigated with a stereological method. The results of experiments suggest that the number of lymphocytes of thymus which adhered to aortic endothelial cells significantly (p < 0.01) decreased after irradiation at doses of 2 and 8 Gy. However, when both thymus and aorta were irradiated, there were more lymphocytes adhering to endothelial cells than that when only thymus was irradiated.

  13. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y K; Ahn, S B [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  14. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Y. K.; Ahn, S. B.

    1969-01-01

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  15. Thymus development and infant and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J C; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Persson, Lars Å; Arifeen, Shams E; Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Data from West Africa indicate that a small thymus at birth and at 6 months of age is a strong and independent risk factor for infection-related mortality up to 24 and 36 months of age, respectively. We investigated the association between thymus size (thymic index, TI) in infancy and subsequent infant and child survival in a contemporary South Asian population. The study focused on the follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh (ISRCTN16581394), with TI measured longitudinally in infancy (at birth and weeks 8, 24 and 52 of age) and accurate recording of mortality up to 5 years of age. A total of 3267 infants were born into the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study; data on TI were available for 1168 infants at birth, increasing to 2094 infants by 52 weeks of age. TI in relation to body size was largest at birth, decreasing through infancy. For infants with at least one measure of TI available, there were a total of 99 deaths up to the age of 5 years. No association was observed between TI and subsequent mortality when TI was measured at birth. However, an association with mortality was observed with TI at 8 weeks of age [odds ratio (OR) for change in mortality risk associated with 1 standard deviation change in TI: all deaths: OR = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.038; and infection-related deaths only: OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14, 0.74; P = 0.008]. For TI when measured at 24 and 52 weeks of age, the numbers of infection-related deaths were too few (3 and 1, respectively) for any meaningful association to be observed. These results confirm that thymus size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in a lower mortality setting than West Africa. The absence of an effect at birth and its appearance at 8 weeks of age suggests early postnatal influences such as breast milk trophic factors.

  16. Basic study on the role of thymus in hemopoietic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J W; Basford, N L; Shinpock, S G

    1977-01-01

    Marrow, after in vitro treatment with either ..cap alpha.. Thy 1.2 or nonimmune serum and complement, was transplanted to separate groups of lethally irradiated isogenic mice. Mice of several different genotypes were used in 12 studies. Macroscopic spleen colony numbers were similar in the two groups, but differences were found when spleens were examined microscopically. The most striking and consistent finding was a decrease in granulopoietic colonies in recipients of ..cap alpha.. Thy 1.2 treated marrow. There were fewer pronounced decreases in erythropoietic and in total colonies (all hemopoietic kinds). E/G ratios were regularly increased. Anemia did not develop in chimeras given either kind of treated marrow over a period of four months.

  17. Basic study on the role of thymus in hemopoietic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.W.; Basford, N.L.; Shinpock, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    Marrow, after in vitro treatment with either α Thy 1.2 or nonimmune serum and complement, was transplanted to separate groups of lethally irradiated isogenic mice. Mice of several different genotypes were used in 12 studies. Macroscopic spleen colony numbers were similar in the two groups, but differences were found when spleens were examined microscopically. The most striking and consistent finding was a decrease in granulopoietic colonies in recipients of α Thy 1.2 treated marrow. There were fewer pronounced decreases in erythropoietic and in total colonies (all hemopoietic kinds). E/G ratios were regularly increased. Anemia did not develop in chimeras given either kind of treated marrow over a period of four months

  18. Liver scintigraphic features associated with alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Beard, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships between scintigraphic features and clinical alcoholism were studied by review of 2406 liver scintiphotos. Two distinct patterns were significantly associated with alcoholism: heterogeneous distribution of radiocolloid in the liver, and jointly increased uptake of tracer by the spleen and vertebral bone marrow. A total of 13 overall patterns were found to distinguish, with considerable reliability, alcoholics from all other patients. This finding reflects the frequency with which alcohol abuse is associated with hepatic dysfunction in hospital patients. These observations indicate an important role for the nuclear medicine physician in detection of alcoholism among patients referred for liver-spleen imaging, and they form a basis for comparison with the diagnostic efficacy of other methods of evaluating diffuse liver diseases

  19. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  20. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  1. [Lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. Report of a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, C; Cerasoli, V; Mancini, B; Mulieri, G; Cancellario D'Alena, F; Montemurro, L; Verna, F

    2000-01-01

    Lymphangiomatosis confined to the spleen is a very are condition. The authors in this article describes one new case and briefly reviews the literature. In this case, after the exclusion of an hydatidosis of the spleen, a total splenectomy was performed. The histologic findings confirmed the lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. The authors emphasize the surgical strategy in splenic lymphangiomyomatosis, infact the total splenectomy is mandatory, because the splenic parenchyma is nearly completely substitute by the cysts. For this reason is preferably, before surgery, to perform the antibateric profilaxis against the OPSI.

  2. Evaluation of the liver in normal subjects and cases of hepatic diseases by ultra-low field (0.02 T) magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie

    1988-01-01

    A total of 123 cases (45 controls, 14 liver cirrhoses, 6 fatty livers, 22 cavernous hemangiomas, 14 hepatomas, 9 metastases, 10 cysts, and 3 hemorrhagic cysts) were studied by ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging. On T1-weighted images, the means of the intesity ratio in controls were 0.703±0.074 (liver to spleen), 0.658±0.073 (liver to kidney) and 0.932±0.058 (spleen to kidney). On T2-weighted images, the means of the intensity ratios in controls were 0.449±0.083 (liver to spleen), 0.363±0.069 (liver to kidney) and 0.822±0.115 (spleen to kidney). In liver cirrhosis, on T2-weighted images, the intensity ratio of liver to kidney and spleen to kidney. In liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in controls. In fatty liver, the intensity ratio of liver to spleen on T1-weighted image, and those of liver to spleen and liver to kidney on T2-weighted image were higher than those in controls. On T2-weighted images, the intensity ratio of tumor to liver in hepatic cavernous hemangioma were significantly higher than those in hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumor. Ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging with the intensity ratio of tumor to liver was valuable in distinguishing between hepatic cavernous hemangioma and hepatic malignancies and it was also possible to distinguish hemorrhagic liver cyst from non-hemorrhagic liver cyst. (author)

  3. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus and Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karenth LÓPEZ-MENESES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential oils (EO of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L., thymus (Thymus capitatus L. pirul (Schinus molle L. were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 µL L–1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4% and fumonisin (31% production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.

  4. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Kaseda, Syun; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Kuniaki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Ohkubo, Koichi; Hagiwara, Hiroshi

    1989-08-01

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author).

  5. The usefulness of MRI for detection of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokezu, Youichi; Kaseda, Syun; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Kuniaki; Ohkubo, Koichi; Hagiwara, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    Seven patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were examined to find thymus or thymoma employing chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), pneumomediastinography (PMG), computed tomography after pneumomediastinography (PMG-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray CT examination could reveal thymus only in half out of 6 cases scanned. On the other hand, MRI confirmed thymus or thymoma in 6 out of 7 patients. PMG and PMG-CT confirmed thymus or thymoma clearly in all of the 4 cases studied. PMG and PMG-CT examinations revealed thymus or thymoma more clearly than MRI. MRI is, however, an examination causing no pain to the patients and also more superior to X-ray CT in distinguishing between a thymus and mediastinal fat or vascular structure. In addition, MRI could reveal even capsules in thymoma which were never revealed by X-ray CT. We concluded that MRI could be an alternative method to CT and PMG in detection of thymus or thymoma in MG. (author)

  6. The Spleen Revisited: An Overview on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Palas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being well visualized by different cross-sectional imaging techniques, the spleen is many times overlooked during the abdominal examination. The major reason is the low frequency of splenic abnormalities, the majority consisting of incidental findings. There has been a steady increase in the number of performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies; therefore, it is important to be familiar to the major MRI characteristics of disease processes involving the spleen, in order to interpret the findings correctly, reaching whenever possible the appropriate diagnosis. The spleen may be involved in several pathologic conditions like congenital diseases, trauma, inflammation, vascular disorders and hematologic disorders, benign and malignant tumors, and other disease processes that focally or diffusely affect the spleen. This paper presents a description and representative MRI images for many of these disorders.

  7. Sonographic determination of spleen to left kidney ratio among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light ... Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between .... obtained in the coronal plane passing through the renal.

  8. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  9. Effect of low dose radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Liu Jiamei; Chen Aijun; Liu Shuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with different doses of X-ray on apoptosis in mouse spleen. Methods: Time course changes and dose-effect relationship of apoptosis in mouse spleen induced by WBI were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) qualitatively and TUNEL method semi-quantitatively. Results: Many typical apoptotic lymphocytes were found by TEM in mouse spleen after WBI with 2 Gy. No marked alterations of ultrastructure were found following WBI with 0.075 Gy. It was observed by TUNEL that the apoptosis of splenocytes increased after high dose radiation and decreased following low dose radiation (LDR). The dose-effect relationship of radiation-induced apoptosis showed a J-shaped curve. Conclusion: The effect of different doses of ionizing radiation on apoptosis in mouse spleen was distinct. And the decrease of apoptosis after LDR is considered a manifestation of radiation hormesis

  10. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  11. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  12. Clinical investigation of fatty liver by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumoto; Takayama, Tetsuo; Sano, Hiroshi; Katada, Naoyuki; Takeichi, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    CT findings of 56 cases of diffuse fatty infiltration comfirmed by liver biopsy were investigated and compared with those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. We found that the diagnosis of severe fatty infiltration (fatty liver) can be specifically possible when the ratios of CT values of liver to those of spleen are less than 0.85 and it is reasonable criterion for diagnosis of fatty liver by CT. This criterion was satisfied by 197 studies (2.9%), 169 cases with fatty liver (diffuse: 141 cases, focal: 28 cases) of 6800 CT studies of liver. Obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse were main causative factors in both diffuse and focal fatty liver. The percentage of cases showing no abnormal results in blood chemistry tests was great compared with the previous report based on liver biopsy. The changes of CT values of liver faithfully reflected the improvement of each causal factor and reciprocal changes were observed between diffuse and focal fatty liver in repeated CT examination. So, CT is useful in estimating the effect of treatment as well as in diagnosis of fatty liver. Focal fatty liver is temporary manifestation during the proscess of development or improvement of fatty liver. (author)

  13. Modification of radioresponse of chick spleen with vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K.; Malhotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    Seven days old white leghorn male chicks were exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body gamma radiations with and without vitamin E and studied for histopathological changes in the spleen for a period of twenty eight days postirradiation. The results reveal that the radiation-induced depletion of lymphocytic population in the lymphoid region and the damage to the tissue architecture is comparatively less and reparation of the spleen faster in the vitamin E treated irradiated chicks. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs

  14. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  15. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, Gratien; Jeppesen, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls...... of thymus is compatible with increased thymic activity and emission of T lymphocytes....

  16. Analysis of fatty liver by CT values in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Tomizawa, Shuichi; Ikarashi, Kozo; Tohyama, Jun; Ozawa, Kanzi; Uchiyama, Makoto.

    1996-01-01

    Liver attenuation values were measured by CT in 97 (183 times) obese children with ages 3 to 18 years and a diagnosis of fatty liver was made in 42 subjects. Liver/spleen ration from CT measurements showed a significant negative correlation with the percentage of standard body weight, and with the systolic pressure. In children with fatty liver, systolic pressure and serum GOT, GPT, ChE, TC, TG, ApoB and insulin were significantly higher than those in children without fatty liver. After a low-calorie dietary regimen and exercise therapy, the liver/spleen ratio and GPT improved in all children. The diagnosis of fatty infiltration (fatty liver) was made with a liver/spleen ratio of less than 1.0 as determined by the number of measurements taken, a reasonable criterion for the diagnosis of fatty liver by CT in children. There were some children with elevated GPT who showed normal CT findings. This may be caused by overnutrition which was associated with fatty infiltration, since GPT decreased in all these children after treatment. The present study suggests that CT is a useful procedure in diagnosing fatty liver, and in monitoring and determining efficacy of treatment in obese children. (author)

  17. Torsion of wandering spleen in patient with horseshoe kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molski, St.; Zurada, A.; Meder, G.; Lasek, W.

