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Sample records for spleen liver heart

  1. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  2. Value of selective spleen scintigraphy when liver/spleen image shows equivocal spleen defects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Corley, J.H.; Kyle, R.W.; Stotler, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine the utility of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS) in the evaluation of equivocal defects on liver/splen (LS) image. Six of seven questionable features on LS image were classified on SSS to be definite defects in three, and normal in three. Three of seven patients had defects on SSS that were not seen on LS image. The inability of the LS image to exclude or delineate an abnormality in the spleen was attributed to an overlying left lobe of the liver in five, and to technique in one. The SSS is a valuable diagnostic tool in the further evaluation of equivocal spleen defects on LS image, and SSS may demonstrate abnormalities not demonstrated on LS image

  3. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  4. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  6. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  7. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  8. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  9. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  10. Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured ...

  11. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  12. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; San Luis, T. Jr.; Lange, C.E.; Thelen, M.; Veltman, G.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1977-01-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and 197 Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma. (orig.) [de

  13. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Careful examination of the left upper quadrant of the pediatric patient will usually disclose the presence or absence of an enlarged spleen. Although the spleen has a wide variation in weight and mobility, the normal spleen rarely extends below the left costal margin. While the presence of a palpable spleen is usually of pathological significance, the wide variation in splenic weight and position may make the detection of splenomegaly difficult on routine physical examination. When present, it may be difficult to differentiate the enlarged spleen from other palpable masses in the left upper quadrant. For these reasons, radionuclide imaging of the spleen has become a simple and valuable method for precisely locating and establishing the accurate size of functioning splenic tissue. The size and weight of the spleen can be approximated by direct measurement from the scan; normal values have been established based on the splenic length and the age and weight of the child. The diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide s []anning of the spleen in lymphoma, leukemia, other malignancies, anemia and other blood dyscrasias, infectious diseases, granuloma, and cysts is discussed. (CH)

  14. Segmentation of liver and spleen based on computational anatomy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhua; Chen, Yen-Wei; Foruzan, Amir Hossein; Lin, Lanfen; Han, Xian-Hua; Tateyama, Tomoko; Wu, Xing; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Huiyan

    2015-12-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs is a key step in developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Probabilistic atlas based on human anatomical structure, used as a priori information in a Bayes framework, has been widely used for organ segmentation. How to register the probabilistic atlas to the patient volume is the main challenge. Additionally, there is the disadvantage that the conventional probabilistic atlas may cause a bias toward the specific patient study because of the single reference. Taking these into consideration, a template matching framework based on an iterative probabilistic atlas for liver and spleen segmentation is presented in this paper. First, a bounding box based on human anatomical localization, which refers to the statistical geometric location of the organ, is detected for the candidate organ. Then, the probabilistic atlas is used as a template to find the organ in this bounding box by using template matching technology. We applied our method to 60 datasets including normal and pathological cases. For the liver, the Dice/Tanimoto volume overlaps were 0.930/0.870, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 2.906mm. For the spleen, quantification led to 0.922 Dice/0.857 Tanimoto overlaps, 1.992mm RMSE. The algorithm is robust in segmenting normal and abnormal spleens and livers, such as the presence of tumors and large morphological changes. Comparing our method with conventional and recently developed atlas-based methods, our results show an improvement in the segmentation accuracy for multi-organs (p<0.00001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Judge of surgical indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen by CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Yokoyama, Toshimitsu; Suga, Hiroyasu; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Muraoka, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masatake; Suzuki, Tadashi.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that the findings of injuries of parenchimatous organs such as liver and spleen by computed tomography (CT) are consistent with those by surgical operation. But it is still unclear whether CT findings can determine operative indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen. We performed a retrospective study on 35 lesions of blunt injuries of liver and spleen in 33 cases for blunt injuries of liver and spleen at our hospitals to examine whether CT findings can determine the severity of damage and surgical indication for the injuries, and the following results were obtained. Based on CT findings, the presence of injury was confirmed in all cases except for one lesion. Comparison of CT findings and operative or laparoscopic findings in 12 cases undergoing operation or laparoscopy for liver/spleen injury revealed that the findings of each method were almost the same with few exceptions. When liver/spleen injuries were classified according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma (JAST) Classification of injury of liver and spleen, cases with emergency operation had severe injury of Type IIIb for the liver and Type IIIb or higher for the spleen, while conservative treatment was possible for injury cases of Type IIIa or lower of the liver and spleen. From these results, the JAST Classification of these injuries based upon CT imaging was found to be a suitable method for selecting an appropriate treatment for blund injury of liver and spleen. (author)

  16. Judge of surgical indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen by CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Yokoyama, Toshimitsu; Suga, Hiroyasu; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Muraoka, Ryusuke [Fukui Medical School (Japan); Ishikawa, Masatake; Suzuki, Tadashi

    1997-10-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that the findings of injuries of parenchimatous organs such as liver and spleen by computed tomography (CT) are consistent with those by surgical operation. But it is still unclear whether CT findings can determine operative indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen. We performed a retrospective study on 35 lesions of blunt injuries of liver and spleen in 33 cases for blunt injuries of liver and spleen at our hospitals to examine whether CT findings can determine the severity of damage and surgical indication for the injuries, and the following results were obtained. Based on CT findings, the presence of injury was confirmed in all cases except for one lesion. Comparison of CT findings and operative or laparoscopic findings in 12 cases undergoing operation or laparoscopy for liver/spleen injury revealed that the findings of each method were almost the same with few exceptions. When liver/spleen injuries were classified according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma (JAST) Classification of injury of liver and spleen, cases with emergency operation had severe injury of Type IIIb for the liver and Type IIIb or higher for the spleen, while conservative treatment was possible for injury cases of Type IIIa or lower of the liver and spleen. From these results, the JAST Classification of these injuries based upon CT imaging was found to be a suitable method for selecting an appropriate treatment for blund injury of liver and spleen. (author)

  17. The heart and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Krag, Aleksander

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac failure affects the liver and liver dysfunction affects the heart. Chronic and acute heart failure can lead to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic ischemic hepatitis. These conditions may impair liver function and treatment should be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek...... against the heart failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion and liver transplantation affect cardiac function in portal hypertensive patients and cause stress to the cirrhotic heart, with a risk of perioperative heart failure. The risk and prevalence of coronary artery disease...

  18. The heart and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Krag, Aleksander

    2009-01-01

    to secure perfusion of vital organs. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, physical and/or pharmacological stress may reveal a reduced cardiac performance with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysical abnormalities, termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Pathophysiological mechanisms include reduced......Cardiac failure affects the liver and liver dysfunction affects the heart. Chronic and acute heart failure can lead to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic ischemic hepatitis. These conditions may impair liver function and treatment should be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek...

  19. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of the Depression of Heart-spleen Deficiency with Wuling Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Liu Ping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on the treatment of depression belong to the type of heart-spleen deficiency with Wuling capsule, 37 patients were assigned into two groups: the deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (I) and the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (II). The efficacy of two groups was surveyed and compared after taken Wuling capsule 2 and 4 weeks,respectively. After treatment, there was a difference (P 0.05). The satisfactory effects were showed on various kinds of depressions using wuling capsules,while deficiency of both the heart and spleen group effects were better than that of the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group. (authors)

  20. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  1. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  2. Outcome of children with blunt liver or spleen injuries: Experience from a single institution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Woon-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, injury pattern, and treatment outcomes among children hospitalized for the management of blunt liver and spleen injury at a single institution in Korea, and to document trends in treatment strategies of children with blunt torso trauma. Children (injuries, hospitalized at our center between May 2010 and February 2016, were included in the present study. Data were retrospectively analyzed for demographic and injury-related information were obtained. During the study period, 34 patients with blunt liver injury and 21 patients with blunt spleen injury presented at the center. The most common cause of liver and spleen injury was motor vehicle collision, followed by fall. Thirty patients (88.2%) with liver injuries and 18 patients (85.7%) with spleen injuries were managed conservatively. No cases of mortality occurred in patients with spleen injury group; one patient (2.9%) died in patients with liver injury due to uncontrolled bleeding. Our data demonstrated that 85.7% of patients with spleen injuries and 88.2% of patients with liver injuries were managed nonoperatively. Operative management was chosen more selectively, being applied in patients with high grade organ injury scores or abrupt changes in vital status. Our findings will contribute to the available data concerning children with traumatic injuries in Korea. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... of CSPH. We recently showed the algorithm to rule-out CSPH using sequential liver- (L-SWE) and spleen-Shear-wave elastography (S-SWE). This study investigated the diagnostic value of S-SWE for diagnosis of CSPH. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight cirrhotic patients with pressure gradient measurements...... were included into this prospective multicentre study. L-SWE was measured in 155 patients, S-SWE in 112 patients, and both in 109 patients. RESULTS: Liver-shear-wave elastography and S-SWE correlated with clinical events and decompensation. SWE of liver and spleen revealed strong correlations...

  4. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  5. Autotransplantation of Spleen Mitigates Drug-Induced Liver Damage in Splenectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Sabrine Teixeira Ferraz; Rezende, Alice Belleigoli; Figueiredo, Bárbara Bruna Muniz; Mendonça, Ana Carolina de Paula; Almeida, Caroline de Souza; de Oliveira, Erick Esteves; de Paoli, Flávia; Teixeira, Henrique Couto

    2017-12-01

    The spleen presents numerous functions, including the production of immunoglobulins and blood filtration, removing microorganisms and cellular debris. The spleen also has anatomical and functional relationship with the liver, but there are few studies on this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of splenectomy and autologous spleen transplantation on both filtering functions of spleen and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Fifty-two BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups: splenectomized; splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in the greater omentum; sham operated control; and non-operated control. At day 7th, 14th, and 28th after surgery, splenic filtration was assessed by counting Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB) and pitted red cells (PIT). The animals received 400 mg/kg acetaminophen by gavage at day 28 th and after 12 or 24 hours were euthanized for evaluation of splenic and hepatic morphology. The splenectomized group demonstrated reduced filtration of HJB and PIT in all analyzes, while the autotransplanted group developed progressive recovery of function after the 14th day. At day 28 after surgery the implants showed similar histology in comparison to normal spleen. Liver histology showed more intense centrilobular necrosis in splenectomized group in comparison to the others, suggesting a protective role of spleen in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Splenic implants showed structural and functional recovery, demonstrating the ability of autologous implant to rescue filtering function of intact spleen. Furthermore, the integrity of splenic function appears to influence liver morphology, since the presence of the splenic implants mitigated the effects of chemically-induced liver damage.

  6. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  7. Three-dimensional demonstration of liver and spleen by computer graphics technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiromi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takao; Takayama, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional demonstration system of the liver and spleen has been developed using computer graphics technique. Three-dimensional models were constructed from CT images of the organ surface. The three-dimensional images were displayed as wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. The anatomical surface of the liver and spleen was realistically viewed from any direction. In liver cirrhosis, atrophy of the right lobe, hypertrophy of the left lobe and splenomegaly were displayed vividly. The liver and hepatoma were displayed as wire-frame and solid models respectively on the same image. This combined display clarified the intrahepatic location of hepatoma together with configuration of liver and hepatoma. Furthermore, superimposed display of three dimensional models and celiac angiogram enabled us to understand the location and configuration of lesions more easily than the original CT data or angiogram alone. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for noninvasive evaluation of patho-morphological changes of the liver and spleen. (author)

  8. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  9. Human heart, spleen, and perirenal fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogduijn, M J; Crop, M J; Peeters, A M A; Van Osch, G J V M; Balk, A H M M; Ijzermans, J N M; Weimar, W; Baan, C C

    2007-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have important tissue repair functions and show potent immunosuppressive capacities in vitro. Although usually isolated from the bone marrow, MSCs have been identified in other tissues, including the skin and liver. In the present study, we isolated and characterized MSCs from human heart, spleen, and perirenal adipose tissue. MSCs from these different tissue sites were similar to those derived from bone marrow in that they expressed comparable levels of the cell-surface markers CD90, CD105, CD166, and HLA class I, were negative for CD34, CD45, HLA class II, CD80, and CD86 expression, and were capable of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Like bone marrow-derived MSCs, MSCs from these different tissue sources inhibited the proliferation of alloactivated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), giving 85%, 79%, 79%, and 81% inhibition, respectively. Also in line with bone marrow-derived MSCs they inhibited proliferative responses of PBMCs to phytohemagglutinin, a nonspecific stimulator of lymphocyte proliferation, and reduced-memory T lymphocyte responses to tetanus toxoid. The results of this study demonstrate that MSCs from various tissues have similar immunophenotypes, in vitro immunosuppressive properties, and differentiation potential.

  10. Use of liver-spleen scintigraphy to detect immune status and Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, W.I.; Heiba, S.; Ganz, S.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) underwent liver-spleen scintigraphy. In 43 clinically immunocompromised patients splenic activity was decreased or absent. Eight of these patients had enlarged spleens with decreased uptake. Autopsy results are available on three, all of whom had Kaposi sarcoma of the spleen. Splenic uptake was initially demonstrated in six HTV-positive patients. In three of these subsequently symptomatic patients, follow-up scans showed decreased splenic uptake. Two non-AIDS, HIV-positive patients had normal splenic uptake. These preliminary data suggest that AIDS patients initially have increased uptake, which progresses to decreased splenic uptake as the patients become immunocompromised. Azidothymidine reversed this pattern in one patient. In addition, splenic enlargement with decreased uptake suggests the presence of Kaposi sarcoma

  11. [Relation between PMI and FTIR spectral changes in asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to observe the postmortem degradation process in mechanical asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen for providing a new method of estimating PMI. Rats were sacrificed by mechanical asphyxia and cadavers were kept at (20 +/- 2) degrees C in a control chamber. The liver and spleen were sub-sampled from the same rat at intervals of 0-15 days postmortem and the data were measured by FTIR spectrometer. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish mathematical models by the statistical software. The band absorbance ratios showed increase, decrease and stable with PMI. The cubic model functions showed the strongest correlation coefficient. Compared with the spleen, the liver showed a higher correlation coefficient. The A1541/A1396 of liver showed the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.966). After 6-7 days postmortem, band absorbance ratios showed a steady period. FTIR spectroscopy can be a new and efficient method to estimate PMI within 7 days.

  12. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  13. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki

    1983-01-01

    Liver and spleen volume were measured by computed tomography (CT) using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indication the accuracy and usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 48 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 subjects with non-hepatobiliary discase. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis but not in alcoholic cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. Alcoholic cirrhosis showed significantly larger liver volume than non-alcoholic cirrhosis. In alcoholic fibrosis, the mean hepatic volume was significantly larger than non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volumes both in alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis were significantly larger than in other disease. A significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiology of chronic liver disease. (author)

  14. Liver/spleen volume ratio as a predictor of prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yosuke; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The course of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is determined by clinical symptoms and histological findings. The present study examined the prognostic importance of imaging parameters in PBC. The volumes of the liver and spleen of patients with PBC were assessed by computed tomography (CT). The volume ratio of liver to spleen (LV/SV ratio) was evaluated and used for further analyses. The prognosis was significantly poorer in PBC patients with a low, rather than high, LV/SV ratio. The Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that the serum bilirubin level and the LV/SV ratio could predict the prognosis of PBC patients. In addition, the LV/SV ratio was significantly lower in patients who developed symptoms (s-PBC) than in those who remained asymptomatic (a-PBC) during the observation period. The LV/SV ratio is of prognostic importance in patients with PBC. (author)

  15. A case report with atypical liver-spleen scan after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcora, N.; Ilgin, N.; Basaklar, C.

    1992-01-01

    Remodeling of the liver following splenectomy may simulate hypertrophy of an accessory spleen on sulphur colloid scans. There are but a few reports about the persistent splenic activity as a prominent finding during the post-splenectomy period. Splenic simulation may be attributed to the unusual hepatic lobe displacement, as in this case. The clinician should be aware of possible splenic simulation in the post-splenectomy period, if hypersplenism is suspected

  16. Interactions of the heart and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bernardi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    There is a mutual interaction between the function of the heart and the liver and a broad spectrum of acute and chronic entities that affect both the heart and the liver. These can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting...... the heart and the liver at the same time. In chronic and acute cardiac hepatopathy, owing to cardiac failure, a combination of reduced arterial perfusion and passive congestion leads to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic hypoxic hepatitis. These conditions may impair the liver function and treatment should...... be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek to secure perfusion of vital organs. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, physical and/or pharmacological stress may reveal a reduced cardiac performance with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysical abnormalities termed cirrhotic...

  17. Portal Hypertension in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Spleen Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Yoshitaka; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Youichi; Tomokuni, Junko; Sahara, Akiko; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of spleen stiffness (SS) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in the diagnosis of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis, with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) as a reference standard. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this prospective single-center study. From February 2012 to August 2013, 60 patients with liver cirrhosis (mean age, 70.8 years; age range, 34-88 years; 34 men, 26 women) with HVPG, LS, and SS measurements and gastrointestinal endoscopy and laboratory data were included if they met the following criteria: no recent episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, no history of splenectomy, no history of partial splenic embolization, no history of β-blocker therapy, and absence of portal thrombosis. The efficacy of the parameters for the evaluation of portal hypertension was analyzed by using the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The correlation coefficient between SS and HVPG (r = 0.876) was significantly better than that between LS and HVPG (r = 0.609, P higher (0.943, 0.963, 0.937, and 0.955, respectively) than those of LS, spleen diameter, platelet count, and platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (P < .05 for all). SS could be used to accurately rule out the presence of clinically important portal hypertension, severe portal hypertension, EVs, and high-risk EVs (negative likelihood ratios, 0.051, 0.056, 0.054, and 0.074, respectively). SS is reliable and has better diagnostic performance than LS for identifying portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. Morphological changes in the kidney, liver and spleen during prolonged administration of iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Bucharskya, A. B.; Kong, X. M.; Zuev, V. V.; Medvedev, B. A.; Ignatiev, A. A.; Bochkaryeva, T. V.

    2012-02-01

    We determined the cytotoxic effect of iron nanoparticles of 70 nm, with a single per oral administration in an experiment on white outbred mice. Morphological changes were evaluated in the internal organs. Thus, changes depend on the concentration of nanoparticles at long-term per oral exposure: identified violations of the structure of the liver, kidneys and spleen as venous plethora and degeneration of cells at 250 and 500 mkg / kg dose of nanoparticles are reversible, changes in the organs were pronounced with a dosage of 1000 mkg / kg.

  19. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  20. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C.; Valderrama, E.

    1998-01-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Valderrama, E. [Department of Pathology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  2. Spleen dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a new method for staging liver fibrosis in a piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore spleen hemodynamic alteration in liver fibrosis with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI, and to determine how to stage liver fibrosis with spleen DCE-MRI parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen piglets were prospectively used to model liver fibrosis staged by liver biopsy, and underwent spleen DCE-MRI on 0, 5th, 9th, 16th and 21st weekend after modeling this disease. DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak (TTP, positive enhancement integral (PEI, maximum slope of increase (MSI and maximum slope of decrease (MSD of spleen were measured, and statistically analyzed to stage this disease. RESULTS: Spearman's rank correlation tests showed that TTP tended to increase with increasing stages of liver fibrosis (r = 0.647, P0.05, and decreased from stage 2 to 4 (P0.05. Mann-Whitney tests demonstrated that TTP and PEI could classify fibrosis between stage 0 and 1-4, between 0-1 and 2-4, between 0-2 and 3-4, or between 0-3 and 4 (all P<0.01. MSD could discriminate between 0-2 and 3-4 (P = 0.006, or between 0-3 and 4 (P = 0.012. MSI could not differentiate between any two stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis illustrated that area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of TTP was larger than of PEI for classifying stage ≥1 and ≥2 (AUC = 0.851 and 0.783, respectively. PEI could best classify stage ≥3 and 4 (AUC = 0.903 and 0.96, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spleen DCE-MRI has potential to monitor spleen hemodynamic alteration and classify liver fibrosis stages.

  3. 3D segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekes, G.; Fidrich, M.; Nyul, L.G.; Mate, E.; Kuba, A.

    2007-01-01

    The clinicians often need to segment the abdominal organs for radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation of these organs is very time-consuming, therefore automated methods are desired. We developed a semi-automatic segmentation method to outline liver, spleen and kidneys. It works on CT images without contrast intake that are acquired with a routine clinical protocol. From an initial surface around a user defined seed point, the segmentation of the organ is obtained by an active surface algorithm. Pre- and post-processing steps are used to adapt the general method for specific organs. The evaluation results show that the accuracy of our method is about 90%, which can be further improved with little manual editing, and that the precision is slightly higher than that of manual contouring. Our method is accurate, precise and fast enough to use in the clinical practice. (orig.)

  4. Ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, and urinary tract of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Spotswood, Tim; Wagner, Wencke M; Grimbeek, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the abdomen of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) include those affecting the liver, spleen, and urinary tract. The most common diseases of captive-bred cheetah are gastritis, gastric ulceration, glomerulosclerosis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and are the most frequent causes of mortality in these animals. The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the normal liver, spleen, kidney, and urinary bladder of the anesthetized captive-bred cheetah. Twenty-one cheetahs were examined. Eight of the 21 animals had subclinical evidence of either gastritis or chronic renal disease. The ultrasonographic appearances of the liver, gall bladder, common bile duct, and spleen were evaluated and various measurements made. Statistical analyses of the measurements were performed on all the healthy and subclinically ill animals taking sex, age, mass, and anesthetic protocol into account. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the healthy and subclinically ill animals (P > 0.25) and data were combined for statistical analyses. The mean mass was 41.1kg ( +/- 8.8) and the mean age was 5.0 years (+/- 2.2). The mean thickness of the liver medial to the gall bladder was 67.0 mm (+/- 14.8) and the liver was within the left costal arch in 75% of animals, extended caudal to the right costal arch in 50% of animals for an average of 30 mm, and extended caudal to the sternum in 63% of animals for an average of 32.5 mm. The maximum mean hepatic vein diameter at the entrance to the caudal vena cava was 8.6 +/- 2.8 mm; the mean diameters of the portal vein at the hilus and that of the caudal vena cava as it entered the liver were 7.5 +/- 1.6 and 9.9 +/- 4.1 mm, respectively. The mean diameter of the caudal vena cava was significantly affected by the type of anesthetic used (P < 0.10). The mass of the animals was significant in explaining the variance in maximum portal vein diameters (P < 0.10). The mean maximum velocity of the

  5. The use of DWI to assess spleen and liver quantitative ADC changes in the detection of liver fibrosis stages in chronic viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cece, Hasan, E-mail: hasan_cece@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Ercan, Abdulbasit, E-mail: abdulbasitercan@hotmail.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Yıldız, Sema, E-mail: drsemayildiz@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Ekrem, E-mail: karakasekrem@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Omer, E-mail: dromerkarakas@hotmail.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Boyacı, Fatıma Nurefsan, E-mail: drnurefsan@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Aydogan, Timucin, E-mail: drtaydogan@yahoo.com.tr [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Karakas, Emel Yigit, E-mail: e.ygtkarakas@yahoo.com.tr [Sanliurfa Training and Research Hospital, Department of İnternal Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Cullu, Nesat, E-mail: nesatcullu77@gmail.com [Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mugla (Turkey); Ulas, Turgay, E-mail: turgayulas@yahoo.com [Harran University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of İnternal Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2013-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in spleen and liver diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in chronic viral hepatitis patients. The study comprised 47 patients and 30 healthy volunteers. DWIs were obtained. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements were made by transferring the images to the workstation. The measurements of value b 1000 were made from a total of five points of the liver and three points of the spleen. Liver biopsy was performed on the 47 patients. The fibrosis stages of the patients were defined according to the METAVIR scoring system. Student's t-test was used in the comparison of mean ages, liver and spleen ADC values between the patient and the control group. Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney U Test with Bonferroni adjustment was performed in the comparison of mean ADC values of the patients at different stages and the control group. A statistically significant difference was determined between the patient and control group in respect of liver and spleen mean ADC values (P < 0.05). F3 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control, F1, F2 and F3 group in terms of the mean liver ADC value (P < 0.01). F3 and F4 group showed a significant difference compared to control and F1 group in terms of the mean spleen ADC value (P < 0.01). As a result we believe that the measurement of liver and spleen ADC values may be an indicator in the determination of the level of fibrosis.

  6. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2012-12-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathologic abnormality, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human males. A prospective study of healthy men aged 18 to 35 years who died of sudden, traumatic deaths was undertaken. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, if prolonged medical treatment was performed, if there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, if body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ, which could have affected the weight. A total of 232 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had a mean age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm, with a mean length of 173 cm. The weight ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg, with a mean weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean weight of the brain was 1407 g (range, 1070-1767 g), that of the liver was 1561 g (range, 838-2584 g), that of the spleen was 139 g (range, 43-344 g), that of the right lung was 445 g (range, 185-967 g), that of the left lung was 395 g (range, 186-885 g), that of the right kidney was 129 g (range, 79-223 g), and that of the left kidney was 137 g (range, 74-235 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in men, much like those in use

  7. The postnatal growth of ICRP target organs in reference humans: Spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to improve radiation dose estimates to infants and children are hampered because of the lack of mathematical models that describe the age variation in anatomical and physiological parameters. Specifically, for one anatomical parameter, organ size, there are no growth models available to the health physics community. In this paper, an empirical mathematical model is introduced for estimating age-specific masses of two ICRP target organs: the spleen and liver. That model, the Power Logistic Additive (PLA) growth model, is fitted to ICRP 23 organ growth data to determine five growth parameters. This model assumes that organs grow under the influence of two main processes: a primary (power function) and a sexual maturation (logistic function) process, which are additive from birth to adulthood. The results show that the model describes the ICRP growth data quite well. Growth parameters and tables listing the predicted masses and mass velocities as a function of age for each organ are provided for application in the ICRP modeling system

  8. Ultrasonographic parameters of the liver, spleen and kidneys among a cohort of school children in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Dianne Tania Dayanthi; Peries, Pattiya Pathirennahalage Uddika Chamila; Rathnasekara, Yaddehi Arachchillage Chaminda; Jayawardena, KaluArachchige Thushari Madurika; Upasena, Angappulige; Wickremasinghe, Anada Rajitha

    2017-11-16

    Liver, spleen and kidney dimensions on ultrasonography vary with the age, weight and ethnicity. Reference standards of these parameters for normal Sri Lankan children are not available. Our aim was to establish normative data for longitudinal length of liver, spleen and kidneys in healthy children. Three hundred fifty-seven children, 5-13 years of age were selected from two randomly selected schools in the Gampaha district in the western province of Sri Lanka. A questionnaire was administered to the parents after obtaining informed written consent. Participants were screened for risk factors for organomegaly and were examined by a trained officer. Children with a past history of infective, inflammatory, haematological, malignant, congestive, collagenous or congenital conditions that can affect the size of the organs were excluded as well as those with clinically evident malnutrition, anemia, lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Ultrasonographic assessment was done using a high resolution real-time scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer by a trained officer. Children with ultrasonographic abnormalities of organs were also excluded from the study and referred for further evaluation. The study comprised 332 children comprising 176 girls (53%). There was a significant difference in the longitudinal dimension of the liver between the two sexes with a higher value recorded among females (Mann Whitney U = 11,830.5, p = 0.037). Body weight was correlated with the dimensions of the liver, the spleen and the kidneys. On multiple regression analysis body weight significantly associated with all the organs. (p < 0.01) Percentile graphs for longitudinal length of liver, spleen, right and left kidneys were formed according to the body weight. The organ dimensions showed the highest correlation with body weight. We hope the normal ultrasonographic values of healthy Sri Lankan children will assist in interpretation of sonographic examinations in daily clinical practice.

  9. Studies on the superoxide dismutase activity in the cytosolic fractions of the liver and spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Rai; Chung, Doo Young; Yang, Jong Dai; Cha, Jong Hee

    1985-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase(SOD, superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) is a metalloprotein ubiquitously present in all aerobic living cells. At present, three types of SOD: copper and zinc-containing (Cu, Zn-SOD), manganese-containing(Mn-SOD) and iron-containing(Fe-SOD) enzyme have been isolated from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. As a scanvenger of euperoxide radicals in biological tissues, these metalloenzymes are undoubtedly of importance in the protection of living organisms against the effect of highly toxic superoxide radicals. A variety of biologically important processes are accompaied by formation of these radiation. The present paper report the results of experiments dealing with SOD activity in the cytosolic fraction of the liver and spleen of mice exposed to 400R whole-body irradiation. The whole-body irradiation caused a decrease in the specific activity of SOD in the both liver and spleen which persist more than 21 days.(Author)

  10. Comparative effects of the herbal constituent parthenolide (Feverfew on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene expression in murine spleen and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolinski Alexa T

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenolide, a major sesquiterpene lactone present in extracts of the herb Feverfew, has been investigated for its inhibitory effects on mediators of inflammation, including the proinflammatory cytokines. Although parthenolide's anti-inflammatory effects have been investigated in vitro, little in vivo data are available. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms for these inhibitory effects are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that parthenolide suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced serum (interleukin IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-1β and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in mice as indicated by reduced splenic and liver mRNA levels. Methods Mice were co-treated i.p. with LPS (1 mg/kg bw and parthenolide (5 mg/kg bw and blood, spleen and liver collected. Serum was analyzed for IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β by ELISA. Total RNA was extracted from spleen and liver, and real-time RT-PCR was used to determine relative mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2. Results LPS induced increases in serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations with only IL-6 being suppressed in parthenolide-treated mice. Induction of IL-6 mRNA was reduced, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNAs unchanged, and IL-1β mRNA increased in spleens of parthenolide plus LPS co-treated animals compared to LPS-only. No significant differences were observed in inflammatory gene expression between these two groups in liver samples. Overall, mRNA expression of each proinflammatory gene was much higher in spleen when compared to liver. Conclusion In summary, only one gene, IL-6, was modestly suppressed by parthenolide co-exposure which contrasts with many in vitro studies suggesting anti-inflammatory effects of this compound. Also, LPS evoked greater effects in spleen than liver on expression of proinflammatory genes. Further study of the effects of parthenolide and other herbal constituents on inflammatory gene expression using model

  11. [Efficacy comparison between acupuncture smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen method and regulating Governor Vessel method for menopausal insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Hu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    To compare the efficacy difference among acupuncture smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen method, regulating Governor Vessel method and oral administration of western medicine for menopausal insomnia. One hundred and fifty-six cases of menopausal insomnia were randomized into a smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen group (group A), a regulating Governor Vessel group (group B) and a medication group (group C), 52 cases in each one. Acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12), Daheng (SP 15), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Taichong (LR 3), etc. was applied in the group A; acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Fengfu (GV 16), Shenting (GV 24) and Yintang (GV 29), etc. was used in the group B; oral administration of estazolam tablets (1 mg each-day) was adapted in the group C, all once a day for totally 30 days. The each item score and total score in Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were evaluated before and after treatment in each group, also the efficacy in each group was assessed. After the treatment, the sleeping rate in the group A and B was significantly higher than that in the group C (both P vs 63.5% (33/52), both P vs 23.1% (12/52) and 25.0% (13/52), both P Acupuncture has better effect for menopausal insomnia than estazolam. Between the two acupuncture methods, the acupuncture method of smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen has a better effect.

  12. Nonspecific targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles to the liver, kidney and spleen: A novel approach to achieving specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana Arachchige, Maheshika; Flack, Amanda; Chen, Xuequn; Li, Jing; Oupicky, David; Cheng, Y.-C. Norman; Shen, Yimin; Jena, Bhanu; Lawes, Gavin

    2013-03-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest in developing Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging. One of the major problems in these applications is the undesirable filtration of these materials by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Preliminary magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization studies on hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles injected intravenously into mice confirm that the nanoparticles accumulate in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. To identify whether certain specific proteins are responsible for nanoparticle accumulation in these organs, we exposed hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles to proteins extracted from the liver, spleen, and kidneys, together with blood plasma proteins, then subsequently used gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins binding to the nanoparticles. We find that the unwanted accumulation of nanoparticles in these organs can potentially be attributed to specific binding by a small number of proteins. By appropriately functionalizing the iron oxide nanoparticles, we expect that the nanoparticles uptake in the liver, spleen, and kidneys will be reduced.

  13. Radioprotection by dipyridamole in the aging mouse. Effects on lipid peroxidation in mouse liver, spleen and brain after whole-body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Noritaka

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole in the aging mouse, the lipid peroxide content in aging mouse liver, spleen and brain irradiated by X-ray were measured both before and after injection of dipyridamole. The lipid peroxide content increased with aging from 2 months old to 16 months old in the mouse liver, spleen and brain. The content of lipid peroxide in the liver and spleen of the aging mouse was significantly increased in 7 days after whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy, but was unchanged in the brain. Dipyridamole, given before irradiation, significantly inhibited the increase of lipid peroxide after irradiation. These results suggest that dipyridamole may have radioprotective effects on aging mouse liver and spleen as well as on young mouse, and that inhibition of lipid peroxidation is a possible factor in the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole. (author)

  14. The long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization for portal hypertension due to cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinyuan; Geng Huijie; Wang Baocai; Zhang Xinfang; Du Ruiqing; Wang Lijing; Yin Shumei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization (PSE) in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Methods: PSE was performed in 1720 patients with portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to cirrhosis. The survival rate of 1 - 5 years and the cause of death were observed. The preoperative and postoperative hemodynamics of both the liver and spleen, the blood picture, splenic size and the complications in 600 patients who survived over five years and had integrated document were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Results Obvious changes in hemodynamics at different time after PSE were seen. The frequency and the volume of gastrointestinal bleeding were obviously decreased, while the leucocyte and platelet count was markedly increased. The spleen size began to reduce two months after PSE, which became very obvious in three months. The difference in above items between pre-PSE and post-PSE was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: PSE can definitely improve hepatic and splenic hemodynamics, reduce the pressure of portal vein, alleviate hypersplenism and reduce the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, elongate the life span and improve the living quality. With obvious and reliable long-term efficacy and fewer complications, PSE is a minimallyinvasive, safe and effective therapy. (authors)

  15. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  16. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  17. Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvanç Ergen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn, cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8, moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7, and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6. The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009 and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004. In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001, and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise.

  18. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression in red-tailed phascogale (Phascogale calura liver, lung, small intestine and spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oselyne T.W. Ong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Reference genes serve an important role as an endogenous control/standard for data normalisation in gene expression studies. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for marsupials, independent analysis of reference genes on different immune tissues is yet to be tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes is needed for the selection of stable, expressed genes across different marsupial tissues. Methods The study was conducted on red-tailed phascogales (Phascogale calura using five juvenile and five adult males. The stability of five reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH; β-actin, ACTB; 18S rRNA, 18S; 28S rRNA, 28S; and ribosomal protein L13A, RPL13A was investigated using SYBR Green and analysed with the geNorm application available in qBasePLUS software. Results Gene stability for juvenile and adult tissue samples combined show that GAPDH was most stable in liver and lung tissue, and 18S in small intestine and spleen. While all reference genes were suitable for small intestine and spleen tissues, all reference genes except 28S were stable for lung and only 18S and 28S were stable for liver tissue. Separating the two age groups, we found that two different reference genes were considered stable in juveniles (ACTB and GAPDH and adults (18S and 28S, and RPL13A was not stable for juvenile small intestine tissue. Except for 28S, all reference genes were stable in juvenile and adult lungs, and all five reference genes were stable in spleen tissue. Discussion Based on expression stability, ACTB and GAPDH are suitable for all tissues when studying the expression of marsupials in two age groups, except for adult liver tissues. The expression stability between juvenile and adult liver tissue was most unstable, as the stable reference genes for juveniles and adults were different. Juvenile and adult lung, small intestine and spleen share similar stable reference genes, except for small intestine

  19. Concomitant rib fractures and minor liver or spleen injuries in blunt trauma: what is the potential for missed diaphragmatic injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plurad, David S; Nielsen, Jamison S; Hancock, James; Navaran, Prashanth; Green, Donald J; Lam, Lydia; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2010-04-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt liver or spleen injuries (LSI) is widely accepted, but diaphragmatic injuries (DI) can be elusive. We hypothesize that rib fractures and minor LSI (RF+ minor LSI) are associated with DI. Patients with blunt injury undergoing exploratory laparotomy between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007, were identified from our registry. The association between injury variables and DI was examined with logistic regression. Organ Injury Scores of the liver and spleen of Grade I/II were defined as "minor." A potentially nonoperative (PNO) patient had a rib fracture and minor LSI but no bowel injury or hypotension (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg). The incidence of DI was 7.5 per cent (53 of 705) overall but 20 per cent (seven of 35) in patients with RF + minor LSI. Nineteen PNO patients had four (21.1%) DIs. RF + LSI (3.26 [1.74-6.12], P < 0.001) and motor vehicle collisions (4.93 [2.36-10.32], P < 0.001) were independently associated with DI. The incidence of laparotomy in all critically ill blunt injury patients (n = 2177) decreased significantly (P = 0.003). RF + minor LSI are associated with DI even when there are no other operative injuries. Because NOM is increasingly accepted, the potential for missed DI exists. When high-quality imaging is not available or is equivocal, further studies should be considered.