    2005-01-01

    Wandering spleen is rare pathology, mostly occurring in young women. Disease may be congenital or acquired. Absence or laxity of ligaments leads to spleen pathologic mobility and may cause torsion of its pedicle, resulting in ischemia or infarct even haemorrhagic shock and patients death. We report a case of young woman previously diagnosed (and treated nonoperative) with wandering spleen who presented acute abdomen after minor blunt trauma. She was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound (US) and spiral computed tomography (CT). Torsion of splenic pedicle and splenic rupture was diagnosed and a horseshoe kidney as well. Laparotomy followed by splenectomy confirmed the existence of an intrapelvic torsioned wandering spleen. The only definitive treatment of wandering spleen is operative since nonoperative treatment is associated with high complication rate. Earlier diagnosis of wandering spleen in asymptomatic patients lets to direct diagnosis when patient starts to present with acute abdomen. CT and abdominal US play most important role in diagnosing splenic pedicle torsion. To our knowledge this is a first case of torsion of splenic pedicle in patient with horseshoe kidney. We consider this coincidence to be a congenital defect as both conditions may develop in second month gestation. (author)

  18. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  19. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the liver. Can fat deposition in the liver affect the measurement of liver stiffness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Araki, Tsutomu; Niitsuma, Yoshibumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) results between livers with and without fat deposition. We studied 200 consecutive healthy individuals who underwent health checkups at our institution. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the echogenicity of the liver on ultrasonography (US) and the liver-spleen attenuation ratio index (LSR) on computed tomography: normal liver group (n=121, no evidence of bright liver on US and LSR >1); fatty liver group (n=46, bright liver on US and LSR 5 days a week (n=18) were excluded from the analysis. The velocities measured by ARFI in the normal and fatty liver groups were compared using the two one-sided test. The mean (SD) velocity measured in the normal and fatty liver groups were 1.03 (0.12) m/s and 1.02 (0.12) m/s, respectively. The ARFI results of the fatty liver group were similar to those of the normal liver group (P<0.0001). This study suggested that fat deposition in the liver does not affect the liver stiffness measurement determined by ARFI. (author)

  20. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  1. The Attenuated Live Yellow Fever Virus 17D Infects the Thymus and Induces Thymic Transcriptional Modifications of Immunomodulatory Genes in C57BL/6 and BALB/C Mice

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    Breno Luiz Melo-Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus is involved in induction of self-tolerance in T lymphocytes, particularly due to Aire activity. In peripheral tissues, Treg cells and immunomodulatory molecules, like the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class Ib molecules, are essential for maintenance of autotolerance during immune responses. Viral infections can trigger autoimmunity and modify thymic function, and YFV17D immunization has been associated with the onset of autoimmunity, being contraindicated in patients with thymic disorders. Aiming to study the influence of YFV17D immunization on the transcriptional profiles of immunomodulatory genes in thymus, we evaluated the gene expression of AIRE, FOXP3, H2-Q7 (Qa-2/HLA-G, H2-T23 (Qa-1/HLA-E, H2-Q10, and H2-K1 following immunization with 10,000 LD50 of YFV17D in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The YFV17D virus replicated in thymus and induced the expression of H2-Q7 (Qa-2/HLA-G and H2-T23 (Qa-1/HLA-E transcripts and repressed the expression of AIRE and FOXP3. Transcriptional expression varied according to tissue and mouse strain analyzed. Expression of H2-T23 (Qa-1/HLA-E and FOXP3 was induced in thymus and liver of C57BL/6 mice, which exhibited defective control of viral load, suggesting a higher susceptibility to YFV17D infection. Since the immunization with YFV17D modulated thymus gene expression in genetically predisposed individuals, the vaccine may be related to the onset of autoimmunity disorders.

  2. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  3. NADPH-d activity in rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid

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    F. Dorko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the localization of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d activity as the marker for synthesis of nitric oxide synthase (NOS in the rat thymus after the application of retinoid acid (RA on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days of gestation. The given results can build the basis for understanding of the role of NOS in rat thymus. NADPH-d positive cells were represented with dark-blue color and were localized on corticomedullar junction of the thymus. These cells were of different intensity of coloring and were shaped in oval, circle or irregular forms. NADPH-d positive nerve fibers were observed in perivascular topography. They were marked more strongly in the case of control group. The result of application of RA to gravid rats was that the birth weights of newborn rats and their thymuses were smaller, but without statistically significance.

  4. Isolation of thymus gland fractions and the determination of their biological activity

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    MILENA RADETA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A calf thymus extract was prepared and fractionated into lipid and non-lipid fractions. The non-lipid fraction was isolated from the calf thymus extract using the Folch method. The components isolated from the non-lipid fraction were characterized by IR, NMR, biuret and HPLC method. The results of the analyses indicated the presence of peptides. The lipid fraction contained phospholipids, glycolipids and neutral lipids. The biological activity of both the isolated lipid and peptide fractions was determined by the in vivo hemolytic plaques method in Wistar rats with an involuted thymus. The peptide and phospholipid fractions of the thymus extract showed a significant increase of hemolytic plaques. The glycolipid and neutral lipid fraction failed to express a significant immunological response.

  5. Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses: dynamics of colonization by progenitor cells and regeneration of resident cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehr, R.; Fridkis-Hareli, M.; Abel, L.; Segel, L.; Globerson, A.

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocyte development in irradiated thymuses was analyzed using two complementary strategies: an in vitro experimental model and computer simulations. In the in vitro model, fetal thymus lobes were irradiated and the regeneration of cells that survived irradiation were examined, with the results compared to those of reconstitution of the thymus by donor bone marrow cells and their competition with the thymic resident cells. In vitro measurements of resident cell kinetics showed that cell proliferation is slowed down significantly after a relatively low (10Gy) irradiation dose. Although the number of thymocytes that survived irradiation remained low for several days post-irradiation, further colonization by donor cells was not possible, unless performed within 6 h after irradiation. These experimental results, coupled with the analysis by computer simulations, suggest that bone marrow cell engraftment in the irradiated thymus may be limited by the presence of radiation-surviving thymic resident cells and the reduced availability of seeding niches. (Author)

  6. Value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in assessing liver function

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    WANG Lili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI specifically enhanced with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA in assessing the liver function in general population. MethodsUpper abdominal MRI images and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced images, as well as some clinical information, were collected from 41 cases meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Taking the spleen as the control organ, liver-spleen signal intensity contrast (SIliver/spleen and relative liver enhancement (RLE were calculated at 10 min and 20 min after injecting Gd-EOB-DTPA. Differences were evaluated using the independent-samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test. Corrections were analyzed via Spearman’s rank correlation. ResultsBoth SIliver/spleen at 10 min and 20 min after injection of contrast agent were correlated with Child classification (P<0.05. SIliver/spleen at 20 min had a greater correlation coefficient (r=-0.526 than that at 10 min. The SIliver/spleen with plain scan had no significant correlation with Child classification (P>0.05. RLE at 20 min, but not at 10 min, was correlated with Child classification (r=-0.362, P=0049. Between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups, SIliver/spleen showed no significant difference (P>0.05. However, SIliver/spleen at 10 min and 20 min, as well as RLE20 min, showed significant differences between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups (P<0.05. SIliver/spleen at 20 min also exhibited a significant difference between the elevated and normal ALT and TBil groups (both P<0.05. ConclusionGd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI can monitor liver function changes, and SIliver/spleen at 20 min may have an important value in assessing the liver function in general population.

  7. Phenotypic characterization of early events of thymus repopulation in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharrow, S.O.; Singer, A.; Hammerling, U.; Mathieson, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The phenotype of murine thymocytes repopulating the thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras shortly after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Thymuses in these chimeras, while essentially devoid of lymphoid cells at day 7, were repopulated by days 10 to 12 after irradiation. It was found that this initial repopulation arose from a radioresistant intrathymic precursor that expanded to an almost complete complement of host-type thymocytes. However, these host-derived thymocytes were unusual in that they were relatively deficient in Lyt 1+2- and peanut agglutinin ''dull'' cells as compared with normal thymocytes. Donor bone-marrow-derived cells first appeared in the irradiated chimeric thymuses between days 12 and 15 after irradiation and bone marrow transfer. By day 19, chimeric thymuses contained more than 98% donor cells. This course was identical for three chimeric combinations, each made across different genetic barriers. In contrast to the cells that populate the fetal thymus during normal ontogeny, the first donor bone-marrow-derived cells that can be detected within the irradiated chimeric thymuses already expressed phenotypically normal adult T cell subpopulations in that they contained significant numbers both of Lyt 1+2- and of Lyt 1+2+ thymocytes. Thus, the Lyt phenotype of donor cells that initially repopulate an adult thymus after irradiation is markedly different from the Lyt phenotype of cells that initially populate the fetal thymus. The differences between adult and fetal thymic development that are observed in radiation bone marrow chimeras may be important in our understanding of T cell differentiation in these animals

  8. Dysfunction of irradiated thymus for the development of helper T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Hirokawa, K.; Nishikawa, S.; Imanishi, J.; Katsura, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The development of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells in an intact or irradiated thymus was investigated. C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) mice were whole body-irradiated, or were irradiated with shielding over either the thymus or right leg and tail, and were transferred with 1.5 X 10(7) bone marrow cells from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1). At various days after reconstitution, thymus cells from the recipient mice were harvested and a peanut agglutinin low-binding population was isolated. This population was further treated with anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement to remove host-derived cells and was assayed for the frequency of cytotoxic T cell precursors (CTLp) and for the activity of helper T cells (Th). In the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated mice, Th activity reached normal control level by day 25, whereas CTLp frequency remained at a very low level during these days. In the thymus of whole body-irradiated mice, generation of CTLp was highly accelerated while that of Th was retarded, the period required for reconstitution being 25 days and more than 42 days for CTLp and Th, respectively. Preferential development of CTLp was also seen in right leg- and tail-shielded (L-T-shielded) and irradiated recipients. Histological observation indicated that Ia+ nonlymphoid cells were well preserved in the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated recipients, whereas in L-T-shielded and irradiated recipients, such cells in the medulla were markedly reduced in number. These results suggest strongly that the generation of Th but not CTLp is dependent on radiosensitive thymic component(s), and that such components may represent Ia+ cells themselves in the medulla or some microenvironment related to Ia+ cells

  9. Clonally Expanding Thymocytes Having Lineage Capability in Gamma-Ray-Induced Mouse Atrophic Thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Morita, Shin-ichi; Go, Rieka; Obata, Miki; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Fujita, Yukari; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Mishima, Yukio; Kominami, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize, in the setting of γ-ray-induced atrophic thymus, probable prelymphoma cells showing clonal growth and changes in signaling, including DNA damage checkpoint. Methods and Materials: A total of 111 and 45 mouse atrophic thymuses at 40 and 80 days, respectively, after γ-irradiation were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction for D-J rearrangements at the TCRβ locus, flow cytometry for cell cycle, and Western blotting for the activation of DNA damage checkpoints. Results: Limited D-J rearrangement patterns distinct from normal thymus were detected at high frequencies (43 of 111 for 40-day thymus and 21 of 45 for 80-day thymus). Those clonally expanded thymocytes mostly consisted of CD4 + CD8 + double-positive cells, indicating the retention of lineage capability. They exhibited pausing at a late G1 phase of cell cycle progression but did not show the activation of DNA damage checkpoints such as γH2AX, Chk1/2, or p53. Of interest is that 17 of the 52 thymuses showing normal D-J rearrangement patterns at 40 days after irradiation showed allelic loss at the Bcl11b tumor suppressor locus, also indicating clonal expansion. Conclusion: The thymocytes of clonal growth detected resemble human chronic myeloid leukemia in possessing self-renewal and lineage capability, and therefore they can be a candidate of the lymphoma-initiating cells.

  10. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  11. Expression of preprotachykinin-A and neuropeptide-Y messenger RNA in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, A; Geenen, V; Robert, F; Legros, J J; Vrindts-Gevaert, Y; Franchimont, P; Brene, S; Persson, H

    1990-08-01

    The preprotachykinin-A gene, the common gene of mRNAs encoding both substance-P (SP) and neurokinin-A (NKA), was shown to be expressed in Sprague-Dawley rat thymus by detection of specific mRNA in gel-blot analyses. In situ hybridization revealed dispersed PPT-A-labeled cells in sections from rat thymus, with a concentration of grains over a subpopulation of cells in the thymic medulla. Also, neuropeptide-Y mRNA-expressing cells were found in the rat thymus, primarily in the thymic medulla. Rat thymic extracts contained SP-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI), and the major part of the immunoreactivity coeluted with authentic SP and SP sulfoxide standards. SP-LI was also detected in human thymus, which contained between 0.09-0.88 ng SP-LI/g wet wt. Evidence for translation of preprotachykinin-A mRNA in the rat thymus was obtained from the demonstration of NKA-LI in thymic cells with an epithelial-like cell morphology. Combined with previous observations on the immunoregulatory roles of tachykinin peptides and the existence of specific receptors on immunocompetent cells, the demonstration of intrathymic synthesis of NKA suggests a role for NKA-LI peptides in T-cell differentiation in the thymus.

  12. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  13. Radiographical diagnosis of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Comparison of pneumomediastinography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimura, Shigeo; Banba, Jiro; Masaki, Mikio; Irimoto, Masahiro; Matsushita, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Comparison of radiographical findings of the thymus between pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were studied in 35 patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients consisted of 10 patients with thymoma and 25 without thymoma confirmed at the operations. Pneumomediastinography was very useful to discern whether the thymoma was invasive or noninvasive, but not contributory to know whether the thymus was composed of folicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal thyimic tissues. Computed tomography was also useful to dertermine the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma, but not helpful to know whether the thymus was of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia or normal tissues. However, the finding of ''reticular pattern''-many small nodules scattered resicularly in the thymus-in computed tomography could be regarded as a sign suggesting follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Therfore, both pneumomediastinography and computed tomography were very useful in the diagnosis of the localization and the invasiveness of the thymoma but not for the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus. Neverethless the finding of ''reticular pattern'' computred tomography was helpful in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia.

  14. Histopathological effects of sodium nitrite on the spleen of male and female rats

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    Fateme Juibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrite and nitrate are common additives in meat processed products. In spite of all technological advantages of nitrite, creation of nitrosamine carcinogenic substances causes a lot of concerns for use of these additives. In this study, the histopatological effects of sodium nitrite on the splenic tissue in adult male and female rats were evaluated. Material and method: In recent studies, 60 adult male and female rats strain Vistar, divided in 6 groups of 10. They were examined for 60 day, and they (male and female rats separately were divided in 175 mg/kg/day dose recipient group, 350 mg/kg/day dose recipient group and control group which was absorbed nitrite through drinking water. At the end of day 60, using cotton dipped in ether in the jar of anesthesia, were anesthetized. After anesthesia, blood from the left ventricle was taken .the spleen was taking out of body, and then tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. The samples were stained with Hematoxilin- Eozin method. In both sex, factors like morphometric and morphologic from spleen tissue, body weight changes before and after test and blood NOx level was checked. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 17 with using Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. P value of less than 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. Result: The results showed that consume of sodium nitrite, cause background inflammation type of Mononuclear in both sex, especially around the pulp. Also, in both sex NOx levels in the blood of animals in the group receiving 350 mg/ kg and group receiving 175 mg of sodium nitrite per kg compared with the control group, significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Considering of this study and other studies, Nitrite can cause damage to blood vessels, liver, spleen and other organs. Also sodium nitrite has to switching to other food preservatives.

  15. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  16. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

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    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  17. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parental species

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    José B. Salas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the essential oils of cultivated material of Thymus xtoletanus Ladero and its parents, Th. mastichina (L. L. and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss. Coutinho, with seeds from the same locality in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The essential oil of Th. xtoletanus, which had not been analyzed previously, presented 1,8-cineole as the major component (25.5%, as was also the case for Th. mastichina (76.1%. Other components with a major presence in Th. xtoletanus and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus were [(Z-β-ocimene (8.1%; camphor (4.5%; sabinene (3.2%; α-pinene (2.8%], and [(Z-β-ocimene (4.1%, camphor (9.8%, sabinene (2.8%, α-pinene (7.1%], respectively. However, in the hybrid the components β-phelandrene (14.5%, limonene (6.9%, (E-γ-bisabolene (3.5%, and viridiflorol (3.3% stood out, inter alia, whereas their presence in the parents was limited. The study confirms the hybrid origin of Th. xtoletanus as intermediate between Th. mastichina and Th. villosus subsp. lusitanicus.

  18. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  19. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shinsuke.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author)

  20. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  1. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  2. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  3. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerg, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration

  4. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  5. Biomechanical response of human spleen in tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Stitzel, Joel D; Sparks, Jessica L; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-10

    Blunt splenic injuries are most frequently caused as a result of motor vehicle collisions and are associated with high mortality rates. In order to accurately assess the risk of automotive related spleen injuries using tools such as finite element models, tissue level tolerance values and suitable material models must be developed and validated based on appropriate biomechanical data. This study presents a total of 41 tension tests performed on spleen parenchyma coupons and 29 tension tests performed on spleen capsule/parenchyma coupons. Standard dog-bone coupons were obtained from fresh human spleen and tested within 48 h of death. Each coupon was tested once to failure at one of the four loading rates to investigate the effects of rate dependence. Load and acceleration data were obtained at each of the specimen grips. High-speed video and optical markers placed on the specimens were used to measure local displacement. Failure stress and strain were calculated at the location of failure in the gage length of the coupon. The results of the study showed that both the spleen parenchyma and the capsule are rate dependent, with higher loading rates yielding higher failure stresses and lower failure strains. The results also show that the failure stress of the splenic capsule is significantly greater than that of the underlying parenchyma. Overall, this study provides novel biomechanical data that demonstrate the rate dependent tissue level tolerance values of human spleen tissue in tensile loading, which can aid in the improvement of finite element models used to assess injury risk in blunt trauma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... relative liver weight in the absence of clinical chemistry and/or histopathology findings. In dogs, there... compound produces hematological or thymus/spleen organ effects indicative of immunotoxicity. Further, there...

  7. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO TOXICOLOGICAL SCREENING: I. SYSTEMIC TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of 10 chemicals (carbaryl, carbon tetrachloride, chlordane, ethylhexylphthalate, dichloromethane, heptachlor, phenol, tetrachloroethylene, triadimefon, and trichloroethylene were examined in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, and adrenal of female F-344 rats. cute le...

  8. Robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Sgarbura, O; Tudor, S; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2009-01-01

    Distal pancreatectomy (DP) is the removal of the pancreatic tissue at the left side of the superior mesenteric vein and it is traditionally approached by an open or laparoscopic exposure. Preservation of the spleen is optional but appears to have a better immunological outcome. We present the case of a 53-year old patient with a 2.4/2.2 tumor located in the tail of the pancreas, with high tumour marker values for whom we decided to perform a robotic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (RSPDP). The postoperative outcome was satisfactory. In conclusion, we recommend this type of approach for small pancreatic tail lesions.

  9. Incidental Detection of Temporary Focal FDG Retention in the Spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youn Joon; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in discriminating malignancy from benign lesion. But because various false positive results reduce the diagnostic specificity, nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with possible false positive cases. Although many cases of high FDG uptake mimicking malignancy have been reported, temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen has not been reported previously. We report herein a phenomenon of temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen without evidence of metastasis in a 46 year old woman with a history of anal cancer.

  10. Gastric Volvulus and Wandering Spleen: A Rare Surgical Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Lianos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical entity due to possible gastric necrosis. A wandering spleen may also be associated with gastric volvulus. Patients presenting with the triad epigastralgia, vomiting followed by retching, and difficulty or inability to pass a nasogastric tube into the stomach are likely to have gastric volvulus. The operating surgeon should include this rare entity in the differential diagnosis when dealing with a patient with such a clinical profile. Herein, we present a case of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old Caucasian woman and we provide a brief review of the literature on this issue.

  11. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Two Species of Thymus Growing Wild in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of two samples of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, collected in Campania and in Sicily, and two samples of Thymus pulegioides L. from the same regions, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed. Considering the four oils together, seventy-eight different compounds were identified: 57 for Thymus longicaulis from Sicily (91.1% of the total oil, 40 for Thymus longicaulis from Campania (91.5% of the oil, 39 for Thymus pulegioides from Sicily (92.5% of the oil and 29 for Thymus pulegioides from Campania (90.1% of the oil. The composition of the oils is different, although the most abundant components are identical in T. pulegioides. The essential oils showed antibacterial activity against eight selected microorganisms.

  13. Activité antifongique des huiles essentielles de Thymus bleicherianus Pomel et Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link contre les champignons de pourriture du bois d'oeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarti F.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of the Thymus bleicherianus Pomel and Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link essential oils againstwood-decay fungi. Essential oils and their constituents have a long history of applications as antimicrobial agents, but theiruse as wood preservatives has rarely been reported. This study deals with the antifungal activity of two medicinal and aromaticplants essential oils of the Moroccan flora against four wood-decay fungi, in order to find new bioactive natural products. Thechemical composition of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Thymus bleicherianus Pomel andThymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major components of T. bleicherianus oil wereα-terpinene (42.2% and thymol (23.9%. Carvacrol (70.92% was the predominant constituent in the essence of T. capitatus.Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the essential oils added to malt agar medium in defined concentrations were determinedby a screening test with the agar dilution method. The oils, object of the survey, showed a strong antifungal activity againstall tested fungi.

  14. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  15. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  16. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druschky, K.F.; Stadler, H.W.; Daun, H.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1981-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis. (orig.) [de

  17. Thoracic computer tomography for the evaluation of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druschky, K.F.; Stadler, H.W.; Daun, H.

    1981-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thymus gland is observed in 65% of all patients with myasthenia gravis, while the incidence of thymus tumor is reported to be 8.5-28%. Conventional radiological techniques provide little information in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. Even a clearly developed thymus tumor can escape clinical detection. Since March 1978 thoracic computer tomography has been performed in addition to X-rays of the chest in a series of 19 patients with myasthenia ravis, 10 women and 9 men ranging in age from 15-71 years and in 3 patients with suspected thymomas but without myasthenia gravis. These examinations were carried out with a Somatom II (Siemens) since September 1979. On the average 15-20 scans were made at the level of the upper two-third of the sternum. The chest X-rays in 2 planes revealed signs of a thymus tumor in 3 female patients. Thoracic computer tomography showed definite signs of a space-occupying lesion in the anterior mediastinum in 11 cases. At thymectomy 6 patients were found to have hyperplasia of the thymus, 2 patients had a benign thymoma and 3 patients a malignant thymoma. In 6 cases computer tomography showed only slight changes and in 5 patients no pathological findings could be demonstrated in the thymus gland. Thoracic computer tomography is a relatively harmless diagnostic measure without any risk for the patient. It has a high resolution and great accuracy in the evaluation of the thymus gland and is therefore the method of choice for the diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis.

  18. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  19. Correlates of thymus size and changes during treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impairment of immune functions associated with malnutrition may be one reason for the high mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), and thymus atrophy has been proposed as a marker of this immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to identify nutritional....... CONCLUSION: Malnutrition and inflammation are associated with thymus atrophy, and thymus area seems positively associated with plasma phosphate. Substituting therapeutic formula with unfortified rice porridge with the aim of alleviating diarrhea may impair regain of thymus size with nutritional...

  20. The treatment of spleen injuries: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehli, Trond; Bågenholm, Anna; Trasti, Nora Christine; Monsen, Svein Arne; Bartnes, Kristian

    2015-10-29

    Hemorrhage after blunt trauma is a major contributor to death after trauma. In the abdomen, an injured spleen is the most frequent cause of major bleeding. Splenectomy is historically the treatment of choice. In 2007, non-operative management (NOM) with splenic artery embolization (SAE) was introduced in our institution. The indication for SAE is hemodynamically stable patients with extravasation of contrast, or grade 3-5 spleen injury according to the Abbreviated Organ Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008. We wanted to examine if the introduction of SAE increased the rate of salvaged spleens in our trauma center. All patients discharged with the diagnosis of splenic injury in the period 01.01.2000 - 31.12.2013 from the University Hospital of North Norway Tromsø were included in the study. Patients admitted for rehabilitation purposes or with an iatrogenic injury were excluded. A total of 109 patients were included in the study. In the period 2000-7, 20 of 52 patients were splenectomized. During 2007-13, there were 6 splenectomies and 24 SAE among 57 patients. The reduction in splenectomies is significant (p < 0.001). There is an increase in the rate of treated patients (splenectomy and SAE) from 38 to 53 % in the two time periods, but not significantly (p = 0.65). The rate of salvaged spleens has increased after the introduction of SAE in our center. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identification number NCT01965548.

  1. [Spleen injuries in Spain: at what point are we?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Fuertes, Montiel; Costa Navarro, David; Jover Navalón, José María; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Ceballos Esparragón, José; Yuste, Pedro; Sánchez Tocino, Juan María; Navarro Soto, Salvador; Montmany, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Management of spleen trauma has changed over last decades, although there is no data on its treatment in Spain. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of spleen injuries in adults with severe abdominal injuries and how we manage them. A prospective study using the databases of six Spanish hospitals: Gregorio Marañón Hospital, Virgen de la Vega Hospital, Torrevieja Hospital, Getafe Hospital, Doce de Octubre Hospital and Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí. A total of 566 patients who had sustained spleen injuries were analyzed (448 males and 118 females), most of them were due to blunt trauma (94%), and the most frequent mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 25.2. The initial treatment was surgical in 56.6% of the patients (85.3% total splenectomy and 14.7% other conservative surgical procedures, of which 4.6% finally failed and required total splenectomy). The remaining 43.4% were initially managed conservatively, but 6.5% of them finally required surgical splenectomy, and in 8.8% angio-embolization was performed. In Spain, management of spleen trauma is mainly surgical (particularly splenectomy). Angio-embolization and conservative surgical procedures are now hardly used. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Torsion of the spleen with incomplete infarction: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lernau, O.Z.; Baron, J.; Nissan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Torsion and infarction of a ''wandering spleen'' is a rare disease which is often confused with other acute abdominal crises. A correct preoperative diagnosis, when made, has usually been determined by arteriographic studies. A child is described in whom changes in the TcSC scan made a correct diagnosis possible by non-invasive methods

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  4. Hydatid disease of the spleen; Ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1992-09-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG).