  20. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation (< 90/sup 0/) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue.

  1. Effect of halofantrine administration on some liver and heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of halofantrine on liver and the heart was evaluated in 15 healthy adult human volunteers (11 females and 4 males), after a single oral dose of halofantrine given to each volunteer. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals and analysed for the various liver and heart enzyme activities ...

  2. "ACUTE LIVER FAILURE" : THE HEART MAY BE THE MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, K.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; van der Berg, A. P.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis secondary to heart failure is a known and treatable cause of liver failure. The diagnosis may be difficult, especially when symptoms of heart failure are absent. We present two patients who were transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of acute liver failure to be screened

  3. Long-term effects on the histology and function of livers and spleens in rats after 33% toploading of PEG-PLA-nano artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M S

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate the long-term effects of nanodimension PEG-PLA artificial red blood cells containing hemoglobin and red blood cell enzymes on the liver and spleen after 1/3 blood volume top loading in rats. The experimental rats received one of the following infusions: Nano artificial red blood cells in Ringer lactate, Ringer lactate, stroma-free hemoglobin, polyhemoglobin, and autologous rat whole blood. Blood samples were taken before infusions and on days 1, 7, and 21 after infusions for analysis. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not have any significant adverse effects on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, amylase and creatine kinase. On the other hand, stroma-free hemoglobin induced significant adverse effects on liver as shown by elevation in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase throughout the 21 days. On day 21 after infusions rats were sacrificed and livers and spleens were excised for histological examination. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not cause any abnormalities in the microscopic histology of the livers and spleens. In the stroma-free hemoglobin group the livers showed accumulation of hemoglobin in central veins and sinusoids, and hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, injected nano artificial red blood cells can be efficiently metabolized and removed by the reticuloendothelial system, and do not have any biochemical or histological adverse effects on the livers or the spleens.

  4. Equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in liver, spleen, and lung as demonstrated by immunohistology and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, L; Beck-Friis, J; Renström, L H; Nikkilä, T; Thebo, P; Sundquist, B

    1989-01-01

    Ten aborted foals, diagnosed as infected with Equine Herpes Virus 1 (EHV-1) on histopathological criteria, were examined for the presence of EHV-1 using immunohistology as the investigative instrument. The primary reagent was an antiserum specific for viral envelope glycoproteins. Immunohistology localised EHV-1 to areas of liver necrosis and to the cytoplasm of infected Kupffer cells and hepatocytes. Cytoplasmic immunolabelling was also prominent in reticular cells of the red pulp of the spleen and in intact and degenerated bronchiolar epithelium. Cytoplasmic immunolabelling was seen in morphologically unchanged cells and in cells containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Three aborted foetuses with no histological signs of EHV-1 infection were negative when immunostained for EHV-1. Detection by electron microscopy of EHV-1 virions confirmed the EHV-1 specificity of the immunolabelling procedure.

  5. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  6. [Sequential heart and liver transplantation for familial amyloid polyneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, Laura; Fabregat, Joan; Ramos, Emilio; Baliellas, Carme; Roca, Josep; Casasnovas, Carlos

    2014-03-04

    Combined heart and liver transplantation for familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is currently the best treatment for patients with cardiomyopathy related to FAP. However, its optimal timing and the possibility of domino liver transplantation in this setting remain under discussion. Most such cases in the medical literature have been performed simultaneously, although many of them have required the use of veno-venous bypass and the majority have not used the liver as a graft for domino liver transplantation. We report 3 cases of non-Val30Met mutation that underwent sequential heart and domino liver transplantation at our institution. We describe the 3 cases and the medical literature, with special attention to the reason for sequential heart and liver transplantation, the role of transient elastography in this setting, and the feasibility of domino liver transplantation. In our experience, combined heart and liver transplantation is a feasible but challenging procedure for patients with FAP. Performing the procedure sequentially rather than simultaneously seems safer and easier, both technically and hemodynamically. More importantly, such an approach allows the use of livers from FAP patients as grafts for domino liver transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. High risk of misinterpreting liver and spleen stiffness using 2D shear-wave and transient elastography after a moderate or high calorie meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Jansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    ) and real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). Patients ingested a 625 kcal and a 1250 kcal liquid meal on two consecutive days. We measured liver and spleen elasticity, Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and portal flow at baseline and after 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Sixty...

  8. Failure of nonoperative management of pediatric blunt liver and spleen injuries: A prospective Arizona-Texas-Oklahoma-Memphis-Arkansas Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnaus, Maria E; Langlais, Crystal S; Garcia, Nilda M; Alder, Adam C; Eubanks, James W; Maxson, R Todd; Letton, Robert W; Ponsky, Todd A; St Peter, Shawn D; Leys, Charles; Bhatia, Amina; Ostlie, Daniel J; Tuggle, David W; Lawson, Karla A; Raines, Alexander R; Notrica, David M

    2017-04-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) is standard of care for most pediatric blunt liver and spleen injuries (BLSI); only 5% of patients fail NOM in retrospective reports. No prospective studies examine failure of NOM of BLSI in children. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of failure of NOM in pediatric BLSI patients. A prospective observational study was conducted on patients 18 years or younger presenting to any of 10 Level I pediatric trauma centers April 2013 and January 2016 with BLSI on computed tomography. Management of BLSI was based on the Arizona-Texas-Oklahoma-Memphis-Arkansas Consortium pediatric guideline. Failure of NOM was defined as needing laparoscopy or laparotomy. A total of 1008 patients met inclusion; 499 (50%) had liver injury, 410 (41%) spleen injury, and 99 (10%) had both. Most patients were male (n = 624; 62%) with a median age of 10.3 years (interquartile range, 5.9, 14.2). A total of 69 (7%) underwent laparotomy or laparoscopy, but only 34 (3%) underwent surgery for spleen or liver bleeding. Other (nonexclusive) operations were for 21 intestinal injuries; 15 hematoma evacuations, washouts, or drain placements; 9 pancreatic injuries; 5 mesenteric injuries; 3 diaphragm injuries; and 2 bladder injuries. Patients who failed were more likely to receive blood (52 of 69 vs. 162 of 939; p liver or spleen injury. For children failing NOM due to bleeding, the mortality was 24%. Therapeutic study, level II.

  9. Protease activity of legumain is inhibited by an increase of cystatin E/M in the DJ-1-knockout mouse spleen, cerebrum and heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yamane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumain (EC 3.4.22.34 is an asparaginyl endopeptidase. Legumain activity has been detected in various mouse tissues including the kidney, spleen and epididymis. Legumain is overexpressed in the majority of human solid tumors and transcription of the legumain gene is regulated by the p53 tumor suppressor in HCT116 cells. The legumain activity is also increased under acid conditions in Alzheimer's disease brains. DJ-1/PARK7, a cancer- and Parkinson's disease-associated protein, works as a coactivator to various transcription factors, including the androgen receptor, p53, PSF, Nrf2, SREBP and RREB1. Recently, we found that legumain expression, activation and cleavage of annexin A2 are regulated by DJ-1 through p53. In this study, we found that the expression levels of legumain mRNA were increased in the cerebrum, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, epididymis, stomach, small intestine and pancreas from DJ-1-knockout mice, although legumain activity levels were decreased in the cerebrum, spleen and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice. Furthermore, we found that cystatin E/M expression was increased in the spleen, cerebrum and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice. These results suggest that reduction of legumain activity is caused by an increase of cystatin E/M expression in the spleen, cerebrum and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice.

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided application of a new internally gas-cooled radiofrequency ablation probe in the liver and spleen of an animal model: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, S; Arcidiacono, P G; Albarello, L; Addis, A; Enderle, M D; Boemo, C; Neugebauer, A; Campagnol, M; Doglioni, C; Testoni, P A

    2008-09-01

    In a previous study, a new flexible bipolar hybrid cryotherm probe was applied with success to the pancreas of a living pig. Here we evaluated feasibility, efficacy, and safety of its application to the porcine liver and spleen. Ten applications to the liver and nine to the spleen were performed in 19 pigs. Power input (16-18 W) and simultaneous cooling with CO(2) (standardized pressure: 675 psi) as the cryogenic agent were investigated. Application time varied from 120 seconds to 900 seconds. The ablation area was measured by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) after ablation (T0), and before euthanasia (T1). Gross pathology (T2) and histology after necropsy represented the gold standard. The interval from treatment to euthanasia was 1 or 2 weeks. For both organs the correlation between EUS and gross pathology was good (correlation coefficient R(liver) = 0.71; R(spleen) = 0.73). EUS tended to overestimate the area of the ablated zone. EUS observed a time-dependent ablation area: we demonstrated a positive trend of lesion size (T1) over time in liver tissue (R = 0.51 (P = 0.1)). In the spleen we found a clear correlation of lesion area T2 and application time (R = 0.75, P = 0.01). There were no complications. Selective EUS-guided transgastric cryotherm ablation of the liver and spleen in a pig model is feasible and safe. The new bipolar probe creates a time-dependent ablation area without any complications, and opens a field of new potential indications of RF-ablative therapies.

  11. [Approach to liver, spleen and pancreatic injuries including damage control surgery of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, G A; Lipp, M J; Oldhafer, K J

    2017-10-01

    Terrorist attacks have outreached to Europe with more and more attacks on civilians. Derived from war surgery experience and from lessons learned from major incidents, it seems mandatory for every surgeon to improve understanding of the special circumstances of trauma following a terrorist attack and its' management. A short literature review is followed by outlining the damage control surgery (DCS) principle for each organ system with practical comments from the perspective of a specialized hepatobiliary (HPB) surgery unit. Every surgeon has to become familiar with the new entities of blast injuries and terrorist attack trauma. This concerns not only the medical treatment but also tailoring surgical treatment with a view to a lack of critical resources under these circumstances. For liver and pancreatic trauma, simple treatment strategies are a key to success.

  12. Histoautoradiographic and liquid scintillometric studies on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen and tongue after bilateral adrenalectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1981-01-01

    Historadiographies and liquid scintillometries were carried out in 163 male Wistar rats in order to determine the effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and tongue. Both DNA synthesis and mitotic index are significantly increased from the 1st day p.o. onwards, with broad synthesis peaks between the 2nd and the 4th day. The intensity of DNA synthesis shows a gradual decrease with increasing duration of the experiment. In contrast to the adrenalectonized animals, the synthesis rate and mitotic index in the organs of sham-operated animals were significantly lower, although enhanced proliferation was observed after surgery. The enhanced DNA synthesis after bilateral adrenalectomy is interpreted in terms of a disinhibition; corticosteroids are assumed to play a key role. The effects of bilateral adrenalectromy on untreated organs are not organ-specific. The highest synthesis rate was observed in the tubular epithelia of the convoluted main parts, while the DNA synthesis in the tongue. The findings of autoradiography and liquid scintillometry are well correlated. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  14. Evaluation of a manual biopsy device, the 'Spirotome', on fresh canine organs: liver, spleen, and kidneys, and first clinical experiences in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Massimo; Barberet, Virginie; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Bacci, Barbara; Terragni, Rossella; Rossi, Federica; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2011-03-01

    Several methods for obtaining specimens from abdominal organs have been described. Imaging-guided biopsy, particularly ultrasound-guided biopsy, is the most frequently used in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic quality of histological samples obtained with a manual biopsy device (Spirotome) on biopsies of the liver, spleen, and kidney, in fresh canine organs and in live animals in a clinical trial. The study was divided into two different parts, one using normal fresh canine organs with a total of 60 biopsies, 20 of liver, spleen, and kidney, respectively; and one on clinical patients, including 35 biopsied lesions in 28 animals (25 dogs and three cats) for a total of 95 biopsies. All the biopsy samples were considered satisfactory from canine cadavers, and all specimens were diagnostic in clinical cases. The technique was accurate and safe and no major complications were noted.

  15. IRON DEPOSITIONS IN RAT LIVER AND SPLEEN WERE LOWER WHEN THE MINERAL WAS SUPPLIED AS A DERIVATIVE OF CASEIN HYDROLYSATE IN PLACE OF IRON SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. MACHADO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Iron derivatives from casein hydrolysate (Fe+3-peptide complex, are potential iron sources for biological applications. This study was conducted to evaluate rat liver and spleen iron deposition when administered Fe+3- peptide complex or iron sulfate, which was delivered via gavage for 28 days. Seventy rats (Hb 120g/L, divided into 7 groups (n=10, received a standard commercial diet containing 50 mg Fe/kg, supplemented by gastric gavage with daily doses (10, 30 and 60 mg Fe/kg body weight of iron peptide complex or iron sulfate for 4 weeks. The control group received Milli-Q water. Iron deposition in liver and spleen was determined qualitatively by histochemistry and quantitatively by atomic absorption spectrometry; lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the determination of thiobarbituric reactive substances. Iron deposition in liver was significantly reduced in groups supplemented with iron peptide complex when compared with the iron sulfate-supplemented groups (30 and 60 mg Fe/kg. A significant reduction of iron deposition in spleen was also shown in groups supplemented with iron-peptide complex (10 and 30 mg Fe/kg compared with iron sulfate, and 60 mg Fe/ kg, the levels of iron deposition were lower than in the control group. The results suggest that iron absorption could be better controlled when supplied as iron-peptide complex rather than of iron sulfate.

  16. Ultrasonography of the spleen, liver, gallbladder, caudal vena cava and portal vein in healthy calves from birth to 104 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Krüger, Sonka

    2013-09-16

    Many of the ultrasonographic abdominal findings of adult cattle probably also apply to calves. However, significant changes associated with ruminal growth and transition from a milk to a roughage diet occur in young calves during the first few months, and it can be expected that ultrasonographic features of organs adjacent to the rumen such as spleen and liver also undergo significant changes. These have not been investigated to date and therefore the goal of this study was to describe ultrasonographic findings of the spleen, liver, gallbladder, caudal vena cava and portal vein in six healthy calves from birth to 104 days of age. Standing calves were examined ultrasonographically six times at three-week intervals starting on the first or second day of life using a 5.0-MHz transducer and techniques described previously. The spleen was imaged on the left at the 5th to 12th intercostal spaces. The dorsal and ventral visible limits ran from cranioventral to caudodorsal because of superimposition of the lungs. The size of the spleen was largest at the 7th and 8th intercostal spaces and the maximum thickness was measured at the 9th to 12th intercostal spaces. The liver was seen in all calves on the right and could be imaged at the 5th to 12th intercostal spaces and the area caudal to the last rib. Similar to the spleen, the dorsal visible margin of the liver ran parallel to the ventral border of the lungs. The visible size of the liver was largest at the 8th to 11th intercostal spaces and the maximum thickness was measured at the 8th and 9th intercostal spaces. The parenchymal pattern consisted of numerous fine echoes homogeneously distributed over the entire organ. The gallbladder was most commonly seen at the 9th intercostal space and was circular, oval or pear-shaped on ultrasonograms. It extended beyond the ventral border of the liver depending on the amount of bile. The caudal vena cava was triangular in cross section but sometimes had a round or oval profile and

  17. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Semiautomatic technique for defining the internal gross tumor volume of lung tumors close to liver/spleen cupola by 4D-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Sghedoni, Roberto; Bettinardi, Valentino; Aquilina, Mark Anthony; Navarria, Piera; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Di Muzio, Nadia; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that in cases of lung tumors close to the liver cupola, the four dimensional (4D)-CT postprocessing maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm does not fully recover the radiotherapy internal gross tumor volume (IGTV). In this work, a semiautomatic technique was evaluated by which the residual IGTV that was not included into the IGTV by MIP algorithm was actually added. Methods: A moving phantom and five selected patients were considered. The various IGTVs produced by the semiautomatic approach were compared to those generated by 4D-CT manual contouring. Results: In all cases, the radiation oncologist qualitatively concurred with the semiautomatic IGTV. A quantitative difference in volume of 2.6% was found in the phantom study, whereas a mean difference of 0.1±4.6% was obtained in the patient studies. Conclusions: A semiautomatic technique to include the residual part of IGTV covered by liver/spleen cupola when using MIP algorithm was validated on phantom and on selected patients, revealing the possibility of defining the IGTV for patients with lesions located near liver/spleen cupola by performing only the contours on the MIP series.

  19. Semiautomatic technique for defining the internal gross tumor volume of lung tumors close to liver/spleen cupola by 4D-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Sghedoni, Roberto; Bettinardi, Valentino; Aquilina, Mark Anthony; Navarria, Piera; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Di Muzio, Nadia; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta [Department of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, 20089 Milano (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio, 42100 Emilia (Italy); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Scientific Institute H. S. Raffaele, 20089 Milan (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20133 Milan (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, 6504 Bellinzona (Switzerland); Department of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano, Milano (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: It has been shown that in cases of lung tumors close to the liver cupola, the four dimensional (4D)-CT postprocessing maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm does not fully recover the radiotherapy internal gross tumor volume (IGTV). In this work, a semiautomatic technique was evaluated by which the residual IGTV that was not included into the IGTV by MIP algorithm was actually added. Methods: A moving phantom and five selected patients were considered. The various IGTVs produced by the semiautomatic approach were compared to those generated by 4D-CT manual contouring. Results: In all cases, the radiation oncologist qualitatively concurred with the semiautomatic IGTV. A quantitative difference in volume of 2.6% was found in the phantom study, whereas a mean difference of 0.1{+-}4.6% was obtained in the patient studies. Conclusions: A semiautomatic technique to include the residual part of IGTV covered by liver/spleen cupola when using MIP algorithm was validated on phantom and on selected patients, revealing the possibility of defining the IGTV for patients with lesions located near liver/spleen cupola by performing only the contours on the MIP series.

  20. Semiautomatic technique for defining the internal gross tumor volume of lung tumors close to liver/spleen cupola by 4D-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Sghedoni, Roberto; Bettinardi, Valentino; Aquilina, Mark Anthony; Navarria, Piera; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Di Muzio, Nadia; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2010-09-01

    It has been shown that in cases of lung tumors close to the liver cupola, the four dimensional (4D)-CT postprocessing maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm does not fully recover the radiotherapy internal gross tumor volume (IGTV). In this work, a semiautomatic technique was evaluated by which the residual IGTV that was not included into the IGTV by MIP algorithm was actually added. A moving phantom and five selected patients were considered. The various IGTVs produced by the semiautomatic approach were compared to those generated by 4D-CT manual contouring. In all cases, the radiation oncologist qualitatively concurred with the semiautomatic IGTV. A quantitative difference in volume of 2.6% was found in the phantom study, whereas a mean difference of 0.1 +/- 4.6% was obtained in the patient studies. A semiautomatic technique to include the residual part of IGTV covered by liver/spleen cupola when using MIP algorithm was validated on phantom and on selected patients, revealing the possibility of defining the IGTV for patients with lesions located near liver/spleen cupola by performing only the contours on the MIP series.

  1. Accumulation of Copper in Gill, Liver, Spleen, Kidney and Muscle Tissues of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to the Metal Singly and in Mixture with Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçsoy, Mustafa; Duran, Servet; Ay, Özcan; Cicik, Bedii; Erdem, Cahit

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of copper (Cu), applied singly and in mixture with chitosan (CT), in gill, liver, spleen, kidney and muscle tissues of Clarias gariepinus was studied after exposing the fish to no Cu (control), 5 ppm Cu, 5 ppm Cu + 75 ppm CT mixture over 1, 7 and 15 days. Metal levels in tissues were determined using an ICP-AES spectrophotometer. No mortality was observed during the experiments. Highest accumulation of Cu was observed in liver while lowest accumulation was observed in muscle tissue. Exposure to Cu-CT mixture decreased Cu accumulation in liver at all exposure periods and in kidney on the 15th day compared to Cu alone. Exposure to Cu alone and Cu-CT mixture had no effect on Cu accumulation in spleen or muscle tissue. Copper accumulation increased in gill tissue compared to control when exposed to Cu alone at all exposure periods, and exposure to the Cu-CT mixture significantly increased Cu accumulation in this tissue at all exposure periods compared to Cu alone.

  2. Liver fat content, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Kristensen, Thomas Skårup

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In observational studies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with high risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD is a causal risk factor for IHD. Methods and results: In a cohort study...... of the Danish general population (n = 94 708/IHD = 10 897), we first tested whether a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD was associated observationally with IHD. Subsequently, using Mendelian randomization, we tested whether a genetic variant in the gene encoding the protein patatin......-like phospholipase domain containing 3 protein (PNPLA3), I148M (rs738409), a strong and specific cause of high liver fat content and NAFLD, was causally associated with the risk of IHD. We found that the risk of IHD increased stepwise with increasing liver fat content (in quartiles) up to an odds ratio (OR) of 2...

  3. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  4. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1505-1509. Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  5. Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P. Arantes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of heavy metals entering aquatic environments can result in high accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which pose a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigated the concentrations of mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans specimens collected from two sites on the Paraopeba River, Brazil. The level of heavy metals concentrations in the tissues was often higher in viscera (i.e. liver and spleen than in muscle, and thus, the viscera should not be considered for human consumption. Correlations between metal concentrations and fish size were not significant. Although the levels of muscle bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb, generally do not exceed the safe levels for human consumption, the constant presence of heavy metals in concentrations near those limits considered safe for human consumption, is a reason for concern, and populations who constantly consume fish from polluted rivers should be warned. Our findings also indicate that in a river network where certain areas are connected to other areas with high rates of environmental pollutants, people should be cautious about the regular consumption of fish, even when the fish consumed are caught in stretches of the basin where contamination levels are considered low, since many of the freshwater fish with high commercial value, such as the catfish surubim, are migratory.

  6. Perinatal hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing rat liver and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Yan; Su, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defence status in perinatal hypothyroid rat liver and heart. We found that the proteincarbonyl content did not differ significantly between the three groups both in the pup liver and in the heart. The OH˙ level was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid heart but not in the liver compared with controls. A slight but not significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both perinatal hypothyroid liver and heart. A significantly increased activity of CAT was observed in the liver but not in the heart of hypothyroid pups. The GPx activity was considerably increased compared with controls in the perinatal hypothyroid heart and was unaltered in the liver of hypothyroid pups. We also found that vitamin E levels in the liver decreased significantly in hypothyroidism and were unaltered in the heart of perinatal hypothyroid rats. The GSH content was elevated significantly in both hypothyroid liver and heart. The total antioxidant capacity was higher in the liver of the hypothyroid group but not in the hypothyroid heart. Thyroxine replacement could not repair the above changes to normal. In conclusion, perinatal hypothyroidism modulates the oxidative stress status of the perinatal liver and heart.

  7. Monocyte subset accumulation in the human heart following acute myocardial infarction and the role of the spleen as monocyte reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Anja M; Ter Horst, Ellis N; Delewi, Ronak; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Hirsch, Alexander; Lavaei, Mehrdad; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Horrevoets, Anton J; Niessen, Hans W M; Piek, Jan J

    2014-02-01

    Monocytes are critical mediators of healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), making them an interesting target to improve myocardial repair. The purpose of this study was a gain of insight into the source and recruitment of monocytes following AMI in humans. Post-mortem tissue specimens of myocardium, spleen and bone marrow were collected from 28 patients who died at different time points after AMI. Twelve patients who died from other causes served as controls. The presence and localization of monocytes (CD14(+) cells), and their CD14(+)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets, were evaluated by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. CD14(+) cells localized at distinct regions of the infarcted myocardium in different phases of healing following AMI. In the inflammatory phase after AMI, CD14(+) cells were predominantly located in the infarct border zone, adjacent to cardiomyocytes, and consisted for 85% (78-92%) of CD14(+)CD16(-) cells. In contrast, in the subsequent post-AMI proliferative phase, massive accumulation of CD14(+) cells was observed in the infarct core, containing comparable proportions of both the CD14(+)CD16(-) [60% (31-67%)] and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets [40% (33-69%)]. Importantly, in AMI patients, of the number of CD14(+) cells was decreased by 39% in the bone marrow and by 58% in the spleen, in comparison with control patients (P = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively). Overall, this study showed a unique spatiotemporal pattern of monocyte accumulation in the human myocardium following AMI that coincides with a marked depletion of monocytes from the spleen, suggesting that the human spleen contains an important reservoir function for monocytes.

  8. Quantitative magnetic resonance methods for in vivo investigation of the human liver and spleen. Technical aspects and preliminary clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C

    1996-01-01

    sequences with different repetition times was chosen, because motion effects were partly refocused. Multi-acquisition was used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the heavily saturated experiments with short repetition times, to further reduce the sensitivity to motion. To test the quality of this pulse...... be quantified either by using the fast component of the T2 signal decay or by using the decreased signal in spin-echo and gradient echo images. Patients with leukemias and myeloproliferative disorders had prolonged T1 relaxation times in the spleen, but a considerable overlap was found between this group...... scanner system it became possible to develop a pulse sequence, using the phase information in the MR signal, to measure portal vein flow during breath-holding. This method made it possible to estimate the portal vein flow during fasting, and the flow increase after eating. Quantitative MR methods may...

  9. Anesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant performed in Korea: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Park, Jungchan; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Gaabsoo

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we describe the anesthetic management during the first combined heart-liver transplant (CHLT) performed in Korea. Though CHLT is a rare procedure, accumulating evidence suggests that it is a feasible option for patients with coexisting heart and liver failure. A 45-year-old female patient presented with severe cardiac dysfunction requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and secondary congestive hepatopathy. The patient underwent consecutive heart and liver transplantation using extracorporeal circulatory devices-heart transplant with cardiopulmonary bypass, and liver transplant with peripheral ECMO. In this case report, we focus on the specific anesthetic considerations for CHLT pertaining to the challenges associated with dual pathophysiology.

  10. The effect of feeding a diet naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) on the spleen and liver of sow and fetus from day 35 to 70 of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, U; Brüssow, K-P; Dannenberger, D; Jonas, L; Pöhland, R; Jäger, K; Dänicke, S; Hagemann, E

    2008-07-10

    Pregnant sows were fed a control diet (CON, 0.15 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.0035 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg diet) or diet containing 15% of Fusarium toxin contaminated triticale (MYCO, 4.42 mg DON and 0.048 mg ZON per kg diet) during days 35-70 of gestation. All sows were fed in a restricted feeding regimen with the same amount of feed (2000 g/d) over the whole study. At the end of the experiment, fetuses were delivered by Caesarian section and samples of spleen and liver of euthanized sows and fetuses were analyzed. At terminal necropsy, no macroscopic lesion was observed in any organ of either sows or fetuses. The histopathological data indicated significant alteration only in elevated iron staining in the red pulp of spleens in sows of MYCO group after 35 days of feeding. The presence of hemosiderin particles in the spleen sections was confirmed by transmission electron microscopical investigation and by an enhanced Fe2+ concentration in spleen. A glycogen increase (p<0.05) was found in liver cells of fetuses in the experimental group. Together, the results provide evidence of spleen dysfunction (hemosiderosis) in sows fed a Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat, however, with absence of clinical signs. Enhanced glycogen and an impairment of mitochondria in liver of fetuses was present when their mothers consumed the MYCO diet.

  11. Selective accumulation of 147Pm in organism on induction of PCE's micronucleus and SCE of bone marrow cells as well as the chromosome aberrations on fetal liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zheng Siying; Wang Liuyi; Lu Zhongyan; Yang Shuqin

    1989-01-01

    Study of accumulation peculiarity of 147 Pm showed that I.V. different doses of 147 Pm were the same selectively localized in skeleton and liver. Retention of 147 Pm in skeleton and liver was elevated when the radioactive doses of 147 Pm were increased. At the same time absorption does of 147 Pm radiation was heightened. The ability of 147 Pm to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been investigated by IdU labelling methods. A statistically significant elevation of SCEs was observed after 147 Pm intake.In mice the number of SCEs per cell in bone marrow cells was always higher when the animals were maintained on the doses of 37 Bq/g. The injurious effects of 147 Pm, using PCE's micronucleus rates in bone marrow cells were observed. 147 Pm was dominantly deposited on maternal liver. Deposition of 147 Pm in maternal spleen was about quandrantal of the maternal liver. Studies indicated that maternal contamination of 147 Pm could induced chromosome aberrations in fetal liver and spleen cells. Among the type of aberrations induced by 147 Pm, chromatid breakage were predominant. The incidence of chromosome aberrations on fetal liver cells induced by 147 Pm was higher on fetal spleen cells

  12. Effects of ethylene oxide and ethylene inhalation on DNA adducts, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and expression of base excision DNA repair genes in rat brain, spleen, and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Asakura, Shoji; Li, Yutai; Kosyk, Oksana; Koc, Hasan; Nakamura, Jun; Upton, Patricia B; Swenberg, James A

    2005-09-28

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is an important industrial chemical that is classified as a known human carcinogen (IARC, Group 1). It is also a metabolite of ethylene (ET), a compound that is ubiquitous in the environment and is the most used petrochemical. ET has not produced evidence of cancer in laboratory animals and is "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans" (IARC, Group 3). The mechanism of carcinogenicity of EO is not well characterized, but is thought to involve the formation of DNA adducts. EO is mutagenic in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems, whereas ET is not. Apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP) that result from chemical or glycosylase-mediated depurination of EO-induced DNA adducts could be an additional mechanism leading to mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This study tested the hypothesis that EO exposure results in the accumulation of AP sites and induces changes in expression of genes for base excision DNA repair (BER). Male Fisher 344 rats were exposed to EO (100 ppm) or ET (40 or 3000 ppm) by inhalation for 1, 3 or 20 days (6h/day, 5 days a week). Animals were sacrificed 2h after exposure for 1, 3 or 20 days as well as 6, 24 and 72 h after a single-day exposure. Experiments were performed with tissues from brain and spleen, target sites for EO-induced carcinogenesis, and liver, a non-target organ. Exposure to EO resulted in time-dependent increases in N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7-HEG) in brain, spleen, and liver and N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (7-HEVal) in globin. Ethylene exposure also induced 7-HEG and 7-HEVal, but the numbers of adducts were much lower. No increase in the number of aldehydic DNA lesions, an indicator of AP sites, was detected in any of the tissues between controls and EO-, or ET-exposed animals, regardless of the duration or strength of exposure. EO exposure led to a 3-7-fold decrease in expression of 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase (Mpg) in brain and spleen in rats exposed to EO for 1 day. Expression of 8

  13. Liver-spleen axis, insulin-like growth factor-(IGF-I axis and fat mass in overweight/obese females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardi Gaetano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fat mass (FM in overweight/obese subjects has a primary role in determining low-grade chronic inflammation and, in turn, insulin resistance (IR and ectopic lipid storage within the liver. Obesity, aging, and FM influence the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I axis, and chronic inflammation might reduce IGF-I signaling. Altered IGF-I axis is frequently observed in patients with Hepatic steatosis (HS. We tested the hypothesis that FM, or spleen volume and C-reactive protein (CRP--all indexes of chronic inflammation--could affect the IGF-I axis status in overweight/obese, independently of HS. Methods The study population included 48 overweight/obese women (age 41 ± 13 years; BMI: 35.8 ± 5.8 kg/m2; range: 25.3-53.7, who underwent assessment of fasting plasma glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA, cholesterol and triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, transaminases, high-sensitive CRP, uric acid, IGF-I, IGF binding protein (BP-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio. Standard deviation score of IGF-I according to age (zSDS were also calculated. FM was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. HS severity grading (score 0-4 according liver hyperechogenicity and spleen longitudinal diameter (SLD were evaluated by ultrasound. Results Metabolic syndrome (MS and HS were present in 33% and 85% of subjects, respectively. MS prevalence was 43% in subjects with increased SLD. IGF-I values, but not IGF-I zSDS, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were significantly lower, while FM%, FPI, HOMA, ALT, CRP, were significantly higher in patients with severe HS than in those with mild HS. IGF-I zSDS (r = -0.42, r = -0.54, respectively; p Conclusions The present study suggests that lower IGF-I status in our study population is associated with higher FM, SLD, CRP and more severe HS.

  14. Ultrasound enhanced with sulphur-hexafluoride-filled microbubbles agent (SonoVue) in the follow-up of mild liver and spleen trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, R; Pistoia, M L; Bultrini, C; Stavroulis, E; Di Cesare, E; Masciocchi, C

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the follow-up of patients with a diagnosis of traumatic liver or spleen lesions. Between April 2006 and February 2008, 18 patients (13 males and five females, age range 8-42 years) with blunt abdominal trauma were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and CEUS at the emergency department of our institution. Seven were diagnosed as surgical emergencies and were excluded from the study. The remaining 11 were treated conservatively and were monitored with CEUS at variable time intervals, depending on their clinical needs. CEUS confirmed lesion sites identified on presentation and allowed us to follow all phases of the repair process until complete resolution. The conservative management of abdominal lesions in both adults and children is increasingly widespread but requires accurate follow-up over time. As a noninvasive, versatile, easy to perform and repeatable technique with a low rate of adverse reactions, CEUS is ideally suited for this purpose and allowed us to reduce the number of CT scans, especially in the follow-up of young patients.

  15. Howell-Jolly bodies and liver-spleen scanning for assessment of splenic filtrative function yields discordant results in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nordeval Cavalcante; Orlando, Margarida Maria Camões; Neves, Moises Bonifácio; Rioja, Suzimar Silveira; de Lucena, Stella Beatriz Gonçalves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Given discrepancies between methods for diagnosing hyposplenism, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the spleen size on the correlation between the methods, and to propose a model for improving the interpretation. Patients with renal allografts were included, in whom the spleen was assessed using Doppler ultrasound, scintiscan, and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs) in peripheral smears. In 35 subjects, scintiscan and HJBs were normal (Group 0); 20 had an abnormal result in both methods (Group 1); 34 had discordant results with HJBs present (Group 2); and 14 had discordant results with decreased spleen uptake (Group 3). There was no association between HJBs and scintiscan. The patients of Groups 1 and 2 had smaller spleens. The patients with smaller spleen had more hematological evidence of hyposplenism and exhibit smaller discrepancies between the methods than patients with larger spleen. The spleen can tip the balance from a normal to impaired function provided that the spleen size is below the critical mass required to maintain splenic function. A mild impairment of phagocytic function and slight dyserythropoiesis along with a small spleen would result in decreased take up of radiocolloid or the appearance of HJBs in blood smears. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous Operation of Hydatid Cyst of the Heart and Liver: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Rezayat; Namdar, Hossein; Bilehjani, Eissa; Bayat, Amrollah; sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad ali

    2013-01-01

    Primary echinococcosis of the heart is exceptionally uncommon and is reported 0.5% to 2% of all hydatid cyst sites in comparison with liver (70%) or lung (20%) involvement. Hydatid disease of the heart is caused by the cestode tapeworm echinococcosis granulosis or alveolaris. We present a 29-year-old female with hydatid disease of the liver and heart. She only complained of abdominal pain and palpitation. Echocardiography and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) showed a 120×101 mm cyst in the liver and 64 mm in the right ventricular free wall. Both cysts were excised within one procedure successfully. PMID:24252990

  17. Simultaneous Operation of Hydatid Cyst of the Heart and Liver:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezayat Parvizi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary echinococcosis of the heart is exceptionally uncommon and is reported 0.5% to 2% of all hydatid cyst sites in comparison with liver (70% or lung (20% involvement. Hydatid disease of the heart is caused by the cestode tapeworm echinococcosis granulosis or alveolaris. We present a 29-year-old female with hydatid disease of the liver and heart. She only complained of abdominal pain and palpitation. Echocardiography and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT showed a 120×101 mm cyst in the liver and 64 mm in the right ventricular free wall. Both cysts were excised within one procedure successfully.

  18. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxia-tolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  19. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxiatolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  20. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO) – a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate – in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic ...