  5. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  6. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical determination of mild splenomegaly is notoriously inaccurate. Objectives: To determine sonographically the spleen to left kidney ratio according to age and somatometric parameters among school age children in a tropical environment. Methods: A cross sectional study and convenience sampling were ...

  7. MRI manifestations of thymus in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients in various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Peng Xi; Li Zhizhao; Jiang Kuiming; Song Ting; Dong Tianfa; Xiao Youcheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI findings of the thymus in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) in different age groups and to analyze the relationship between the morphological changes of thymus and the MG. Methods: In total 90 patients with MG (male: female=43:47) received MR scan and were divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D) by age. Fourteen patients out of 90 received additional enhanced scan. Group A included 33 patients aged under 10 years (m:f=18:15); 27 patients aged 11-25 years were in group B (m:f=12:15); group C had 17 patients aged 26-50 years (m:f=6:11); and in group D there were 13 patients whose ages were over 51 years (m:f=7:6). And 30 Non-MG patients aged 8-75 years were selected as control group, in which the thickness, the fat collection, and glandulous atrophy of thymus was studied on CT. Results: 1) The thymus was unremarkable in 44 cases out of 90 (48.88%). 2) Enlarged thymus was shown in 42 cases out of 90 (46.66%), in which non-nodular enlargement was revealed in 34 cases and nodular enlargement in 8 cases. There were 27 cases with abnormality of thymus out of 33 (81.81%) in group A, 12 cases out of 27 (44.44%) in group B and 3 cases in group C, but no abnormality was found in group D. 3) Only 4/90 patients (4.44%) had thymic mass that respectively seen in one case of group B, two of group C and one of group D. No evidence of the involvement of the adjacent structure was found on MRI in the cases of thymic mass. No thymus enlargement was revealed in control group. Fat collection in thymus was seen in both study groups and control group. Conclusion: Intimate relationship between the abnormality of the thymus gland and MG exists in children and teenagers. While in the middle-aged patients or the seniors, further studies should be made to find out whether there is a correlation

  8. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Schaefer, Stephanie G.; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Spengler, Ulrich [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a valuable biomarker for liver function. The strongest correlation with liver enhancement was found for the MELD Score. (orig.)

  9. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  10. Thymus transcriptome reveals novel pathways in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Liu, P; Nolan, L K; Lamont, S J

    2016-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause significant morbidity in chickens. The thymus provides the essential environment for T cell development; however, the thymus transcriptome has not been examined for gene expression in response to APEC infection. An improved understanding of the host genomic response to APEC infection could inform future breeding programs for disease resistance and APEC control. We therefore analyzed the transcriptome of the thymus of birds challenged with APEC, contrasting susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed in birds of the 5-day post infection (dpi) challenged-susceptible group vs. 5 dpi non-challenged, in 5 dpi challenged-susceptible vs. 5 dpi challenged-resistant birds, as well as in 5 dpi vs. one dpi challenged-susceptible birds. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was the major innate immune response for birds to respond to APEC infection. Moreover, lysosome and cell adhesion molecules pathways were common mechanisms for chicken response to APEC infection. The T-cell receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, and p53 signaling pathways were significantly activated in resistant birds to resist APEC infection. These results provide a comprehensive assessment of global gene networks and biological functionalities of differentially expressed genes in the thymus under APEC infection. These findings provide novel insights into key molecular genetic mechanisms that differentiate host resistance from susceptibility in this primary lymphoid tissue, the thymus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  11. Quantitation of the intrahepatic shunt index by injection of /sup 99m/Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masaaki; Ohnishi, Kunihiko; Katsurai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hideo; Chin, Nobuyoshi; Iida, Shinji; Nomura, Fumio; Okuda, Kunio

    1987-11-01

    The accuracy of the intrahepatic shunt index measured by injection of /sup 99m/Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen was assessed in comparison with the intrahepatic shunt index measured by injection of /sup 99m/Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the portal trunk in 28 patients with portal hypertension. /sup 99m/Tc-macroaggregated albumin was injected through the catheter into the portal trunk and the intrahepatic shunt index was calculated by counting over predetermined areas of the liver and lungs. Injection of /sup 99m/Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen was performed between one or two weeks before portal vein catheterization, and the calculation of the intrahepatic shunt index was performed with a scinticamera and ROI-radiograms obtained by data-processing. There was a significant correlation between the intrahepatic shunt index calculated by injection of /sup 99m/Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen and that by injection of /sup 99m/Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the portal trunk (r = 0.90, p < 0.001)

  12. Quantitation of the intrahepatic shunt index by injection of 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Ohnishi, Kunihiko; Katsurai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hideo; Chin, Nobuyoshi; Iida, Shinji; Nomura, Fumio; Okuda, Kunio

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of the intrahepatic shunt index measured by injection of 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen was assessed in comparison with the intrahepatic shunt index measured by injection of 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the portal trunk in 28 patients with portal hypertension. 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin was injected through the catheter into the portal trunk and the intrahepatic shunt index was calculated by counting over predetermined areas of the liver and lungs. Injection of 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen was performed between one or two weeks before portal vein catheterization, and the calculation of the intrahepatic shunt index was performed with a scinticamera and ROI-radiograms obtained by data-processing. There was a significant correlation between the intrahepatic shunt index calculated by injection of 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the spleen and that by injection of 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin into the portal trunk (r = 0.90, p < 0.001). (author)

  13. Analysis of computed tomography density of liver before and after amiodarone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masazumi; Otaka, Aoi; Tozawa, Tomoki; Asano, Tomoyuki; Ishiyama, Koichi; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate CT density of liver changes between before and after amiodarone administration. Twenty-five patients underwent non-enhanced CT including the liver before and after amiodarone administration. We set regions of interest (ROIs) at liver S8, spleen, paraspinal muscle, and calculated average CT density in these ROIs, then compared CT density between liver and other organs. Statistical differences between CT density of liver and various ratios before and after administration were determined, along with correlations between cumulative dose of amiodarone and liver density after administration, density change of liver, and various ratios after administration. Liver density, liver-to-spleen ratio, and liver-to-paraspinal muscle ratio differed significantly between before and after amiodarone administration. No significant correlations were found between cumulative doses of amiodarone and any of liver density after administration, density change of liver, or various ratios after administration. CT density of liver after amiodarone administration was significantly higher than that before administration. No correlations were identified between cumulative dose of amiodarone and either liver density after administration or density change of liver. Amiodarone usage should be checked when radiologists identify high density of the liver on CT.

  14. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (pre)malignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered.

  15. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn P. M. van Dijck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail was discovered and evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Based on clinical and radiological features a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm was suspected. The patient underwent robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy. Pathological evaluation revealed a 26 mm intrapancreatic accessory spleen with a 16 mm cyst, lined by multilayered epithelium in the tail of the pancreas. The postoperative course was uneventful. Differentiating ECIPAS from (premalignant cystic pancreatic neoplasms based on clinical and radiological features remains difficult. When typical radiological signs can be combined with scintigraphy using Technetium-99m labelled colloid or Technetium-99m labelled erythrocytes, which can identify the solid component of the lesion as splenic tissue, it should be possible to make the right diagnosis noninvasively. When pancreatectomy is inevitable due to symptoms or patient preference, minimally invasive laparoscopic or robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered.

  16. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  17. B-mode and contrast-enhanced sonographic assessment of accessory spleen in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Rabba, Silvia; Vignoli, Massimo; Haers, Hendrik; Terragni, Rossella; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2010-01-01

    Four dogs with an accessory spleen are described. The accessory spleens appeared as a round-to-triangular structure located in the perisplenic area. They were homogeneous and isoechoic with the adjacent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed using a second generation microbubble contrast medium (sulfur hexafluoride). The type and timing of enhancement of the accessory spleen was similar to that of the parent spleen. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a noninvasive modality useful in distinguishing an accessory spleen from a mass of another origin.

  18. Arterial supply of the thoracic lobes of the thymus in dogs of the Great Dane race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The origins, numbers and type of arterial branches responsible for the blood supply of thoracic lobes of the thymus were studied in 28 stillborn dogs of the Great Dane, of which 18 were males and 10 were females. The arterial systems of these animals were filled with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450”, 50%. After, the specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. The lobes of the thymus were supplied by direct or indirect arterial branches coming from the right and left internal thoracic arteries, pericardiacophrenicas arteries, right and left costocervicais trunks, and left subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery and brachiocephalic trunk emitted direct branches towards the left thoracic lobe of the thymus.

  19. Is the plant-associated microbiota of Thymus spp. adapted to plant essential oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Maida, Isabel; Bacci, Giovanni; Ninno, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Flamini, Guido; Fani, Renato; Mengoni, Alessio

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected. Moreover, data obtained revealed a differential pattern of resistance of the isolates to EOs extracted from T. vulgaris and T. citriodorus, which was interpreted in terms of differing chemical composition of the EO of their respective host plants. In conclusion, we suggest that bacterial colonization of leaves in Thymus spp. is influenced by the EO present in leaf glandular tissue as one of the selective forces shaping endophytic community composition. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Thymus Atrophy and Double-Positive Escape Are Common Features in Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Meis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ in which bone marrow-derived T-cell precursors undergo differentiation, leading to migration of positively selected thymocytes to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs. This organ can undergo atrophy, caused by several endogenous and exogenous factors such as ageing, hormone fluctuations, and infectious agents. This paper will focus on emerging data on the thymic atrophy caused by infectious agents. We present data on the dynamics of thymus lymphocytes during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, showing that the resulting thymus atrophy comprises the abnormal release of thymic-derived T cells and may have an impact on host immune response.

  1. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated.

  2. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease

  3. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated

  4. Activation Kinetics and Off-Target Effects of Thymus-Initiated Cre Transgenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjun; Petrie, Howard T.

    2012-01-01

    The bacteriophage enzyme Cre is a site-specific recombinase widely used to delete loxP-flanked DNA sequences in lineage-specific fashion. Several mouse lines that direct Cre expression to lymphoid progenitors in the thymus have been established, but a side-by-side comparison of when they first become active, and/or their relative efficiency at various developmental stages, has been lacking. In this study, we evaluated these in four common Cre transgenic strains with thymus-initiated promoters (Lck, Cd2, or Cd4). We found that while all of them eventually labeled nearly all thymocytes, their kinetics were dramatically different, and other than Cd4[Cre], did not faithfully recapitulate the expression pattern of the corresponding endogenous gene. Perhaps even more importantly, while thymuses from some strains compared favorably to thymuses from control (Cre-negative) mice, we found that Cre expression could also result in off-target effects, including moderate to severe decreases in thymic cellularity. These effects occurred in the absence of loxP-flanked DNA target genes, and were dose and copy number dependent. Loss of cellularity was attributable to a specific decrease in CD4+8+ immature cells, and corresponds to an increased rate of programmed cell death. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of activation kinetics in thymus-initiated Cre transgenes, our data show that Cre is toxic to CD4+8+ cells in a dose-dependent fashion, and emphasize that the choice of thymus-initiated Cre strain is critically important for minimizing off-target effects of Cre. PMID:23049709

  5. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesche, K.-D.

    1975-01-01

    aim of the prepresent investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed. (author)

  6. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiesche, K D

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed.

  7. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue in children with mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy: Evaluation of splenic residual functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is an attempt for maintenance of splenic functions when splenectomy is indicated in children. It minimizes the risks of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection and it has been done in children with severe portal hypertension due to hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis that underwent splenectomy. The purposes of this investigation were to study the morphology of the residual splenic tissue; to evaluate the residual filtration function of this splenosis; and to assess the immune response to polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty-three children with portal hypertension from mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein, autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch were evaluated for residual splenic parenchyma and functions. Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans were used for detection of splenic nodules. The search for Howell Jolly bodies were used for assessing the filtration function and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for measuring the relative rise in titter of specific pneumococcal antibodies. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, in two there were less than five splenic nodules in the greater omentum, which was considered insufficient. Howell-Jolly bodies were found in the peripheral blood only in these two patients with less evident splenosis. The immune response was adequate in 15 patients; it was intermediate in 4 patients and inadequate in 4 patients. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch is efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% of the cases and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in approximately 65% of the children.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diffuse liver diseases. Comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Ebara, Masaaki; Ohto, Masao

    1987-06-01

    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) was performed in 74 patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, extrahepatic protal vein occlusion, Wilson disease and hemochromatosis. We measured relaxation time of the liver and the spleen in these patients and compared MRI with CT in the diagnostic capability. MRI was superior to plain CT in the detection of collateral vessels in liver cirrhosis and extrahepatic protal vein occlusion. MRI could also demonstrate the occluded part of the inferior vena cava in Budd-Chiari syndrome. However, MRI was almost the same as CT in the visualization of the hepatic configuration in liver cirrhosis. In liver cirrhosis, T1 values of the liver and the spleen were longer than those in normal controls, and T1 values of the liver were correlated with ICG R-15. Hepatic T1 values in Budd-Chiari syndrome were longer than those in normal controls.

  9. Fascial relationship of the thymus: radiologic-pathologic correlation in neonatal pneumomediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattromani, F.L.; Foley, L.C.; Bowen, A.D.; Weisman, L.; Hernandez, J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic appearance of retrothymic pneumomediastinum is quite specific. The findings include elevation of the thymus away from other mediastinal structures with increased lucency beneath it, visualization of a radiodense line extending from the inferior pole of the thymus to the midportion of the heart, and tenting of the pericardium at the point of attachment of this line. This constellation of findings will aid in the differential diagnosis of medial anterior pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, and intrapulmonary cyst in the infant with air block. The paper details the mediastinal anatomy with special emphasis on a previously undescribed layer of connective tissue that accounts for this specific radiographic appearance

  10. Importance of thymus and its humoral factors in radiation syndrome treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrova, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high radiosensitivity is emphasised of lymphoid tissues and of the immunological response of the organism. The red--uced immunity of the irradiated organism even after sublethal doses lasts for a number of months. The thymus is not only an important lymphoid organ but it also secerns hormones having lymph-stimulating effects. The shielding of the thymus during irradiation or the application of thymosine favourably affected in gamma or X-ray irradiated mice not only the regeneration of damaged lymphoid tissues and of immunological response but also the regeneration of blood formation. (A.K.)

  11. A novel method for the angiographic estimation of the percentage of spleen volume embolized during partial splenic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Ming-Ching; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of estimating the volume of spleen embolized in partial splenic embolization (PSE) by measuring the diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. Materials and methods: A total of 43 liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 62.19 ± 9.65 years) with thrombocytopenia were included. Among these, 24 patients underwent a follow-up CT scan which showed a correlation between angiographic estimation and measured embolized splenic volume. Estimated splenic embolization volume was calculated by a method based on diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. The diameters of each of the splenic arteries and branches were measured via 2D angiographic images. Embolization was performed with gelatin sponges. Patients underwent follow-up with serial measurement of blood counts and liver function tests. The actual volume of embolized spleen was determined by computed tomography (CT) measuring the volumes of embolized and non-embolized spleen two months after PSE. Results: PSE was performed without immediate major complications. The mean WBC count significantly increased from 3.81 ± 1.69 × 10 3 /mm 3 before PSE to 8.56 ± 3.14 × 10 3 /mm 3 at 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). Mean platelet count significantly increased from 62.00 ± 22.62 × 10 3 /mm 3 before PSE to 95.40 ± 46.29 × 10 3 /mm 3 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). The measured embolization ratio was positively correlated with estimated embolization ratio (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.687, P < 0.001). The mean difference between the actual embolization ratio and the estimated embolization ratio was 16.16 ± 8.96%. Conclusions: The method provides a simple method to quantitatively estimate embolized splenic volume with a correlation of measured embolization ratio to estimated embolization ratio of Spearman's ρ = 0.687

  12. Effect of synthetic adjuvants of biological activity of spleen proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartasheva, A.L.; Yuferova, N.V.; Drozhennikov, V.A.; Orlova, E.B.; Perevezentseva, O.S.; Filatov, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration to mice of synthetic adjuvants of a polyanion type increases the spleen mass by 500% and rises the content of proteins with activity of inhibitor of DNAase 1. A protein fraction isolated from the spleen of treated animals administered to exposed (7.7 Gy) mice alone or in a combination with exogenous DNA increases survival up to 61.1 and 80.5%, respectively, as opposed to 36.6% in the case of administration of proteins from intact animals, or 8.3% in the control (no treatment). The protein fraction from treated animals administered to mice exposed to 5.1-5.5 Gy accelerates the recovery of hemopoesis and immune response better than proteins of intact animals

  13. Inflammatory pseudo tumor of the spleen. Radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folgueral, M.; Naranjo, G.; Grasa, J.

    1998-01-01

    The inflammatory splenic pseudo tumor is an uncommon benign lesion of unknown etiology that usually is detected incidentally in patients being examined for other disorders. We present the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in two patients (a 56-year-old woman and 67-year-old man) with inflammatory pseudo tumor of the spleen. Ultrasound images of the inflammatory splenic pseudo tumor show a hypoechoic mass with or without calcifications. In CT, the mass presents a low attenuation that is slightly enhanced by intravenous injection of an iodinated contrast medium. MR images show an isointense spleen in T1-weighted spin-echo sequences that is hypointense in T2-weighted sequences. The differential diagnosis should consider other more common splenic masses. but the definitive diagnosis can not be based on imaging methods alone. In the both cases, the final diagnosis was reached after splenectomy and pathological study. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  15. Hepatoscintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-colloid in children with liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, S P

    1987-03-01

    Children aged 2 to 14 with the initial, formed and terminal stages of liver cirrhosis were examined by a method of radionuclide scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-colloid. A set of indices characterizing function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), the effective hepatic blood flow, metric parameters of the liver and spleen were obtained from an analysis of the curves of the heart, liver and spleen area, and digital imaging of the liver with the marked costal arch. It was shown that at the initial stage of disease indices of the time course of the radioactive colloid were of compensated nature. Spleen function was elevated, liver and spleen sizes were increased. The formed stage was characterized by the signs of subcompensation of liver function: changes of indices of RP retention in the blood, a decrease in the indices of the total and hepatic radioactive colloid. The terminal stage was characterized by marked disorder of liver RES function which was not compensated for by a high splenic uptake, image deformation and focal RP distribution. Irrespective of a stage of disease the syndrome of portal hypertension was shown to manifest itself in splenomegaly and an increase in the radioactive colloid uptake by the liver over 15%. The accuracy of the set of signs was 90%.

  16. Evaluation of the liver scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazufumi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Toshiyuki; Kajiya, Fumihiko.

    1975-01-01

    Clinical significance of the liver scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was evaluated in comparison with those with 198 Au-colloid. The liver scintigrams with sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and 198 Au-colloid were done in 36 cases of various hepatic diseases and RI accumulation curves in the liver and the spleen, and the blood disapearance curves were also obtained. The conclusions were as follows. The liver scintigrams with sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid proved to be more sensitive in the detection of tumors, especially, in the lower margin, left lobe and superficial layers of the liver than those with 198 Au-colloid. In all cases, including normal and cirrhotic subjects, visualizations of the spleen were seen on the scintigrams with sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid. In diffuse hepatic diseases, comparing both radiopharmaceuticals, the splenic accumulations were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. As a result, the ratio (spleen/liver) was thought to be useful for the differentiation of diffuse hepatic diseases concerned with splenic function and/or size. It was also shown that sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was useful as a spleen scanning agent. The Tl/2 in the liver accumulation curves with sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid were not as clearly differentiated in the various hepatic diseases as those with 198 Au-colloid where those indexes were useful in the evaluation of liver functions. (auth.)

  17. Fluorescent cell-traceable dexamethasone-loaded liposomes for the treatment of inflammatory liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, M.; Scheyda, K.M.; Warzecha, K.T.; Rizzo, L.Y.; Hittatiya, K.; Luedde, T.; Storm, Gerrit; Trautwein, C.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Tacke, F.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are routinely used carrier materials for delivering drug molecules to pathological sites. Besides in tumors and inflammatory sites, liposomes also strongly accumulate in liver and spleen. The potential of using liposomes to treat acute and chronic liver disorders, however, has not yet been

  18. Fluorescent cell-traceable dexamethasone-loaded liposomes for the treatment of inflammatory liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, Matthias; Scheyda, Katharina M; Warzecha, Klaudia T; Rizzo, Larissa Y; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Luedde, Tom; Storm, G; Trautwein, Christian; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank

    Liposomes are routinely used carrier materials for delivering drug molecules to pathological sites. Besides in tumors and inflammatory sites, liposomes also strongly accumulate in liver and spleen. The potential of using liposomes to treat acute and chronic liver disorders, however, has not yet been

  19. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  20. Spleens and holoendemic malaria in West New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    METSELAAR, D

    1956-01-01

    The author describes the results obtained in recent malaria surveys in West New Guinea, where what is essentially holoendemic malaria prevails. However, the spleen-rate in adults differs markedly from what is regarded as normal under holoendemic conditions according to the definition put forward at the Malaria Conference in Equatorial Africa in 1950. The author therefore concludes that that definition is not properly applicable to New Guinea.

  1. What happens in the thymus does not stay in the thymus: how T cells recycle the CD4+-CD8+ lineage commitment transcriptional circuitry to control their function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchio, Melanie S.; Bosselut, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD4+ and CD8+ T cell are at the core of most adaptive immune responses. Although these cells carry distinct functions, they arise from a common precursor during thymic differentiation, in a developmental sequence that matches CD4 and CD8 expression and functional potential with MHC restriction. While the transcriptional control of CD4+-CD8+ lineage choice in the thymus is now better understood, less was known about what maintains the CD4+- and CD8+-lineage integrity of mature T cells. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that establish in the thymus, and maintain in post-thymic cells, the separation of these lineages. We focus on recent studies that address the mechanisms of epigenetic control of Cd4 expression and emphasize how maintaining a transcriptional circuitry nucleated around Thpok and Runx proteins, the key architects of CD4+-CD8+ lineage commitment in the thymus, is critical for CD4+ T cell helper functions. PMID:27260768

  2. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  3. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadar Dudekula

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides. A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis. Keywords: Spleen, Rat, Protein extraction, Label-free quantitative proteomics

  4. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  5. A distinct dendritic cell population arises in the thymus of IL-13Rα1-sufficient but not IL-13Rα1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Subhasis; Miller, Mindy; Cattin-Roy, Alexis; Ukah, Tobechukwu; Zaghouani, Habib

    2018-06-18

    IL-13 receptor alpha 1 (IL-13Rα1) associates with IL-4Rα to form a functional IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 heteroreceptor (HR) through which both IL-4 and IL-13 signal. Recently, HR expression was associated with the development of M2 type macrophages which function as antigen presenting cells (APCs). Herein, we show that a subset of thymic resident dendritic cells (DCs) expressing high CD11b (CD11b hi ) and intermediate CD11c (CD11c int ) arise in HR-sufficient but not HR-deficient mice. These DCs, which originate from the bone marrow are able to take up Ag from the peritoneum, traffic through the spleen and the lymph nodes and carry it to the thymus. In addition, since the DCs are able to present Ag to T cells, express high levels of the costimulatory molecule CD24, and comprise a CD8α + subset, it is likely that the cells contribute to T cell development and perhaps negative selection of self-reactive lymphocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  7. Pathologic rupture of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Cunha De Santis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic rupture has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic rupture. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6 mg/dL. Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory shock and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic rupture. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic rupture. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic rupture, as it is essentially atraumatic.

  8. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  9. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  10. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  11. Effect of splenectomy on liver cirrhosis and related surgical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Degang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis experience certain changes in spleen morphology and function, and there is always a controversy over whether to perform splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis. As a surgical treatment of recurrent portal hypertension complicated by esophagogastric variceal bleeding, splenectomy can reduce portal venous pressure, reduce the possibility of gastrointestinal bleeding, and correct the reduced white blood cell count and platelet count. It can also protect the liver by improving liver function, promoting regeneration of hepatocytes, and inhibiting the progression of liver fibrosis. With reference to available clinical and laboratory data, this article reviews the effect of splenectomy on the cirrhotic liver and related issues such as selection of surgical procedures and prevention and treatment of postoperative complications, in order to promote splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  12. Histo-blood group antigens in human fetal thymus and in thymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Francis, D

    1996-01-01

    -y, Le-x and sialyl-Le-x) of the ABO-histo-blood group system was investigated in 19 normal fetal thymuses (gestational age 16 to 39 weeks) and in 19 thymomas in order to study possible tumor-associated changes in the glycosylation pattern. The material was investigated by immunochemical stainings...

  13. Effect of foliar nutrition on the essential oil yield of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 112 (2018), s. 762-765 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510160 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Thymus * Essential oils * Aromatic plants * Plant nutrition * Plant technology Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  14. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Radical Scavengers from Thymus vulgaris Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapkevicius, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Lelyveld, G.P.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Venskutonis, R.