  1. DX5+NKT cells display phenotypical and functional differences between spleen and liver as well as NK1.1-Balb/c and NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Busl, Elisabeth; Farkas, Stefan A; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Hornung, Matthias

    2011-04-29

    Natural killer T cells represent a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. They are a heterogeneous population of specialized T lymphocytes composed of different subsets. DX5+NKT cells are characterized by expression of the NK cell marker DX5 in the context of CD3. However, little is known about the phenotype and functional capacity of this unique cell population. Therefore, we investigated the expression of several T cell and NK cell markers, as well as functional parameters in spleen and liver subsets of DX5+NKT cells in NK1.1- Balb/c mice and compared our findings to NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice. In the spleen 34% of DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L and they up-regulated the functional receptors CD154 as well as CD178 upon activation. In contrast, only a few liver DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L, and they did not up-regulate CD154 upon activation. A further difference between spleen and liver subsets was observed in cytokine production. Spleen DX5+NKT cells produced more Th1 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, while liver DX5+NKT cells secreted more Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4) and even the Th17 cytokine, IL-17a. Furthermore, we found inter-strain differences. In NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice DX5+NKT cells represented a distinct T cell population expressing less CD4 and more CD8. Accordingly, these cells showed a CD178 and Th2-type functional capacity upon activation. These results show that DX5+NKT cells are a heterogeneous population, depending on the dedicated organ and mouse strain, that has diverse functional capacity.

  2. Effects of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on oxidative stress and liver, spleen leptin, PARα and FAS mRNA expression in high-fat diet induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bendong; Zhou, Haining; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Wenyan; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Guangshun

    2012-08-01

    We reported that an aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. inhibited high-fat-diet-induced oxidative injury in a dose-dependent manner. Male kunming mice (5-weeks-old, 24 g) were used in this experiment. After a 4-day adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group); Group 1: animals received normal powdered rodent diet; Group 2: animals received high fat diet; Groups 3 and 4: animals received high fat diet and were fed by gavage to mice once a day with aqueous extract at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. In mice fed with high-fat diet, blood and liver lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes activities were markedly decreased compared to normal control mice. Administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently reduced levels of blood and liver lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of blood and liver antioxidant enzymes activities in high fat mice. Moreover, administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently increase liver Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels. Taken together, these data demonstrate that aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. can markedly alleviate high fat diet-induced oxidative injury by enhancing blood and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, modulating Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels in mice.

  3. Genetics of host response to Leishmania tropica in mice - different control of skin pathology, chemokine reaction, and invasion into spleen and liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kobets

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania. The frequent involvement of Leishmania tropica in human leishmaniasis has been recognized only recently. Similarly as L. major, L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans, but can also visceralize and cause systemic illness. The relationship between the host genotype and disease manifestations is poorly understood because there were no suitable animal models. METHODS: We studied susceptibility to L. tropica, using BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem recombinant congenic (RC strains, which differ greatly in susceptibility to L. major. Mice were infected with L. tropica and skin lesions, cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, and parasite numbers in organs were measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Females of BALB/c and several RC strains developed skin lesions. In some strains parasites visceralized and were detected in spleen and liver. Importantly, the strain distribution pattern of symptoms caused by L. tropica was different from that observed after L. major infection. Moreover, sex differently influenced infection with L. tropica and L. major. L. major-infected males exhibited either higher or similar skin pathology as females, whereas L. tropica-infected females were more susceptible than males. The majority of L. tropica-infected strains exhibited increased levels of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. CcS-16 females, which developed the largest lesions, exhibited a unique systemic chemokine reaction, characterized by additional transient early peaks of CCL3 and CCL5, which were not present in CcS-16 males nor in any other strain. CONCLUSION: Comparison of L. tropica and L. major infections indicates that the strain patterns of response are species-specific, with different sex effects and largely different host susceptibility genes.

  4. Abnormal Liver Function in Relation to Hemodynamic Profile in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deursen, V. M.; Damman, K.; Hillege, H. L.; Van Beek, A. P.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Voors, A. A.

    Background: We studied the relation between liver function abnormalities and hemodynamic profile in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results: in 323 HF patients, liver function was determined by aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl

  5. Heart/liver ratios and portal vein pressure used in early cirrhosis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jingxiang; Li Wenfan; Liu Chun; Yang Peng; Chen Ming; Wang Hong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find a method which not only can comprehensively evaluate the rise of portal pressure, opening and establishment of portal collateral circulation, portal-systemic shunting, and liver and spleen functions in cirrhosis, but also aid the differential diagnosis of early and established cirrhosis. Methods: Heart/liver count (H/L) ratios were obtained at different times after per-rectal administration of 99m Tc-MIBI. Portal venous pressures at different times were calculated using a previously documented formula. The relationship between portal venous pressure and cirrhosis, including its pathological process, was then evaluated. Results: There was obvious discrepancy (t=2.810; p<0.05) in 90-150 minutes portal venous pressures between normal and late hepatitis groups; there was also obvious difference (t=2.348, p<0.05) in portal venous pressures between the cirrhosis group and other groups. The portal venous pressure of early cirrhosis group was also significantly different (t=2.167, p<0.05) from other groups and it was situated between those of normal, and hepatitis and cirrhosis groups. There was obvious diversity (t=2.287, p<0.05) in Child-Pugh classification levels in the late imaging phase. There was positive correlation between calculated portal venous pressure and H/L ratio (r=0.487, p<0.01). Conclusion: Using temporal portal venous recirculation imaging, an early H/L ratio of ≥0.65 and formula-calculated portal venous pressure of ≥1.9 kPa or a portal-systemic venous pressure difference of ≥1.5 kPa indicate cirrhosis; H/L ratio between 0.32 and 0.64 or portal venous pressure between 1.03 to 1.89 kPa suggest early cirrhosis. Our study showed that H/L ratios at specific times and computed portal vein pressure might be important in the diagnosis of hepatitis, impaired hepatic function caused by cirrhosis, portal-systemic shunting, and portal venous recirculation. It is a simple, sensitive, reliable, and non-invasive method, which can be helpful in

  6. Howell-Jolly bodies and liver-spleen scanning for assessment of splenic filtrative function yields discordant results in renal transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Nordeval Cavalcante; Orlando, Margarida Maria Camões; Neves, Moises Bonifácio; Rioja, Suzimar Silveira; de Lucena, Stella Beatriz Gonçalves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given discrepancies between methods for diagnosing hyposplenism, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the spleen size on the correlation between the methods, and to propose a model for improving the interpretation. Patients with renal allografts were included, in whom the spleen was assessed using Doppler ultrasound, scintiscan, and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs) in peripheral smears. In 35 subjects, scintiscan and HJBs were normal (Group 0); 20 had an ...

  7. Autophagy in the heart and liver during normal aging and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Julian, David; Akin, Debora E; Fried, Joanna; Toscano, Kristin; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dunn, William A

    2007-09-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process for the degradation of cellular constituents and essential for the maintenance of a healthy cell. We evaluated the effects of age and life-long calorie restriction on autophagy in heart and liver of young (6 months) and old (26 months) Fisher 344 rats. We observed that the occurrence of autophagic vacuoles was higher in heart than liver. The occurrence of autophagic vacuoles was not affected by age in either tissue, but was increased with calorie restriction in heart but not in liver. Next, we examined the expression of proteins involved in the formation and maturation of autophagosomes (beclin-1, LC3, Atg7, Atg9) or associated with autolysosomes and lysosomes (LAMP-1; cathepsin D). In hearts of both ad libitum-fed and calorie-restricted rats, we observed an increase in expression of beclin-1 and procathepsin D, but not mature cathepsin D, and a decrease in expression of LAMP-1 because of aging. In hearts, calorie restriction stimulated the expression of Atg7 and Atg9 and the lipidation of Atg8 (elevated LC3-II/I ratios) in aged rats. In hearts of ad libitum-fed rats, expression of Atg7 and lipidation of Atg8 were unaffected by age, while the cellular levels of Atg9 were lower in aged animals. Furthermore, we observed that the age- and diet-dependent expression levels of those proteins differed between heart and liver. In conclusion, autophagy in heart and liver did not decrease with age in ad libitum-fed rats, but was enhanced by calorie restriction in the heart. Thus, calorie restriction may mediate some of its beneficial effects by stimulating autophagy in the heart, indicating the potential for cardioprotective therapies.

  8. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex.

  9. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including......Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...

  10. Forensic postmortem computed tomography: volumetric measurement of the heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte; Lynnerup, Niels; Jacobsen, Christina

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using the computer software program Mimics ® , we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver. The ex vivo volumes were also compared with the organ weights. Further, we compared the CTR with the ex vivo heart volume and a heart weight-ratio (HWR). Intra- and inter-observer analyses were performed. We found no correlation between the in situ and ex vivo volumes of the heart and liver. However, a highly significant correlation was found between the ex vivo volumes and weights of the heart and liver. No correlations between CTR and the ex vivo heart volume nor with HWR was found. Concerning cardiomegaly, we found no agreement between the CTR and HWR. The intra- and inter-observer analyses showed no significant differences. Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly, as it neither correlated with the ex vivo heart volume nor with the HWR.

  11. Caspase-3 mediates the pathogenic effect of Yersinia pestis YopM in liver of C57BL/6 mice and contributes to YopM's function in spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Ye

    Full Text Available The virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis has different dominant effects in liver and spleen. Previous studies focused on spleen, where YopM inhibits accumulation of inflammatory dendritic cells. In the present study we focused on liver, where PMN function may be directly undermined by YopM without changes in inflammatory cell numbers in the initial days of infection, and foci of inflammation are easily identified. Mice were infected with parent and ΔyopM-1 Y. pestis KIM5, and effects of YopM were assessed by immunohistochemistry and determinations of bacterial viable numbers in organs. The bacteria were found associated with myeloid cells in foci of inflammation and in liver sinusoids. A new in-vivo phenotype of YopM was revealed: death of inflammatory cells, evidenced by TUNEL staining beginning at d 1 of infection. Based on distributions of Ly6G(+, F4/80(+, and iNOS(+ cells within foci, the cells that were killed could have included both PMNs and macrophages. By 2 d post-infection, YopM had no effect on distribution of these cells, but by 3 d cellular decomposition had outstripped acute inflammation in foci due to parent Y. pestis, while foci due to the ΔyopM-1 strain still contained many inflammatory cells. The destruction depended on the presence of both PMNs in the mice and YopM in the bacteria. In mice that lacked the apoptosis mediator caspase-3 the infection dynamics were novel: the parent Y. pestis was limited in growth comparably to the ΔyopM-1 strain in liver, and in spleen a partial growth limitation for parent Y. pestis was seen. This result identified caspase-3 as a co-factor or effector in YopM's action and supports the hypothesis that in liver YopM's main pathogenic effect is mediated by caspase-3 to cause apoptosis of PMNs.

  12. The cost effectiveness of lung transplantation compared with that of heart and liver transplantation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, Jan Paul; van Enckevort, Petra J.; TenVergert, Els M.; Bonsel, Gauke J.; van der Bij, Wim; Haagsma, Els B.; Rutten, Frans F. H.; Slooff, Maarten J. H.; Koëter, Gerard H.

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the main reasons for the unfavorable cost effectiveness of lung transplantation compared with that of heart and liver transplantation. Costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness ratios of Dutch lung, heart, and liver transplantation programs were compared. The data are

  13. The cost effectiveness of lung transplantation compared with that of heart and liver transplantation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, JP; van Enckevort, PJ; TenVergert, EM; Bonsel, GJ; van der Bij, W; Haagsma, EB; Rutten, FFH; Slooff, MJH; Koeter, GH

    This study was performed to assess the main reasons for the unfavorable cost effectiveness of lung transplantation compared with that of heart and liver transplantation. Costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness ratios of Dutch lung, heart, and liver transplantation programs were compared. The data are

  14. Effects of Various Kynurenine Metabolites on Respiratory Parameters of Rat Brain, Liver and Heart Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Baran*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3, respiratory control index (RC and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM or succinate (10 mM and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM or in the absence, as control. Kynurenic and anthranilic acids significantly reduced RC values of heart mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Xanthurenic acid significantly reduced RC values of brain mitochondria in the presence of glutamate/malate. Furthermore, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid decreased RC values of brain, liver and heart mitochondria using glutamate/malate. In the presence of succinate, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid affected RC values of brain mitochondria, whereas in liver and heart mitochondria only 3-hydroxykynurenine lowered RC values significantly. Furthermore, lowered ADP/oxygen ratios were observed in brain mitochondria in the presence of succinate with 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and to a lesser extent with glutamate/malate. In addition, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid significantly lowered the ADP/oxygen ratio in heart mitochondria exposed to glutamate/malate, while in the liver mitochondria only a mild reduction was found. Tests of the influence of L-tryptophan and its metabolites on complex I in liver mitochondria showed that only 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and L-kynurenine led to a significant acceleration of NADH-driven complex I activities. The data indicate that L-tryptophan metabolites had different effects on brain, liver

  15. Liver transplantation from Maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Alejandra; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Suárez, Francisco; Arnal, Francisco; Fernández-García, Antón; Aguirrezabalaga, Javier; García-Buitrón, José; Alvarez, Joaquín; Máñez, Rafael

    2003-10-15

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBDs is compared with 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support (CPS) with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (n=6), and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n=14), which was hypothermic (n=7) or normothermic (n=7), were used to preserve the organs from NHBDs. Factors that may influence the outcome of livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBDs were also investigated. With a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survivals with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBDs were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with livers from HBDs. Graft survival was 83% in livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB. No graft failed if the duration of warm ischemia did not exceed 130 min with CPR or CPS, and if the period of CPB did not surpass 150 min when this method was used after CPR, regardless if it was hypothermic or normothermic. Livers from Maastricht type 2 NHBDs may be used for transplantation if the period of warm ischemia during CPR or CPS does not exceed 130 min. Hypothermic or normothermic CPB after CPR preserves liver viability for an additional 150 min.

  16. Autopsy Findings in Conjoined Twin with Single Heart and Single Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Asaranti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracoomphalopagus is the commonest type of conjoined twin where the bodies are fused from upper chest to lower chest. The autopsy done can help counsil the parents for further pregnancies and determine the prognosis depending upon the type of cardiac anomaly by Seo classification when detected antenatally. We describe the detail pathological autopsy of such a case with single heart and single liver. A detail autopsy was done on the twin fetus. The twins shared a single heart and sometimes the liver and part of digestive system. The combined weight was 4.1 KG. Both were full-term male babies joined from below the nipple till umbilicus. Autopsy in conjoined twins helps in deciding the type of fusion of the body and also of the heart and great vessels. It can help in counseling parents about future pregnancies that there is no chance of recurrence of this abnormality and no need to be scared.

  17. Sonographic assessment and grading of spleen index in various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani N

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a useful procedure in evaluation of spleen size in different clinical conditions. In this study, we used it to evaluate spleen size in patients with various heptologic, hematologic and autoimmune diseases. To express spleen size, a spleen index (SI, the product of the transverse diameter and its perpendiculr diameter measured on the maximum-sectional image of the spleen, was used. Splenomegaly was present in high percentages of patients with liver, blood, collagen or autoimmune diseases, even though a majority of these spleens were not large enough to palpate. By grading the SI, characteristic distributions of SI were obtained for patients with different types of diseases. Obtaining and grading the SI by the use of ultrasound appears to be a significant supplemental aid for evaluating spleen size, especially in patients whose spleen are not palpable.

  18. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C; Chang, Celia; Wang, Haifang; Yan, Jun; Showe, Louise C; Showe, Michael K; Barnes, Brian M

    2011-03-31

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments.

  19. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kubo

    Full Text Available The use of lavender oil (LO--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham, a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules, to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  20. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO)--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and liver

  1. Antithrombin III is associated with acute liver failure in patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing mechanical circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Judith; Ulmer, Hanno; Kilo, Juliane; Margreiter, Raimund; Grimm, Michael; Mair, Peter; Ruttmann, Elfriede

    2017-06-01

    There are few data on the role of liver dysfunction in patients with end-stage heart failure supported by mechanical circulatory support. The aim of our study was to investigate predictors for acute liver failure in patients with end-stage heart failure undergoing mechanical circulatory support. A consecutive 164 patients with heart failure with New York Heart Association class IV undergoing mechanical circulatory support were investigated for acute liver failure using the King's College criteria. Clinical characteristics of heart failure together with hemodynamic and laboratory values were analyzed by logistic regression. A total of 45 patients (27.4%) with heart failure developed subsequent acute liver failure with a hospital mortality of 88.9%. Duration of heart failure, cause, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, use of vasopressors, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary pulsatility index, cardiac index, and transaminases were not significantly associated with acute liver failure. Repeated decompensation, atrial fibrillation (P failure in univariate analysis only. In multivariable analysis, decreased antithrombin III was the strongest single measurement indicating acute liver failure (relative risk per %, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.93; P = .001) and remained an independent predictor when adjustment for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was performed (relative risk per %, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.99; P = .031). Antithrombin III less than 59.5% was identified as a cutoff value to predict acute liver failure with a corresponding sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 87%. In addition to the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, decreased antithrombin III activity tends to be superior in predicting acute liver failure compared with traditionally thought predictors. Antithrombin III measurement may help to identify patients more precisely who are developing acute liver failure during mechanical

  2. Case Report: First Reported Combined Heart-Liver Transplant in a Patient With a Congenital Solitary Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R M; Kamgar, M; Hasnain, H; Khorsan, R; Nsair, A; Kaldas, F; Baas, A; Bunnapradist, S; Wilson, J M

    2018-02-16

    We report a case of successful combined heart liver transplant in a patient with a congenital solitary kidney. The patient had normal renal function before combined heart-liver transplantation and developed acute kidney injury requiring slow continuous dialysis and subsequent intermittent dialysis for almost 8 weeks post transplantation. Her renal function recovered and she remains off dialysis now 7 months post transplantation. She only currently has mild chronic renal insufficiency. We believe this is the first reported case of successful heart liver transplant in a patient with a congenital solitary kidney. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. CORRECTION OF MICROCIRCULATORY DISORDERS IN NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Statsenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined liver damage in patients with chronic heart failure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease leads to the formation of pathological hemodynamic types of microcirculation with prevalence of shunt blood flow, nutritional deficiency, that correlated with changes in the functional state of the liver. Using cytoprotector mexicor for 16 weeks as part of the basic treatment of patients with chronic heart failure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can correct these microcirculatory disorders, has a beneficial effect on endothelial function, autonomic tone of microvessels, which is accompanied by the positive dynamics of indicators of cytolysis and cholestasis.

  4. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  5. NMR of 19F emulsions: methodological developments and application to evaluation of oxi-metry and dynamic biodistribution in the liver and spleen and to detection of tumor angiogenesis in the rodent brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a method for detection of brain tumors at 7 tesla thanks to 19 F MRI contrast agents. We particularly assessed the potential of this method to highlight tumor angiogenesis with RGD-functionalized contrast agents targeting αvβ3integrin, a bio-marker over-expressed at the surface of new capillary blood vessels. Owing to low local concentrations in contrast agent, the first step consisted in optimizing a multi spin echo sequence dedicated to a well-known biocompatible per-fluorocarbon, perfluoro-octylbromide (PFOB). We show that careful adjustment of sequence parameters allows cancellation of J-modulation and T2 enhancement, and yields an excellent sensitivity in vitro. Our sequence was then tested for oxygenation measurements in the mouse liver and spleen after injection of a PFOB emulsion. The results demonstrate very good accuracy of the measurements after one single infusion of emulsion. We also perform a dynamic biodistribution study in order to monitor emulsion nano-particle uptake in the liver and spleen. Moreover, we show that stealth of emulsions grafted with different quantities of polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be assessed by fitting experimental data with a pharmacokinetic empirical model. Our sequence was finally used to visualize αvβ3-targeted nano-particles in a U87 glioblastoma mouse model. Concentrations found in tumors after injection of an RGD-functionalized emulsion and a control emulsion are compared. Concentrations are found to be significantly higher with the RGD emulsion than with the control emulsion, suggesting specific binding of functionalized nano-particles with αvβ3 integrin. The last part is dedicated to a new diffusion-weighted 19 F NMR spectroscopy sequence. This method aims at suppressing vascular signal coming from circulating PFOB nano-particles in order to evaluate signal coming from bound nano-particles only. (author) [fr

  6. Cytophotometric analysis of reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver, heart muscle and tracheal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Vogels, I. M.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction rates of succinate and lactate dehydrogenase activity in cryostat sections of rat liver, tracheal epithelium and heart muscle were monitored by continuous measurement of formazan formation by cytophotometry at room temperature. Incubation media contained polyvinyl alcohol as tissue

  7. Liver transplantation from maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors: a source to increase the donor pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, M; Suárez, F; Arnal, F; Fernández-García, A; Aguirrezabalaga, J; García-Buitrón, J; Alvarez, J; Máñez, R

    2004-04-01

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBD was compared with that of 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (CPS; n = 6) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n = 14) was used to maintain the donors. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survival rates with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBD were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with organs from HBDs. The graft survival rates was 83% for livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB.

  8. Acute toxicity, behavioral changes, and histopathological effects of deltamethrin on tissues (gills, liver, brain, spleen, kidney, muscle, skin) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M Ziynet; Benli, A Cağlan Karasu; Selvi, Mahmut; Ozkul, Ayhan; Erkoç, Figen; Koçak, Oner

    2006-12-01

    Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid contaminating aquatic ecosystems as a potential toxic pollutant, was investigated in the present study for acute toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LC(50) values of deltamethrin on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings and investigate histopathological responses of fish exposed to deltamethrin. The 48 h LC(50) value for Nile tilapia fingerlings was estimated as 4.85 microg/L using static test system. In addition, behavioral changes at each deltamethrin concentration were observed closely. All fish, exposed to 5 microg/L deltamethrin revealed severe morphological alterations in the gills and liver. In the gills hyperemia, fusion of secondary lamellae and telangiectasis were observed; whereas hydropic degenerations in liver were observed in all examined fish. The results are significant for reporting acute deltamethrin toxicity in terms of behavioral and histopathological changes: Deltamethrin is highly toxic to fingerlings. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  10. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. Results We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3, which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Conclusions Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments.

  11. Liver function tests in patients with acute heart failure and associated outcomes : insights from ASCEND-HF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsky, Marc D.; Dunning, Allison; DeVore, Adam D.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Starling, Randall C.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Armstrong, Paul W.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Butler, Javed; McMurray, John J.; Teerlink, John R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Metra, Marco; Mentz, Robert J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Patel, Chetan B.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    AimsWe aimed to characterize abnormal liver function tests in patients with heart failure (HF), as they are commonly encountered yet poorly defined. Methods and resultsWe used data from ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure) to characterize

  12. Emerging role of liver X receptors in cardiac pathophysiology and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Megan V; van Gilst, Wiek H; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2016-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are master regulators of metabolism and have been studied for their pharmacological potential in vascular and metabolic disease. Besides their established role in metabolic homeostasis and disease, there is mounting evidence to suggest that LXRs may exert direct beneficial effects in the heart. Here, we aim to provide a conceptual framework to explain the broad mode of action of LXRs and how LXR signaling may be an important local and systemic target for the treatment of heart failure. We discuss the potential role of LXRs in systemic conditions associated with heart failure, such as hypertension, diabetes, and renal and vascular disease. Further, we expound on recent data that implicate a direct role for LXR activation in the heart, for its impact on cardiomyocyte damage and loss due to ischemia, and effects on cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocardial metabolism. Taken together, the accumulating evidence supports the notion that LXRs may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure.

  13. Correlation between Heart, Liver and Pancreas Hemosiderosis Measured by MRI T2* among Thalassemia Major Patients from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkeivan, Azita; Hashemieh, Mozhgan; Shirkavand, Afshan; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-02-01

    Major thalassemia patients need lifelong transfusions. The consequence of these repeated transfusions is iron accumulation in different organs. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between heart, liver and pancreas hemosiderosis in thalassemic patients from Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 164 major thalassemia patients at Zafar Adult Thalassemia Center, a referral thalassemia center in Tehran, Iran, from May to November 2014.  All patients were on regular blood transfusion at 2-4 week intervals to keep their hemoglobin at a level of 7-9 gr/dL before each transfusion. Demographic data were gathered from patients' history. MRI T2* of liver, heart and pancreas were performed for all patients. There were a moderate correlation between pancreatic T2* and cardiac T2* relaxation times (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), a moderate correlation between T2* of pancreas and liver (r = 0.41, P < 0.001), and a weak correlation between T2* relaxation times of heart and liver (r = 0.31, P < 0.001). Poor correlation between liver and heart, as well as a weak to moderate correlation between pancreas and liver T2* relaxation times indicate that relying on liver MRI T2* to predict the exact condition of pancreas or heart iron overload might not be a reliable approach in thalassemia major patients. Our findings suggest the advantage of using pancreas and heart MRI T2* as a non-invasive method for estimation of iron overload instead of relying on liver MRI T2*.

  14. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of estrogen on various organs: therapeutic approach for sepsis, trauma, and reperfusion injury. Part 2: liver, intestine, spleen, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takashi; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2012-12-01

    Several clinical studies show a gender dimorphism of immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. However, there are conflicting reports on the role of gender in outcomes. Animal studies of shock, trauma, and sepsis have confirmed that alterations in immune and organ functions are more markedly depressed in adult males and in ovariectomized and aged females. In this review, we discuss the effect of estrogen on liver, intestinal, splenic, and renal functions in an experimental model of sepsis, trauma, and reperfusion injury. To establish the role of gender in the outcome of these patients, more studies in clinical and experimental settings are required to determine whether gender-specific responses are global across the injuries or are observed in specific injury situations. Studies are also needed to delineate underlying mechanisms responsible for differences between males and females. The findings gained from the experimental studies will help in designing innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of sepsis, trauma, and reperfusion injury patients.

  16. Effect and mechanisms of Gong-tone music on the immunological function in rats with Liver (Gan)-qi depression and Spleen (Pi)-qi deficiency syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yu; Peng, Gui-Ying; Gu, Li-Gang; Li, Zi-Mu; Yin, Sheng-Jun

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of Gong-tone music on the immunological function in rats with the Chinese medicine syndrome of Liver (Gan)-qi stagnation and Spleen (Pi)-qi deficiency (LSSD). Twenty five male Wistar rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal group, model group, Xiaoyao Powder () group, Gong-tone group and combined group (the combination of Gong-tone and Xiaoyao Powder), with 5 rats in each group. The rat model for the Chinese medicine syndrome of LSSD was induced by chronic bandage and irregular diet. The course of treatment was 21 days. After the treatment, the levels of serum gastrin and IgG were detected by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Phagocytosis of macrophages was detected by the neutral red uptake assay and T cell proliferation was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The serum gastrin, macrophage phagocytosis, IgG level and proliferation ability of T cells in the model group were significantly decreased compared with those in the normal group (P music may upregulate the immunological function and play a role in adjuvant therapy in the Chinese syndrome of LSSD.

  17. Heart and liver T2* assessment for iron overload using different software programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Juliano L. [University of Campinas, Unicamp, Campinas (Brazil); Radiologia Clinica de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sampaio, Erika Fontana; Coelho, Otavio R. [University of Campinas, Unicamp, Campinas (Brazil); Verissimo, Monica; Pereira, Fabricio B. [Centro Infantil Boldrini, Campinas (Brazil); Silva, Jose Alvaro da; Figueiredo, Gabriel S. de; Kalaf, Jose M. [Radiologia Clinica de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    To assess the level of agreement and interchangeability among different software programs for calculation of T2* values for iron overload. T2* images were analysed in 60 patients with thalassaemia major using the truncation method in three software programs. Levels of agreement were assessed using Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plots. Categorical classification for levels of iron concentration by each software program was also compared. For the heart, all correlation coefficients were significant among the software programs (P < 0.001 for all coefficients). The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were 0.2 (-4.73 to 5.0); 0.1 (-4.0 to 3.9); and -0.1 (-4.3 to 4.8). For the liver all correlations were also significant with P < 0.001. Bland-Altman plots showed differences of -0.02 (-0.7 to 0.6); 0.01 (-0.4 to 0.4); and -0.02 (-0.6 to 0.6). There were no significant differences in clinical classification among the software programs. All tools used in this study provided very good agreement among heart and liver T2* values. The results indicate that interpretation of T2* data is interchangeable with any of the software programs tested. (orig.)

  18. Intratracheally instilled titanium dioxide nanoparticles translocate to heart and liver and activate complement cascade in the heart of C57BL/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husain, Mainul; Wu, Dongmei; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    translocation from the lungs. Adult female C57BL/6 mice were exposed via intratracheal instillation to 18 or 162 mu g of industrially relevant titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) alongside vehicle controls. Using the nano-scale hyperspectral microscope, translocation to heart and liver was confirmed...

  19. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Frankenfeld

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1 body weight once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX, and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and total superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  20. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge References Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  1. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  2. Abnormal liver function tests in acute heart failure: relationship with clinical characteristics and outcome in the PROTECT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegus, Jan; Hillege, Hans L.; Postmus, Douwe; Valente, Mattia. A. E.; Bloomfield, Daniel M.; Cleland, John G. F.; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth A.; Dittrich, Howard C.; Fiuzat, Mona; Givertz, Michael M.; Massie, Barry M.; Metra, Marco; Teerlink, John R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    Aims Episodes of acute heart failure (AHF) unfavourably affect multiple organs, which may have an adverse impact on the outcomes. We investigated the prevalence and clinical consequences of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in AHF patients enrolled in the PROTECT study. Methods and results The

  3. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines.

  4. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Kozakova, Michaela; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Patients with fatty liver (FL) disease have a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim was to evaluate the association between FL, insulin resistance (IR), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population (RISC Study). In 1...... study prediction score, and physical activity (by accelerometer). The presence of FL was estimated using the fatty liver index (FLI; >60, likelihood >78% presence FL; FLI 91% absence of FL). Subjects were divided into three groups: G1: FLI 60 (n = 234), G2......,307 nondiabetic subjects (age 30-60 years) recruited at 19 centers, we evaluated liver enzymes, lipids, insulin sensitivity (by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp), glucose tolerance (by 75 g oral glucose tolerance test), carotid atherosclerosis as intima media thickness (IMT), CHD risk by the Framingham Heart...

  5. Shear mechanical properties of the spleen: experiment and analytical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Noguer, L; Palierne, J-F

    2012-05-01

    This paper aims at providing the first shear mechanical properties of spleen tissue. Rheometric tests on porcine splenic tissues were performed in the linear and nonlinear regime, revealing a weak frequency dependence of the dynamic moduli in linear regime and a distinct strain-hardening effect in nonlinear regime. These behaviours are typical of soft tissues such as kidney and liver, with however a less pronounced strain-hardening for the spleen. An analytical model based on power laws is then proposed to describe the general shear viscoelastic behaviour of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spleen Stiffness Correlates with the Presence of Ascites but Not Esophageal Varices in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although spleen stiffness has recently been identified as potential surrogate marker for portal hypertension, the relationship between spleen stiffness and portal hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We attempted to determine the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and the presence of ascites or esophageal varices by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. A total of 33 chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients (median age 68; range 51–84 were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and indicators of portal hypertension as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers were used for validating the accuracy of AFRI imaging. The liver and spleen stiffness increased significantly with progression of liver disease. A significant positive correlation was observed between the liver and spleen stiffness. However, spleen stiffness, but not liver stiffness, was significantly associated with the presence of ascites (, while there was no significant association between the spleen stiffness and spleen index/presence of esophageal varices in CHC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on the spleen stiffness was 0.80. In conclusion, spleen stiffness significantly correlates with the presence of ascites but not esophageal varices in CHC patients.

  7. Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing factors include: Viral infections, such as mononucleosis Bacterial infections, such as syphilis or an infection of your heart's inner lining (endocarditis) Parasitic infections, such as malaria Cirrhosis and other ...

  8. Liver dysfunction assessed by model for end-stage liver disease excluding INR (MELD-XI scoring system predicts adverse prognosis in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Abe

    Full Text Available AIMS: Liver dysfunction due to heart failure (HF is often referred to as cardiac or congestive hepatopathy. The composite Model for End-Stage Liver Disease excluding INR (MELD-XI is a robust scoring system of liver function, and a high score is associated with poor prognosis in advanced HF patients with a heart transplantation and/or ventricular assist device. However, the impact of MELD-XI on the prognosis of HF patients in general remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed 562 patients who were admitted to our hospital for the treatment of decompensated HF. A MELD-XI score was graded, and patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of MELD-XI score: Group L (MELD-XI <10, n = 289 and Group H (MELD-XI ≥10, n = 273. We compared all-cause mortality and echocardiographic findings between the two groups. In the follow-up period (mean 471 days, 104 deaths (62 cardiac deaths and 42 non-cardiac deaths were observed. The event (cardiac death, non-cardiac death, all-cause death-free rate was significantly higher in group L than in group H (logrank P<0.05, respectively. In the Cox proportional hazard analysis, a high MELD-XI score was found to be an independent predictor of cardiac deaths and all-cause mortality in HF patients. Regarding echocardiographic parameters, right atrial and ventricular areas, inferior vena cava diameter, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were higher in group H than in group L (P<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The MELD-XI scoring system, a marker of liver function, can identify high-risk patients with right heart volume overload, higher pulmonary arterial pressure and multiple organ failure associated with HF.

  9. The small spleen: sonographic patterns of functional hyposplenia or asplenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, Christian; Eichkorn, Miriam; Zugmaier, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Functional hyposplenia or asplenia (FAS) can be associated with potential fatal infections. The diagnosis of FAS is traditionally made on liver-spleen scintigraphy and finding Howell-Jolly bodies within erythrocytes. In this retrospective study, our goal was to identify any characteristic sonographic findings of the spleen in patients with FAS in an attempt to determine whether the diagnosis of FAS can be made sonographically. In a review of all medical and sonographic records from the period of January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2001, we identified 24 patients (11 men, 13 women) in whom FAS had been diagnosed by liver-spleen scintigraphy (n = 13) or the finding of Howell-Jolly bodies (n = 11). The following sonographic parameters were determined: size of spleen (small, normal, or large), echotexture of the spleen (homogeneous versus inhomogeneous), echogenicity (isoechoic versus hyperechoic), presence of focal splenic lesions, and patterns of splenic vascularization as determined by color Doppler sonography (absent flow, hilar flow, or parenchymal flow). The spleen was small in 20 patients (83%) and normal in the other 4 (17%). Echotexture was homogeneous in 13 patients (54%) and inhomogeneous in 11 (46%). The spleen was isoechoic in 18 cases (75%) and hyperechoic in 6 (25%). Six patients (25%) had focal lesions. Color Doppler sonography showed absent flow in 4 patients (17%), hilar flow in 17 (71%), and hilar and parenchymal vascularization in 3 (12%). Sonographic findings in the spleen of patients with FAS are characterized predominantly by a small spleen with absence of parenchymal vascularization on color Doppler sonography in most cases. Future prospective studies will be necessary to confirm these findings and to determine whether FAS can be diagnosed reliably with sonography. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 31:152-155, 2003

  10. Tl-201 per rectum scintigraphy in chronic liver disease: assessment of Tl-201 uptake indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin; Lee, Min Ho

    1999-01-01

    Heart to liver ratio on Tl-201 per rectal scintigraphy (shunt index) is known to be useful in the assessment of portal systemic shunt. We assessed Tl-201 uptake pattern and early liver/heart uptake rate of Tl-201 and correlated with shunt index in patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and liver cirrhosis (LC). Fifty eight patients with biopsy-proven chronic liver disease (35 with CAH, 23 with LC) underwent Tl-201 per rectum scintigraphy after instillation of 18.5 MBq of Tl-201 into the upper rectum. We evaluated hepatic uptake (type 1: homogeneous, 2: inhomogeneous segmental, 3: inhomogeneous nonsegmental) and extrahepatic uptake of spleen, heart and kidney (grade 0: no uptake, 1: less than liver, 2: equal to liver, 3: greater than liver). We measured the early liver/heart uptake rate (the slope of the liver to heart uptake ratio for 10 mim) and shunt index (heart to liver uptake ratio). Tl-201 uptake pattern and early liver/heart uptake rate of Tl-201 was correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and shunt index. Hepatic uptake patterns of type 1 and 2 were dominant in CAH (CAH: 27/35, LC: 8/23), and type 3 in LC (CAH: 8/35, LC: 15/23)(p<0.005). The grades of extrahepatic uptake were higher in LC than in CAH (spleen: p<0.001, other soft tissue: p<0.005). The early liver/heart uptake rate of CAH (0.110±0.111) was significantly higher than that of LC (0.014±0.090)(p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the early liver/heart uptake rate were 77.7% and 67.7% in differentiating LC from CAH. There was negative correlation between early liver/heart uptake rate and shunt index (r=-0.3347, p<0.01). Hepatic and extrahepatic uptake pattern and early liver/heart uptake rate on Tl-201 per rectum scintigraphy are useful in the assessment of portal systemic shunt in patients with chronic liver disease

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  12. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Kaspersen, Knut-Helge Frostmo; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  13. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  14. Metabolic crosstalk between the heart and liver impacts familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magida, Jason A; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2014-04-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is largely caused by dominant mutations in genes encoding cardiac sarcomeric proteins, and it is etiologically distinct from secondary cardiomyopathies resulting from pressure/volume overload and neurohormonal or inflammatory stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that decreased left ventricular contractile function in male, but not female, HCM mice is associated with reduced fatty acid translocase (CD36) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. As a result, the levels of myocardial ATP and triglyceride (TG) content are reduced, while the levels of oleic acid and TG in circulating very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and liver are increased. With time, these metabolic changes culminate in enhanced glucose production in male HCM mice. Remarkably, restoration of ventricular TG and ATP deficits via AMPK agonism as well as inhibition of gluconeogenesis improves ventricular architecture and function. These data underscore the importance of the systemic effects of a primary genetic heart disease to other organs and provide insight into potentially novel therapeutic interventions for HCM.

  15. Liver fat content, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and ischaemic heart disease: Mendelian randomization and meta-analysis of 279 013 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Kristensen, Thomas Skårup; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Køber, Lars; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In observational studies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with high risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD is a causal risk factor for IHD. In a cohort study of the Danish general population (n = 94 708/IHD = 10 897), we first tested whether a high liver fat content or a diagnosis of NAFLD was associated observationally with IHD. Subsequently, using Mendelian randomization, we tested whether a genetic variant in the gene encoding the protein patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 protein (PNPLA3), I148M (rs738409), a strong and specific cause of high liver fat content and NAFLD, was causally associated with the risk of IHD. We found that the risk of IHD increased stepwise with increasing liver fat content (in quartiles) up to an odds ratio (OR) of 2.41 (1.28-4.51)(P-trend = 0.004). The corresponding OR for IHD in individuals with vs. without NAFLD was 1.65 (1.34-2.04)(P = 3×10-6). PNPLA3 I148M was associated with a stepwise increase in liver fat content of up to 28% in MM vs. II-homozygotes (P-trend = 0.0001) and with ORs of 2.03 (1.52-2.70) for NAFLD (P = 3×10-7), 3.28 (2.37-4.54) for cirrhosis (P = 4×10-12), and 0.95 (0.86-1.04) for IHD (P = 0.46). In agreement, in meta-analysis (N = 279 013/IHD = 71 698), the OR for IHD was 0.98 (0.96-1.00) per M-allele vs. I-allele. The OR for IHD per M-allele higher genetically determined liver fat content was 0.98 (0.94-1.03) vs. an observational estimate of 1.05 (1.02-1.09)(P for comparison = 0.02). Despite confirming the known observational association of liver fat content and NAFLD with IHD, lifelong, genetically high liver fat content was not causally associated with risk of IHD. These results suggest that the observational association is due to confounding or reverse causation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

  16. Hematological values and body, heart and liver weights of male and female broiler embryos of young and old breeder eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Morita

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed broiler breeder age (29 or 60 wk-old effects on physical characteristics of eggs (initial mass, mass loss, volume, diameter, surface area and density and of eggshells(weight, volume, thickness, conductance, and porosity , as well as the influence of embryo sex on hematological parameters and body, liver and heart weights during incubation (at days 13, 15, 18 and 21. Physical parameter values were lower in 29-wk-old broiler breeder eggs than those of 60-wk-old breeders, except for relative eggshell weight, which was higher. In both male and female embryos, erythrocytic parameters and the body, liver, and heart weights increased during the incubation. The embryos and their organs were heavier when derived from 60-wk-old breeder eggs as compared to 29-wk-old breeder eggs. At hatching, hematocrit values were higher in males than in females. Thrombocytes were the most frequent leukocytes in the blood. Thrombocyte percentage decreased and lymphocyte percentage increased during the last days of incubation. The results showed maternal age influence only on body, heart and liver weights, focal sex-related influence the hematocrit at hatching, and temporal effect of incubation on body and organ weights, as well as on red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, and lymphocytes, which increased during the incubation period, while mean corpuscular volume and thrombocyte values decreased.

  17. Grape seed and skin extract mitigates heart and liver oxidative damage induced by a high-fat diet in the rat: gender dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charradi, Kamel; Mahmoudi, Mohamed; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a public health problem contributing to morbidity and mortality from metabolic syndrome. It has long been recognized that there is a gender dependency in several obesity-related health risks. Using a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity in Wistar rats, we studied the gender dependency of fat-induced oxidative stress in the heart and liver, with a special emphasis on the distribution of transition metals, as well as the protective effects of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced obesity in both male and female rats, characterized by increased body weight as well as relative liver mass in both genders, and increased relative heart mass in the males only. HFD also provoked the accumulation of triglycerides and total cholesterol into the male hearts, and into the livers of both genders. HFD induced oxidative stress in the male hearts and also in the livers of both genders. Furthermore, HFD affected cardiac levels of copper in the males, and hepatic levels of copper and zinc in both genders, whereas HFD affected free iron in the male hearts and female livers, specifically. In conclusion, HFD treatment altered transition metal homeostasis more drastically in the male heart than in the female liver, and GSSE efficiently protected these organs against fat-induced disturbances, regardless of gender.

  18. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  19. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  20. Postoperative weight gain during the first year after kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplant: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Christiane; Einhorn, Ina; Gottlieb, Jens; Warnecke, Gregor; Schwarz, Anke; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Bara, Christoph; Haller, Hermann; Haverich, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Studies of all types of organ transplant recipients have suggested that weight gain, expressed as an increase in body mass index (BMI), after transplant is common. To describe weight gain during the first year after transplant and to determine risk factors associated with weight gain with particular attention to type of transplant. A prospective study of 502 consecutive organ transplant recipients (261 kidney, 73 liver, 29 heart, 139 lung) to identify patterns of BMI change. Measurements were made during regular outpatient clinical visits at 2, 6, and 12 months after transplant. Data were retrieved from patients' charts and correlated with maintenance corticosteroid doses. Overall, mean BMI (SD; range) was 23.9 (4.5; 13.6-44.1) at 2 months and increased to 25.4 (4.0; 13.0-42.2) by the end of the first postoperative year. BMI levels organized by World Health Organization categories showed a trend toward overweight/obesity in kidney (53.4%), liver (51.5%), heart (51.7%), and lung (33.1%) patients by 12 months after transplant. BMI changed significantly (P= .05) for all organ types and between all assessment points, except in kidney recipients. Maintenance corticosteroid doses were not a predictor of BMI at 12 months after transplant for most patients. Weight gain was common among patients undergoing kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplant; however, many showed BMI values close to normality at the end of the first year after transplant. In most cases, increased BMI levels were related to obesity before transplant and not to maintenance corticosteroid therapy.

  1. Rapid clearance of iodine-131 MIBG from the heart and liver of patients with adrenergic dysfunction and pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Shimabukuro, K.; Miyaji, N.; Shimada, J.; Shirono, K.; Sakata, H.; Yoshimura, H.; Yonekura, R.; Shinohara, S.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine-131 MIBG, a radiolabeled adrenergic neuron-blocking agent, decreased rapidly from the heart and liver of patients with adrenergic dysfunction and pheochromocytoma when compared with eight controls. However, there was no significant difference in the rate of [ 131 I]MIBG decrease in these organs between controls and patients in the intervals subsequent to 4 hr. These findings suggest that adrenergic neuronal uptake of [ 131 I]MIBG in these organs is smaller in the patients than in the controls. Measurements of time-activity relationships of radioiodinated MIBG may be useful for assessment of adrenergic function of these organs and thus of generalized disorders of adrenergic innervation

  2. Long-term outcome in patients treated with combined heart and liver transplantation for familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Laerke M; Penninga, Luit; Sander, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    . All patients suffered from severe cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Mean recipient age at transplantation was 48.3 ± 4.2 yr. Mean follow-up was 55 months. No peroperative mortality occured. Two patients died within the first year (infection, multi-organ failure) of transplantation. Cumulative survival at 4......BACKGROUND: The amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) mutation Leu111Met causes a primarily cardiac amyloidosis: Familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy (FAC). Combined heart-liver transplantation (CHLTx) is the preferred treatment for patients with heart failure due to familial amyloidosis......, but information on outcome of patients with Leu111Met mutation is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of CHLTx in patients with FAC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1998 and 2009, CHLTx was performed in 7 FAC patients (four men). Six patients underwent simultaneous transplantation...

  3. Interactions between Biliverdin, Oxidative Damage, and Spleen Morphology after Simulated Aggressive Encounters in Veiled Chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Stressors frequently increase oxidative damage--unless organisms simultaneously mount effective antioxidant responses. One putative mitigative mechanism is the use of biliverdin, an antioxidant produced in the spleen during erythrocyte degradation. We hypothesized that both wild and captive-bred male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus, which are highly aggressive to conspecifics, would respond to agonistic displays with increased levels of oxidative damage, but that increased levels of biliverdin would limit this increase. We found that even just visual exposure to a potential combatant resulted in decreased body mass during the subsequent 48-hour period, but that hematocrit, biliverdin concentration in the bile, relative spleen size, and oxidative damage in plasma, liver, and spleen were unaffected. Contrary to our predictions, we found that individuals with smaller spleens exhibited greater decreases in hematocrit and higher bile biliverdin concentrations, suggesting a revision to the idea of spleen-dependent erythrocyte processing. Interestingly, individuals with larger spleens had reduced oxidative damage in both the liver and spleen, demonstrating the spleen's importance in modulating oxidative damage. We also uncovered differences in spleen size and oxidative damage between wild and captive-bred chameleons, highlighting environmentally dependent differences in oxidative physiology. Lastly, we found no relationship between oxidative damage and biliverdin concentration, calling into question biliverdin's antioxidant role in this species.

  4. Kinetics of eicosapentaenoic acid in brain, heart and liver of conscious rats fed a high n-3 PUFA containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Miki; Chang, Lisa; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2013-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), a precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may benefit cardiovascular and brain health. Quantifying EPA's in vivo kinetics might elucidate these effects. [1-(14)C]EPA was infused i.v. for 5min in unanesthetized male rats fed a standard EPA-DHA diet. Plasma and microwaved tissue were analyzed. Kinetic parameters were calculated using our compartmental model. At 5min, 31-48% of labeled EPA in brain and heart was oxidized, 7% in liver. EPA incorporation rates from brain and liver precursor EPA-CoA pools into lipids, mainly phospholipids, were 36 and 2529nmol/s/g×10(-4), insignificant for heart. Deacylation-reacylation half-lives were 22h and 38-128min. Conversion rates to DHA equaled 0.65 and 25.1nmol/s/g×10(-4), respectively. The low brain concentration and incorporation rate and high oxidation of EPA suggest that, if EPA has a beneficial effect in brain, it might result from its suppression of peripheral inflammation and hepatic conversion to bioactive DHA. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dynamics of the liver stiffness value using transient elastography during the perioperative period in patients with valvular heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Chon

    Full Text Available Liver congestion due to heart failure in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD can result in an overestimate of the liver stiffness (LS as assessed by transient elastography (TE. This prospective pilot study investigated the dynamics of LS during the perioperative valve operation period.Thirty-two patients who underwent a valve operation (case and 12 who underwent a varicose vein operation (control were prospectively enrolled. LS and cardiologic parameters at three time points [baseline, post-operative day (POD7, and POD90] were collected.LS at three time points were consistently higher in the case group than those in the control group, although all participants did not show evidence of underlying chronic liver disease (all P<0.05. In the case group, LS at POD7 increased slightly from the LS at baseline (median 7.9→8.4 kPa, P = 0.816, whereas LS at POD90 decreased significantly from the LS at POD7 (median 8.4→6.0 kPa; P = 0.026. LS was significantly correlated with N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP (ρ = 0.412, left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.494, and central venous pressure during the operation (ρ = 0.555 at baseline (all P<0.05. LS was significantly correlated with NT-proBNP (ρ = 0.526 and right ventricular pressure (ρ = 0.572 at POD7, whereas LS was significantly correlated with NT-proBNP (ρ = 0.590 at POD90 (all P<0.05.LS can be overestimated in patients with VHD due to hepatic congestion. However, LS can be dynamically reversed during the perioperative period reflecting the restoration of cardiac function after a successful operation.

  6. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  7. O papel da oxigenação hiperbárica na estrutura do fígado e baço após ligadura das veias hepáticas: estudo em ratos The role of hyperbaric oxygenation in the liver and spleen structure after hepatic vein ligation: study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa-Val

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação morfológica do fígado e baço de ratos submetidos à oxigenoterapia hiperbárica após a ligadura das veias hepáticas. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 30 animais machos adultos da espécie Holtzman, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 15 animais cada, assim designados: grupo 1 - ligadura das veias hepáticas; grupo 2 - ligadura das veias hepáticas associada à oxigenoterapia hiperbárica. Todos os animais foram submetidos à anestesia geral por meio de solução contendo cloridrato de cetamina (40 mg/ml e cloridrato de meperidina (10 mg/ml na dose de 50 mg/kg/peso, laparotomia mediana e ligadura das veias hepáticas. A oxigenoterapia hiperbárica foi aplicada nos animais do grupo 2, a partir da oitava hora do pós-operatório, por 120 minutos, sendo 90 minutos sob pressão de 2,5 atmosferas e 15 minutos no início e final da terapêutica, para promover a compressão e descompressão gradativa no período de 20 dias consecutivos. No 21° dia de pós-operatório, os animais foram mortos por inalação de éter e submetidos à laparotomia e extirpação dos fígados e baços para exame histológico. Foram comparados os resultados da histologia hepática e esplênica aplicando-se o teste exato de Fisher, considerando-se a diferença significante de P OBJECTIVE: Liver and spleen morphologic evaluation of rats submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy after hepatic vein ligation. METHOD: Thirty Holtzman adult male rats were used, distributed into two groups of 15 animals: group 1 - hepatic vein ligation; group 2 - hepatic vein ligation associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. All animals received general anesthesia by a solution composed of ketamine chloride (40 mg/ml and meperidine chloride (10 mg/ml in a dose of 50/mg/weight, and were submitted to median laparotomy and hepatic vein ligation. Group 2 animals were submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 8 hours after the operation, 90 minutes at 2.5 atmosphere pressure

  8. Sericin improves heart and liver mitochondrial architecture in hypercholesterolaemic rats and maintains pancreatic and adrenal cell biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampawong, Sumate; Isarangkul, Duangnate; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-09-15

    Hypercholesterolaemia is well known to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, subsequently leading to multiple organ failure. Similar to other natural products, sericin is a candidate for adjunctive therapy in hyperlipidaemic conditions. However, the cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of sericin are multifactorial and controversial. Here, a high-cholesterol-fed rat model with or without sericin treatment was established using a dosage of 1000mg/kg/day for 30 days. Blood lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; malondialdehyde, MDA; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor, Nrf-2), dysmorphic mitochondria in relation to fission (dynamin-related protein-1; Drp-1) and fusion (guanosine triphosphatase mutated in dominant optic atrophy; OPA-1) markers and biosynthetic markers (aquaporin, AQP-1; tubulin-4β, Tb4B) in the pancreas and adrenal gland were evaluated. The results showed that sericin reduced blood cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by acting against oxidative stress. Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant conditions further preserved heart and liver mitochondrial architecture; however, this protection was not exhibited in the kidney, where a high level of renal mitophagy, indicating by LC-3 up-regulation, was presented. The steps of ultrastructural alteration of mitochondria from degenerative changes to necrosis were also demonstrated. Sericin also conserved AQP-1 and Tb4B levels in the exocrine pancreatic acinar cells and zona glomerulosa cells, which were positively correlated with serum lipase, HDL, antioxidative markers and mitochondrial integrity. The present study revealed that sericin not only has antioxidant capacity but also balances pancreatic and adrenal cell biosynthesis, especially lipase activity, which may have played an important role in improving lipid dysregulation in the hypercholesterolaemic rat model, leading to the reduction of dysmorphic mitochondria, particularly in the heart and

  9. Pathologic rupture of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Cunha De Santis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic rupture has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic rupture. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6 mg/dL. Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory shock and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic rupture. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic rupture. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic rupture, as it is essentially atraumatic.

  10. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto

    2016-01-01

    ) changes at surgical sites of all catheterized mice, with mild inflammatory changes extending into the salivary glands. Several catheterized mice had multifocal degenerative to necrotic changes with inflammation in the heart, kidneys and livers, suggesting that thrombi had detached from the catheter tip...

  11. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  12. An analysis of the effects of Mn2+ on oxidative phosphorylation in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria using state 3 oxidation rate assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, Thomas E.; Gerstner, Brent; Lester, Tobias; Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Malecki, Jon; Swarts, Steven G.; Brookes, Paul S.; Gavin, Claire E.; Gunter, Karlene K.

    2010-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity is partially mediated by reduced ATP production. We have used oxidation rate assays-a measure of ATP production-under rapid phosphorylation conditions to explore sites of Mn 2+ inhibition of ATP production in isolated liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. This approach has several advantages. First, the target tissue for Mn toxicity in the basal ganglia is energetically active and should be studied under rapid phosphorylation conditions. Second, Mn may inhibit metabolic steps which do not affect ATP production rate. This approach allows identification of inhibitions that decrease this rate. Third, mitochondria from different tissues contain different amounts of the components of the metabolic pathways potentially resulting in different patterns of ATP inhibition. Our results indicate that Mn 2+ inhibits ATP production with very different patterns in liver, brain, and heart mitochondria. The primary Mn 2+ inhibition site in liver and heart mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria, is the F 1 F 0 ATP synthase. In mitochondria fueled by either succinate or glutamate + malate, ATP production is much more strongly inhibited in brain than in liver or heart mitochondria; moreover, Mn 2+ inhibits two independent sites in brain mitochondria. The primary site of Mn-induced inhibition of ATP production in brain mitochondria when succinate is substrate is either fumarase or complex II, while the likely site of the primary inhibition when glutamate plus malate are the substrates is either the glutamate/aspartate exchanger or aspartate aminotransferase.

  13. Effects of vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri on oxidative stress biomarkers and liver and heart biochemistry in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Halyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri on the health condition of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum in general, and oxidative stress biomarkers and metabolic parameters specifically, as well as to identify mechanisms that underpin the susceptibility of fish to vaccination, we compared the liver and heart function, and the oxidative mechanism underlying those effects, by detecting relevant lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation biomarkers, as well as aerobic-anaerobic metabolism in trout immunized against Y. ruckeri at 30 days post-vaccination and in healthy individuals. In our study, hepatic aminotransferase activities were positively associated with the oxidative stress biomarkers in the trout vaccinated against Y. ruckeri. Moreover, similar associations were observed in the cardiac tissue of the immunized trout. Decreased aldehydic and ketonic derivatives of oxidatively modified proteins and the reduction of aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were sensitive to the vaccination of trout against Y. ruckeri and may potentially be used as biomarkers in evaluating vaccine effects in the liver of rainbow trout. Understanding the role of biochemical changes in the tissues of vaccinated trout has important implications for understanding of the complex physiological changes that occur in immunization, and also for improving aquaculture practices to maximize tissue growth and the health of vaccinated trout.

  14. Comparative in vitro metabolism of 1-14C-oleic acid and 1-14C-erucic acid in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, I.S.; Sharma, A.K.; Ahuja, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro oxidation of 14 C-oleic and 1- 14 C-erucic acid and their incorporation into lipids by liver, heart and skeletal muscles from female albino rats were studied. These tissues were obtained from rats maintained for 120 days on low fat diet or diets containing 15% mustard oil or 15% groundnut oil. In all these tissues from rats on different types of diets, the oxidation of 1- 14 C-erucic acid was lower than that 1- 14 C-oleic acid. There was little accumulation of lipids in heart after 120 days of feeding mustard oil. Oxidation of 1- 14 C-erucic acid was enhanced in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats conditioned to the mustard oil diet supplying erucic acid. Oxidation of erucic acid was maximum in liver and least in heart, whereas there were no differences in the oxidation of 1- 14 C-oleic acid in these tissues. Incorporation of 1- 14 C-oleic acid into triglycerides and phospholipids was not affected by the type of diet or tissues Incorporation of 1- 14 C-erucic acid was mainly into triglycerides of heart and skeletal muscles of rats not accustomed to mustard oil diet whereas these tissues from rats accustomed to mustard oil diets incorporated 1- 14 C-erucic acid both into the triglycerides and phospholipids. (author)

  15. Effect of poloxamer 407 administration on the serum lipids profile, anxiety level and protease activity in the heart and liver of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas P.; Dubrovina, Nina I.; Kisarova, Yana A.; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya.; Cherkanova, Marina S.; Filjushina, Elena E.; Alexeenko, Tatyana V.; Machova, Eva; Zhukova, Natalya A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic administration of the poloxamer 407 (P-407), a block copolymer, to elevate serum lipids in mice is a well-established mouse model of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that the activity of several types of proteases in heart and liver tissue is changed in the early stages of atherosclerosis development. Additionally, we evaluated whether increased serum lipids would induce anxiety in mice, as determined by using a ‘plus-maze’ test. The mice were administered P-407 by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for one month. P-407 administration to mice resulted in a marked increase in total serum cholesterol, atherogenic non-HDL-cholesterol, and especially in total triglycerides, and it also increased anxiety. Morphological changes observed in P-407-treated mice included contractile type changes in cardiomyocytes and foamy macrophages in liver. A significant increase of cysteine proteases cathepsin B and cathepsin L (at 24 h) and aspartate protease cathepsin D (at both 24 h and 5 days) was determined in heart tissue following P-407 administration. However, no changes were noted in heart matrix metalloproteinase activity. The activity of cysteine and aspartate proteases was significantly increased in liver at both 24 hours and 5 days after P-407 administration. In conclusion, administration of P-407 to mice for one month resulted in increased anxiety, and more importantly, there was an increase in the activity of heart and liver proteases secondary to sustained dyslipidemia. It is suggested that heart and liver cysteine and aspartate proteases may represent potential therapeutic targets in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:24170975

  16. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonography of the brain, abdomen, and heart in neonates born to liver or renal transplant recipient mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociszewska-Najman, Bożena; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Schreiber-Zamora, Joanna; Borek-Dzięcioł, Beata; Bobrowska, Katarzyna; Kucińska, Beata; Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Zoulikha; Samaha, Robert; Biejat, Agnieszka; Werner, Bożena; Wielgos, Mirosław

    2012-12-31

    Pregnancies in graft recipients are associated with increased risk of a number of pathologies. The aim of the study was to analyze results of brain and abdominal ultrasonography and echocardiography (ECHO) in neonates born to liver (LTx) or renal recipients (RTx). The study group consisted of 82 neonates born to transplanted women (46 neonates of liver recipients and 36 neonates of renal recipients), enrolled in a retrospective study. The control group consisted of 74 neonates from the general population. Sonographic examination of the brain was performed to check for the presence of intra-/periventricular hemorrhage (IVH/PVH) according to Papile, and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL).The results of abdominal ultrasonography and 2-dimensional echocardiography (ECHO) were compared between the groups. The immunosuppressive therapy used during pregnancy was also analyzed. No significant differences were observed between the frequency of IVH in LTx and RTx groups and LTx, RTx, and control groups. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed 1 case of suprarenal hemorrhage, 1 case of cystic kidney, and 3 cases of pyelocalyceal system dilatation in the study group. There were no abnormalities in the echocardiography in 97.8% of children born to mothers after LTx and in 94.4% after RTx. There were significant differences in the immunosuppressive therapy between the pregnant women after LTx and RTx. The risk was not increased in intra-/periventricular hemorrhage and congenital abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract and heart in neonates of mothers after organ transplantation, regardless of the immunotherapy used, and risk was similar to that of the general population.

  18. An integrative analysis of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq data for human heart, kidney and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Linglin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many groups, including our own, have proposed the use of DNA methylation profiles as biomarkers for various disease states. While much research has been done identifying DNA methylation signatures in cancer vs. normal etc., we still lack sufficient knowledge of the role that differential methylation plays during normal cellular differentiation and tissue specification. We also need thorough, genome level studies to determine the meaning of methylation of individual CpG dinucleotides in terms of gene expression. Results In this study, we have used (insert statistical method here to compile unique DNA methylation signatures from normal human heart, lung, and kidney using the Illumina Infinium 27 K methylation arraysand compared those to gene expression by RNA sequencing. We have identified unique signatures of global DNA methylation for human heart, kidney and liver, and showed that DNA methylation data can be used to correctly classify various tissues. It indicates that DNA methylation reflects tissue specificity and may play an important role in tissue differentiation. The integrative analysis of methylation and RNA-Seq data showed that gene methylation and its transcriptional levels were comprehensively correlated. The location of methylation markers in terms of distance to transcription start site and CpG island showed no effects on the regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation in normal tissues. Conclusions This study showed that an integrative analysis of methylation array and RNA-Seq data can be utilized to discover the global regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation and suggests that DNA methylation plays an important role in normal tissue differentiation via modulation of gene expression.

  19. Role of spleen-derived IL-10 in prevention of systemic low-grade inflammation by obesity [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-04-29

    Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen. Splenectomy (SPX) aggravates the inflammatory response in hypothalamus, liver and WAT. These SPX-induced alterations are inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, in IL-10 deficiency, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in these multiple organs. We show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 on inflammatory responses in obesity.

  20. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  1. The effect of alterations in total coenzyme A on metabolic pathways in the liver and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, C.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The first set of experiments involved in vitro experiments using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. A range of conditions were developed which resulted in cell cultures with variations in total CoA over a range of 1.3 to 2.9 nmol/mg protein with identical hormonal activation which simulated metabolic stress. Elevations of total CoA levels above that of controls due to preincubation with cyanamide plus pantothenate were correlated with diminished rates of total ketone body production, 3-hydroxybutyrate production and ratios of 3 hydroxybutyrate/acetoactetate with palmitate as substrate. In contrast, cells with elevated total CoA levels had higher rates of ({sup 14}C) CO{sub 2} production from radioactive palmitate which implied greater flux of acetyl CoA units into the TCA cycle and less to the pathway of ketogenesis. The second set of experiments were designed to alter total CoA levels in vivo by maintaining rats on a chronic ethanol diet with or without pantothenate-supplementation. The effect of alterations of CoA on mitochondrial metabolism was evaluated by measuring substrate oxidation rates in liver and heat mitochondria as well as ketone body production with palmitoyl-1-carnitine as substrate.

  2. Radiologic findings of intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Acu

    2015-06-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital abnormality consisting of normal splenic tissue in ectopic sites. They are found most commonly near the splenic hilum. One in every six accessory spleens is located in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis of an IPAS should be considered when a pancreatic mass has the CT densities and/or MRI signal intensities similar to those of the spleen, with and without contrast medium. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 140-143

  3. Protective effects of azelaic acid against high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in liver, kidney and heart of C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-05-01

    Excess fat intake induces hyperinsulinaemia, increases nutrient uptake and lipid accumulation, amplifies ROS generation, establishes oxidative stress and morphological changes leading to tissue injury in the liver, kidney and heart of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The effect of azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 α,ω-dicarboxylic acid, against HFD-induced oxidative stress was investigated by assaying the activities and levels of antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in the liver, kidney and heart of C57BL/6J mice. Mice were segregated into two groups, one fed standard diet (NC) and the other fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. HFD-fed mice were subjected to intragastric administration of AzA (80 mg/kg BW)/RSG (10 mg/kg BW) during 11-15 weeks. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides, hepatic and nephritic markers were analysed in the plasma and the activity of enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation markers were examined in the plasma/erythrocytes, liver, kidney and heart of normal and experimental mice. We inferred significant decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with significant increase in glucose, insulin, hepatic and nephritic markers, triglycerides and lipid peroxidation markers in HFD-fed mice. Administration of AzA could positively restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, hepatic and nephritic markers to near normal. AzA increased the levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants with significant reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidation markers. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and heart substantiated these results. Hence, we put forward that AzA could counteract the potential injurious effects of HFD-induced oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice.

  4. Effect of poloxamer 407 administration on the serum lipids profile, anxiety level and protease activity in the heart and liver of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Korolenko, Tatyana A.; Johnston, Thomas P.; Dubrovina, Nina I.; Kisarova, Yana A.; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya.; Cherkanova, Marina S.; Filjushina, Elena E.; Alexeenko, Tatyana V.; Machova, Eva; Zhukova, Natalya A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic administration of the poloxamer 407 (P-407), a block copolymer, to elevate serum lipids in mice is a well-established mouse model of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that the activity of several types of proteases in heart and liver tissue is changed in the early stages of atherosclerosis development. Additionally, we evaluated whether increased serum lipids would induce anxiety in mice, as determined by using a ?plus-maze? test. The mice were administered ...

  5. Subunits VIIa,b,c of human cytochrome c oxidase. Identification of both 'heart-type' and 'liver-type' isoforms of subunit VIIa in human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; van Beeumen, J. J.; van der Meer, N. M.; Muijsers, A. O.

    1992-01-01

    The N-terminal amino acid sequences and the electrophoretic mobilities of the subunits VIIa, VIIb and VIIc of cytochrome c oxidase purified from human heart were investigated and compared with those from human skeletal muscle and from bovine heart. In purified human heart cytochrome c oxidase, both

  6. Evaluating the quality of the edible offal (heart, liver, kidney of rabbits (Flemish Giant breed during storage by refrigeration following the evolution of the pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela FRUNZĂ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to determine the quality of the edible offal (heart, liver and kidney of rabbits (Flemish Giant breed during storage by refrigeration following the evolution of the pH, after slaughter, during maturation, to autolysis and alteration, from 27 individuals (15 males and 12 females. The rabbits had an average body weight of 11.5 kg being at the age of reproductive maturity (11-12 months. The pH evolution of the edible offal (heart, liver, kidney of rabbits (refrigerated at 20C was monitored during of 18 days after slaughter. The pH evolution had a fluctuant ascendant trend, quite similar for females and males, presenting insignificant differences by gender. At 24 h after slaughter, the mean values of pH of the main edible offal (from males and females had the highest average values to the kidneys 6.48, followed by the heart 6.32 and by the liver 6.23. The alteration occurred much faster in kidneys and was starting with the 13th day of storage, the pH being close to 6.8-7.

  7. Diet control to achieve euglycemia induces significant loss of heart and liver weight via increased autophagy compared with ad libitum diet in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Ju-Han; Jin, Mingli; Han, Sang-Don; Chon, Gyu-Rak; Kim, Ick-Hee; Kim, Seonguk; Kim, Sung-Young; Choi, Soo-Bong; Noh, Yun-Hee

    2014-08-29

    Intensive glucose control increases the all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that strict diet control to achieve euglycemia in diabetes damages major organs, increasing the mortality risk. To evaluate effects on major organs when euglycemia is obtained by diet control, we generated a model of end-stage T2DM in 13-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by subtotal pancreatectomy, followed by ad libitum feeding for 5 weeks. We divided these rats into two groups and for the subsequent 6 weeks provided ad libitum feeding to half (AL, n=12) and a calorie-controlled diet to the other half (R, n=12). To avoid hypoglycemia, the degree of calorie restriction in the R group was isocaloric (g per kg body weight per day) compared with a sham-operated control group (C, n=12). During the 6-week diet control period, AL rats ate three times more than rats in the C or R groups, developing hyperglycemia with renal hyperplasia. R group achieved euglycemia but lost overall body weight significantly compared with the C or AL group (49 or 22%, respectively), heart weight (39 or 23%, respectively) and liver weight (50 or 46%, respectively). Autophagy levels in the heart and liver were the highest in the R group (Pdiabetes but may be deleterious even at isocaloric rate when insulin is deficient because of significant loss of heart and liver mass via increased autophagy.

  8. Longitudinal dose and type of immunosuppression in a national cohort of Australian liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients, 1984-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Renhua; Laaksonen, Maarit A; Grulich, Andrew E; Webster, Angela C; Meagher, Nicola S; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Keogh, Anne M; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-11-01

    Unconfounded comparative data on the type and dose of immunosuppressive agents among solid organ transplant recipients are sparse, as are data on longitudinal immunosuppressive therapy since transplantation. We addressed this issue in a population-based cohort of Australian liver (n = 1895), heart (n = 1220), and lung (n = 1059) transplant recipients, 1984-2006. Data on immunosuppressive therapy were retrospectively collected at discharge, three months, and one, five, 10, and 15 yr after first transplant. We computed unadjusted and adjusted estimates for the association between the type and dose of immunosuppressive therapy and organ type. After adjustment for confounders, use of induction antibody and maintenance corticosteroids was more common in heart and lung compared to liver recipients (p heart and lung recipients (p heart and lung recipients (p transplanted organ, for example, malignancy risk. Longitudinal changes in the type and the dose of immunosuppressive therapy over time since transplantation also demonstrate the need for time-dependent data in observational research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  10. Heat Killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 Reduces Fibrosis Effects on the Liver and Heart in High Fat Diet-Hamsters via TGF-β Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Ting

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and NAFLD is highly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Scholars have suggested that certain probiotics may significantly impact cardiovascular health, particularly certain Lactobacillus species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263 probiotics, which have been shown to reduce obesity and arteriosclerosis in vivo. In the present study, we examined the potential of heat-killed bacteria to attenuate high fat diet (HFD-induced hepatic and cardiac damages and the possible underlying mechanism of the positive effects of heat-killed Lr263 oral supplements. Heat-killed Lr263 treatments (625 and 3125 mg/kg-hamster/day were provided as a daily supplement by oral gavage to HFD-fed hamsters for eight weeks. The results show that heat-killed Lr263 treatments reduce fatty liver syndrome. Moreover, heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 supplementation in HFD hamsters also reduced fibrosis in the liver and heart by reducing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β expression levels. In conclusion, heat-killed Lr263 can reduce lipid metabolic stress in HFD hamsters and decrease the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Abdominal (liver, spleen) and bone manifestations of cat scratch disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, C.E.; Patrick, L.E. (Egleston Children' s Hospital, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-09-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually a self-limiting illness. Patients may develop systemic complications including hepatic granulomas, splenic abscesses, mesenteric adenitis, osteolytic lesions, as well as dermatologic and CNS complications. In this paper the literature is reviewed and two cases are discussed which present the imaging findings in patients with hepatic, splenic, mesenteric, and bony manifestations of cat scratch disease. (orig.).

  12. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

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    Vijay K. Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal (pineal proteins (BEP and melatonin (MEL against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water, MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p., and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p. for 28 days. There were significantly P<0.05 high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly P<0.05 attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats.