    2002-01-01

    2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity-guided fractionation of a leaf extract of Thymus vulgaris led to the isolation of the radical scavengers rosmarinic acid 1, eriodictyol, taxifolin, luteolin 7-glucuronide, p-cymene 2,3-diol, p-cymene 2,3-diol 6-6'-dimer, carvacrol,

  15. Ultrasonographic assessment of normal thymus in pediatric patients: Aspects and features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumeda, A.; Romero, G.; Sanchez-Cid, M.; Ceballos, J.; Blanco, A.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the viewing rate and ultrasound features of normal thymus. We analyzed the thymuses of 60 healthy children using ultrasound. The ages of the children ranged from one month to three years. a 7.5 MHz linear transducer was used in every case. Trans, supra and para sternal approaches were employed to procure sagittal and transverse sections. We analyzed the dimensions of the gland according to age, sex and body surface. We also studied the internal architecture, echogenicity and relation to adjacent mediastinal structures. We were able to study and measure the thymus in its entirety in every case. The examination never took more than 15 minutes. In longitudinal sections, the left lobe had the appearance of a shark fin or sickle and the right lobe was tear-shaped or rhomboid. The size of the thymus did not vary significantly according to age, sex or body surface. Its internal echogenicity was homogeneous. We consider ultrasonography to be an easy, wide available and safe method for examining the features of the thymic gland in children; moreover, it aids in the assessment of suspicious plain chest x-ray images. (Author)

  16. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THYMUS KOTSCHYANUS BOISS. & HOHEN. FROM IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHOSSEIN RUSTAIYAN

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oil of Thymus kotschyarms Boiss<& Hohen. was examined by GC and GC/MS. Fifteen constituents representing 80.7% of the oil were characterized of which thymol (38.0%, carvacrol (14.2% and 1,8- cineole (13.2% were the main compounds which were identified.

  17. Visualization of the thymus in myasthenia gravis. Comparison between pneumomediastinography and CT of the anterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Tanaka, Makoto; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku; Heshiki, Atsuko (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    We investigated whether CT had any advantage over pneumomediastinography (PMG) for the visualization of thymus in twenty-one patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). In two cases of thymoma which had been suspected with chest radiography, CT demonstrated an anterior mediastinal tumor distinguishable from other mediastinal organs, and for these cases PMG was not performed. Excluding three patients who were submitted to PMG only, CT of the anterior mediastinum was carried out in sixteen patients of MG, revealing thymic shadows in seven (44%). PMG followed by conventional tomography was done subsequently in three of these seven cases, for whom thymectomy was indicated because of uncontrollable myasthenic symptoms, and in all patients finger-like thymic shadows were disclosed. The vertical extension of thymus was more easily demonstrable by PMG than CT. PMG was carried out in six of nine patients in whom CT was negative, and in all cases thymic shadows were obvious with subsequent conventional tomography. Consequently, false negative rate of CT was at least 38% (6/16) with regard to the visualization of the nontumorous thymus. Although CT of the anterior mediastinum is useful as a screening method because of its non-invasiveness, its negative result does not rule out an absence of the pathologic thymus in view of its high false negative rate. In this regard, PMG is still necessary for the final determination of the thymic configuration in the MG patients.

  18. H-2 restriction specificity of T cells from H-2 incompatible radiation bone marrow chimeras: further evidence for the absence of crucial influence of the host/thymus environment on the generation of H-2 restricted TNP-specific T lymphocyte precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, S.; Sado, T.; Kubo, E.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to answer the questions related to (a) the role played by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) present within the thymus and (b) the effect of radiation dose to the recipients on the H-2 restriction profile of TNP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTLP) recovered from spleens and/or thymuses of H-2 incompatible radiation bone marrow chimeras (BMC). The H-2 restriction profile of intrathymically differentiating TNP-specific CTLPs was also analyzed in order to test an argument that donor-H-2 restricted CTLP detected in spleens of H-2 incompatible BMC were due to the extrathymically differentiated T cells under the influence of donor-derived lymphoreticular cells. The results indicated the following: (i) splenic T cells from B10(H-2b) leads to (B10(H-2b) leads to B10.BR(H-2k)) chimeras, which were constructed by irradiating primary B10 leads to B10.BR chimeras with 1100 R and reconstituting them with donor-type (B10) bone marrow cells as long as 8 months after their construction, manifested restriction specificities for both donor- and host-type H-2, (ii) splenic T cells from two types of (B10 X B10.BR)F1 leads to B10 chimeras which were reconstituted after exposure of the recipients with either 900 or 1100 R with donor-type bone marrow cells generated both donor- and host-H-2 restricted TNP-specific cytotoxic T cells, and (iii) the TNP-specific CTLPs present in the regenerating thymuses of B10.BR leads to B10 and (B10 X B10.BR)F1 leads to B10 chimeras 4 weeks after their construction were also shown to manifest both donor- and host-H-2 restriction specificities. The significance of these findings on the H-2 restriction profile of CTLP generated in BMCs is discussed

  19. A modified Tc-99m-phytate colloid for liver-spleen imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Kaplan, M.L.; Ahnberg, D.S.; Cole, C.N.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a comparison of the in vivo biologic properties of sup(99m)Tc-stannous phytate and sup(99m)Tc-stannous phytate precipitated in vitro by the addition of calcium ion, undertaken because of an interest in increasing the splenic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-phytate to a level similar to that obtained with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid, are reported. It was found that: (1) The similarity in the organ distribution values of sup(99m)Tc-phytate and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is species related (rodents) and decreased splenic uptake of the phytate colloid is found in other primates and man. (2) The gamma scintillation camera with computer region of interest capability is an extremely useful technique for studying the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiodiagnostic agents in primates, where the cost of the animals prohibits the use of the sequential sacrifice technique. (3) The addition of calcium ion to the sup(99m)Tc-phytate complex produces an in vitro colloid with a particle size and biologic distribution very similar to that obtained with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. (U.K.)

  20. Liver cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver among atomic bomb survivors. Study of autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1980-11-01

    Liver cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver were investigated in 1699 autopsies of atomic bomb survivors carried out in Hiroshima from 1956 to 1980. Liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic biliary carcinoma were observed in 116, 111, and 17 cases respectively, the ratios of man to woman and were 2.3, 3.9, and 1.8 with a mean age of 56, 60, and 67 years respectively. There was no evidence that exposure to a-bomb increased the risk of these diseases significantly. About 90% of the hepatocellular carcinomas was combined with liver cirrhosis. Weight of liver and spleen, amount of ascites, hemorrhage from the digestive canals, esophageal varix, combination with other diseases, and histologic correlation with the activities of HBs antigen and ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein were discussed with the relation to the exposure.

  1. Anti-CD25 mAb administration prevents spontaneous liver transplant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Carper, K; Liang, Y; Zheng, X X; Kuhr, C S; Reyes, J D; Perkins, D L; Thomson, A W; Perkins, J D

    2006-12-01

    Liver allografts are accepted spontaneously in all mouse strain combinations without immunosuppressive therapy. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely undefined. In this study, we examined the effect of CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (Treg) on the induction of mouse liver transplant tolerance. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from B10 (H2b) to C3H (H2k) mice. Depleting rat anti-mouse CD25 mAb (PC61) was given to the donors or recipients (250 microg/d IP) pretransplant or to the recipients postoperatively. At day 5 posttransplantation, both effector T cells (mainly CD8) and CD4+ CD25+ Treg were increased in the liver allografts and host spleens compared to naïve mice. Anti-CD25 mAb administration, either pretransplantation or posttransplantation, reduced the ratio of CD4+ CD25+ Treg to the CD3 T cells of liver grafts and recipient spleens and induced liver allograft acute rejection compared to IgG treatment. Anti-CD25 mAb administration elevated anti-donor T-cell proliferative responses and CTL and NK activities of graft infiltrates and host splenocytes; reduced CTLA4, Foxp3, and IDO mRNA levels; increased IL-10 and IFN-gamma; and decreased IL-4 mRNA levels in the livers or host spleens. The number of apoptotic T cells was reduced significantly in the liver grafts and treated host spleens. Therefore, anti-CD25 mAb administration changed the balance of CD4+ CD25+ Treg to activated T cells of liver graft recipients, preventing liver transplant tolerance. This was associated with enhanced anti-donor immune reactivity, downregulated Treg gene expression, and reduced T cell apoptosis in the grafts and host spleens.

  2. Wandering spleen associated with omphalocele in a neonate: An unusual case with non-operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Masui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen with a history of omphalocele is extremely rare. We encountered a male baby with wandering spleen associated with omphalocele. This case of wandering spleen in a neonate was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography scans after surgery for omphalocele. Our case was able to be managed non-operatively due to the lack of any findings suggesting torsion of the spleen and its asymptomatic status. We herein report the clinical presentation as well as the treatment options regarding wandering spleen associated with omphalocele.

  3. Transplantation of homologous bone marrow cells to lethally irradiated mice: changes in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viktora, L; Hach, P; Zoubkova, M

    1975-01-01

    Bone marrow cell suspensions were administered intravenously to lethally irradiated mice. The number of colonies in the spleen and the regeneration of hematopoietic tissue in the spleen were studied on the 9th day after irradiation and transplantation. From a comparison of the histological picture and weight of the spleens, the authors conclude that the degree of regeneration of hematopoiesis in the spleen after irradiation and transplantation is reflected in the weight of the spleen as well as in the number of hematopoietic colonies.

  4. Influence of the thymus on the capacity of female mice to reject male skin grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pirro, E.S.; Goldberg, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of female mice to reject H-Y-incompatible, but otherwise histocompatible, male skin grafts differs greatly from strain to strain, as is illustrated particularly by the C57BL strain (B6 and other sublines), termed ''H-Y rejector,'' because females invariably and promptly reject C57BL male skin, in comparison with the C3H strain, termed ''H-Y nonrejector,'' because females characteristically accept male C3H skin. To assess the extent to which the thymus governs this rejector vs. nonrejector status, two studies were made. In the first, lethally irradiated B6 (C57BL) and C3H females were restored with (B6 X C3H)F1 female cells, providing a graft-vs.-host-free milieu for differentiation of the same immunopoietic cell population in B6 vs. C3H hosts. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, B6 hosts responded as rejectors and C3H hosts as nonrejectors, signifying that rejector vs. nonrejector status was determined by the host during immunopoiesis. That the main organ responsible for rejector vs. nonrejector determination is the thymus was shown in a second study. Previously thymectomized (B6 X C3H)F1 females received a histocompatible graft of thymus from either B6 or C3H neonatal females and were restored with donor-marked (B6-Ly-5a X C3H)F1 female cells after lethal irradiation. With respect to (B6 X C3H)F1 male skin grafts, the recipients of B6 thymus grafts responded generally as rejectors and the recipients of C3H thymus grafts responded uniformly as nonrejectors

  5. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

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    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  6. Impact of future remnant liver volume on post-hepatectomy regeneration in non-cirrhotic livers

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    Duilio ePagano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study is to detect if some parameters can be considered as predictors of liver regeneration in two different patient populations composed of in living donors for adult to adult living donor liver transplant and patients with hepatic malignancies within a single institution.Summary Background Data: Preoperative multi-detector computed tomography volumetry is an essential tool to assess the volume of the remnant liver. Methods: a retrospective analysis from an ongoing clinical study on 100 liver resections, between 2004 and 2010. 70 patients were right lobe living donors for liver transplantation and 30 patients were resected for treatment of tumors. Pre-surgical factors such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI, original liver volume, future remnant liver volume (FRLV, spleen volume, liver function tests, creatinine, platelet count, steatosis, portal vein embolization (PVE and number of resected segments were analyzed to evidence potential markers for liver regeneration. Results: Follow-up period did not influence the amount of liver regenerated: the linear regression evidenced that there is no correlation between percentage of liver regeneration and time of follow-up (p=0.88. The pre-surgical variables that resulted markers of liver regeneration include higher preoperative values of BMI (p=0.01, bilirubin(p=0.04, glucose (p=0.05 and GGT (p=0.014; the most important association was revealed regarding the lower FRLV (pConclusions: Liver regeneration follows similar pathway in living donor and in patients resected for cancer. Small FRLV tends to regenerate more and faster, confirming that a larger resections may lead to a greater promotion of liver regeneration in patients with optimal conditions in terms of body habitus, preoperative liver function tests and glucose level.