  13. CT number of the fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kawai, Takeshi; Kanasaki, Yoshiki; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1981-01-01

    This report is studied on CT number and CT images of the eight cases with fatty liver. Five of these cases showed the reversal of densities of the liver and vessels. In these cases, the diagnoses of the fatty liver were easible. In other cases, the diagnoses were possible only by comparison of the CT number of the liver and spleen because the CT number of normal liver were higher than those of the spleen. In the results which we examined the correlation of the CT number and specific gravities of the blood, normal saline, distilled water, mayonnaise, eatable iol, ethyl alcohol and lard, we observed the linear relationship between CT number and specific gravities. And so, we think that the diagnosis of the fatty liver and the degree of fatty infiltration can be guessed by the CT number of the liver and spleen. (author)

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measuring the biodistribution and in situ in vivo pharmacokinetics of fluorinated compounds: validation using an investigation of liver and heart disposition of tecastemizole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E; Bolo, N R; Frederick, B; Wilkinson, S; Hirashima, F; Nassar, L; Lyoo, I K; Koch, P; Jones, S; Hwang, J; Sung, Y; Villafuerte, R A; Maier, G; Hsu, R; Hashoian, R; Renshaw, P F

    2006-06-01

    The study of biodistribution and in situ pharmacokinetics is a challenging, but sometimes very important, aspect of premarketing characterization of drugs. We aimed to develop a non-invasive fluorine magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic method for the absolute quantitation of a mono-fluorinated compound and of its metabolites in the heart and liver of healthy subjects for this purpose. We used fluorine MR spectroscopy (MRS) at 4 T (Tesla) and external standardization in an open label multiple-dose study. Twenty-three healthy adult subjects were enrolled in the study. The surface coil localized fluorine MR spectrum was monitored in the heart and liver at baseline and after oral administration of multiple doses of tecastemizole. Steady-state measurements were made at set time points that depended upon dose, and washout measurements were made only on subjects in which in vivo fluorine signal was observed. At 4 T, under the given experimental conditions, the method had a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of about 2.6 microm and a limit of detection (LOD) of about 0.3 microm for solution state samples (linewidth approximately 15 Hz). The measurement reproducibility was 6.4% using a 50 microm phantom. The effect of MR operator and spectral analyst on the calculated calibration curve slope was small, with inter-rater correlation coefficients of 0.999 and 0.998 respectively. MR signal from fluorine-containing tecastemizole-related moieties was observed in situ only at day 8 in the liver of three of five subjects dosed at 270 mg/day. The average in situ concentration was estimated to be 58+/-22 microm, with an average test-retest reproducibility of 216%. Extrapolating the in vitro results to human measurements, with an approximate linewidth of 250 Hz, predicts in situ LOD and LLOQ values of approximately 6 and 44 microm respectively. However, the human study had a fluorine MRS LOD of approximately 20 microm. The decrease in sensitivity and the increase in variability of

  15. Localizations of Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 in human kidney and of SGLT1 in human small intestine, liver, lung, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovac, Ivana; Balen Eror, Daniela; Klessen, Dirk; Burger, Christa; Breljak, Davorka; Kraus, Ognjen; Radović, Nikola; Jadrijević, Stipe; Aleksic, Ivan; Walles, Thorsten; Sauvant, Christoph; Sabolić, Ivan; Koepsell, Hermann

    2015-09-01

    Novel affinity-purified antibodies against human SGLT1 (hSGLT1) and SGLT2 (hSGLT2) were used to localize hSGLT2 in human kidney and hSGLT1 in human kidney, small intestine, liver, lung, and heart. The renal locations of both transporters largely resembled those in rats and mice; hSGLT2 and SGLT1 were localized to the brush border membrane (BBM) of proximal tubule S1/S2 and S3 segments, respectively. Different to rodents, the renal expression of hSGLT1 was absent in thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) and macula densa, and the expression of both hSGLTs was sex-independent. In small intestinal enterocytes, hSGLT1 was localized to the BBM and subapical vesicles. Performing double labeling with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), hSGLT1 was localized to GLP-1-secreting L cells and GIP-secreting K cells as has been shown in mice. In liver, hSGLT1 was localized to biliary duct cells as has been shown in rats. In lung, hSGLT1 was localized to alveolar epithelial type 2 cells and to bronchiolar Clara cells. Expression of hSGLT1 in Clara cells was verified by double labeling with the Clara cell secretory protein CC10. Double labeling of human heart with aquaporin 1 immunolocalized the hSGLT1 protein in heart capillaries rather than in previously assumed myocyte sarcolemma. The newly identified locations of hSGLT1 implicate several extra renal functions of this transporter, such as fluid absorption in the lung, energy supply to Clara cells, regulation of enteroendocrine cells secretion, and release of glucose from heart capillaries. These functions may be blocked by reversible SGLT1 inhibitors which are under development.

  16. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an increased risk of heart block in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Alessandro Mantovani

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of cardiac tachyarrhythmias (mainly atrial fibrillation in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association also exists between NAFLD and heart block. We have retrospectively evaluated a hospital-based cohort of 751 patients with type 2 diabetes discharged from our Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology during years 2007-2014. Standard electrocardiograms were performed on all patients. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography, whereas the severity of advanced hepatic fibrosis was based on the fibrosis (FIB-4 score and other non-invasive fibrosis markers. Overall, 524 (69.8% patients had NAFLD and 202 (26.9% had heart block (defined as at least one block among first-degree atrio-ventricular block, second-degree block, third-degree block, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, left anterior hemi-block or left posterior hemi-block on electrocardiograms. Patients with NAFLD had a remarkably higher prevalence of any persistent heart block than those without NAFLD (31.3% vs. 16.7%, p<0.001; this prevalence was particularly increased among those with higher FIB-4 score. NAFLD was associated with a threefold increased risk of prevalent heart block (adjusted-odds ratio 3.04, 95% CI 1.81-5.10, independently of age, sex, hypertension, prior ischemic heart disease, hemoglobin A1c, microvascular complication status, use of medications and other potentially confounding factors. In conclusion, this is the largest cross-sectional study to show that NAFLD and its severity are independently associated with an increased risk of prevalent heart block in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Preservative spleen surgery and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Cintra, Luiz Cálice; Santos, Maria Carmem Silva; Rodrigues, Hildegardo; Ferrari, Thiago Antunes; Azevedo, Tiago Caetano V de; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da

    2007-01-01

    To assess functional and morphological aspects of spleen auto-implants and of the splenic inferior pole of rats, post-operatively treated or not with hyperbaric oxygen, as well as the survival of these animals, were studied. Seventy-eight male Wistar rats, weighing between 192 and 283 g ( 238,3 +/- 9,6g), were randomly distributed into three groups: Group 1--(n=20), spleen manipulation; group 2--(n=36), spleen auto-implantation; group 3--(n= 22), subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior pole. Each group was subdivided as follows: subgroup a, not submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: 1a(n=10), 2a(n=21), 3a(n= 13); subgroup b, submitted to the therapy: 1b(n=10), 2b(n=15), 3b(n=9). Blood was collected pre-operatively and 11 days after surgery, for the estimation of lipids and immunoglobulins and the counting of platelets and Howell-Jolly corpuscles. The spleen and remains were taken for histological study. The number of surviving animals was significantly higher in groups 1(p 2. The macro and microscopic appearance in subgroup 2b were more viable than in subgroup 2a, and that of group 3 more viable than in group 2. The survival of the animals carrying their whole spleen or its inferior pole was more frequent than that of the auto-implanted animals. Functionality and viability of the whole spleen or of its inferior pole, were better than in the auto-implanted animals. Hyperbaric oxygen-therapy contributed to increased survival frequency of auto-implanted animals, and to improve the functionality and viability of the auto-implants and the function of the inferior splenic pole, and did not interfere in animals carrying their whole spleen.

  18. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of the Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Sunitinib and Erlotinib on Heart, Muscle, Liver and Serum Metabolism In Vivo

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    Brian C. Jensen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 90 tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation and tumor angiogenesis. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have emerged as effective therapies in treating cancer by exploiting this kinase dependency. The TKI erlotinib targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, whereas sunitinib targets primarily vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR.TKIs that impact the function of non-malignant cells and have on- and off-target toxicities, including cardiotoxicities. Cardiotoxicity is very rare in patients treated with erlotinib, but considerably more common after sunitinib treatment. We hypothesized that the deleterious effects of TKIs on the heart were related to their impact on cardiac metabolism. Methods: Female FVB/N mice (10/group were treated with therapeutic doses of sunitinib (40 mg/kg, erlotinib (50 mg/kg, or vehicle daily for two weeks. Echocardiographic assessment of the heart in vivo was performed at baseline and on Day 14. Heart, skeletal muscle, liver and serum were flash frozen and prepped for non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics analysis. Results: Compared to vehicle-treated controls, sunitinib-treated mice had significant decreases in systolic function, whereas erlotinib-treated mice did not. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of heart identified significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA/ eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, O-phosphocolamine, and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid after sunitinib treatment. DHA was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris, while elevated cholesterol was identified in liver and elevated ethanolamine identified in serum. In contrast, erlotinib affected only one metabolite (spermidine significantly increased. Conclusions: Mice treated with sunitinib exhibited systolic dysfunction within two weeks, with significantly lower heart and skeletal muscle

  19. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  20. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

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    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  1. Recruitment of macrophages from the spleen contributes to myocardial fibrosis and hypertension induced by angiotensin II

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    Ning-Ping Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether macrophages migrated from the spleen are associated with angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to angiotensin II infusion in vehicle (500 ng/kg/min for up to four weeks. In splenectomy, the spleen was removed before angiotensin II infusion. In the angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade, telmisartan was administered by gastric gavage (10 mg/kg/day during angiotensin II infusion. The heart and aorta were isolated for Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: Angiotensin II infusion caused a significant reduction in the number of monocytes in the spleen through the AT1 receptor-activated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Comparison of angiotensin II infusion, splenectomy and telmisartan comparatively reduced the recruitment of macrophages into the heart. Associated with this change, transforming growth factor β1 expression and myofibroblast proliferation were inhibited, and Smad2/3 and collagen I/III were downregulated. Furthermore, interstitial/perivascular fibrosis was attenuated. These modifications occurred in coincidence with reduced blood pressure. At week 4, invasion of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the thoracic aorta was attenuated and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was upregulated, along with a reduction in aortic fibrosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that macrophages when recruited into the heart and aorta from the spleen potentially contribute to angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension.

  2. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Vottelerd, P.; Anton, Y.; Salazar-Lugo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd) effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV) and acid soluble thiols levels (AST) in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill) was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate) were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l-1). We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman’s method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions. PMID:26623384

  3. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Velasquez-Vottelerd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV and acid soluble thiols levels (AST in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l-1. We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman’s method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions.

  4. The total body mass of fatty acid ethyl esters in skeletal muscles following ethanol exposure greatly exceeds that found in the liver and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Raneem O; Laposata, Michael; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Preedy, Victor R

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle appears to be susceptible to chronic and acute excess alcohol intake, giving rise to alcoholic myopathy, a common disease among alcoholics. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been shown to be toxic to cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that accumulation of FAEE in skeletal muscle could contribute to the development of alcoholic myopathy. Male wistar rats were treated either with 75 mmol ethanol/kg body weight or saline, in the fed state or starved for 1 or 2 days before administration. Rats were thus divided into the following groups: fed-saline (n = 8); fed-ethanol (n = 8); starved 1 day, saline (n = 8); starved 1 day, ethanol (n = 9); starved 2 days, saline (n = 7); and starved 2 days, ethanol (n = 8). At the end of the incubation, skeletal muscles (abdominal and gastrocnemius), liver, and heart were isolated and processed for FAEE isolation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total mass of FAEE in the muscles was much greater than that found in the liver and the heart. In general, the animals that were fasted for 1 day and received ethanol had the highest FAEE levels among the three groups of animals. The major ethyl ester species in all cases were ethyl 16:0, ethyl 18:0, ethyl 18:1 n-9, and ethyl 18:2 n-6. Ethyl 20:4 n-6 and ethyl 22:6 n-3 were also present, except in the fasted 1-day group, where ethyl 22:6 disappeared, though it reappeared in the fasted 2-day group. These findings demonstrate that skeletal muscles contain high levels of FAEE that are synthesized in the body after ethanol exposure. The concentration of FAEE in skeletal muscle in this study was very similar to FAEE concentration in the liver. This differs from previous studies suggesting a low concentration of skeletal muscle FAEE with ethanol exposure.

  5. [Pyoderma gangrenosum with aseptic spleen abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, N; Maubec, E; Boccara, O; Marinho, E; Valeyrie-Allanore, L; Lecaille, C; Sebban, V; Hersent, B; Picard-Dahan, C; Descamps, V; Crickx, B

    2009-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis in which systemic involvement is rare. It may be associated with systemic disease. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in the spleen. A 68-year-old man presenting pyoderma gangrenosum with pustules and stage I multiple myeloma was admitted for asthenia and abdominal pain. There were no skin lesions. Laboratory tests showed inflammatory syndrome with polynuclear leucocytes of 25,000/mm(3). CAT scans and abdominal ultrasound revealed a splenic abscess. A spleen biopsy was performed and histological examination showed polynuclear leukocyte infiltration, while cultures were negatives. Diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum with splenic involvement was made. Increased systemic corticosteroid therapy produced a successful outcome. Haematological findings remained unchanged. Spleen involvement in pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare and can mimic an infectious process. In such cases, routine screening is essential for associated diseases, particularly haematological malignancies.

  6. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  7. Nonvisualization of an enlarged spleen on Ga-67 scintigraphy but demonstrated by CT after splenic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Maruyama, Y.

    1985-03-01

    The presence of an enlarged spleen using CT with the absence of splenic visualization in Ga-67 citrate images in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia and splenomegaly after splenic irradiation was observed. Since Howell-Jolly bodies had not been identified in the peripheral circulation, the finding of splenic nonvisualization was explained by disassociated splenic functions, which are not tightly coupled, and some activities that can be suppressed by irradiation without impairing others. The Ga-67 splenic localization mechanism is probably more sensitive and liable to disruption by irradiation, and was independent of spleen size. Ga-67 scintigraphy and Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy are two organ function-dependent imaging procedures, while CT provides anatomic information.

  8. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

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    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  9. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.G.; Fogh, J.; Graem, N.; Hansen, O.P.; Hippe, E.

    1984-04-15

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy, which showed only a few minor focal changes in the spine and ribs, angioscintigraphy with in vitro labeled /sup 99m/Tc-erythrocytes revealed extensive pathologic accumulations throughout the spine, femurs, and the liver, indicating the presence of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas.

  10. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  11. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  13. Simultaneous increases in immune-competent cells and nitric oxide in the spleen during Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrevanian, Hossein; Dascombe, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    Nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) are thought to be important mediators of both immunological and pathological responses of the vertebrate host to malaria infection. The role of RNI has been studied most often by assay of stable RNI metabolites (nitrites, nitrates) in blood. This study evaluated the nature of the RNI response of mice to malaria by analyzing the subsets of immune-competent cells within the organ displaying increased RNI in vivo. We measured RNI production indirectly, as stable metabolites of nitric oxide activity in tissue homogenates (brain, liver, spleen) from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Only spleen exhibited an RNI concentration response during rising parasitemia. Subsets of immune-competent cells (B cells, CD19+), macrophages/monocytes (MOMA2+) and T cells (CD4+, CD8+) in the spleen were assayed by fluorescence activated cell scan flow cytometry. The spleen was confirmed as a major source of RNI during mid-phase P. berghei infection. Significant increases in CD19+ and MOMA2+ spleen cells were evident during the mid-phase of P. berghei infection in MF1 mice when RNI are maximally elevated. The time courses of the cellular and RNI responses indicate that CD19+ and MOMA2+ cells may be responsible for the increase in RNI in the spleen. However, experiments in vitro are needed to make a definitive identification of the cell type(s) responsible for the increase in RNI in the mouse spleen during P. berghei infection.

  14. Invasive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the spleen treated with partial splenectomy in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krl, Elif Altnay; Orhan, Diclehan; Haliloğlu, Mithat; Karnak, Ibrahim

    2012-05-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare benign tumor that can be found in intra-abdominal organs such as the liver, intestine, extrahepatic bile ducts, and mesentery. The spleen is an extremely unusual location for an IMT. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy with invasive splenic IMT, present a review on the current literature about childhood splenic IMT, and emphasize the necessity of total excision of the tumor together with tumor-invaded surrounding tissues.

  15. PRIMARY GIANT HYDATID DISEASE OF THE SPLEEN: A RARE CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common organ involved in hydatid disease is the liver, followed by the lungs. Hydatid disease of spleen is a rare clinical condition, as even in the endemic region the frequency is reported to be 0.5 – 4% of abdominal hydatid diseases. Most commonly splenic involvement is secondary i.e., along with other organs. Primary hydatid diseases in s pleen is rare, here we are reporting a rare case of primary splenic hydatid disease

  16. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.

  17. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

  18. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac hospital readmissions in elderly patients admitted for acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Agnoletti, Davide; Scala, Luca; Grillo, Cristina; Arduini, Pietro; Turcato, Emanuela; Mantovani, Alessandro; Zoppini, Giacomo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher; Targher, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for heart failure (HF). Although some progress has been made in improving survival among patients admitted for HF, the rates of hospital readmissions and the related costs continue to rise dramatically. We sought to examine whether NAFLD and its severity (diagnosed at hospital admission) was independently associated with a higher risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in patients admitted for acute HF. We studied 212 elderly patients who were consecutively admitted with acute HF to the Hospital of Negrar (Verona) over a 1-year period. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography, whereas the severity of advanced NAFLD fibrosis was based on the fibrosis (FIB)-4 score and other non-invasive fibrosis scores. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe valvular heart diseases, end-stage renal disease, cancer, known liver diseases or decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the associations between NAFLD and the outcome(s) of interest. The cumulative rate of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalizations was 46.7% (n = 99, mainly due to cardiac causes). Patients with NAFLD (n = 109; 51.4%) had remarkably higher 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization rates compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Both event rates were particularly increased in those with advanced NAFLD fibrosis. NAFLD was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 5.05, 95% confidence intervals 2.78-9.10, pacute HF.

  19. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy !

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy ! Liver Disease > Heart. No good non-invasive method. Repeated measurements problematic. Drug efficacy 50% at best. No predictors of response. We Need YOU !!

  20. Simultaneous enantioselective separation of polychlorinated biphenyls and their methyl sulfone metabolites by heart-cut MDGC: determination of enantiomeric fractions in fish oils and cow liver samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; Castro-Puyana, María; González, María José; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Ángeles; Gómara, Belén

    2012-07-01

    The potential of three capillary columns based on β-cyclodextrin (i.e., Chirasil-Dex, BGB-172, and BGB-176SE) has been studied for the simultaneous enantiomeric separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs) employing a heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatographic system (heart-cut MDGC). Among the columns studied, the BGB-176SE capillary column provided the best results, allowing the simultaneous enantioselective resolution of six MeSO(2)-PCBs and six chiral PCBs; the Chirasil-Dex column did not resolve any of the studied MeSO(2)-PCBs; and a poor resolution was obtained for three MeSO(2)-PCBs when the BGB-172 column was employed. The developed method was successfully applied to two fish oil and one cow liver samples commercially available, which showed different enantioselective pattern. PCBs 91 and 176 presented a clear enrichment of the second eluted atropisomer in codfish oil, whereas in fish oil sample, slight enrichment of the first eluted atropisomer of CB45 and the second eluted atropisomer of CB136 were observed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Wandering spleen with a ten-time twisted vascular pedicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Peretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen in children, usually diagnosed with color-Doppler ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography. We report a pediatric case of torsion of wandering spleen.

  2. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  3. Wandering Spleen with Splenic Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wandering spleen is a rare clinical occurrence with fewer than 500 cases reported and an incidence of less than 0.2%1, 2. The spleen is an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is involved in immunological defence and can serve as a storage site for red blood cells3. The spleen is normally ...

  4. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  5. Diagnostic significance of the newest biomarkers of steatosis progression in patients with stable coronary heart disease, combined with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vakalyuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the diagnostic value of selenoprotein P and M30 fragments of cytokeratin 18 in conjunction with proinflammatory cytokines for early diagnosis and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD. Materials and methods. 140 patients with NAFLD and stable CHD of II-III functional classes were examined: 89 patients with non-alcoholic steatosis (Group I; 51 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (Group II. General-clinical examination, electrocardiography, coronary angiography, echocardiography, liver ultrasound, determination of cytokeratin 18 M30, selenoprotein P, TNF-alpha, interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein serum levels were performed to all patients. Results. The presence of liver steatosis of different degrees was established in all examined patients. However, the majority of the patients of Group I had steatosis of 1 and 2 degrees; in group 2 – steatosis of 3 degree prevailed. Selenoprotein P level in patients with steatosis of 1 degree was on 39.6 % higher compared with 0 degree; at 2 degree – it was by 2.8 times higher vs. its level in the control group and by 1.9 times vs. its level at steatosis of 1 degree (P < 0.05. Cytokeratin 18 M30 level at steatosis of 1 degree was by 1.8 times higher than its value in the control group; at 2 degree – it exceed this value by 2.3 times; at 3 degree – it reached its highest value (P < 0.05. TNF-alpha level at 1 degree of steatosis was by 2.5 times higher than its value in the control group; at 2 degree – it exceed this value by 3.7 times; at 3 degree – it was by 5.4; 2.2 and 1.5 times higher vs. its value at steatosis 0, 1 and 2 degrees (P < 0.05. Similar patterns were observed by IL-6 and hsCRP levels. Positive correlation relationships between serum selenoprotein P, cytokeratin 18 M30 and proinflammatory cytokines levels were revealed. Conclusion. Increasing of serum selenoprotein

  6. The Effects of Montelukast on Antioxidant Enzymes and Proinflammatory Cytokines on the Heart, Liver, Lungs, and Kidneys in a Rat Model of Cecal Ligation and Puncture–Induced Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kagan Coskun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential protective effects of montelukast (MLK on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP–induced tissue injury in vital organs — liver, heart, kidneys, and especially lungs — through inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine response and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in rats. The rat groups were (1 a 10-mg/kg MLK-treated CLP group; (2 a 20-mg/kg MLK-treated CLP group; (3 a 20-mg/kg MLK-treated, sham-operated group; (4 a CLP control group; and (5 a sham-operated control group. MLK treatment significantly decreased proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 cytokine levels following CLP. The lipid peroxide level increased in the lung, heart, liver, and kidney tissues after CLP-induced sepsis, and myeloperoxidase activity increased in the lung, heart, and liver tissues. MLK attenuated this elevation in all tissues except the kidney, dose dependently. The glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly increased in the lung, liver, and kidney tissues after MLK treatment. MLK treatment after CLP also potentially reduced mortality. The lung and kidney tissues were the most protected by MLK under sepsis conditions. We can suggest that MLK reverses the systemic inflammatory reaction to polymicrobial sepsis and thereby reduces multiple organ failure.

  7. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  8. Autotransplant of spleen tissue in children with schistosomiasis: evaluation of splenic function after splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, C T; Maciel, D T; Caneca, O A; Castro, C M; Araújo, L B

    2001-01-01

    Autotransplantation of spleen tissue has been done, in the past ten years, in children with schistosomiasis mansoni with bleeding varices. The purposes of this investigation were: (1) to study the morphology and function of the remnant spleen tissue; (2) to quantify the production of tuftsin; and (3) to assess the immune response to pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty three children, who underwent splenectomy and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum were included in this investigation. The average postoperative follow-up is five years. Splenosis was proved by colloid liver-spleen scans. Search for Howell-Jolly bodies assessed the filtration function. Tuftsin and the titer of pneumococcal antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, it was insufficient in two. Howell-Jolly bodies were found only in these two patients. The mean tuftsin serum concentration (335.0 +/- 29.8 ng/ml) was inside the normal range. The immune response to pneumococcal vaccination was adequate in 15 patients; intermediate in four; and inadequate in four. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: splenosis was efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% and produced tuftsin inside the range of normality. It also provided the immunologic splenic response to pneumococcal vaccination in 65% of the patients of this series.

  9. Autotransplant of spleen tissue in children with schistosomiasis: evaluation of splenic function after splenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teixeira Brandt

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue has been done, in the past ten years, in children with schistosomiasis mansoni with bleeding varices. The purposes of this investigation were: (1 to study the morphology and function of the remnant spleen tissue; (2 to quantify the production of tuftsin; and (3 to assess the immune response to pneomococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty three children, who underwent splenectomy and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum were included in this investigation. The average postoperative follow-up is five years. Splenosis was proved by colloid liver-spleen scans. Search for Howell-Jolly bodies assessed the filtration function. Tuftsin and the titer of pneumococcal antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, it was insufficient in two. Howell-Jolly bodies were found only in these two patients. The mean tuftsin serum concentration (335.0 ± 29.8 ng/ml was inside the normal range. The immune response to pneumococcal vaccination was adequate in 15 patients; intermediate in four; and inadequate in four. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: splenosis was efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% and produced tuftsin inside the range of normality. It also provided the immunologic splenic response to pneumococcal vaccination in 65% of the patients of this series.

  10. Copper induced immunotoxicity promote differential apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Ghosh, Nabanita; Goswami, Suranjana; Datta, Anuradha; Das, Salomie; Maity, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Copper-induced ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes result in different consequences in spleen and thymus. ► Inflammation appeared in both the spleen and thymus after to copper treatment. ► Apoptosis in the spleen appears to follow a p53-independent pathway. ► Apoptosis in the thymus appears to follow a p53-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. ► In both the spleen and thymus, the CD4+ T cell population decreased and CD8+ T cell population increased after copper treatment. - Abstract: Inorganic copper, such as that in drinking water and copper supplements, largely bypasses the liver and enters the free copper pool of the blood directly and that promote immunosuppression. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways underlying copper-induced immune cell death remains largely unclear. According to our previous in vivo report, to evaluate the further details of the apoptotic mechanism, we have investigated how copper regulates apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus. We have analyzed different protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression by RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis. We also have measured mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, ROS and CD4 + and CD8 + population by flow cytometry. Sub lethal doses of copper in spleen and thymus of in vivo Swiss albino mice promote different apoptotic pathways. In case of spleen, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes promotes intrinsic pathway of apoptosis that was p53 independent, ultimately leads to decrease in CD4 + T cell population and increase in CD8 + T cell population. However in case of thymus, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes lead to death receptor that regulate extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and the apoptotic mechanism which was p53 dependent. Due to copper treatment, thymic CD4 + T cell population decreased and CD8 + T cell population was increased or

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac hospital readmissions in elderly patients admitted for acute heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Valbusa

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an emerging risk factor for heart failure (HF. Although some progress has been made in improving survival among patients admitted for HF, the rates of hospital readmissions and the related costs continue to rise dramatically. We sought to examine whether NAFLD and its severity (diagnosed at hospital admission was independently associated with a higher risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in patients admitted for acute HF. We studied 212 elderly patients who were consecutively admitted with acute HF to the Hospital of Negrar (Verona over a 1-year period. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography, whereas the severity of advanced NAFLD fibrosis was based on the fibrosis (FIB-4 score and other non-invasive fibrosis scores. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe valvular heart diseases, end-stage renal disease, cancer, known liver diseases or decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR for the associations between NAFLD and the outcome(s of interest. The cumulative rate of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalizations was 46.7% (n = 99, mainly due to cardiac causes. Patients with NAFLD (n = 109; 51.4% had remarkably higher 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization rates compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Both event rates were particularly increased in those with advanced NAFLD fibrosis. NAFLD was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 5.05, 95% confidence intervals 2.78-9.10, p<0.0001 after adjustment for established risk factors and potential confounders. Similar results were found for 1-year cardiac re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 8.05, 95% confidence intervals 3.77-15.8, p<0.0001. In conclusion, NAFLD and its severity were strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in

  12. Diets enriched in menhaden fish oil, seal oil, or shark liver oil have distinct effects on the lipid and fatty-acid composition of guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G; Wright, V; Ackman, R G; Horackova, M

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether diets supplemented with oils from three different marine sources, all of which contain high proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), result in qualitatively distinct lipid and fatty acid profiles in guinea pig heart. Albino guinea pigs (14 days old) were fed standard, nonpurified guinea pig diets (NP) or NP supplemented with menhaden fish oil (MO), harp seal oil (SLO) or porbeagle shark liver oil (PLO) (10%, w/w) for 4-5 weeks. An n-6 PUFA control group was fed NP supplemented with corn oil (CO). All animals appeared healthy, with weight gains marginally lower in animals fed the marine oils. Comparison of relative organ weights indicated that only the livers responded to the diets, and that they were heavier only in the marine-oil fed guinea pigs. Heart total cholesterol levels were unaffected by supplementing NP with any of the oils, whereas all increased the triacylglycerol (TAG) content. The fatty-acid profiles of total phospholipid (TPL), TAG and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions of heart lipids showed that feeding n-3 PUFA significantly altered the proportions of specific fatty-acid classes. For example, all marine-oil-rich diets were associated with increases in total monounsaturated fatty acids in TPL (p docosahexacnoic acid (DHA), ratios of DHA/EPA in the hearts were 1.2, 2.2 and 1.5 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. In SLO-fed guinea pigs in which dietary EPA approximately DHA, ratios of DHA/EPA were 0.9, 3.4 and 2.1 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. Feeding NP + PLO (DHA/EPA = 4.8), resulted in values for DHA/EPA in cardiac tissue of 2.1, 10.6 and 2.9 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. In the TAG and FFA, proportions of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3 DPA) were equal to or higher than EPA in the SLO- and PLO-fed animals. The latter group exhibited the greatest difference between the DHA/n-3 DPA ratio in the diet and in cardiac TAG and FFA fractions (7, 3.4 and 3

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells improve mouse non-heart-beating liver graft survival by inhibiting Kupffer cell apoptosis via TLR4-ERK1/2-Fas/FasL-caspase3 pathway regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver transplantation is the optimal treatment option for end-stage liver disease, but organ shortages dramatically restrict its application. Donation after cardiac death (DCD is an alternative approach that may expand the donor pool, but it faces challenges such as graft dysfunction, early graft loss, and cholangiopathy. Moreover, DCD liver grafts are no longer eligible for transplantation after their warm ischaemic time exceeds 30 min. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been proposed as a promising therapy for treatment of certain liver diseases, but the role of MSCs in DCD liver graft function remains elusive. Methods In this study, we established an arterialized mouse non-heart-beating (NHB liver transplantation model, and compared survival rates, cytokine and chemokine expression, histology, and the results of in vitro co-culture experiments in animals with or without MSC infusion. Results MSCs markedly ameliorated NHB liver graft injury and improved survival post-transplantation. Additionally, MSCs suppressed Kupffer cell apoptosis, Th1/Th17 immune responses, chemokine expression, and inflammatory cell infiltration. In vitro, PGE2 secreted by MSCs inhibited Kupffer cell apoptosis via TLR4-ERK1/2-caspase3 pathway regulation. Conclusion Our study uncovers a protective role for MSCs and elucidates the underlying immunomodulatory mechanism in an NHB liver transplantation model. Our results suggest that MSCs are uniquely positioned for use in future clinical studies owing to their ability to protect DCD liver grafts, particularly in patients for whom DCD organs are not an option according to current criteria.

  14. Optimum Energy Window In Liver Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadremomtaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In liver scintigraphy radioactive tracers in addition to liver are accumulated in other organs such as spleen. It leads to the presence of secondary source which affects image quality. Therefore knowing the influence of the noise arising from the secondary source and trying to reduce the additional data is necessary. In nuclear medicine imaging using of energy window is a useful way to reduce the noise. In this paper we try to find an optimum energy window to reduce the noise for two different low energy collimators. Liver scintigraphy images with and without activity in spleen were simulated by SIMIND software with different energy window percentages and with Low-Energy High-Resolution LEHR and Low-Energy General-Purpose LEGP collimators. We used with activity of 190 MBq. Spleen was outside of the camera field of view so that just its noise effects on the liver image is examined. Finally the images of liver with activity in spleen were compared with that without activity in spleen by MATLAB code.

  15. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  16. Fabrication and evaluation of SDF-1 loaded galactosylated chitosan nanoparticles for liver targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Hui, Chu; Zhang-Qi, Feng; Qian, Xu; Jiang-Qiang, Xiao; Xian-Wen, Yuan; Xi-Tai, Sun

    2017-03-01

    Objective. SDF-1 loaded galactosylated chitosan (GC) nanoparticles for liver targeting were synthesized by electrospraying technique, and its biocompatibility and liver targeting effect were evaluated. Method. The SDF-1 loaded GC nanoparticles were constructed and its morphology was observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hepatocytes were harvested and cocultured with the nanoparticles, and the albumin secretion and urea synthesis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay, the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also measured. Finally, the nanoparticles were injected intravenously through the caudal vein of rat, and its liver targeting effect was evaluated. Result. SEM showed the nanoparticles distributed uniformly, with an average diameter of 100 nm and a regular spherical shape. There was no significant difference in urea synthesis, albumin secretion, concentration of LDH and TNF-α between two groups (p > 0.05). The nanoparticles were significantly accumulated in the liver tissue after its injection, but seldom fluorescence signals were observed in the lung, spleen, heart and kidney. Conclusion. The SDF-1 loaded GC nanoparticles showed uniform distribution, good biocompatibility and liver targeting effect, and suggested its potential application as a liver targeting delivery system.

  17. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  18. Comparison of Rates of Death Having any Death-Certificate Mention of Heart, Kidney, or Liver Disease Among Persons Diagnosed with HIV Infection with those in the General US Population, 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Y. Omar; Selik, Richard; An, Qian; Huang, Taoying; Karch, Debra; Hernandez, Angela L; Hall, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective : Compare age-adjusted rates of death due to liver, kidney, and heart diseases during 2009-2011 among US residents diagnosed with HIV infection with those in the general population. Methods : Numerators were numbers of records of multiple-cause mortality data from the national vital statistics system with an ICD-10 code for the disease of interest (any mention, not necessarily the underlying cause), divided into those 1) with and 2) without an additional code for HIV infection. Deno...

  19. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  20. Effects of vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the level of paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an investigation of activities in plasma, and heart and liver homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mahnaz; Fakher, Shima; Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Farahbakhsh-Farsi, Payam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed and conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the activity of paraoxonase and arylesterase in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. A total of 64 male Sprague Dawley® rats, each weighing 250 g, were randomly distributed into four groups: (a) normal control; (b) diabetic control; (c) diabetic with vitamin A, C and E supplementation; and (d) diabetic with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The animals were anaesthetised after four weeks of intervention, and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in blood plasma, and liver and heart homogenates were measured. Arylesterase activity in the heart and liver homogenates was significantly lower in the diabetic control group than in the normal control group (p Vitamin A, C and E supplementation, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly increased liver arylesterase activity (p Vitamin A, C and E, or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation were found to increase liver arylesterase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These supplements may be potential agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus complications. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  1. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  2. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  3. Glucomannan or Glucomannan Plus Spirulina-Enriched Squid-Surimi Diets Reduce Histological Damage to Liver and Heart in Zucker fa/fa Rats Fed a Cholesterol-Enriched and Non-Cholesterol-Enriched Atherogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Glucomannan-enriched squid surimi improves cholesterolemia and liver antioxidant status. The effect of squid surimi enriched with glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina on liver and heart structures and cell damage markers was tested in fa/fa rats fed highly saturated-hyper-energetic diets. Animals were fed 70% AIN-93M rodent diet plus six versions of 30% squid surimi for 7 weeks: control (C), glucomannan (G), and glucomannan plus spirulina (GS). The cholesterol-control (HC), cholesterol-glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-glucomannan plus spirulina (HGS) groups were given similar diets that were enriched with 2% cholesterol and 0.4% cholic acid. G and GS diets versus C diet significantly inhibited weight gain and lowered plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, liver steatosis, lipogranulomas, and total inflammation and alteration scores. The hypercholesterolemic agent significantly increased the harmful effects of the C diet. Liver weight, the hepatosomatic index, all damage markers, and total histological scoring rose for HC versus C (at least P spirulina were observed except for the total liver alteration score. In conclusion, glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina blocked the highly saturated-hyper-energetic diet negative effects both with and without added cholesterol. Results suggest the usefulness of including these functional ingredients in fish products.

  4. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between sonographers. The spleen and left kidney lengths were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05).

  5. Wandering spleen: Case report | Mwango | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the ...

  6. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  7. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Misawa T, Yoshida K, Shiba H, Kobayashi S, Yanaga K. Wandering spleen with chronic torsion. Am J Surg. 2008 Apr;195(4):504-5. This article on PubMed. 7. Fiquet-Francois C, Belouadah M, Ludot H, Defauw B. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study. J Pediatr Surg. 2010.

  8. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  9. A true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen: a very rare anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, T; Tollens, T; Aelvoet, Chr; Vanrykel, J P

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to a wandering or ectopic spleen which is vascularized by the original splenic vessels this case describes a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis. To our knowledge this anomaly has never been described in the literature before.

  10. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  11. The Potential Liver, Brain, and Embryo Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Li

    2017-08-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has been widely used in industry and medicine. However, the safety of nano-TiO2 exposure remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the liver, brain, and embryo toxicity and the underlying mechanism of nano-TiO2 using mice models. The results showed that titanium was distributed to and accumulated in the heart, brain, spleen, lung, and kidney of mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) nano-TiO2 exposure, in a dose-dependent manner. The organ/body weight ratios of the heart, spleen, and kidney were significantly increased, and those of the brain and lung were decreased. High doses of nano-TiO2 significantly damaged the functions of liver and kidney and glucose and lipid metabolism, as showed in the blood biochemistry tests. Nano-TiO2 caused damages in mitochondria and apoptosis of hepatocytes, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression disorders of protective genes in the liver of mice. We found ruptured and cracked nerve cells and inflammatory cell infiltration in the brain. We also found that the activities of constitutive nitric oxide synthases (cNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and acetylcholinesterase, and the levels of nitrous oxide and glutamic acid were changed in the brain after nano-TiO2 exposure. Ex vivo mouse embryo models exhibited developmental and genetic toxicity after high doses of nano-TiO2. The size of nano-TiO2 particles may affect toxicity, larger particles producing higher toxicity. In summary, nano-TiO2 exhibited toxicity in multiple organs in mice after exposure through i.p. injection and gavage. Our study may provide data for the assessment of the risk of nano-TiO2 exposure on human health.

  12. Evaluation of Spleen Glucose Metabolism Using18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Febrile Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Jung, Seung Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Yun, Mijin; Song, Jason Jungsik

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of 18 F-FDG uptake by the spleen in patients with autoimmune disease. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Severance Hospital's electronic medical records of patients hospitalized for the evaluation of fever who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT. We found 91 patients with autoimmune diseases and 101 patients with localized infection. 18 F-FDG uptake was assessed by measuring SUV in the spleen and liver. The spleen-to-liver ratio of the SUV mean (SLR mean ) was calculated. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected and evaluated for association with SLR mean In-hospital mortality was defined as all-cause mortality during hospital admission for fever. Results: SLR mean was significantly higher in autoimmune disease than in localized infectious disease (1.28 ± 0.43 vs. 0.91 ± 0.21, P autoimmune disease, SLR mean was correlated with monocytes, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, and ferritin. Analysis of receiver-operating-characteristic curves revealed that in comparison with laboratory parameters, SLR mean had the highest performance in differentiating autoimmune from localized infectious disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high SLR mean and low platelets were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in febrile autoimmune disease. Conclusion: These findings suggest that spleen glucose metabolism is increased in febrile autoimmune disease. Spleen 18 F-FDG uptake may provide information useful in differentiating febrile autoimmune disease from localized infectious disease and predicting clinical outcomes in febrile autoimmune disease. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice on kidney, liver, heart and testis histopathological changes, and the tissues lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in lead acetate-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, D S; Sağlam, Y S; Yildirim, S; Aksu, T

    2017-10-31

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) contains relevant amounts of active biological compounds which alleviate the detrimental effects of chronic heavy metal exposure. This study investigated the protective potential of PJ against lead-induced oxidative stress. A total of forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups. The animals were fed a standard pellet diet and tap water ad libitum. The rats were divided into four groups (n=10 for each group): control, lead asetat (2000 ppm), low-treated PJ- a daily dose of 2.000 ppm lead plus 30µl pomegranate juice (included 1.050 µmol total polyphenols, gallic acid equivalent), and high-treated PJ- a daily dose of 2.000 ppm lead plus 60µl pomegranate juice (included 2.100 µmol total polyphenols, gallic acid equivalent). The treatments were delivered for 5 weeks. After the treatment period, the tissues samples (kidney, liver, heart and testis) were collected. Tissue lead (Pb) and mineral amounts (copper, zinc, and iron), tissues lipid peroxidation level and antioxidant status, and tissues histopathological changes were determined. The results showed that the highest rate lead loading was in the kidney and the testis. Pomegranate juice was decreased the lead levels of soft tissues examined; increased Zn amounts in tissues of which the lead accumulation was higher (kidney and the testis); decreased the copper, zinc and the iron levels of the liver and heart tissues, without creating a weakness in antioxidant capacity of these tissues, restricted the oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation, improved both of the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalaz (CAT), and the level of glutathione (GSH) in all the tissues examined in lead-treated groups. As histopathological findings, the cellular damage induced by lead in the tissues of the kidney, liver and the heart were observed to have been partially prevented by PJ treatment. The protective effect of PJ was more

  14. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  15. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  16. Liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases ... through the probe that causes ice crystals to form around the probe. The cancer cells are frozen ...

  17. Liver scintigraphic features associated with alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Beard, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships between scintigraphic features and clinical alcoholism were studied by review of 2406 liver scintiphotos. Two distinct patterns were significantly associated with alcoholism: heterogeneous distribution of radiocolloid in the liver, and jointly increased uptake of tracer by the spleen and vertebral bone marrow. A total of 13 overall patterns were found to distinguish, with considerable reliability, alcoholics from all other patients. This finding reflects the frequency with which alcohol abuse is associated with hepatic dysfunction in hospital patients. These observations indicate an important role for the nuclear medicine physician in detection of alcoholism among patients referred for liver-spleen imaging, and they form a basis for comparison with the diagnostic efficacy of other methods of evaluating diffuse liver diseases

  18. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  19. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  20. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  1. Torsion of a wandering spleen | Carapinha | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare and difficult diagnosis in the paediatric population, with death a possible outcome. In this paper we present our experience of a single case and discuss the embryology and management thereof.

  2. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  3. Comparative Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Excretion of Recombinant Liver-Targeting Interferon with IFN α2b Administered Intramuscular in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Xuemei; Jin, Xiaobao; Zeng, Wenting; Zhu, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    Interferon α2b (IFN α2b) is the first cytokine, which has been approved by FDA to treat chronic hepatitis B. However, it has no organ or tissue selectivity effect, and will be rapidly cleared out in the liver after the administration treatment. In our previous study, a novel liver-targeting fusion interferon (IFN-CSP) was constructed by recombining human IFN α2b with a CSP region I-plus peptide. The purpose of this study is to compare pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion of recombinant liver-targeting interferon IFN-CSP with IFN α2b following intramuscular administration in rats and estimate whether the fusion protein recombinant liver-targeting interferon has liver-targeting effect. Serum, tissue, urinary, fecal, and biliary concentrations of the drug were measured at various time points after administration using ELISA test. The pharmacokinetic character of IFN-CSP and IFNα2b was described using a non-compartmental model after a single intramuscular administration. Our results showed that there were no significant differences between these two drugs in pharmacokinetic and elimination. However, drug concentration of recombinant liver-targeting IFN was higher than IFN α2b in the liver after intramuscular administration in rats at different time points. It was increased in the spleen but not apparently, and decreased in the heart, lung and kidney. In conclusion, compared with traditional IFN α2b, the novel recombinant liver-targeting IFN will be more accumulated in the liver tissue. With this excellent property, IFN-CSP shows a great application prospect in clinical treatment, although further investigation is still needed.

  4. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  5. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  6. Effects of heart rate on myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordrehaug, J.E.; Danielsen, R.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heart rate on the myocardial uptake and clearance of 201 Tl were studied prospectively in seven healthy men, mean age 43 +/- 7 (s.d.) yr. Initial and delayed (3 hr) thallium images were obtained in three views after three bicycle exercise tests: to maximal, 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. The mean of three views initial myocardial 201 Tl uptake was higher at maximal than at both 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate, being 81% (p less than 0.01) and 60% (p less than 0.01) of maximal activity, respectively. The myocardial activity in the delayed images was identical. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and the initial myocardial activity, r = 0.86 (p less than 0.001). The mean (range) 201 Tl clearance was 58% (51-65), 47% (34-56), and 34% (22-49) (all differences p less than 0.01), respectively. Concordance among the three individual views in estimating clearance was best for the highest exercise level. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance, r = 0.80 (p less than 0.001). Clearance was altered by only 1.67 x 10%/heart bpm (0.024 hr/heart beat). Clearance in the liver, spleen and lungs increased at submaximal exercise levels. Thus, a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance is the result of changes in the initial exercise myocardial 201 Tl activity. Submaximal exercise may reduce reproducibility of clearance estimation, and the change of myocardial clearance with heart rate seems less than previously suggested

  7. Clinical investigation of fatty liver by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumoto; Takayama, Tetsuo; Sano, Hiroshi; Katada, Naoyuki; Takeichi, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    CT findings of 56 cases of diffuse fatty infiltration comfirmed by liver biopsy were investigated and compared with those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. We found that the diagnosis of severe fatty infiltration (fatty liver) can be specifically possible when the ratios of CT values of liver to those of spleen are less than 0.85 and it is reasonable criterion for diagnosis of fatty liver by CT. This criterion was satisfied by 197 studies (2.9%), 169 cases with fatty liver (diffuse: 141 cases, focal: 28 cases) of 6800 CT studies of liver. Obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse were main causative factors in both diffuse and focal fatty liver. The percentage of cases showing no abnormal results in blood chemistry tests was great compared with the previous report based on liver biopsy. The changes of CT values of liver faithfully reflected the improvement of each causal factor and reciprocal changes were observed between diffuse and focal fatty liver in repeated CT examination. So, CT is useful in estimating the effect of treatment as well as in diagnosis of fatty liver. Focal fatty liver is temporary manifestation during the proscess of development or improvement of fatty liver. (author)

  8. Effect of soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture on early selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment onset for depressive disorder and related indicators of neuroimmunology: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Feng, Hui; Mo, Yali; Gao, Jingfang; Mao, Hongjing; Song, Mingfen; Wang, Shengdong; Yin, Yan; Liu, Wenjuan

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) treatment effect onset in patients with depressive disorder and related indicators of neuroimmunology. Overall, 126 patients with depressive disorder were randomly divided into a medicine and acupuncture-medicine group using a random number table. Patients were treated for 6 consecutive weeks. The two groups were evaluated by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS) to assess the effect of the soothing-liver and nourishing-heart acupuncture method on early onset of SSRI treatment effect. Changes in serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and inflammatory cytokines before and after treatment were recorded and compared between the medicine group and the acupuncture-medicine group. The acupuncture-medicine group had significantly lower MADRS scores at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 after treatment compared with the medicine group (P 0.05). Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the acupuncture-medicine group compared with the medicine group (P depressive disorder and can significantly reduce the adverse reactions of SSRIs. Moreover, acupuncture can enhance serum 5-HT and regulate the balance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Analysis of fatty liver by CT values in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Tomizawa, Shuichi; Ikarashi, Kozo; Tohyama, Jun; Ozawa, Kanzi; Uchiyama, Makoto.

    1996-01-01

    Liver attenuation values were measured by CT in 97 (183 times) obese children with ages 3 to 18 years and a diagnosis of fatty liver was made in 42 subjects. Liver/spleen ration from CT measurements showed a significant negative correlation with the percentage of standard body weight, and with the systolic pressure. In children with fatty liver, systolic pressure and serum GOT, GPT, ChE, TC, TG, ApoB and insulin were significantly higher than those in children without fatty liver. After a low-calorie dietary regimen and exercise therapy, the liver/spleen ratio and GPT improved in all children. The diagnosis of fatty infiltration (fatty liver) was made with a liver/spleen ratio of less than 1.0 as determined by the number of measurements taken, a reasonable criterion for the diagnosis of fatty liver by CT in children. There were some children with elevated GPT who showed normal CT findings. This may be caused by overnutrition which was associated with fatty infiltration, since GPT decreased in all these children after treatment. The present study suggests that CT is a useful procedure in diagnosing fatty liver, and in monitoring and determining efficacy of treatment in obese children. (author)

  10. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  11. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  12. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the liver. Can fat deposition in the liver affect the measurement of liver stiffness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Araki, Tsutomu; Niitsuma, Yoshibumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) results between livers with and without fat deposition. We studied 200 consecutive healthy individuals who underwent health checkups at our institution. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the echogenicity of the liver on ultrasonography (US) and the liver-spleen attenuation ratio index (LSR) on computed tomography: normal liver group (n=121, no evidence of bright liver on US and LSR >1); fatty liver group (n=46, bright liver on US and LSR 5 days a week (n=18) were excluded from the analysis. The velocities measured by ARFI in the normal and fatty liver groups were compared using the two one-sided test. The mean (SD) velocity measured in the normal and fatty liver groups were 1.03 (0.12) m/s and 1.02 (0.12) m/s, respectively. The ARFI results of the fatty liver group were similar to those of the normal liver group (P<0.0001). This study suggested that fat deposition in the liver does not affect the liver stiffness measurement determined by ARFI. (author)

  13. Histopathological effects of sodium nitrite on the spleen of male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Juibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrite and nitrate are common additives in meat processed products. In spite of all technological advantages of nitrite, creation of nitrosamine carcinogenic substances causes a lot of concerns for use of these additives. In this study, the histopatological effects of sodium nitrite on the splenic tissue in adult male and female rats were evaluated. Material and method: In recent studies, 60 adult male and female rats strain Vistar, divided in 6 groups of 10. They were examined for 60 day, and they (male and female rats separately were divided in 175 mg/kg/day dose recipient group, 350 mg/kg/day dose recipient group and control group which was absorbed nitrite through drinking water. At the end of day 60, using cotton dipped in ether in the jar of anesthesia, were anesthetized. After anesthesia, blood from the left ventricle was taken .the spleen was taking out of body, and then tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. The samples were stained with Hematoxilin- Eozin method. In both sex, factors like morphometric and morphologic from spleen tissue, body weight changes before and after test and blood NOx level was checked. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 17 with using Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. P value of less than 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. Result: The results showed that consume of sodium nitrite, cause background inflammation type of Mononuclear in both sex, especially around the pulp. Also, in both sex NOx levels in the blood of animals in the group receiving 350 mg/ kg and group receiving 175 mg of sodium nitrite per kg compared with the control group, significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Considering of this study and other studies, Nitrite can cause damage to blood vessels, liver, spleen and other organs. Also sodium nitrite has to switching to other food preservatives.

  14. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  15. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  16. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  17. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on cell death in frog spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.Yu.; Vojtovich, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the number of dead cells in frog spleen by means of coloration with trypan blue which allowed to estimate last stage of apoptosis dead of cells.The investigated frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in september 1997 at radionuclide contamination territory (the Gomel Region, the Khojniki District). Control animals were caught in village Ratamka of the Minsk District. The percent of dead cells was less in control group in 1,5 times. Under additional irradiation (2 Gy) the number of dead cells in spleen also differs significantly in the investigated and control groups

  19. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  20. The long-term safety of chronic azithromycin use in patients with cystic fibrosis regarding the condition of the kidney, liver and heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möhlmann, J.E.; Majoor, C.J.; Van Der Vaart, H.; Touw, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide antibiotic in cystic fibrosis (CF), but little is known about the safety of long-term use. Reported side effects only apply to short-term use. The aim of this study is to investigate possible azithromycin-induced toxicity of the kidney, liver and

  1. In vitro study of the biological activity of RNAs after incubation of hog liver, heart and brain tissue at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, G H; Issinger, O G

    1985-01-01

    The biological activity of RNA, isolated from tissue which was incubated for 1, 3, or 6 hours at room temperature (simulation of post-mortem conditions), was preserved. However, the different organs used differ from each other. When liver is used, qualitative differences in the in vitro translation...

  2. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  3. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  4. Bovine cytochrome c oxidases, purified from heart, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney, differ in the small subunits but show the same reaction kinetics with cytochrome c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinjorgo, K. M.; Durak, I.; Dekker, H. L.; Edel, C. M.; Hakvoort, T. B.; van Gelder, B. F.; Muijsers, A. O.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate of purified cytochrome c oxidase preparations revealed that bovine kidney, skeletal muscle and heart contain different cytochrome c oxidase isoenzymes, which show differences in mobility of the subunits encoded by the

  5. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  6. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  7. Histopathological study and audit of the spleen in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    underreporting both the gross and microscopic changes in the organ by pathologists. This paper therefore is a study on spleen specimens with a view to auditing the gross and microscopic description and analysing the pathological findings in splenectomy specimens with respect to gender and age. Materials and Methods.

  8. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits of the spleen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... Tables 2 and 3 show a direct relationship of the spleen length with both age and body size indices. Table 3 shows a. Pearson correlation matrix of the splenic length with other variables. The splenic length correlated best with BSA, followed by WT. The splenic length was established to be longer in males.

  9. Differential expression of heparan sulfate domains in rat spleen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the spleen is composed of a meshwork of reticulum cells and their matrix. Heparan sulfates (HS) are important components of this meshwork and are involved in processes such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytokine/growth factor binding. The expression of HS epitopes

  10. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  11. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  12. Sonographic Dimensions of the Spleen in Healthy School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spleen is the largest recticuloendothelial organ in the body which increases in size with several pathologies. Its average length and other dimensions have been documented in adults but none in children in our environment. This study is aimed at investigating with Ultrasonography the normal splenic dimensions in ...

  13. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  14. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  15. The function of the spleen in adults after ligation of the splenic artery of the traumatized spleen in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Dimitrios C; Soutis, Michael

    2003-05-01

    Ligation of the splenic artery (LSA) has been successfully used as a spleen-saving procedure in rare cases of splenic trauma in children in which management with splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomy alone was not possible. There are no data regarding the long-term effects of the procedure on the functional status of the spleen. The purpose of this study is to present and discuss our clinical and laboratory findings in adults who underwent LSA in childhood. Our first 2 patients in whom LSA was done at ages 4 and 2 years in 1977 underwent the following examinations in the year 2000: 1, imaging of the spleen; 2, immunologic studies; and 3, peripheral blood tests. Their ages at reexamination were 27 and 25 years, respectively. Results were as follows: triplex ultrasound revealed normal size and echomorphology; Doppler techniques revealed normal vasculature; 99mTc-Tin colloid scanning revealed normal uptake. Immunoglobulins (IgG1 to IgG4, IgA, IgM, IgE), complement fraction (C3, C4), antibodies response to vaccinations, and peripheral blood tests all had normal results. No Howell-Jolly bodies were found. Laboratory investigations in adults with LSA during childhood disclosed undisturbed function of the spleen. LSA can be used as an adjunct to splenorrhaphy in children with rare splenic injuries involving major hilar vessels.

  16. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Schaefer, Stephanie G.; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Spengler, Ulrich [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a valuable biomarker for liver function. The strongest correlation with liver enhancement was found for the MELD Score. (orig.)

  17. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  18. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue in children with mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy: Evaluation of splenic residual functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is an attempt for maintenance of splenic functions when splenectomy is indicated in children. It minimizes the risks of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection and it has been done in children with severe portal hypertension due to hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis that underwent splenectomy. The purposes of this investigation were to study the morphology of the residual splenic tissue; to evaluate the residual filtration function of this splenosis; and to assess the immune response to polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty-three children with portal hypertension from mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein, autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch were evaluated for residual splenic parenchyma and functions. Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans were used for detection of splenic nodules. The search for Howell Jolly bodies were used for assessing the filtration function and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for measuring the relative rise in titter of specific pneumococcal antibodies. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, in two there were less than five splenic nodules in the greater omentum, which was considered insufficient. Howell-Jolly bodies were found in the peripheral blood only in these two patients with less evident splenosis. The immune response was adequate in 15 patients; it was intermediate in 4 patients and inadequate in 4 patients. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch is efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% of the cases and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in approximately 65% of the children.

  19. Liver function and bacteriology of organs in broiler inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane M. Rocha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbAns etxrpaecritment was carried out with 630 one-day-old chicks to evaluate the effects of organic acids when birds were experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Liver damage and the persistence of the bacterium in the organs were evaluated as well. Broilers were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of six treatments with seven replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were inoculated with saline solution or the bacterium via gavage at 1 day of age, or were offered a feed containing or not the organic acid blend for the period of 7 to 14 days of age. A dose of 5.0x102 colony-forming units (CFU/0.5 mL of Salmonella Typhimurium was used for inoculation both via gavage and feed. The parameters evaluated are weight, liver histopathology, liver and serum biochemistry, and bacteriological analyses of the caeca, crop, spleen, and liver and heart pool. At 21 and 28 days of age, the liver of the non-inoculated groups was significantly lighter as compared to the other treatments. Birds fed organic acids presented lower bacterial isolation rates in all organs tested. Birds inoculated in the crop and treated with organic acids presented lower E. coli CFU counts (P<0.05. Birds inoculated with Salmonella presented significant changes (P<0.05 in liver enzymes, as detected by serum biochemistry, and in liver histopathology. It was concluded that organic acids effectively controlled Salmonella Typhimurium and did not cause any liver damage.

  20. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  1. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...... of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas....

  2. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  3. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  4. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  5. A novel method for the angiographic estimation of the percentage of spleen volume embolized during partial splenic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Ming-Ching; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of estimating the volume of spleen embolized in partial splenic embolization (PSE) by measuring the diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. Materials and methods: A total of 43 liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 62.19 ± 9.65 years) with thrombocytopenia were included. Among these, 24 patients underwent a follow-up CT scan which showed a correlation between angiographic estimation and measured embolized splenic volume. Estimated splenic embolization volume was calculated by a method based on diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. The diameters of each of the splenic arteries and branches were measured via 2D angiographic images. Embolization was performed with gelatin sponges. Patients underwent follow-up with serial measurement of blood counts and liver function tests. The actual volume of embolized spleen was determined by computed tomography (CT) measuring the volumes of embolized and non-embolized spleen two months after PSE. Results: PSE was performed without immediate major complications. The mean WBC count significantly increased from 3.81 ± 1.69 × 10 3 /mm 3 before PSE to 8.56 ± 3.14 × 10 3 /mm 3 at 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). Mean platelet count significantly increased from 62.00 ± 22.62 × 10 3 /mm 3 before PSE to 95.40 ± 46.29 × 10 3 /mm 3 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). The measured embolization ratio was positively correlated with estimated embolization ratio (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.687, P < 0.001). The mean difference between the actual embolization ratio and the estimated embolization ratio was 16.16 ± 8.96%. Conclusions: The method provides a simple method to quantitatively estimate embolized splenic volume with a correlation of measured embolization ratio to estimated embolization ratio of Spearman's ρ = 0.687

  6. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  7. Comparative study on glucocerebrosidase in spleens from patients with Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Donker-Koopman, W. E.; Brul, S.; van Weely, S.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.; Schram, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Gaucher disease (glucosylceramide lipidosis), deficiency of glucocerebrosidase causes pathological storage of glucosylceramide, particularly in the spleen. A comparative biochemical and immunological analysis has therefore been made of glucocerebrosidase in spleens from normal subjects (n = 4)

  8. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  9. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  10. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus petal ethanolic extract on hematology, antibody response, and spleen histology in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Babaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6 were used in a completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC and different white blood cells (WBC and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD. Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology. Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.

  11. Tc-99 m-GSA liver scintigraphy in alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Satoshi; Harada, Masaru; Nagamatsu, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    We compared 15 alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients with 10 viral liver cirrhosis patients using technetium-99 m-galactosyl human serum albumin (Tc-99 m-GSA) liver scintigraphy and could clinically reveal the disorder of metabolism of asialoglycoprotein in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Receptor index (LHL 15 = liver count divided by the sum of liver and heart counts at 15 minutes) was significantly (p <0.01) lower in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (median: 0.821), compared with patients with viral cirrhosis (0.915). Grading score, which was an index showed by the difference in the isotope uptake patterns between liver and heart, was significantly (p <0.01) worse in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, compared with patients with viral cirrhosis. These results suggested that alcoholic liver cirrhosis had a specific disorder of a metabolic function for asialoglycoprotein. (author)

  12. Gamna-Gandy bodies of the spleen detected with susceptibility weighted imaging: maybe a new potential non-invasive marker of esophageal varices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuquan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Portal hypertension (PH is a clinical sequelae of liver cirrhosis, and bleeding from esophageal varices (EV is a serious complication of PH with significant morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to assess the ability of 2D multislice breath-hold susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI to detect Gamna-Gandy bodies (GGBs in the spleens of patients with PH and to evaluate the potential role of GGB number as a non-invasive marker of PH and EV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1-, T2- and T2(*-weighted imaging and SWI were performed on 135 patients with PH and on 37 control individuals. Platelet counts were collected from all PH patients. Two radiologists analyzed all magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, and measured the portal vein diameter, splenic index (SI, and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio. The numbers of patients with GGBs in the spleen were determined, and the numbers of GGB were counted in the four MRI sequences in GGB-positive patients. The portal vein diameter, SI, platelet count, and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio of control individuals were compared with those of GGB-negative and GGB-positive patients on SWI images. The correlations among GGB numbers, the portal vein diameter, the SI, the platelet count, and the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio were analyzed. RESULTS: The GGB detection rate and the detected GGB number by using SWI were significantly greater than those by using T1-, T2-, and T2*-weighted images. The number of GGBs in the SWI images correlated positively with the portal vein diameter and SI and correlated negatively with the platelet count and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio. CONCLUSION: SWI provided more accurate information of GGBs in patients with PH. The number of GGB may be a non-invasive predictor of improving the selection for endoscopic screening of PH patients at risk of EV.

  13. [Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on traditional Chinese medicine therapies for warming yang to activate qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Tang, Zhi-peng; Ji, Guang

    2011-02-01

    Fatty liver disease is caused by abnormal accumulation of lipids within hepatocytes. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, lipids belong to the category of essence obtained from cereals and the normal distribution of essence relies on the function of spleen yang. When spleen yang is injured, the normal distribution of essence (lipids) will be affected, leading to formation of phlegm retention in the liver. That is the TCM pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. Hence the treatment of fatty liver disease should be concentrated on warming yang to activate qi. With such a treatment, the normal distribution of essence will be restored, essence will be distributed, and phlegm will be dissipated.

  14. Spleen stiffness measurement can predict clinical complications in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colecchia, Antonio; Colli, Agostino; Casazza, Giovanni; Mandolesi, Daniele; Schiumerini, Ramona; Reggiani, Letizia Bacchi; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Lisotti, Andrea; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Golfieri, Rita; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement represents the best predictor of clinical decompensation (CD) in cirrhotic patients. Recently data show that measurement of spleen stiffness (SS) has an excellent correlation with HVPG levels. Aim of the present prospective study was to assess SS predictive value for CD compared to HVPG, liver stiffness (LS), and other non-invasive tests for portal hypertension in a cohort of patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis. From an initial cohort of 124 patients, 92 underwent baseline LS, SS, HVPG measurements and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at enrolment and then followed-up for 2 years or until the occurrence of the first CD. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for determining judgement criteria associated parameters. Accuracy of predictive factors was evaluated using c statistic. The final model was internally validated using the bootstrap method. During follow-up, 30 out 92 (32.6%) patients developed CD. At univariate analysis varices at enrolment, all non-invasive parameters, HVPG, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) resulted clinical predictors of CD. At multivariate analysis only SS (p=0.0001) and MELD (p=0.014) resulted as predictive factors. A decision algorithm based on the results of a predictive model was proposed to detect patients with low risk of decompensation. This study shows that in compensated cirrhotic patients a SS and MELD predictive model represents an accurate predictor of CD with accuracy at least equivalent to that of HVPG. If confirmed by further studies, SS and MELD could represent valid alternatives to HVPG as prognostic indicator of CD in HCV-related cirrhosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  16. Metabolism of 15(p123I iodophenyl-)pentadecanoic acid in heart muscle and noncardiac tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, J.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake and turnover of W(p 123 I iodophenyl-)pentadecanoic acid (I-PPA), a radioiodinated free-fatty-acid analog, was examined in the heart, lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, and skeletal muscle of rats. At 2 min post injection, a high cardiac uptake of 4.4% dose per gram had already been achieved; this was followed by a rapid, two-component, tracer clearance. The kinetics of tissue concentrations of labeled hydrophilic catabolites indicated a rapid oxidation of I-PPA and the subsequent washout of I-PPA catabolites from heart-muscle tissue. The fractional distribution of the labeled cardiac lipids compared favorably with previously reported values for 3 H-oleic- or 14 C-palmitic-acid-labeled myocardial lipids. Typical patterns of I-PPA metabolism were observed in tissues; dedpending on primary fatty-acid oxidation, lipid metabolism regulation, or I-PPA-catabolite excretion. The tissue concentrations and kinetics of I-PPA and its metabolites in the heart muscle indicated that general pathways of cardiac-lipid metabolism are traced by this new γ-emitting isotope-labeled radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  17. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  18. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  19. Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Rarely, fat accumulates in the liver during late pregnancy. This disorder, called fatty liver of pregnancy or ...

  20. Effect of splenectomy on liver cirrhosis and related surgical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Degang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis experience certain changes in spleen morphology and function, and there is always a controversy over whether to perform splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis. As a surgical treatment of recurrent portal hypertension complicated by esophagogastric variceal bleeding, splenectomy can reduce portal venous pressure, reduce the possibility of gastrointestinal bleeding, and correct the reduced white blood cell count and platelet count. It can also protect the liver by improving liver function, promoting regeneration of hepatocytes, and inhibiting the progression of liver fibrosis. With reference to available clinical and laboratory data, this article reviews the effect of splenectomy on the cirrhotic liver and related issues such as selection of surgical procedures and prevention and treatment of postoperative complications, in order to promote splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  1. Liver Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instrument called a cannula to remove the liver tissue sample. What is the liver and what does it do? ... who specializes in diagnosing diseases—looks at the tissue with a microscope and sends a report to the person's health care provider. What are the risks of liver biopsy? The risks ...

  2. Heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyel, Lucile; To-Dumortier, Ngoc-Tram; Lepers, Yannick; Petit, Jérôme; Roussin, Régine; Ly, Mohamed; Lebret, Emmanuel; Fadel, Elie; Hörer, Jürgen; Hascoët, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    With the advances in congenital cardiac surgery and postoperative care, an increasing number of children with complex congenital heart disease now reach adulthood. There are already more adults than children living with a congenital heart defect, including patients with complex congenital heart defects. Among these adults with congenital heart disease, a significant number will develop ventricular dysfunction over time. Heart failure accounts for 26-42% of deaths in adults with congenital heart defects. Heart transplantation, or heart-lung transplantation in Eisenmenger syndrome, then becomes the ultimate therapeutic possibility for these patients. This population is deemed to be at high risk of mortality after heart transplantation, although their long-term survival is similar to that of patients transplanted for other reasons. Indeed, heart transplantation in adults with congenital heart disease is often challenging, because of several potential problems: complex cardiac and vascular anatomy, multiple previous palliative and corrective surgeries, and effects on other organs (kidney, liver, lungs) of long-standing cardiac dysfunction or cyanosis, with frequent elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. In this review, we focus on the specific problems relating to heart and heart-lung transplantation in this population, revisit the indications/contraindications, and update the long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  4. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  5. Anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Ferraz de Melo, A; de Souza, W Machado; Rodrigues, R Felipe; Alves, F Ribeiro; Rici, R Eli Graci; Guerra, R Romão; Favaron, P Oliveira; Miglino, M Angélica; Di Dio, L John Aphonso

    2011-08-01

    With 2 figures The anatomosurgical segmentation of the arteries of the spleen was studied in 31 deer of the species Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus by means of vascular injection with latex and vinyl acetate and radiographic examination. The arteria lienalis penetrated through the hilus lienis in 87% of the cases, whereas an extrahilar artery was present in the other cases. An extraparenchymal division of the lineal artery into two, three or four segmental arteries was observed in 74% of the cases. Anastomoses between intraparenchymal arterial branches were rare and of a reduced calibre. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  7. Dynamics of Red Cells in Spleen: How Does Vesiculation Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Salehyar, Sara; Cabrales, Pedro; Asaro, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Vesiculation of red blood cells as a result of local separation between lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton is known to happen in vivo, most likely inside spleen where they sustain large mechanical loads during the passage through venus slits. There is, however, little knowledge about the detailed scenario and condition. We address this question via a fluid-cell interaction model by coupling a multiscale model of the cell membrane (including molecular details) with a fluid dynamics model based on boundary-integral equations. A numerical flow channel is created where the cell is driven through a narrow slit by pressure (imitating the transit through venus slits in spleen). The concentration is the occurrence of large dissociation (negative) pressure between the skeleton/membrane connection that promotes separation, a precursor of vesicle formation. Critical levels for the negative pressure are estimated using published data. By following the maximum range of pressure, we conclude that for vesiculation to happen there must be biochemical influences (e.g. binding of degraded haemoglobin) that significantly reduce effective attachment density. This is consistent with reported trends in vesiculation that are believed to occur in cases of various hereditary anemias and during blood storage. Our findings also suggest the criticality of understanding the biochemical phenomena involved with cytoskeleton/membrane attachment.

  8. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  9. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  10. Comparative study of clinicopathological states and imaging diagnosis in patients with fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariga, Hisayuki; Arakawa, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Masatoshi

    1985-01-01

    The authors clarified the characteristics of the clinicopathological states of 74 patients with the fatty liver classified by the etiology, simultaneously evaluating clinically the usefulness of imaging diagnosis with ultrasound and CT by the comparison of pathohistological findings(the rate of fat occupation in the liver). It was confirmed that, although the outcome of ultrasonic diagnosis was inferior to that of CT in the diagnostic capacity, the so-called bright liver finding was obtained, provided that the accumulation of fat in the liver was over Grade III (40 - 60 %), and that clinical diagnosis for fatty liver was possible. With CT, on the other hand, there was negative correlation between the degree of fat accumulation in the liver vs. the liver CT level and the CT ratio of the liver/spleen. Particularly, the CT ratio of the liver/spleen in this disease was 0.80 ± 0.18, indicating a significantly lower level as compared with 1.13 ± 0.13 in the control (p < 0.001). It is therefore suggested that, in patients in whom accumulation of fat in the liver is comparatively a lower level of Grade II (20 - 40 %), diagnosis for fatty liver by CT may be possible at a considerably high probability. Since these imaging diagnostic methods have been highly evaluated as non-invasive and convenient screening means of the fatty liver, it is important to establish the diagnostic criteria for graphic quantification of the fatty liver. (author)

  11. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  13. Hemoperitoneum secondary to an spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicking a duodenal perforated ulcera: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Díaz, Gustavo; Alias, David; Jiménez-Fuertes, Montiel; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen without traumatic cause is an unfrequent entity, usually related with pathologic spleens. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of an histologically normal spleen with splenomegalia secondary to smoking habit. The hemoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicked a hollow viscera perforation.

  14. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  15. Ultrasonography for diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Semenistaia, Marianna; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Liusina, Ekaterina; Ivashkin, Vladimir T; Gluud, Christian

    2016-03-02

    Heavy alcohol consumption causes alcoholic liver disease and is a causal factor of many types of liver injuries and concomitant diseases. It is a true systemic disease that may damage the digestive tract, the nervous system, the heart and vascular system, the bone and skeletal muscle system, and the endocrine and immune system, and can lead to cancer. Liver damage in turn, can present as multiple alcoholic liver diseases, including fatty liver, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, with presence or absence of hepatitis B or C virus infection. There are three scarring types (fibrosis) that are most commonly found in alcoholic liver disease: centrilobular scarring, pericellular fibrosis, and periportal fibrosis. When liver fibrosis progresses, alcoholic cirrhosis occurs. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in 5% to 15% of people with alcoholic cirrhosis, but people in whom hepatocellular carcinoma has developed are often co-infected with hepatitis B or C virus.Abstinence from alcohol may help people with alcoholic disease in improving their prognosis of survival at any stage of their disease; however, the more advanced the stage, the higher the risk of complications, co-morbidities, and mortality, and lesser the effect of abstinence. Being abstinent one month after diagnosis of early cirrhosis will improve the chance of a seven-year life expectancy by 1.6 times. Liver transplantation is the only radical method that may change the prognosis of a person with alcoholic liver disease; however, besides the difficulties of finding a suitable liver transplant organ, there are many other factors that may influence a person's survival.Ultrasound is an inexpensive method that has been used for years in clinical practice to diagnose alcoholic cirrhosis. Ultrasound parameters for assessing cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease encompass among others liver size, bluntness of the liver edge, coarseness of the liver parenchyma

  16. Malnutrition in end stage liver disease : Who is malnourished?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Liver diseases are highly prevalent. While death rates of most other diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, have decreased, standardized mortality rates of liver diseases have increased up to 400% in the last decades. Cirrhosis is the endstage of patients who have chronic progressive liver

  17. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Biliary Cholangitis Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Liver Transplant View or Print All Sections Definition & ...

  18. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kilometers), which is far enough to circle the earth more than twice! See also on other sites: ... For the Public Heart Information Center Project Heart Women’s Heart Health Clinical Trials 6770 Bertner Avenue Houston, ...

  19. Pathomorphology of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in large dose 60Co γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the authors was to investigate the pathomorphology changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. At different times after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and the pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte were observed by light and transmission electron microscopies. Results: Spleen lymphocyte decreased evidently and the peak of apoptosis in spleen lymphocyte was dependent on radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Conclusion: After γ-irradiation with large doses, pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in mice can be divided into obviously different stages. The main causes of death of spleen lymphocytes are different in different dose groups

  20. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Andrea; Cofalik, Anna; Przeorek, Cesary; Gawlik, Tomasz; Olczyk, Tomasz; Kalemba, Michał; Modorowska, Alicja; Turska-d’Amico, Maria; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Jarzab, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  1. Relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, dramatic advances have taken place in our knowledge of the organization and functions of the thymus and lymphoid system. Some of our understanding has come form the application of radiation therapy to diseases derived from lymphoid organs. Human investigations using radiotherapy have shed light on the radiosensitivities of the system as well as on its important functional activities. Likewise, studies of cellular traffic in the lymphoid organs, i.e., the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, showed that extensive cellular exchange occurs between the bone marrow compartment with its hemopoietic and progenitor cells and the various central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Because this is so, the term lymphohemopoietic (LH) system is appropriate. This very selective review will recapitulate some of the ongoing research in radiotherapy and radiobiology in these closely related fields. The clinical therapeutic advances have taken place in four important settings closely related to clinical therapy of tumor derived from the LH system

  2. Cat scratch disease with lymphadenitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, and spleen abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolain, J M; Chanet, V; Laurichesse, H; Lepidi, H; Beytout, J; Raoult, D

    2003-06-01

    In this report we describe a 30-year old male patient with vertebral osteomyelitis and spleen abscesses with cat scratch disease. The diagnosis was made on the basis of molecular detection of Bartonella henselae either on lymph node biopsies or on bone biopsy, histology of the lymph node, serology using either our in-house microimmunofluorescence assay or a commercial kit (Focus Technologies). Immunofluorescent detection was also performed directly on slide appositions using a monoclonal antibody. Treatment consisted of administration of antibiotics with rapid clinical improvement and a stabilization of skeletal lesions on the magnetic resonance imaging performed three months later. Twenty two other cases of this unusual manifestation associated with cat scratch disease have been reported in the literature and are reviewed here. Our case represents the second case of osteomyelitis associated with cat scratch disease in which B. henselae has been specifically identified as the etiological agent using several direct and indirect methods.