  7. Long-term following-up of viability of spleen autotransplants in the Beagle canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajtos, Erika; Balint, Anita; Brath, Endre; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Kovacs, Judit; Galuska, Laszlo; Varga, Jozsef; Fodor, Zoltan; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2012-02-01

    To examine the possible late complications of splenectomy or spleen autotransplantation in large laboratory animal model, in which we need non-invasive or minimal-invasive methods for long-term monitoring of the experimental animals. Experimental groups of beagle dogs were: non-operated control, sham-operated control, splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation with 5 or 10 spleen-chips taken into the greater omentum (Furka's technique). Prior to operations, on the 1(st) postoperative week, monthly till the 6(th) as well as in the 9(th) and 12(th) month, hemorheological examinations were performed. In postoperative 12(th) month colloid scintigraphy and diagnostic laparoscopy were carried out. At the end of the investigation comparative morphological examinations were performed, too. From the 4(th)-5(th) postoperative month filtration function of spleen-autotransplants showed particular restoration compared to splenectomy group. However, the functional results did not reach the values of the control or sham-operated groups. Sham-operated control's scintigraphy nicely showed activity in the spleen. In spleen autotransplantation-groups scintigraphy indicated well the activity of spleen-chips. During diagnostic laparoscopy spleen-chips with their blood supply were found. Histologically, the structure of spleen-autotransplants was similar to normal splenic tissue. The autotransplants are regenerated, their functions have been partly restored, and thus spleen autotransplantation may prevent the possible complications of splenectomy. These parameters and the presented investigative protocol are suitable for long-term following-up of viability of the spleen-autotransplants.

  8. The frequency and spectrum of thymus 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake patterns in hyperthyroidism patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Kung; Yeh, Chia-Lu; Chen, Yen-Ling; Wang, Su-Chen; Cheng, Ru-Hwa; Kao, Pan-Fu

    2011-10-01

    Thymic hyperplasia is associated with hyperthyroidism. Increased thymus 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in hyperthyroidism patients has been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze the FDG positron emission tomography (PET) thymus uptake spectrum in patients with active hyperthyroidism with correlation with serum hormones. The prospective study included FDG PET scans from 65 hyperthyroidism patients and 30 subjects with euthyroid status as control group. The intensity of FDG uptake in thyroid and thymus regions was graded subjectively on a five-point scale and semi-quantitatively by measuring standard uptake value (SUV). Correlation coefficient between thymus SUV and serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab), thyrotropin receptor autoantibody (TR Ab), and thymulin were analyzed. Among 65 hyperthyroidism patients, 30 (46.2%) and 39 (60%) patients showed thyroid and thymus FDG uptake, respectively. The frequency of thymus uptake FDG was high in patients younger than age 40 (28/31, 90.3%). The patterns of the thymic FDG uptake include inverted V or triangular, separated triangular, united nontriangular, unilateral right or left extension, and focal midline. Focal midline FDG uptake was the most common pattern (15/39, 38.5%). None of the control group showed thymus FDG uptake. The correlation coefficient between the FDG uptake SUV levels in thymus and serum hormones, thyrotropin, TPO Ab, TR Ab, and thymulin levels were all low (P > .05). In FDG PET scan, thymus activity was common in hyperthyroidism patients; this should not be misdiagnosed as a malignancy in patients exhibiting weight loss. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of Blunt Trauma to the Spleen (Part 1

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    Seyed Abbas Banani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSpleen is the most frequent solid organ to be injured in bluntabdominal trauma. Considering its important role in providingimmunity and preventing infection by a variety of mechanisms,every attempt should be made, if possible, to salvagethe traumatized spleen at any age particularly in children. Afterprimary resuscitation, mandatory requirements for nonoperativemanagement include absence of homodynamic instability,lack of associated major organ injury, admission inthe intensive care unit for high-grade splenic injury and in theward for milder types with close monitoring. About two thirdof the patients would respond to non-operative management.In most patients, failure of non-operative measures usuallyoccur within 12 hours of management. Determinant role ofabdominal sonography or computed tomography, and in selectedcases, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, for appropriate decisioncannot be overemphasized. However, the high status ofclinical judgment would not be replaced by any paraclinicalinvestigations. When operation is unavoidable, if possible,spleen saving procedures (splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomyshould be tried. In case of total splenectomy, autotransplantation,preferably in the omental pouch, may lead toreturn of immunity, at least partially, to prevent or reduce thechance of subsequent infection. Although total splenectomywith autograft is immunologically superior to total splenectomy-only procedure, these patients should also be protectedby vaccination and daily antibiotic for certain period of time.The essential steps for prevention of overwhelming infectionafter total splenectomy are not only immunization and administrationof daily antibiotic (up to 5 years of age or one year inolder children, but include education and information aboutthis dangerous complication. When non-operative managementis successful, the duration of activity restriction (inweeks is almost equal to the grade of splenic injury plus 2.Iran J Med Sci 2010

  10. Inter-individual, inter-vendor comparison of diffusion-weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at 3.0 tesla with an emphasis on the value of normalization with the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Soo; Hwang, Seung Bae; Chung, Gyung Ho; Jin, Gong Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of upper abdominal organs with 2 different 3.0 tesla MR systems and to investigate the usefulness of normalization using the spleen. Forty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective study, of which, 35 patients (M:F, 27:8; mean age ± standard deviation, 62.3 ± 12.3 years) were finally analyzed. In addition to the routine liver MR protocol, single-shot spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging using b values of 0, 50, 400, and 800 s/mm{sup 2} in 2 different MR systems was performed. ADC values of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney and liver lesion (if present) were measured and analyzed. ADC values of the spleen were used for normalization. The Pearson correlation, Spearman correlation, paired sample t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analysis. For all anatomical regions and liver lesions, both non-normalized and normalized ADC values from 2 different MR systems showed significant correlations (r = 0.5196-0.8488). Non-normalized ADC values of both MR systems differed significantly in all anatomical regions and liver lesions (p < 0.001). However, the normalized ADC of all anatomical regions and liver lesions did not differ significantly (p = 0.065-0.661), with significantly lower coefficient of variance than that of non-normalized ADC (p < 0.009). Normalization of the abdominal ADC values using the spleen as a reference organ reduces differences between different MR systems, and could facilitate consistent use of ADC as an imaging biomarker for multi-center or longitudinal studies.

  11. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  12. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  13. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L.; Hingsbergen, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  14. Increased DNA-repair in spleen cells of M. Hodgkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Neumann, E.; Howanietz, L.; Dolejs, I.; Tuschl, H.; Altmann, H.

    1974-11-01

    In spleen cells of control patients and cells of Morbus Hodgkin, DNA-repair after gamma- and UV-irradiation was determined measuring the incorporated 3H-thymidine activity in the DNA. Additionally, the ratio of labeled cells compared to non-labeled cells and the grains per cell were evaluated by autoradiographic investigations. DNA-content per cell was measured using pulsecytophotometry. A significant increase of DNA-repair capacity after gamma-irradiation was found by density gradient centrifugation in alkaline sucrose. The same trend could be shown by investigations of unscheduled DNA-synthesis using autoradiographic method. (author)

  15. [Spleen autotransplant. Natural history and description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherini, E; Sereni, P; Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Croce, F; Di Maggio, G; Vattimo, A; Mancini, S

    1989-09-30

    After considering the natural history of spleen auto-transplant, a clinical case followed up for seven months with instrumental (echography, scintigraphy) and humoral (Jolly bodies, Heinz bodies, reticulocytes, platelets, complement, immune globulin) examinations has been considered so as to verify "take" and function. One months after reimplantation the patient was again operated on for the onset of an intestinal occlusion due to adherences. On that occasion it was possible to control that the implant had taken. It is concluded that personally used parameters proved to be well correlated and that scintigraphy and echography are two complementary, effective techniques for monitoring auto-transplants.

  16. The role of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in liver transplant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Carper, K; Zheng, X X; Kuhr, C S; Reyes, J D; Liang, Y; Perkins, D L; Thomson, A W; Perkins, J D

    2006-12-01

    The liver has long been considered a tolerogenic organ that favors the induction of peripheral tolerance. The mechanisms underlying liver tolerogenicity remain largely undefined. In this study, we characterized Foxp3-expressing CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in liver allograft recipients and examined the role of Treg in inherent liver tolerogenicity by employing the mouse spontaneous liver transplant tolerance model. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from C57BL/10 (H2b) to C3H/HeJ (H2k) mice. The percentage of CD4+ CD25+ Treg was expanded in the liver grafts and recipient spleens from day 5 up to day 100 posttransplantation, associated with high intracellular Foxp3 and CTLA4 expression. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated significant numbers of Foxp3+ cells in the liver grafts and recipient spleens and increased transforming growth factor beta expression in the recipient spleens throughout the time courses. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from the long-term liver allograft survivors significantly prolonged donor heart graft survival. Depletion of recipient CD4+ CD25+ Treg using anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (250 microg/d) induced acute liver allograft rejection, associated with elevated anti-donor T-cell proliferative responses, CTL and natural killer activities, enhanced interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma, IL-10, and decreased IL-4 production, and decreased T-cell apoptotic activity in anti-CD25-treated recipients. Moreover, CTLA4 blockade by anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody administration exacerbated liver graft rejection when combined with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody. Thus, Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25+ Treg appear to underpin spontaneous acceptance of major histocompatability complex- mismatched liver allografts in mice. CTLA4, IL-4, and apoptosis of alloreactive T cells appear to contribute to the function of Treg and regulation of graft outcome.

  17. Comparative study of clinicopathological states and imaging diagnosis in patients with fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariga, Hisayuki; Arakawa, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Masatoshi

    1985-01-01

    The authors clarified the characteristics of the clinicopathological states of 74 patients with the fatty liver classified by the etiology, simultaneously evaluating clinically the usefulness of imaging diagnosis with ultrasound and CT by the comparison of pathohistological findings(the rate of fat occupation in the liver). It was confirmed that, although the outcome of ultrasonic diagnosis was inferior to that of CT in the diagnostic capacity, the so-called bright liver finding was obtained, provided that the accumulation of fat in the liver was over Grade III (40 - 60 %), and that clinical diagnosis for fatty liver was possible. With CT, on the other hand, there was negative correlation between the degree of fat accumulation in the liver vs. the liver CT level and the CT ratio of the liver/spleen. Particularly, the CT ratio of the liver/spleen in this disease was 0.80 ± 0.18, indicating a significantly lower level as compared with 1.13 ± 0.13 in the control (p < 0.001). It is therefore suggested that, in patients in whom accumulation of fat in the liver is comparatively a lower level of Grade II (20 - 40 %), diagnosis for fatty liver by CT may be possible at a considerably high probability. Since these imaging diagnostic methods have been highly evaluated as non-invasive and convenient screening means of the fatty liver, it is important to establish the diagnostic criteria for graphic quantification of the fatty liver. (author)

  18. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemistry of metallocenes. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, M.; Klose, W.

    1977-01-01

    103 Ru labelled 1-Ruthenocenyl-3-phenyl-propen-1-one was administered to mice intropertioneally. The organ distribution was determined in liver, spleen, lung, muscle, blood, kidney and thymus. The highest concentration was found in the thymus-up to 22% of the injected dose/g with corresponding thymus to muscle ration of up to 364 : 1. The consequences for nuclear medicine are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Liver scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki

    1976-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (Tc-Sn-C) were made on liver scintigraphy for comparison with 198 Au-colloid in blood clearance, liver accumulation, and spleen imaging strength. Tc-Sn-C was excellent in ease of sterilization, simplicity of preparation, reduction in the exposure dose for the examiner, labeling rate, and stability, and it was effective as a drug for liver scintigraphy. The blood clearance T1/2 can be an indicator for the blood flow rate in the liver, similarly to the Au-C method. Although a decrease in the liver radioactivity after liver accumulation was observed, it was not thought to affect liver scintigraphy. A clear shadow of the liver was obtained in all cases, and there seemed to be no differences between the commercially prepared Tc-Sn-C and the Tc-Sn-C which must be prepared each time. The spleen imaging strength was thought to be effective as a supplementary diagnosis for splenic diseases. No allergic symptoms appeared immediately after examination. (Chiba, N.)

  1. Selenomethionine Se 75 thymus scans in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toole, J.F.; Cowan, R.; Maynard, D.; Witcofski, R.L.; Janeway, R.

    1975-01-01

    In 1966, Toole and Witcofski introduced selenomethionine Se 75 mediastinal scanning as a diagnostic test for thymomas. Since then we have performed such scans on patients with myasthenic syndrome. Because the technique is atraumatic, safe, and accurate, it can be performed on critically ill myasthenics. Two hundred and fifty microcuries of selenomethionine Se 75 is injected intravenously. Within 1 hour the mediastinum from the suprasternal notch to the ziphoid process is scanned, using a 2 x 3 inch scanner. Delayed scans have been made in a few instances but they have not increased the number of positive cases. Selenomethionine Se 75 is incorporated into tissues undergoing rapid protein synthesis such as thyroid, pancreas, liver, and lymphomas. Of the 34 mediastinal scans performed on myasthenics between 1966 and December 31, 1974, 4 were positive for thymoma. In addition, there was a positive scan with uptake in an area of atelectasis of the lung adjacent to the mediastinum. Of interest is the fact that 1 patient with carcinoma of the lung had a positive scan over the lesion. In 13 patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia the mediastinal scans were negative. In another patient with a mediastinal mass noted on chest x-ray, a variety of differential diagnostic possibilities were considered, such as pericardial cyst, dermoid, and aneurysm. A selenomethionine scan was strongly positive, suggesting a thymoma which subsequent surgery confirmed.