  3. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  4. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Splenic Autotransplantation for an Enlarged Wandering Spleen with Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-01-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The t...

  5. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  6. Laparoscopic versus open splenectomy: the impact of spleen size on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Ali; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Although laparoscopic splenectomy (Lap-Spleen) has become the standard surgical approach for normal-sized spleens, open splenectomy (Open-Spleen) is still recommended by many in the setting of splenomegaly. We set out to compare the impact of spleen size on Lap-Spleen and Open-Spleen outcomes using a national database. We reviewed the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to identify patients who had undergone non-emergency splenectomy during 2005-2010. To evaluate the impact of spleen size on outcomes, we considered patients with diagnoses of splenomegaly and hypersplenism as those having large spleens (Large-Sp group) and those with diagnoses of primary thrombocytopenia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura as having normal spleens (Normal-Sp group). Patients were also categorized based on surgical approach into Lap-Spleen and Open-Spleen groups. We identified 639 patients in the Large-Sp group and 879 patients in the Normal-Sp group. During 2005-2010 laparoscopy was used in 84.2% of cases in the Normal-Sp group (annual range, 77.8%-90.8%). However, the rate of laparoscopy in the Large-Sp group remained consistently below 50% with an average of 41.8% (annual range, 20%-47%). In the Lap-Spleen group, those with Large-Sp had longer operative time and length of stay and higher blood transfusion and morbidity compared with the Normal-Sp group. However, when looking specifically at the Large-Sp group, patients with Open-Spleen had more transfusion requirements, longer length of stay, and higher morbidity, compared with those with Lap-Spleen. Lap-Spleen leads to significant improvement in outcomes. These advantages were believed to be limited to normal-sized spleens, but this study demonstrates that laparoscopy can still be advantageous in patients with splenomegaly. We hope such data encourages wider utilization of laparoscopy in the setting of splenomegaly, especially among surgeons who are experienced with the technique.

  7. Effects of aluminum trichloride on the trace elements and cytokines in the spleen of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Li, Xinwei; Chen, Chongxiao; Wang, Fan; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Miao, Liguang

    2012-08-01

    The bioaccumulation and immunotoxicity of aluminum (Al) have been previously documented. Al accumulates in the organs of the organism, including spleen. Spleen is a peripheral organ of the immune system. The accumulated Al may alter the immune function. Here, we investigated the bioaccumulation of Al in spleen and its alterations in the immune system. Forty male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) weighed 110-120 g were orally exposed to aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) (0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water for 120 days. The concentrations of spleen's Al, iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and growth index were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of Al and Cu in the spleen were increased in an AlCl(3)-dose dependent manner, and the concentrations of spleen's growth index, Fe, Zn, IL-2 and TNF-α were reduced in AlCl(3)-treated rats. The results suggest that AlCl(3) can suppress the growth of spleen, disorder the balance of trace elements and inhibit the immune regulation of cytokines in the spleen. It indicates that AlCl(3) suppresses the immune function of spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of the spleen in cyclophosphamide-induced hematosuppression and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Meng, Qinggang; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2009-05-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced in spleens due to various diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of spleen in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematosuppression and EMH in mice. Balb/c mice were IP injected with 300 mg/kg CTX 2 weeks after splenectomy or sham operation and randomly sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. Blood samples were collected, and spleens were weighed, histologically analyzed, and then used for flow cytometry. There were significant differences in white blood count, red blood count, platelet numbers and hemoglobin concentration between the splenectomized and sham-operated mice after CTX injection. The cellularity of the spleen was reduced 3 days following CTX treatment but then rose 7 days after CTX treatment. The numbers of colony-forming units in the spleen reached a peak 7 days after CTX injection, then declined. Flow cytometry demonstrated the percentage of CD34(+) and CD117(+) cells in the spleen increased 7 days after CTX injection, indicating the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the spleen. The study indicates that EMH occurs as a compensatory reaction to CTX-induced hematosuppression in the murine spleen, implying that conservation of the spleen may promote the recovery of cancer patients from chemotherapy-induced hematosuppression.

  9. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  10. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year almost 800,000 Americans have a heart attack. A heart attack happens when blood flow to the heart suddenly ... it's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if you or ...

  11. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  12. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  13. A novel method for the angiographic estimation of the percentage of spleen volume embolized during partial splenic embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Ming-Ching; Chuang, Ming-Tsung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Xi-Zhang [Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Hong-Ming; Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Yi-Sheng, E-mail: taicheng100704@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of estimating the volume of spleen embolized in partial splenic embolization (PSE) by measuring the diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. Materials and methods: A total of 43 liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 62.19 ± 9.65 years) with thrombocytopenia were included. Among these, 24 patients underwent a follow-up CT scan which showed a correlation between angiographic estimation and measured embolized splenic volume. Estimated splenic embolization volume was calculated by a method based on diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. The diameters of each of the splenic arteries and branches were measured via 2D angiographic images. Embolization was performed with gelatin sponges. Patients underwent follow-up with serial measurement of blood counts and liver function tests. The actual volume of embolized spleen was determined by computed tomography (CT) measuring the volumes of embolized and non-embolized spleen two months after PSE. Results: PSE was performed without immediate major complications. The mean WBC count significantly increased from 3.81 ± 1.69 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 8.56 ± 3.14 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} at 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). Mean platelet count significantly increased from 62.00 ± 22.62 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 95.40 ± 46.29 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). The measured embolization ratio was positively correlated with estimated embolization ratio (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.687, P < 0.001). The mean difference between the actual embolization ratio and the estimated embolization ratio was 16.16 ± 8.96%. Conclusions: The method provides a simple method to quantitatively estimate embolized splenic volume with a correlation of measured embolization ratio to estimated embolization ratio of Spearman's ρ = 0.687.

  14. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC OF RATS LIVER UNDER PRE-SLAUGHTER STRESS AND USAGE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovskyi S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied morphometric parameters of rats’ liver under stress conditions using the biologically active substances of plant and animal origin: spleen, Echinacea and Chinese lemon extracts, sprouted grain. Aerosol introduction of spleen extract to the rats feed for five days before slaughter was caused to liver morphological state moderate deviation, indicating the antistressors properties of polyamines contained in this extract. The results of model experiment on rats can be used in research of farm animals for correction of pre-slaughter stress influence and getting the receiving of quality industrial production.

  15. Acute hypoxia stress induced abundant differential expression genes and alternative splicing events in heart of tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Li, Bi Jun; Gu, Xiao Hui; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-01-10

    Hypoxia is one of the critical environmental stressors for fish in aquatic environments. Although accumulating evidences indicate that gene expression is regulated by hypoxia stress in fish, how genes undergoing differential gene expression and/or alternative splicing (AS) in response to hypoxia stress in heart are not well understood. Using RNA-seq, we surveyed and detected 289 differential expressed genes (DEG) and 103 genes that undergo differential usage of exons and splice junctions events (DUES) in heart of a hypoxia tolerant fish, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus following 12h hypoxic treatment. The spatio-temporal expression analysis validated the significant association of differential exon usages in two randomly selected DUES genes (fam162a and ndrg2) in 5 tissues (heart, liver, brain, gill and spleen) sampled at three time points (6h, 12h, and 24h) under acute hypoxia treatment. Functional analysis significantly associated the differential expressed genes with the categories related to energy conservation, protein synthesis and immune response. Different enrichment categories were found between the DEG and DUES dataset. The Isomerase activity, Oxidoreductase activity, Glycolysis and Oxidative stress process were significantly enriched for the DEG gene dataset, but the Structural constituent of ribosome and Structural molecule activity, Ribosomal protein and RNA binding protein were significantly enriched only for the DUES genes. Our comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals abundant stress responsive genes and their differential regulation function in the heart tissues of Nile tilapia under acute hypoxia stress. Our findings will facilitate future investigation on transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during hypoxia stress in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen: A rare complication in a patient with lupus nephritis on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadri Quaid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen is a life threatening condition. We report a 40-year-old fe-male patient, a known case of lupus nephritis receiving hemodialysis, who developed spontaneous rupture of the spleen during the course of her illness. The patient was managed conservatively with gradual regression of hematoma without further complications.

  17. Epithelial cyst of the spleen with squamous metaplasia: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Vissa; Reddy, Vengala Chidananda; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Grandhi, Bhavana; Kona, Suneetha

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial splenic cysts are uncommon lesions which occur the spleen. The aetiopathogenesis of these cysts is not clear. We are reporting a case of an epithelial cyst which occurred in the spleen in a 40-year-old female, which was multi loculated and which had flattened lining epithelium. Some foci showed squamous metaplasia.

  18. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  19. Two different mechanisms of immune-complex trapping in the mouse spleen during immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of immune-complex (IC) trapping was examined using purified horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-anti-HRP (PAP) on frozen sections of mouse spleen in vitro. We investigated the trapping mechanisms by applying the IC with or without fresh mouse serum added on the spleen sections of naive as

  20. Late return of function after intrathoracic torsion of the spleen in congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Pedersen, P V

    1986-01-01

    , and the spleen were intrathoracic. There was a 720 degree torsion of the splenic pedicle. After reduction, the spleen was placed in the abdomen. At scintiscans 12 days and 14 weeks after operation, no certain splenic function was demonstrated, but at follow-up up 21/2 years later the splenic scan was normal....

  1. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a liver becomes available. Make sure that, no matter where you are going, you can be contacted ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Liver Transplant Back In ...

  3. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  4. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  5. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  6. A case of torsion of the wandering spleen presenting as hypersplenism and gastric fundal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irak, Kader; Esen, Irfan; Keskın, Murat; Emınler, Ahmet Tarık; Ayyildiz, Talat; Kaya, Ekrem; Kiyici, Murat; Gürel, Selim; Nak, Selim Giray; Gülten, Macit; Dolar, Enver

    2011-02-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen from its normal location due to the loss or weakening of ligaments that hold the spleen in the left upper quadrant. The possibility of torsion of the spleen is high due to the long and mobile nature of the vascular pedicle. Generally, cases are asymptomatic. Under conditions of delayed diagnosis, symptoms of splenomegaly, left portal hypertension, gastric fundal varices, and hypersplenism may present as a result of development of vascular congestion associated with chronic torsion. There are only a few cases in the literature reporting the association of wandering spleen and fundal varices. We report herein the case of a 55-year-old female who admitted to our clinic with complaints of fatigue and epigastric pain. She was determined to have gastric fundal varices and hypersplenism secondary to the development of left portal hypertension due to chronic splenic torsion.

  7. The 2010 patent landscape for spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Alessandro F; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Kaila, Neelu; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Thorarensen, Atli

    2012-05-01

    Discovery of small molecular inhibitors for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a major ongoing effort within the pharmaceutical industry. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is one of leading small molecular targets with regard to clinical development primarlly due to efforts by Rigel and Portola. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the SYK patent landscape. The patent literature we evaluated relates to any organization that has filed applications that imply that SYK is the intended target. The interest in SYK was initiated in the early 2000's with many organizations, including several large pharmaceutical companies, and has been active for years. In general, the structural theme of most of the compounds in these applications is a traditional ATP competitive inhibitor with each organization having a different hinge binding element. In general, the attachment to the hinge is an aryl amine that is decorated with a solubilizing group. The other substituents are broadly variable across the numerous companies indicating that SYK has significant flexibility in its interactions in that portion of the kinase. This overview of the SYK patent literature and the learnings of the inhibitors' substitution patterns would be an important reference for anyone working in this area.

  8. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: Where are the limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts. PMID:25152573

  9. Fatty liver: prospective comparative study with sonography and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Y. M.; Kim, W. S.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, J. S.; Han, C. K.; Kim, C. W.

    1990-01-01

    To identify the reasonable criteria in detection of the degree of Fatty liver, we prospectively evaluated sonograms and CT scans in 33 Patients With bright liver on sonography. On sonograms, we analyzed the echogenicity of the liver, acoustic attenuation, and visualization of the portal vein and the diaphragm, Each criterion was scored from 0 to 2. CT criterion for fatty liver was assessed by the attenuation difference between the liver and the spleen on nonocontrast CT scans, The average sonographic grade for CT Grade I was 1.3, Grade II was 2.1,and Grade III was 2.8. The accurate detection rate of each sonographic grade was as follows, Grade

  10. Effect of Breath Holding on Spleen Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ai; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonographic studies have demonstrated transient reduction in spleen volume in relation to apnea diving. We measured spleen volume under various respiratory conditions by MR imaging to accurately determine the influence of ordinary breath holding on spleen volumetry. Twelve healthy adult volunteers were examined. Contiguous MR images of the spleen were acquired during free breathing and during respiratory manipulations, including breath holding at the end of normal expiration, breath holding at deep inspiration, and the valsalva maneuver, and spleen volume was measured from each image set based on the sum-of-areas method. Acquisition during free breathing was performed with respiratory triggering. The duration of each respiratory manipulation was 30 s, and five sets of MR images were acquired serially during each manipulation. Baseline spleen volume before respiratory manipulation was 173.0 ± 79.7 mL, and the coefficient of variance for two baseline measures was 1.4% ± 1.6%, suggesting excellent repeatability. Spleen volume decreased significantly just after the commencement of respiratory manipulation, remained constant during the manipulation, and returned to the control value 2 min after the cessation of the manipulation, irrespective of manipulation type. The percentages of volume reduction were 10.2% ± 2.9%, 10.2% ± 3.5%, and 13.3% ± 5.7% during expiration breath holding, deep-inspiration breath holding, and the valsalva maneuver, respectively, and these values did not differ significantly. Spleen volume is reduced during short breath-hold apnea in healthy adults. Physiological responses of the spleen to respiratory manipulations should be considered in the measurement and interpretation of spleen volume.

  11. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guang-yao; Zhang, Wu-ning; Shen, Xiao-jing; He, Xue-fen; Chen, Yi

    2004-08-01

    Spleen in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is not actually the spleen in the anatomic sense designated in western medicine because its functions basically belong to the physiological category of digestive system in modern medicine, and it represents a macroscopic concept of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. Spleen deficiency syndrome refers to the clinical phenomena such as hypofunction of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. By integrating TCM with modern medicine, this paper is intended to explore the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis. By means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and histochemical staining, we conducted histopathological and subcellular ultrastructural (nuclei and mitochondrial) analysis of gastric mucosa of 188 patients of spleen deficiency, and that of 42 voluntary blood donors without clinical symptoms. The gastric mucosa of patients with spleen Qi deficiency (SQD) and spleen yang deficiency (SyangD) could either be affected by organic lesion (type G-occurring on the basis of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)) or unaffected (type F-chiefly belonging to functional indigestion); spleen yin deficiency (SyinD) and spleen deficiency with Qi stagnation (SDQS) both occurred on the basis of CSG and CAG; and the degree of mucosa inflammatory cells infiltration, the degree of decrease in glands propria, and the incidence of IMIIb in CSG and CAG were more serious than those of G-SQD and G-SyangD, P < 0.05 - 0.01. Spleen deficiency syndrome is likely to occur on the basis of organic lesion of gastric mucosa (disease with symptoms of both CSG or CAG and spleen deficiency symptoms), as well as on the basis of inorganic lesion of gastric mucosa (nondisease with symptoms, which is, despite spleen deficiency symptoms, there is no CSG or CAG). Besides, the clinical phenomenon of disease without

  13. A study on relationship between liver scintigram and various kinds of liver function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between GOT, γ-globulin, alkaline phosphatase, ICG-R 15 and liver scintigram (anterior view) was studied in 37 patients with miscellaneous liver diseases. The length of the splenic image and the difference between right side and left side widths of the liver were indicated as liver scintigraphic findings. 1. γ-globulin and alkaline phosphatase tended to be slightly higher with remarkable splenic image. 2. All three patients with over 35% of ICG-R 15 had atrophic type of the right lobe showing more than 13 cm of the spleen. At first sight, they were diagnosed as having liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, some of the patients who had normal or slightly abnormal ICG-R 15 were suspected of having liver cirrhosis because of the long splenic image, but all had remarkable swelling of the right lobe. 3. The patients whom the difference between the right side and the left side widths was below 3 cm contained many patients with liver cirrhosis acompanied by atrophic type of the right lobe and remarkably abnormal ICG-R 15 . (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is ∼ 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing ∼ 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 μM, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of ∼ 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH 2 groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with [γ- 32 P]ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole 33 P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed

  15. Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Wiggers, Henrik; McMurray, John J V

    2018-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint.......This article briefly discusses the epidemiology of heart failure and diabetes and summarizes the key findings from the recent cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, with a focus on heart failure as an endpoint....

  16. Which common test should be used to assess spleen autotransplant effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ehsan; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Historically, total splenectomy was the only choice of treatment for traumatic splenic injuries. However, nonoperative management and spleen-preserving surgical techniques are preferred in modern medicine. In some situations in which the surgeon has to perform splenectomy, spleen autotransplant may preserve the splenic function. Selecting the best method for evaluating the splenic autotransplant effect has been debated for several years. In this study, we compared three common tests in evaluating the implanted spleen function. Participants included 10 patients who were candidates for laparotomy and splenectomy. After performing splenectomy, we implanted five pieces of the spleen in the greater omentum of each patient. After 3 months, the implanted spleen function was evaluated by nuclear red blood cell (RBC) scan, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M level, and presence of Howell-Jolly (HJ) bodies in the peripheral blood smear. All patients had normal peripheral blood smear. The IgM level was lower than normal in one patient, and scintigraphy did not demonstrate the transplanted spleen in another patient. All these tests may have comparable results, but because of availability and low cost of peripheral blood smear, which is also easily performed, it can be considered as the first option to evaluate the implanted spleen function.

  17. Microscopy of vascular architecture and arteriovenous communications in the spleen of two odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y

    1994-08-01

    The red pulp of the spleens of the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and the Pacific bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gilli) (Odontoceti) were examined by light and electron microscopy and found to comprise two venous layers, an inner and an outer. The inner layer is homologous to the intermediate zone (IZ) of primitive-type mammalian spleens and contains sinusoids consisting of endothelial cells and a thin layer of extracellular deposits. Its vascular structure is unclear. The venous vessels of this layer eventually communicate with veins of the perivenous outer layer. The perivenous layer contains veins of various sizes, interstitial elements, and trabeculae. It is filled with blood cells, particularly plasma cells, but no myeloid cells. The perivenous layer (PVL) is homologous to the red pulp of common mammalian spleens but shows signs of involution. The white pulp gives origin to arterial terminals that end in the red pulp, where they communicate directly with the sinusoidal veins producing a closed circulation. The arterial terminals do not show ellipsoids. The presence of an IZ with a closed circulation and the involution of the red pulp makes the spleen of Odeontoceti another example of a mammalian spleen of the primitive type that has been altered by the evolutionary process. Vascular remodelling of the spleen of Odontoceti seems to follow the pattern noted in the spleens of nonmammalian vertebrates.

  18. The spleen is the site where mast cells are induced in the development of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Shota; Wakamatsu, Ei; Ishida, Yasuo; Obata, Yuuki; Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Abe, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that splenic immune responses play pivotal roles in the development of allergic diseases; however, the precise role of the spleen remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated a novel role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of food allergy (FA). We found that mast cells (MCs) developed from progenitor cells present in spleen during an antigen-specific T-cell response in vitro. In a Th2 response-mediated FA model, significant expansion of MCs was also observed in spleen. The incidence of allergic diarrhea was profoundly reduced in splenectomized mice, whereas adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced splenic MCs into these mice restored allergic symptoms, suggesting that the splenic MCs functioned as the pathogenic cells in the development of FA. The in vitro-generated MCs required not only IL-3 but also IFN-γ, and treatment of FA-induced mice with anti-IFN-γ antibody suppressed expansion of MCs in spleen as well as diarrhea development, highlighting that IFN-γ in the spleen orchestrated the development of FA, which was followed by a Th2 response in the local lesion. Overall, we propose that the role of the spleen in the development of FA is to provide a unique site where antigen-specific T cells induce development of pathogenic MCs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part in support groups for people with heart disease . Outlook (Prognosis) After a heart attack, you have a higher ... P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  20. Transplanted human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DingGuo Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMCs have the potential to reduce heart and lung fibrosis, but whether could reduce liver fibrosis remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hepatic cirrhosis model was established by infusion of CCl₄ (1 ml/kg body weight twice a week for 8 weeks in immunocompetent C57Bl/6J mice. hAMCs, isolated from term delivered placenta, were infused into the spleen at 4 weeks after mice were challenged with CCl₄. Control mice received only saline infusion. Animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Blood analysis was performed to evaluate alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Histological analysis of the livers for fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells activation, hepatocyte apoptosis, proliferation and senescence were performed. The donor cell engraftment was assessed using immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction. The areas of hepatic fibrosis were reduced (6.2%±2.1 vs. control 9.6%±1.7, p<0.05 and liver function parameters (ALT 539.6±545.1 U/dl, AST 589.7±342.8 U/dl,vs. control ALT 139.1±138.3 U/dl, p<0.05 and AST 212.3±110.7 U/dl, p<0.01 were markedly ameliorated in the hAMCs group compared to control group. The transplantation of hAMCs into liver-fibrotic mice suppressed activation of hepatic stellate cells, decreased hepatocyte apoptosis and promoted liver regeneration. More interesting, hepatocyte senescence was depressed significantly in hAMCs group compared to control group. Immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction revealed that hAMCs engraftment into host livers and expressed the hepatocyte-specific markers, human albumin and α-fetoproteinran. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of hAMCs significantly decreased the fibrosis formation and progression of CCl₄-induced cirrhosis, providing a new approach for the treatment of fibrotic liver disease.

  1. The failure rate of nonoperative management in children with splenic or liver injury with contrast blush on computed tomography: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlies, Cornelis H.; Saltzherr, Teun P.; Wilde, Jim C. H.; van Delden, Otto M.; de Haan, Rob J.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Nonoperative management (NOM) is the treatment of choice for hemodymically stable pediatric patients with spleen or liver trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the failure rate of NOM in children with blunt liver and/or splenic injury when a contrast blush is present on a computed

  2. Release and retention of labelled DNA in the thymus and spleen of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Abraham, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process of release and retention of labelled DNA in thymus and spleen of normal and irradiated ( 06 Co) mice has been studied after administration of 3 H-thymidine. The results indicate that the dividing fraction of lymphoid cells is more resistant to radiation than the fraction of nondividing lymphoytes. The time courses of the specific activities of DNA in thymus and spleen were different especially after irradiation with lethal doses. It is suggested that the process of depletion in the lymphoid series is probably similar for both thymus and spleen but, the different cellular composition of these organs led to apparently unrelated results. (orig.) [de

  3. Torsion of a wandering spleen. A rare cause of acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwashilli N. Jude

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen is a rare condition that accounts for less than 0.25% of all indications for splenectomy. It is characterized by ectopic localization of the spleen owing to the lack or weakening of its ligaments. Torsion is the most common complication due to its long pedicle and high mobility, which may result in acute abdomen. We report a case of torsion in a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old male presenting with an acute abdomen that was treated by splenectomy.

  4. Active suppression of in vitro reactivity of spleen cells after BCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach-Arbouys, S.; Poupon, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)

  5. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  6. Size matters: Spleen and lung volumes predict performance in human apneic diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eSchagatay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans share with e.g. seals the ability to contract the spleen and increase circulating hematocrit, which may improve apneic performance by enhancing gas storage. Seals have large spleens and while human spleen size is small in comparison, it shows great individual variation. Unlike many marine mammals, human divers rely to a great extent on lung oxygen stores, but the impact of lung volume on competitive apnea performance has never been determined. We studied if spleen- and lung size correlated with performance in elite apnea divers. Volunteers were 14 male apnea world championship participants, with a mean(SE of 5.8(1.2 years of previous apnea training. Spleen volume was calculated from spleen length, width and thickness measured via ultrasound during rest, and vital capacity via spirometry. Accumulated competition scores from dives of maximal depth, time and distance were compared to anthropometric measurements and training data. Mean dive performance was 75(4 m for constant weight depth, 5 min 53(39 s for static apnea and 139(13 m for dynamic apnea distance. Subjects’ mean height was 184(2 cm, weight 82(3 kg, vital capacity (VC 7.3(0.3 L and spleen volume 336(32 ml. Spleen volume did not correlate with subject height or weight, but was positively correlated with competition score (r=0.57; P<0.05. Total competition score was also positively correlated with VC (r=0.54; P<0.05. The three highest scoring divers had the greatest spleen volumes, averaging 538(53 ml, while the three lowest scoring divers had a volume of 270(71 ml (P<0.01. VC was also greater in the high-scorers, at 7.9(0.36 L as compared to 6.7(0.19 L in the low-scorers (P<0.01. Spleen volume was reduced to half after 2 min of apnea in the highest scoring divers, and the estimated resting apnea time gain from the difference between high and low scorers was 15 s for spleen volume and 60 s for VC. We conclude that both spleen- and lung volume predict apnea performance in elite

  7. Gray scale ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic liver and kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. C.; Kim, J. W.; Park, B. H.; Lee, S.

    1985-01-01

    Although the term polycystic disease is usually associated with the kidneys, involvement of other organs such as the liver, pancreas, spleen and lung is not uncommon. However, in many such cases the polycystic disease is found only at autopsy or is an incidental finding during laparotomy. Eight patients with polycystic liver and kidney disease were examined with gray-scale ultrasonography. The value of gray-scale ultrasound as a noninvasive means of differing cystic disease from suspected neoplastic disease is emphasized.

  8. Ultrasound predictors of compensated liver cirrhosis in hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    P Dzekova-Vidimliski; S Dzikova; Gj. Selim; S Gelev; L Trajceska; V Pushevski; A Sikole

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound examination was performed in 80 hemodialysis (HD) patients with chronic hepatitis C in order to determine the ultrasound predictors of compensated liver cirrhosis. The ultrasound score (US) was calculated from the morphological parameters (liver size, morphology, surface, echogenicity and spleen volume) and the hemodynamic parameters (portal vein diameter and portal vein mean flow velocity). The US ranged from 0 to 200, with a cut-off value of 66, for discrimination between absence...

  9. Incidence and clinical characteristics of ocular infections after heart transplantation: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Pozo, Jose L.; van de Beek, Diederik; Daly, Richard C.; Pulido, Jose S.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Patel, Robin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ocular infections associated with organ transplantation are well documented following renal and liver transplantation; however, few studies have reported ocular infections following heart transplant. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who underwent heart transplantation in the

  10. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  11. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  12. Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation for an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2014-06-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The transplanted splenic tissues could be identified on a spleen scintigram obtained 3 months after the surgery. Howell-Jolly bodies were not observed in blood specimens. This procedure is able to prevent an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, and leads to satisfactory cosmetic results.

  13. Enhancement of erythroid colony formation in vitro by spleen extract from irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shiro; Terasawa, Waka; Kodama, Hiroaki; Terasawa, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    The effect of spleen extract from irradiated rats on CFU-e and BFU-e colony formation of rat bone marrow cells was investigated by using modified plasma clot culture media. In the presence of erythropoietin (Ep), CFU-e colony formation peaked at 48 hr of culture, and the Ep-induced increase of CFU-e colonies was dose-dependent. The addition of spleen extract enhanced the colony formation more than two-fold in the Ep-containing culture. BFU-e colony formation was also enhanced by the addition of spleen extract. These results indicate that spleen extract from irradiated rats contains factor(s) which stimulates the proliferation of erythroid progenitors. (author)

  14. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  15. Effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on thymus, spleen and cardiac indexes, caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein and mRNA expression levels in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Sun, Yong Le; Wang, Ai Hong; Xu, Chong En; Zhang, Meng Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.

  16. Loss of Sympathetic Nerves in Spleens from Patients with End Stage Sepsis

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    Donald B. Hoover

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spleen is an important site for central regulation of immune function by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, but little is known about this major region of neuroimmune communication in humans. Experimental studies using animal models have established that sympathetic innervation of the spleen is essential for cholinergic anti-inflammatory responses evoked by vagal nerve stimulation, and clinical studies are evaluating this approach for treating inflammatory diseases. Most data on sympathetic nerves in spleen derive from rodent studies, and this work has established that remodeling of sympathetic innervation can occur during inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of sepsis on spleen innervation. Our primary goals were to (i localize noradrenergic nerves in human spleen by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a specific noradrenergic marker, (ii determine if nerves occur in close apposition to leukocytes, and (iii determine if splenic sympathetic innervation is altered in patients who died from end stage sepsis. Staining for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT was done to screen for cholinergic nerves. Archived paraffin tissue blocks were used. Control samples were obtained from trauma patients or patients who died after hemorrhagic stroke. TH + nerves were associated with arteries and arterioles in all control spleens, occurring in bundles or as nerve fibers. Individual TH + nerve fibers entered the perivascular region where some appeared in close apposition to leukocytes. In marked contrast, spleens from half of the septic patients lacked TH + nerves fibers and the average abundance of TH + nerves for the septic group was only 16% of that for the control group (control: 0.272 ± 0.060% area, n = 6; sepsis: 0.043 ± 0.026% area, n = 8; P < 0.005. All spleens lacked cholinergic innervation. Our results provide definitive evidence for the distribution of noradrenergic

  17. Value of liver elastography and abdominal ultrasound for detection of complications of allogeneic hemopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlas, T; Weber, J; Nehring, C; Kronenberger, R; Tenckhoff, H; Mössner, J; Niederwieser, D; Tröltzsch, M; Lange, T; Keim, V

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic complications contribute to morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hemopoietic SCT. Liver Doppler ultrasound and elastography represent promising methods for pretransplant risk assessment and early detection of complications. Ultrasound (liver and spleen size, liver perfusion) and elastography (transient elastography (TE); right liver lobe acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (r-ARFI); left liver lobe ARFI (l-ARFI)) were prospectively evaluated in patients with indications for allo-SCT. Measurements were performed before and repeatedly after SCT. Results were compared with the incidence of life-threatening complications and death during the first 150 days after SCT. Of 59 included patients, 16 suffered from major complications and 9 of them died within the follow-up period. At baseline, liver and spleen size, liver perfusion, TE and r-ARFI did not differ significantly between patients with and without severe complications. In contrast, l-ARFI was significantly elevated in patients who later developed severe complications (1.58±0.30 m/s vs 1.37±0.27 m/s, P=0.030). After SCT, l-ARFI values remained elevated and TE showed increasing liver stiffness in patients with complications. The value of conventional liver ultrasound for prediction of severe SCT complications is limited. Increased values for TE and l-ARFI are associated with severe SCT complications and demand further evaluation.

  18. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: → Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. → Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. → Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein

  19. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins in or spreads to your liver can cause your liver to fail. Shock. Overwhelming infection (sepsis) and shock can severely impair blood flow to the liver, causing liver failure. Many cases of acute liver failure have no apparent ... liver failure often causes complications, including: ...

  20. Role of the spleen in the maturation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spleen cells from unimmunized Lewis rats were fractionated by 1 x g velocity sedimentation and assayed for their ability to restore the adoptive primary antibody response to horse spleen ferritin in irradiated syngeneic recipients given T cell supplementation. Large, medium and small cell fractions all showed virgin B cell activity. Similar studies with thoractic duct cells show that virgin B cell activity is restricted to the small and medium cells. Large spleen cells produced a 2-ME sensitive adoptive antibody response which persisted for 21 days. All antibody produced by small cells at 21 days was 2-ME resistant. Examination of spleen cells during recovery from sublethal irradiation showed that virgin B cell activity was first detected at 14 days, and is confined to the large cell fraction. Experiments with congenic rats which differ at the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain allotype showed that small cells from the bone marrow injected intravenously can transform into large Ig-bearing cells in the spleen. The relationship of the subclasses of virgin B cells in the spleen to B cell maturation is discussed

  1. [Clinical and experimental study on treatment of anorexy in children with the activating spleen prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S C; You, R D

    1991-02-01

    The treatment of 488 cases with anorexy in children showed that the curative effect of the group using Chinese medicines based on the differentiation of symptoms and signs by (1) activating the Spleen, (2) invigorating and activating the spleen was significantly higher than the control using concentrated vitamin B complex (P less than 0.001). The results of the experimental study were as follows: Erbao instant granules (the medicine for activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the D-xylose excretion rate of urine; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; raising the quality of 8 mineral elements in hair and the quality of SIgA in saliva; adjusting the abnormal peristalsis of the experimental rabbits and promoting the ability that duodenums which had been separated from rabbits had to absorb different amino acids and glucose. Jian'er syrup (the medicine for invigorating and activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the quality of 14 mineral elements in hair; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; increasing the index of thymus and spleen in the experimental rats and stimulating them to produce hemolysin. The authors tend to think that the therapeutic principle of activating the Spleen can improve appetite, help the body to absorb and utilize various nutrients which contain many kinds of essential trace elements.

  2. Incorporating parasite systematics in comparative analyses of variation in spleen mass and testes sizes of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlet, Nicolas; Chaisiri, Kitipong; Claude, Julien; Morand, Serge

    2011-11-01

    Parasite diversity is hypothesized to act on host life-history traits through investment in immunity. In order to incorporate the diversity of the parasite community that an individual host or a host species may face, two indices can be used: Taxonomic Species Richness and Taxonomic Entropy, where the taxonomic information is incorporated with the taxonomic weight. We tested whether these indices correlate with several morphological traits potentially implicated in immune defence and in reproduction, using data on gastrointestinal helminths and their rodent hosts sampled in Southeast Asia. We found no relationship between parasite diversity indices and either spleen mass or testes size at the intraspecific level, i.e. at the level of individuals. At the interspecific level, we found no relationship between the parasite diversity indices and testes size. However, we found that female spleen mass is significantly influenced by the specific species richness of parasites, whereas male spleen mass is influenced by individual mean parasite diversity indices. We concluded that female spleen mass may have evolved in response to gastrointestinal helminth pressure acting at species levels, while in males, the individual spleen mass could be constrained by other factors, such as the blood storage function of the spleen.

  3. Imaging of Primary Liver Carcinosarcoma Scintigraphically; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan Abdulrezzak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary liver carcinosarcoma is a very rare disease. There have been only a few cases described to date, none of which has been imaged by bone scintigraphy. A 69-year-old man who developed right back pain and weight loss was admitted to our hospital. Tenderness of the right upper abdomen, hepatomegaly, and a giant mass were the main physical examination signs. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a large lobulated heterogeneous echogenic solid mass with multiple cystic areas of varying size and a highly echogenic region that had posterior acoustic shadowing within the mass in the right lobe of the liver. Labeled erythrocyte imaging and 99mTc-nanocolloid liver-spleen scan were performed to exclude hemangioma, showing a large intrahepatic photon deficient area. 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate (MDP bone scintigraphy revealed heterogeneous, irregular and dense activity accumulation thought to be osteoblastic activity in the liver mass. Postsurgical pathological diagnosis revealed “carcinosarcoma”.

  4. Immunological properties of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase of normal human liver and of GM2-gangliosidosis liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M.; Robinson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Antisera were raised to a partially purified preparation of human liver hexosaminidase and to highly purified preparations of hexosaminidase isoenzymes A and B. All the antisera precipitated the enzyme in an enzymically active form, which could be located on immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic gels by using a histochemical substrate. The antisera to the purified isoenzymes were shown to react with hexosaminidase from human liver, kidney, brain and spleen, but did not cross-react with human liver β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase, β-xylosidase, arylsulphatase or acid phosphatase. Hexosaminidases A and B were immunologically identical. The immunological properties of the hexosaminidases from livers of patients with three types of GM2-gangliosidoses were closely similar. No evidence could be found for cross-reacting material in enzyme-deficient states. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4198585

  5. Heart transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital for 7 to 21 days after a heart transplant. The first 24 to 48 hours will likely be in ... follow your self-care instructions. Biopsies of the heart muscle are ... after transplant, and then less often after that. This helps ...