  2. A comparative immunohistochemical study of aplastic thymuses for lymphocytic, epithelial, proliferative and apoptotic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjoub F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immune deficiency is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Primary immunodeficiency comprises a wide range of disorders that mainly manifest in early childhood as devastating infections with opportunistic organisms. Thymic aplasia is found on autopsy of some patients afflicted with immune deficiency disorders, such as DiGeorge syndrome and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. After a thorough search of the literature, we found little information on the cellular characteristics of these thymuses. Our study aims to elucidate role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of thymic aplasia and compare various lymphocytic and epithelial markers in normal and aplastic thymuses. Methods: We selected 12 subjects who died of severe infections with aplastic thymus found on autopsy, and 11 control subjects who died of unrelated causes, such as congenital heart disease. The presence of several markers, including Bcl2, P53, lymphocytic markers, and CD68, was examined using immunohistochemical methods on paraffin-embedded thymus sections. Positively-stained cells were counted per 1000 cells and the results stated as percentage of positive cells.                        Results: The mean age of the control group was between 7 days to 18 months (mean: 4.5 months. Parental consanguinity was present in 45.5% and 9.1% of the control and case groups, respectively; however, this was not statistically significant. We found significantly lower expression of Bcl2 in the case group (p value: 0.038. Furthermore, expression of CD68 was significantly higher in the case group. Epithelial markers were significantly higher in case subjects, although CD8 expression was higher in the control group. The presence of other markers was not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusions: Increase in apoptosis has a role in aplastic thymuses and prevention of apoptosis may halt this process. Also high CD68

  3. Somatostatin receptor expression in the human spleen - Answer to an enigma by ex-vivo and in-vitro autoradiography after 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, M.; Swart, J. de; Groen, H.C.; Konijnenberg, M.W.; Van der Graaf, L.M.; Kaemmerer, D.; Kulkami, H.R.; Baum, R.P.; Lupp, A.; Saenger, J.; Jong, M. de

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: radiolabelled somatostatin analogues are being used for diagnostic and therapeutic (PRRT) purposes in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expressing tumours. During PRRT a significant spleen uptake may lead to radiation doses of > 20 Gy. Yet, the threshold dose for spleen radiation induced toxicity is currently unknown. Based on previous 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT studies, demonstrating higher uptake in spleen than in splenosis, white pulp (WP) localization of radioactivity was suggested. This hypothesis was investigated in the current pilot study using the longer lived 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate. Methods: a patient diagnosed with neuroendocrine neoplasm of the pancreatic tail (SUV max on 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT 100.4) with liver metastasis (SUV 47.3, normal liver SUV 12.5) and uptake in the spleen (SUV 41.0) received 1 GBq 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate. 2 h after administration whole-body planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT of the upper abdomen was performed, followed by laparoscopic resection of the pancreatic tumour and splenectomy the next day. After spleen transport from Bad Berka to Rotterdam ex-vivo micro-SPECT of the removed spleen was acquired for 73 min using 2.5 mm diameter pinholes. Spleen fragments (∼10 * 10 * 5 mm) were either snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen or fixed in 10% formalin and paraffin embedded. Ex-vivo autoradiography of 10 μm cryo-sections was performed and serial sections were used for 111 In-DOTA-octreotate in-vitro autoradiography after decay of 177 Lu. FFPE sections were used for HE- and immunostaining for SSTR2A and cell subsets CD4 (Th-cell), CD8 (Ts-cell), CD20 (B-cell) and CD68 (macrophage). Results: 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate scintigraphy and SPECT/CT demonstrated high uptake in the pancreatic tumor, hepatic metastasis and homogeneously in the normal spleen. High resolution micro-SPECT imaging of the isolated spleen also revealed a relatively homogeneous uptake (calculated rest activity 60 MBq 177 Lu). The

  4. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  5. Data from quantitative label free proteomics analysis of rat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudekula, Khadar; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented in this work has been obtained using a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of rat spleen. A robust method for extraction of proteins from rat spleen tissue and LC-MS-MS analysis was developed using a urea and SDS-based buffer. Different fractionation methods were compared. A total of 3484 different proteins were identified from the pool of all experiments run in this study (a total of 2460 proteins with at least two peptides). A total of 1822 proteins were identified from nine non-fractionated pulse gels, 2288 proteins and 2864 proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE fractionation into three and five fractions respectively. The proteomics data are deposited in ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE PXD003520, Progenesis and Maxquant output are presented in the supported information. The generated list of proteins under different regimes of fractionation allow assessing the nature of the identified proteins; variability in the quantitative analysis associated with the different sampling strategy and allow defining a proper number of replicates for future quantitative analysis.

  6. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  7. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  8. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  9. Post traumatic intra thoracic spleen presenting with upper GI bleed! – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinra Sonali

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated splenic vein thrombosis with left sided portal hypertension is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleed. Diagnosis is difficult and requires a high index of suspicion, especially in patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleed in the presence of splenomegaly and normal liver function tests. Case presentation A 64 year old male presented with haematemesis and melaena. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed the presence of antral erosions in the stomach and fundal varices. A computerised tomography scan of abdomen confirmed the presence of a diaphragmatic tear and the spleen to be lying in the left hemi thorax. The appearances of the splenic vein on the scan were consistent with thrombosis. Conclusion Left sided portal hypertension as a result of isolated splenic vein thrombosis secondary to trauma is rare. The unusual presentation of our case, splenic herniation into the left hemithorax, causing fundal varices leading to upper gastrointestinal bleed 28 years after the penetrating injury, makes this case most interesting. We believe that this has not been reported in literature before.

  10. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...

  11. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Three Thymus Taxa from Turkey with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zehra Küçükbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost, Thymus fallax Fisch. & Mey. and Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak var. pubescens resulted in the identification of 26, 35 and 53 constituents, respectively. The major components in the essential oil of T. migricus were found to be α-terpineol (30.6%, thymol (20.7% and α-terpinyl acetate (14.9% while in the essentiol oil of T. fallaxcis-carveol (29.6% and α-terpineol (10.8%. Carvacrol was a dominant compound with a percentage 66.1% of the essential oil of T. pubescens var. pubescens. The data obtained indicate that the essential oils of Thymus species generally exhibit some bacteriostatic activity. The antioxidant activity of the tested essential oils were found to be slightly lower than butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA.

  12. Mushroom poisoning in children: liver MDCT findings in three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Banu; Kirbas, Ismail; Cevik, Belma; Teksam, Mehmet; Coskun, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning occurs quite frequently in Turkey, usually during late summer and autumn when climatic conditions favour fungal growth. We report the MDCT findings of the liver in three children after mushroom poisoning. In all three patients, precontrast MDCT findings showed diffuse reduction of hepatic attenuation compared with the spleen. Contrast-enhanced MDCT images showed homogeneous contrast enhancement of the liver. All three patients recovered after medical treatment. A follow-up precontrast MDCT examination was performed in one patient in whom the density of the liver parenchyma had returned to normal. (orig.)

  13. Concurrent intrathyroidal thymus and parathyroid in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Velimezis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient’s history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland. While each individual entity has been well documented, this is one of the few reports in which concurrent presentation is reported. Given the fact that both the thymus and the inferior parathyroid are derivatives of the same embryonic structure (i.e. the third pharyngeal pouch, it is speculated that the present condition resulted from a failure in separation and migration during organogenesis.

  14. [Extraction and analysis of chemical components of essential oil in Thymus vulgaris of tissue culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li; Xu, Shi-Qian; Li, Jian-Guo; Cheng, Zhi-Hui; Dang, Jian-Zhang

    2011-10-01

    To extract the essential oils from the Seedlings, the Aseptic Seedlings and the Tissue Culture Seedlings of Thymus vulgaris and analyze their chemical components and the relative contents. The essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, the chemical components and the relative contents were identified and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and peak area normalization method. The main chemical components of essential oil in these three samples had no significant difference, they all contained the main components of essential oil in Thymus vulgaris: Thymol, Carvacrol, o-Cymene, gamma-Terpinene, Caryophyllene et al. and only had a slight difference in the relative content. This study provides important theoretical foundation and data reference for further study on production of essential oil in thyme by tissue culture technology.

  15. Radioiodine concentration by the thymus in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: report of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Maria Eduarda; Flamini, Rodrigo C.; Corbo, Rossana; Mamede, Marcelo [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear], e-mail: mamede@inca.gov.br

    2009-10-15

    The radioactive iodine has been used with great value as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma previously submitted to total thyroidectomy. False-positive whole-body scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the radioisotope or lack of knowledge on the existence of other pathologies that could eventually present radioiodine uptake. Thymic uptake is an uncommon cause of false-positive whole-body scan, and the mechanism through which it occurs is not completely understood. The present paper reports five cases of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who presented a mediastinum uptake of radioiodine in a whole-body scan during follow-up. The patients had either histological or radiological confirmation of the presence of residual thymus gland. It is very important to know about the possibility of iodine uptake by the thymus in order to avoid unnecessary treatment, such as surgery or radioiodine therapy. (author)

  16. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  17. Myasthenia gravis: 75Se-seleno-methionine scanning of thymus gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szobor, A.; Fornet, B.

    1986-01-01

    The 75 Se-seleno-methionine isotope thymus scanning was examined in a series of patients with myasthenia gravis. The patients were given 4 μC/kg hence a total of 250-300 μC 75 Se-seleno-methionine, intravenously. The method proved useful and informative in the diagnostics of myasthenia. Prior to thymectomy, the thymic tumour or a large gland could be observed and some hints could be gained for the biological activity of the gland. After the operation, the success of thymectomy could be checked and later a possible recidive could be shown or excluded. In non-operative cases the change in thymic activity could be followed which was an important sign of a malignant or tumorous growth of the thymus. (author)

  18. Hassall's corpuscles in the guinea-pig thymus after 60Co 2000R local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hideo; Sugiyama, Shizuyuki; Shibata, Moritoshi; Ishibashi, Hirofumi; Uehara, Masaomi

    1974-01-01

    The cervical regions of male guinea pigs weighing about 300g were irradiated locally with 60 Co 2000 R and the animals were sacrificed on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th days after the irradiation. The thymus was weighed and fixed in 10% formal saline. Tissues were blocked in paraffin and each block was cut into serial sections having a thickness of approximately 6 microns. These sections were stained by the haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and the aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) techniques. The size of Hassall's corpuscles was measured in the sections stained with haematoxylin-eosin and it was found that the weight of the thymus in 60 Co 2000 R irradiation decreased remarkably and that the tendency of Hassall's corpuscles to enlarge was more remarkable in the 2000 R group than in the 800 R group. (author)

  19. Hassall's corpuscles in the guinea-pig thymus after /sup 60/Co 2000R local irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, H; Sugiyama, S; Shibata, M; Ishibashi, H; Uehara, M [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1974-12-01

    The cervical regions of male guinea pigs weighing about 300g were irradiated locally with /sup 60/Co 2000 R and the animals were sacrificed on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th days after the irradiation. The thymus was weighed and fixed in 10% formal saline. Tissues were blocked in paraffin and each block was cut into serial sections having a thickness of approximately 6 microns. These sections were stained by the haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and the aldehyde-fuchsin (AF) techniques. The size of Hassall's corpuscles was measured in the stained sections and it was found that the weight of the thymus in /sup 60/Co 2000 R irradiation decreased remarkably and that the tendency of Hassall's corpuscles to enlarge was greater in the 2000 R group than in the 800 R group.

  20. Mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation on bcl-2 protein expression and apoptosis in mouse thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiamei; Chen Aijun; Chen Dong; Liu Shuzheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation in varied doses of X-rays on bcl-2 express and apoptosis in mouse thymus. Methods: Immunohistochemistry, image analysis and transmission electron microscope were used in the study. Results: The expression of bcl-2 protein was limited within thymic medulla, decreased with 2 Gy, however, increased with 0.075 Gy after whole-body irradiation. Some typical apoptotic cells were found in thymic cortex after 2 Gy irradiation. The apoptotic cells decreased and mitotic metaphase increased after 0.075 Gy irradiation. Conclusion: The mechanism of effect of ionizing radiation on apoptosis of thymus was related with the expression of bcl-2 proteins