  6. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Fernandez, R.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Paez Moreno, J.; Zurera Tendero, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Crosstalk between the heart and peripheral organs in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, James Won Suk; Song, Erfei; Sweeney, Gary

    2016-03-11

    Mediators from peripheral tissues can influence the development and progression of heart failure (HF). For example, in obesity, an altered profile of adipokines secreted from adipose tissue increases the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). Less appreciated is that heart remodeling releases cardiokines, which can strongly impact various peripheral tissues. Inflammation, and, in particular, activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with pyrin domain (NLRP3) inflammasome are likely to have a central role in cardiac remodeling and mediating crosstalk with other organs. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to cardiac injury induces the production and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. In addition to having local effects in the myocardium, these pro-inflammatory cytokines are released into circulation and cause remodeling in the spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The collective effects of various cardiokines on peripheral organs depend on the degree and duration of myocardial injury, with systematic inflammation and peripheral tissue damage observed as HF progresses. In this article, we review mechanisms regulating myocardial inflammation in HF and the role of factors secreted by the heart in communication with peripheral tissues.

  8. roposal on the Method of Regulating Ascending Kidney Water and Descending Heart Fire -through pharmacopuncture technique-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is aimed at diagnosing and suggesting treatment plans for commonly seen clinical manifestation of heat symptom in the upper body and coldness in the lower body, also known as hot above, cold below syndrome. Methods : Various reasons attribute to the presence of hot above, cold below syndrome, but mainly contributed by blockage of normal Qi flow by abnormality of heart-kidney root, spleen-stomach axis, and liver-lung axis. Diagnosing these abnormalities and timely alleviation to the healthy state is presented in the study. Results : 1For heat in the upper body, Huang Lian Jie Du Tang(黃連解毒湯, CF, or JsD pharmacopuctures are injected on GB21, GB20. Qi stagnation in the thoracic area is treated with BUM injection on CV17. For impairment of transportation and transformation in the middle energizer, BUM pharmacopuncture is injected on CV12. Coldness in the lower energizer was relieved by bee venom or Sweet BV(Bee Venom free from enzymes on CV6. Conclusion : Above proposed methods of regulating water-fire were effective in treating hot above, cold below syndrome in clinical manifestations. But once the symptom subsides, treatment focused on eliminating innate cause should be rendered to achieve more successful results.

  9. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

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    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  10. [Ginkgo biloba extract enhances the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Si, Lifang; Li, Xiangneng; Li, Zhansheng

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats each group). Three experimental groups were given GBE daily by gavage in doses of 40, 120, 360 mg/(kg.d), respectively. Animals in the control group were fed the same amount of PBS. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed by chloral hydrate anesthesia. The spleen and thymus were harvested to determine the organ index first. MTT assay was used to detect the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and transformation. Neutral red assay was performed to measure the rat peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. The ultrastructural changes of spleen and thymus were observed under scanning electron microscope. Administration of GBE in the rats increased the mass indexes of rat thymus and spleen, dose-dependently elevated the lymphocyte proliferative responses and enhanced the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. In experimental groups, the numbers of mature spleen and thymus lymphocytes were significantly raised in comparison with the control rats. GBE plays a regulatory role in immune function of the rat by increasing the mass of immune organs, increasing the number of mature T lymphocytes as well as their proliferative responses, and enhancing the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages.

  11. Autophagy induces apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hongchao; Zhao, Mingqiu; Fan, Shuangqi; Yuan, Jin; Liao, Jiedan; He, Wencheng; Xu, Hailuan; Chen, Jinding

    2017-10-19

    Lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression are typical clinical characteristics of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The apoptosis of virus-infected and bystander cells plays a role in the immunopathology of classical swine fever (CSF). Here, we offer the first evidence that autophagy is involved in apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV. Using immunohistochemical assays, we observed that more LC3II-positive cells appear in the T-cell zone of spleens. Spleen cell apoptosis was demonstrated using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed that partial LC3II-positive cells were simultaneously TUNEL-positive. By cultivating spleen cells ex vivo, we demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA treatment inhibited apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes caused by CSFV infection but did not have this effect  on B lymphocytes. Further observations demonstrated that uninfected cells in the spleen were also undergoing autophagy in vivo. In summary, these results linked autophagy with the apoptosis and cell death of splenic T cells, providing a new outlook to understand the mechanism of T lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression during CSF.

  12. [Acute torsion of wandering spleen: a rare cause of acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-Asenjo, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity characterized by an anomalous position of the spleen in the abdomen due to impaired splenic ligamentous attachments that produce an elongation of the vascular pedicle. This makes a partial or complete volvulus of the vascular axis more likely. Wandering spleen's clinical presentation is variable--from an asymptomatic patient to one with chronic abdominal pain or an acute abdomen. The most common complication is the acute torsion of the splenic pedicle causing acute abdominal pain. A 30-year-old woman who turned up at the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic imaging (ultrasonography and computerized axial tomography) revealed a huge spleen in an abnormal location and without vascularization. An urgent splenectomy was performed. Acute torsion of wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen, which makes early diagnosis difficult and can result in delayed treatment. This would lead to having to perform a splenectomy. Due to splenic necrosis or infarction, which increases the risk of postsplenectomy sepsis.

  13. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Spleen and thymic sonography as estimator of the immune response in children with repeated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Jesus; Fundora, Hermes; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2010-01-01

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. The spleen has many functions: IgM class antibody production and phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria. We propose to measure the dimensions of the spleen in children with repeated infections, in order to describe them as a diagnosis marker and to explore the probable correlation between the thymic characteristics and the dimensions of the spleen. We study 81 patients that attended the consultation of Immunology from Aballi hospital with repeated infections and they were from 8 months to 9 years old. Children with nutritional value up to the third percentile and those taking steroids 45 days before the study were excluded. We measured the thymic and splenic areas by mediastinal and abdominal echography. The length, the splenic index and the weight are less in patients with repeated infections. These data were significant in 12 to 23 month of age group. The length and the splenic index were less in patients with depletion of thymic area. The sonographic evaluation of the spleen is very important in patients from 1 to 2 years old and in patients with thymic depletion, because they are on the age of vaccine administration according to the Cuban schedule and having affected a main organ for immune response might be a reason for them to show a deficient response and need special schedules

  15. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  16. Atheroprotector role of the spleen based on the teaching of Avicenna (Ibn Sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtiazy, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Khodadoost, Mahmood; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazem, Esmaiel

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have proven atherosclerosis is an inflammatory immune disease. The spleen plays an important immune role in the human body. Splenectomy is often used in several clinical disorders; but recent studies have shown that splenectomy may be effective in the development of atheroma lesions. Ibn Sina or Avicenna was known as one of the greatest philosopher and physician in Islam and in Medicine. He is remembered for his masterpiece, The "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" or "Qanun of medicine". According to the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb", spleen as storage organ plays an important role in absorption and secretion of the black bile in the human body. Therefore any disruption in the function of the spleen can lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Based on his description, it is clear that Ibn Sina first described the role of spleen in prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the Avicenna (Ibn Sina) aspect of atheroprotector role of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival of motor neurone protein is required for normal postnatal development of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alison K; Somers, Eilidh; Powis, Rachael A; Shorrock, Hannah K; Murphy, Kelley; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Parson, Simon H

    2017-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn -/- ;SMN2 tg/0 ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death. Spleen lacks its distinctive red appearance and presents with a degenerated capsule and a disorganised fibrotic architecture. Histologically distinct white pulp failed to form and this was reflected in an almost complete absence of B lymphocytes necessary for normal immune function. In addition, megakaryoctyes persisted in the red pulp. However, the vascular density remained unchanged in SMA spleen. Assessment of the spleen in SMA patients with the infantile form of the disease indicated a range of pathologies. We conclude that development of the spleen fails to occur normally in SMA mouse models and human patients. Thus, further analysis of immune function is likely to be required to fully understand the full extent of systemic disease pathology in SMA. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  18. Long-term bezafibrate treatment improves skin and spleen phenotypes of the mtDNA mutator mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloye M Dillon

    Full Text Available Pharmacological agents, such as bezafibrate, that activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and PPAR γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α pathways have been shown to improve mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutator mouse is a mouse model of aging that harbors a proofreading-deficient mtDNA polymerase γ. These mice develop many features of premature aging including hair loss, anemia, osteoporosis, sarcopenia and decreased lifespan. They also have increased mtDNA mutations and marked mitochondrial dysfunction. We found that mutator mice treated with bezafibrate for 8-months had delayed hair loss and improved skin and spleen aging-like phenotypes. Although we observed an increase in markers of fatty acid oxidation in these tissues, we did not detect a generalized increase in mitochondrial markers. On the other hand, there were no improvements in muscle function or lifespan of the mutator mouse, which we attributed to the rodent-specific hepatomegaly associated with fibrate treatment. These results showed that despite its secondary effects in rodent's liver, bezafibrate was able to improve some of the aging phenotypes in the mutator mouse. Because the associated hepatomegaly is not observed in primates, long-term bezafibrate treatment in humans could have beneficial effects on tissues undergoing chronic bioenergetic-related degeneration.

  19. Computer tomographic findings in portal hypertension due to cirrhosis of the liver. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, O.; Kunz, R.; Fischer, P.; Lackner, K.; Koischwitz, D.; Bonn Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The CT findings in 80 patients with confirmed portal hypertension due to intrahepatic block were analysed retrospectively. The findings included ascites, hypo-dense areas in the liver, nodular or irregular liver contour, the inability of define intrahepatic portal vessels with narrow window settings, the so-called ''kissing'' sign and evidence of hepato-fugal collaterals and thickning of the wall of the oesophagus. Electronic measurements of various organs (liver, spleen) and vessel diameters (portal vein, superior mesenteric vein) provide parameters which permit classification of patients into the cirrhotic group, as compared with a control group. The statistical significance of this classification was checked by the Kolmogoroff-Smirnoff test. (orig.)

  20. Gaucher disease in the liver on hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Teot, Lisa A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perez Rossello, Jeanette M. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Gaucher disease is a hereditary lipid storage disorder that affects the enzyme beta glucocerebrosidase, causing accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Accumulation can occur in the liver and spleen, manifesting as hepatosplenomegaly, as well as within the bone marrow. Hepatic involvement is usually diffuse but can occasionally manifest as focal liver lesions. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy with Gaucher disease and an infiltrating liver lesion detected on imaging, which was pathologically shown to be focal changes related to the disease. Imaging characteristics of this lesion using hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MRI, which have not been previously discussed in the literature, are described. (orig.)

  1. Gaucher disease in the liver on hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Teot, Lisa A.; Perez Rossello, Jeanette M.

    2017-01-01

    Gaucher disease is a hereditary lipid storage disorder that affects the enzyme beta glucocerebrosidase, causing accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Accumulation can occur in the liver and spleen, manifesting as hepatosplenomegaly, as well as within the bone marrow. Hepatic involvement is usually diffuse but can occasionally manifest as focal liver lesions. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy with Gaucher disease and an infiltrating liver lesion detected on imaging, which was pathologically shown to be focal changes related to the disease. Imaging characteristics of this lesion using hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MRI, which have not been previously discussed in the literature, are described. (orig.)

  2. PHARMACOKINETIC ANALYSIS AND CELLULAR-DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANTI-HIV COMPOUND SUCCINYLATED HUMAN SERUM-ALBUMIN (SUC-HSA) IN-VIVO AND IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; OLINGA, P; HARMS, G; MEIJER, DKF

    1993-01-01

    After intravenous injection of a low dose (25 mug/kg) in rats, the anti HIV-1 compound succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) is taken up mainly in the liver and spleen and is proteolytically degraded. Ten minutes after injection of I-125-Suc-HSA, 72 and 14% of the dose were found in the liver

  3. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  4. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings.

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Schille, Regine; Beer, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Schille, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Department, Leipzig (Germany); Beer, Joerg [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  7. Human heart cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII. Purification and determination of the complete amino acid sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Muijsers, A. O.; Demol, H.; Dekker, H. L.; van Beeumen, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Subunit VIII was purified from a preparation of the human heart cytochrome c oxidase and its complete amino acid sequence was determined. The sequence proved to be much more related to that of the bovine liver oxidase subunit VIII than to that found in bovine heart. Our finding of a 'liver-type'

  8. MR relaxometry in chronic liver diseases: Comparison of T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted imaging for assessing cirrhosis diagnosis and severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassinotto, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.cassinotto@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); INSERM U1053, Université Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Feldis, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.feldis@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Vergniol, Julien, E-mail: julien.vergniol@chu-bordeaux.fr [Centre D’investigation de la Fibrose Hépatique, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Mouries, Amaury, E-mail: amaury.mouries@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); Cochet, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.cochet@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire et Université de Bordeaux, 1 Avenue de Magellan, 33604 Pessac (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The use of MR to classify cirrhosis in different stages is a new interesting field. • We compared liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging. • MR relaxometry using liver T1 mapping is accurate for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. • Liver T1 mapping shows that values increase with the severity of cirrhosis. • Diffusion-weighted imaging is less accurate than T1 mapping while T2 mapping is not reliable. - Abstract: Background: MR relaxometry has been extensively studied in the field of cardiac diseases, but its contribution to liver imaging is unclear. We aimed to compare liver and spleen T1 mapping, T2 mapping, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for assessing the diagnosis and severity of cirrhosis. Methods: We prospectively included 129 patients with normal (n = 40) and cirrhotic livers (n = 89) from May to September 2014. Non-enhanced liver T1 mapping, splenic T2 mapping, and liver and splenic DWI were measured and compared for assessing cirrhosis severity using Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and presence or not of large esophageal varices (EVs) and liver stiffness measurements using Fibroscan{sup ®} as reference. Results: Liver T1 mapping was the only variable demonstrating significant differences between normal patients (500 ± 79 ms), Child-Pugh A patients (574 ± 84 ms) and Child-Pugh B/C patients (690 ± 147 ms; all p-values <0.00001). Liver T1 mapping had a significant correlation with Child-Pugh score (Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.46), MEDL score (0.30), and liver stiffness measurement (0.52). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of liver T1 mapping for the diagnosis of cirrhosis (O.85; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.77–0.91), Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis (0.87; 95%CI, 0.76–0.93), and large EVs (0.75; 95%CI, 0.63–0.83) were greater than that of spleen T2 mapping, liver and spleen DWI (all p-values < 0.01). Conclusion: Liver T1 mapping is a promising new diagnostic

  9. MR and magnetisation transfer imaging in cirrhotic and fatty livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, A.; Komu, M.; Leino, R.; Toikkanen, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether low-field MR fat/water separation and magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques are useful in studying the livers of patients with parenchymal liver diseases in vivo. Material and Methods: MR and MT imaging of the liver in 33 patients (14 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 with alcohol-induced liver disease, and 4 with fatty liver) was performed by means of the fat/water separation technique at 0.1 T. The relaxation time T1 and the MT contrast (MTC) parameter of liver and spleen tissue were measured, and the relative proton density fat content N(%) and MTC of the liver were calculated from the separate fat and water images. The value of N(%) was also compared with the percentage of fatty hepatocytes at histology. Results: The relaxation rate R1 of liver measured from the magnitude image, and the difference in the value of MTC measured form the water image compared with the one measured from the fat and water magnitude image, both depended linearly on the value of N(%). The value of N(%) correlated significantly with the percentage of the fatty hepatocytes. In in vivo fatty tissue, fat infiltration increased both the observed relaxation rate R1 and the measured magnetisation ratio (the steady state magnetisation M s divided by the equilibrium magnetisation M o , M s /M o ) and consequently decreased the MT efficiency measured in a magnitude MR image. The amount of liver fibrosis did not correlate with the value of MTC measured after fat separation. Conclusion: Our results in studying fatty livers with MR imaging and the MT method show that the fat/water separation gives more reliable parametric results. Characterisation of liver cirrhosis by means of the MTC parameter is not reliable, even after fat separation. (orig.)

  10. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) implants Kidney disease or dialysis (you may not be able to receive contrast) Recently placed artificial joints Certain types of vascular stents Worked with ...

  11. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Fatigue Heart attack Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... graph show each step of an electrical signal's journey through the heart. EKG The image shows the ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Customer Service/Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs ...

  13. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stories that unite us in a shared journey toward better heart health. Hear from our new ... and Usage No FEAR Act Grants and Funding Customer Service/Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs ...

  14. Liver transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100090.htm Liver transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver ...

  15. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  16. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds up ...

  17. About Heart Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Heart Attacks Updated:Jan 11,2018 A heart attack is ... coronary artery damage leads to a heart attack . Heart Attack Questions and Answers What is a heart attack? ...

  18. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Heart Failure Updated:May 8,2017 Left-sided heart failure ... This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  19. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  20. Effect of rapamycin on spleen size in longstanding renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, N C; Sampaio Gonçalves de Lucena, S B; da Silveira Rioja, S

    2014-06-01

    Based on evidence available in the literature, rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, but not calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), has been shown to decrease spleen size. Small spleen, in some instances, is associated with hyposplenism, a condition recently reported in patients with longstanding renal transplant. Accordingly, the effect of immunosuppressive drugs on spleen size was evaluated. Renal transplant recipients (35 taking mTOR and 68 CNI) were included, in whom a standardized investigation of the kidney allograft and spleen with the use of color Doppler ultrasound was performed and a peripheral smear were reviewed for the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs). We enrolled 103 patients (64 men; 66 from a deceased donor). The mean age was 47.7 years (range, 23.0-74.0 y). Mean transplant duration was 1,899 days (range, 181-6,883 d). According to the presence of HJBs, the prevalence of hyposplenism was 47.6% for the entire cohort. The differences between the mTOR and CNI groups regarding sex and the presence of HJBs were not statistically significant (P > .05). Age, creatinine, hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, and Doppler parameters in spleen and kidney were similar in both groups (P > .05). mTOR patients had a decreased spleen length size (90.09 ± 13.02 mm vs 111.95 ± 18.66 mm; P < .001), a longer transplant duration (3,576 ± 1,594 d vs 1,036 ± 1,369 d; P < .001) and higher serum cholesterol (227.50 ± 38.75 mg/dL vs 182.67 ± 37.74 mg/dL; P < .001) and triglycerides (194.23 ± 79.88 mg/dL vs 148.70 ± 55.54 mg/dL; P = .003) levels compared with the CNI group. A multivariate analysis showed mTOR inhibitor to be the most important predictor of spleen size. In both the mTOR and CNI groups, the comparison between the subgroups of present and absent HJBs did not show any difference. The findings of this study suggest that small spleens in transplant recipients may be linked to treatment with an mTOR inhibitor, although this apparently does

  1. Determination of T1- and T2-relaxation times in the spleen of patients with splenomegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Josephsen, P; Karle, H

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with known splenomegaly and seven healthy volunteers were examined. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were read out from a region of interest centrally in the spleen. Even though different mean T1 and T2 relaxation times were found between the groups, the great scatter and the c......Twenty-nine patients with known splenomegaly and seven healthy volunteers were examined. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were read out from a region of interest centrally in the spleen. Even though different mean T1 and T2 relaxation times were found between the groups, the great scatter...

  2. Reduced Noradrenergic Signaling in the Spleen Capsule in the Absence of CB1and CB2Cannabinoid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tyrell J; Fried, David; Parikh, Kevin; Galligan, James J; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2016-12-01

    The spleen is a visceral organ that contracts during hypoxia to expel erythrocytes and immune cells into the circulation. Spleen contraction is under the control of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation. The activity of noradrenergic neurons terminating in the spleen capsule is regulated by α2-adrenergic receptors (AR). Interactions between endogenous cannabinoid signaling and noradrenergic signaling in other organ systems suggest endocannabinoids might also regulate spleen contraction. Spleens from mice congenitally lacking both CB 1 and CB 2 cannabinoid receptors (Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mice) were used to explore the role of endocannabinoids in spleen contraction. Spleen contraction in response to exogenous norepinephrine (NE) was found to be significantly lower in Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mouse spleens, likely due to decreased expression of capsular α1AR. The majority of splenic Cnr1 mRNA expression is by cells of the spleen capsule, suggestive of post-synaptic CB 1 receptor signaling. Thus, these studies demonstrate a role for CB 1 and/or CB 2 in noradrenergic splenic contraction.

  3. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  4. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-06-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs.

  5. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had...... failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs....... hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction...

  6. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: a pathophysiological review of circulatory dysfunction in liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2002-01-01

    is an entity different from that seen in alcoholic heart muscle disease. Clinically, these patients present with sodium fluid retention and strain often unmasks the presence of latent heart failure. No specific treatment can yet be recommended but caution should be used with respect to procedures that may...... stress the heart such as shunt implantation and liver transplantation....

  7. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiko Setshedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  8. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  9. Has the liver and other visceral organs migrated to its normal position in children with giant omphalocele? A follow-up study with ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijck, Floortje Clemens; Klein, Willemijn M; Boetes, Carla; Aronson, Daniel C; Wijnen, Rene M H

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluates whether, on the long run, in patients born with a giant omphalocele, the liver and other solid organs reach their normal position, shape, and size. Seventeen former patients with a giant omphalocele, treated between 1970 and 2004, were included. Physical examination was supplemented with ultrasonography for ventral hernia and precise description of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. The findings were compared with 17 controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. We found an abnormal position of the liver, spleen, left kidney, and right kidney in eight, six, five, and four patients, respectively. An unprotected liver was present in all 17 patients and in 11 controls, the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.04). In ten of the 11 patients with an incisional hernia, the liver was located underneath the abdominal defect. In all former patients with a giant omphalocele, an abnormal position of the liver and in the majority of them, an incisional hernia was also found. The liver and sometimes also the spleen and the kidneys do not migrate to their normal position. Exact documentation and good information are important for both the patient and their caretakers in order to avoid liver trauma.

  10. Enhancement of liver regeneration and liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Liver regeneration allows surgical resection of up to 75% of the liver and enables curative treatment potential for patients with primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Liver surgery is associated with substantial risks, reflected by considerable morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of

  11. Determination of normal dimension of the spleen by ultrasound in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A prospective study of normal spleen ultrasound-based measurements in 200 Nigerian adults at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. Results: There were 91 males and 109 females; their age ranged between 20 and 60 years. For the males the mean age was 32.4 years (± 9.2 ...

  12. The involvement of the spleen during chronic phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection in galectin-3-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Camila; Oliveira, Felipe L; Takiya, Christina M; Palumbo, Antônio; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Borojevic, Radovan; Chammas, Roger; El-Cheikh, Márcia C

    2012-08-01

    Schistosoma mansoni synthesizes glycoconjugates which interact with galectin-3, eliciting an intense humoral immune response. Moreover, it was demonstrated that galectin-3 regulates B cell differentiation into plasma cells. Splenomegaly is a hallmark event characterized by polyclonal B cell activation and enhancement of antibody production. Here, we investigated whether galectin-3 interferes with spleen organization and B cell compartment during chronic schistosomiasis, using wild type (WT) and galectin-3-/- mice. In chronically-infected galectin-3-/- mice the histological architecture of the spleen, including white and red pulps, was disturbed with heterogeneous lymphoid follicles, an increased number of plasma cells (CD19-B220-/lowCD138+) and a reduced number of macrophages (CD19-B220-Mac-1+CD138-) and B lymphocytes (CD19+B220+/highCD138-), compared with the WT infected mice. In the absence of galectin-3 there was an increase of annexin-V+PI- cells and a major presence of apoptotic cells in spleen compared with WT infected mice. In spleen of WT infected mice galectin-3 was largely expressed in lymphoid follicles and extrafollicular sites. Thus, we propose that galectin-3 plays a role in splenic architecture, controlling distinct events such as apoptosis, macrophage activity, B cell differentiation and plasmacytogenesis in the course of S. mansoni infection.

  13. Amelioratory Effect of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin on Spleen during VRSA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antioxidant effects of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VRSA infection on select makers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status in spleen. Methods. A coagulase-positive VRSA strain was used for this study. VRSA infection was developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 5 × 106 CFU/mL bacterial solutions. VRSA-infected mice were treated with nanoconjugated vancomycin at its effective dose for 10 days. After decapitation, blood was used for determination of viable bacteria count and spleen was excised from control and experimental groups, homogenized and used for different biochemical estimations. Results. Nitrate level, myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidized glutathione, and DNA fragmentation level were increased significantly (P<0.05 in spleen of VRSA-infected group as compared to control group, and reduced glutathione level, activity of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST were decreased significantly (P<0.05; which were increased or decreased significantly (P<0.05 near to normal in nanoconjugated vancomycin-treated group. Conclusion. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VRSA-infection-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in spleen.

  14. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following prompt and aggressive surgical intervention, both mother and baby survived. S Afr J Obstet Gynaecol 2015;21(2):50-51. DOI:10.7196.SAJOG.858. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal surgical emergency in the second trimester: Report of a case. M Heetun, MRCS; R Parameswaran, ...

  15. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  16. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  17. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  18. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J.; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Robot-assisted pancreatectomies of the DutchMEN1 study

  20. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J.; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H J; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. Objective: To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Methods: Robot-assisted

  1. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van Dijkum, Els J. Nieveen; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. ObjectiveTo describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. MethodsRobot-assisted

  2. Solitary metastasis of ampullary carcinoma to the spleen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tri M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report a first case of ampullary cancer with solitary metastasis of the spleen, which was successfully treated with pancreatoduodenectomy and splenectomy and was discharged 7 days after the operation with outpatient chemotherapy. In such cases, physicians should consider splenectomy as an effective treatment option.

  3. Coexisting Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen with Multiple Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumors in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor or tumor-like lesions of the spleen are rare. Among them, vascular lesions are the most common. Vascular tumor of the spleen is different from the usual hemangioma of soft tissue because the vascular structure of the spleen is unique. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT is a recently described vascular lesion of the spleen. Grossly, it is a multinodular, well-circumscribed tumor containing a hypervascular core. Microscopically, it comprises three types of vessels, and each type recapitulates the immunohistochemical characteristics of the normal vascular elements of the splenic red pulp, i.e. capillaries, sinusoids, and small veins, respectively. Because of the rarity of this entity, its actual pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of SANT occurring in a 43-year-old woman, in whom there were also multiple calcifying fibrous pseudotumors (CFPTs in the abdominal cavity. Both SANT and CFPT are thought to be variants of inflammatory pseudotumor. Coexistence of these two rare entities in a patient has never been reported, and this fact suggests that there might be a common mechanism contributing to the formation of these two types of lesions. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:234-239

  4. Effect of orally administered zinc oxide nanoparticles on albino rat thymus and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Marwa A; Selim, Sally A; Selim, Assmaa O; El-Shal, Amal S; Gouda, Zienab A

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral intake of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the structure of thymus and spleen. Twenty-four young male Wistar albino rats were assigned into two groups: group I (control) and group II (ZnO NPs treated group).The thymus and spleen were analyzed biochemically, histopathologically and immunohistochemically. After ZnO NPs intake, hematologically, the total leucocytic count was significantly increased while the RBCs and platelets counts and Hb % were significantly decreased. Biochemically, a significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 4 and 10 (IL-4 and IL-10) levels was noted. While a significant increase in splenic and thymic malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA shearing, as well as the studied proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1β, tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α) and interferon (INF-γ) levels was detected. Notably, we noted upregulation of the immunomodulatory [CD3, CD11b, heme oxygenase (HO-1)] and the inflammatory [toll-like receptor 4 and 6 (TLR4 and TLR6)] genes. Histopathologically, degenerative changes were detected in thymus and spleen of ZnO NPs treated group. While the immunohistochemical analysis of the ZnO NPs treated group revealed a decrease in the number of cells expressed positive reactions of anti-PCNA and an increase in the number of cells expressed positive reaction of anti-p53 in the thymus and spleen. In conclusion, ZnO NPs induced obvious immunotoxicity in the thymus and spleen, where oxidative/inflammatory pathway may be the potential mechanism underlying this immunotoxicity. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(7):528-539, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  6. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  7. Validation of Transient Elastography and Comparison with Spleen Length Measurement for Staging of Fibrosis and Clinical Prognosis in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Ehlken

    Full Text Available Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC develop progressive liver fibrosis and end-stage liver disease. Non-invasive and widely available parameters are urgently needed to assess disease stage and the risk of clinical progression. Transient elastography (TE has been reported to predict fibrosis stage and disease progression. However, these results have not been confirmed in an independent cohort and comparison of TE measurement to other non-invasive means is missing.In a retrospective study we collected data from consecutive PSC patients receiving TE measurements from 2006 to 2014 (n = 139. Data from 62 patients who also underwent a liver biopsy were used to assess the performance of TE and spleen length (SL measurement for the staging of liver fibrosis. Follow-up data from this cohort (n = 130, Hamburg and another independent cohort (n = 80, Paris was used to compare TE and SL as predictors of clinical outcome applying Harrel's C calculations.TE measurement had a very good performance for the diagnosis and exclusion of higher fibrosis stages (≥F3: AUROC 0.95 and an excellent performance for the diagnosis and exclusion of cirrhosis (F4 vs. < F4: AUROC 0.98. Single-point TE measurement had very similar predictive power for patient outcome as previously published. In a combined cohort of PSC patients (n = 210, SL measurements had a similar performance as TE for the prediction of patient outcome (5 x cross-validated Harrel's C 0.76 and 0.72 for SL and TE, respectively.Baseline TE measurement has an excellent performance to diagnose higher fibrosis stages in PSC. Baseline measurements of SL and TE have similar usefulness as predictive markers for disease progression in patients with PSC.

  8. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  9. Pediatric Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Nidhi; Yazigi, Nada

    2017-06-01

    Excellent outcomes over the last 3 decades have made liver transplantation the treatment of choice for many advanced liver disorders. This success also opened liver transplantation to new indications such as liver tumors and metabolic disorders. The emergence of such new indications for liver transplantation is bringing a new stream of patients along with disease-specific challenges. The cumulative number of liver transplant recipients is peaking, requiring novel systems of health care delivery that meet the needs of this special patient population. This article reviews updates and new development in pediatric liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  11. Niemann-Pick type C2 protein supplementation in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Glavind, Emilie; Thomsen, Karen Louise

    2018-01-01

    the last two weeks or the entire four weeks. End-points were liver/body- and spleen/body weight ratios, histopathological NASH scores, fibrosis, serum liver enzymes, cholesterol, lipoproteins, cytokines, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction derived hepatic gene expression related to cholesterol...... metabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis. RESULTS: HFHC rats developed hepatomegaly, non-fibrotic NASH histopathology, elevated liver enzymes, serum cholesterol, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Their sterol regulatory element binding factor 2 (SREBF2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) mRNAs were...... down-regulated compared with rats on standard chow. NPC2 did not improve liver weight, histopathology, levels of serum liver enzymes or pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Interleukin (IL)-6, or IL-1β in HFHC rats. Two weeks of NPC2 treatment lowered hepatic TNFα and COL1A1 mRNA expression...

  12. Liver disease in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-07

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  13. Monocyte subset accumulation in the human heart following acute myocardial infarction and the role of the spleen as monocyte reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Anja M.; ter Horst, Ellis N.; Delewi, Ronak; Begieneman, Mark P. V.; Krijnen, Paul A. J.; Hirsch, Alexander; Lavaei, Mehrdad; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Horrevoets, Anton J.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes are critical mediators of healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), making them an interesting target to improve myocardial repair. The purpose of this study was a gain of insight into the source and recruitment of monocytes following AMI in humans. Post-mortem tissue specimens

  14. Effect of interferon therapy on radionuclide imaging in chronic liver diseases due to HCV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffar, Y.; Dorgham, L.; Lotfy, N. [Ain Shams Univ., Imbaba, Giza (Egypt)]|[Menofia Unif., Shebin El Kom (Egypt)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Interferon (alpha-IFN) exerts a modulating effect on the immune system. Kupffer cells of the liver play an important immunological role by their uptake of various agents and particles, including colloids. We sought to discover if alpha-IFN could enhance the colloid uptake function of the Kupffer cells. The effect of alpha-IFN therapy on radioisotope scans of the liver was studied in 20 patients with chronic liver disease due to hepatitic C virus (HCV) infection who received therapy at a dose of 3 million IU for 6 mo, in another patients who received the same therapy for 12 mo and in matched control groups (10 patients with HCV infection for each study group) who did not received alpha-IFN. A {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid scan of the liver was obtained for each group before and after therapy and, for control subjects, at the start and end of the study periods. The liver-to-spleen geometric mean ratio of colloid uptake was assessed. In the first study group, the mean rate of improvement in the liver-to-spleen ratio was 48% in 70% of the patients, compared to 8% in 20% of controls (p<0.05). In the second study group, mean liver-to-spleen ratio was 88% in 85% of patients, compared to 12% in 40% of controls (p<0.001). Alpha-IFN therapy appears to enhance the colloidal uptake function of Kupffer cells, which adds a new dimension to the immunomodulatory effect of interferon. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Clinical observation on the treatment of acute liver failure by combined non-biological artificial liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoqin; Sun, Jingxi; Li, Jiaqiong; Shi, Zaixiang; Xu, Jiyuan; Lu, Bo; Cheng, Shuli; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xianjiang

    2016-12-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of different combinations of non-bio artificial liver in the treatment of acute liver failure was examined. A total of 61 cases were selected under blood purification treatment from the patients with severe acute liver failure admitted to the severe disease department of the hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2015. Three types of artificial liver combinations were observed, i.e., plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion plus continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (PE+HP+CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF and HP+CVVHDF. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ), liver and kidney function indicator, as well as platelet and coagulation function were compared. A comparison before and after the treatment using the three methods, showed improvement in the HRs, MAPs, PaO 2 /FiO 2 , total bilirubins (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) (Prate of 62.3% (38/61), and a viral survival rate of 35.0% (7/20); with the non-viral survival rate being 75.6% (31/41). In conclusion, following the treatment of three types of artificial livers, the function was improved to varying degrees, with the PE+HP+CVVHDF and the PE+CVVHDF method being better. By contrast, after the treatment of non-viral liver failure, the survival rate was significantly higher than the patients with viral liver failure.

  16. Heart failure in children - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth ...

  17. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  18. Immune mediated liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capac...

  19. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure, tightness, pain, or a squeezing or aching sensation in your chest or arms that may spread to your neck, jaw or back Nausea, indigestion, heartburn or abdominal pain Shortness of breath Cold sweat Fatigue Lightheadedness or sudden dizziness Heart attack ...

  20. Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need to have a pacemaker. Rarely, the tricuspid valve can become damaged by the endomyocardial biopsy procedure; if that happens it will need to be repaired or replaced. Patients with congenital heart disease who have had a coarctation repair or problems ...

  1. The world's first human-to-human heart transplant at Groote Schuur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even today many countries do not accept brain death, preventing organ transplantation as a therapeutic option for end-stage heart failure. This tremendous publicity generated by the first heart transplant occurred despite kidney and liver transplantation having preceded heart transplantation by many years. These prior.

  2. The Kinetics of Urea in the Body after Liver Resection in the Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study urea kinetics in the body after liver resection in the experiment.Material and Methods. Experiments were carried out on 45 white female rats weighing between 180 g and 220 g. Liver resection (LR was performed under ester anesthesia, wherein 15—20% of the organ weight was removed. Urea content was studied in biological fluids (arterial blood, venous — v.porta, v.hepatica, v.renalis — blood, choledochal bile, urine, and tissues of visceral organs (the thyroid gland, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach, intestine on days 3, 7, and 14 after LR. Results. LR, while reducing the urea content in the v. hepatica blood, does not lead to similar changes in the arterial blood. This is accompanied by increased urea reabsorption in kidneys and higher v.porta blood urea content, which, depending on the postoperative time, results either from reduced urea excretion into the small intestine lumen or from its greater production by enterocytes followed by metabolite intake into the portal blood flow. The urea intake from hepatocytes into the hepatic bile ducts did not change on day 3 after LR; however, it increased on day 7 and slowed down on day 14. LR caused no changes in the gastric tissues urea content; never theless, it led to its increased content in the duodenal and colonic tissues. Without affecting the cardiac muscleurea content, LR entailed its increase in the lungs and thyroid gland on postoperative days 3, 7, and 14. At the background of absence of similar changes in the arterial blood data indicates promotion of urea production by the cells of these organs or metabolite retention therein.Conclusions. LR not only changes urea kinetics in the portal system organs, but also activates extrahepatic mechanisms aimed at preventing development of the arterial blood urea deficit because of its abnormal intake from the resected organ into the central blood flow.

  3. Amino ketone formation and aminopropanol-dehydrogenase activity in rat-liver preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. M.; Willetts, A. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. Rat tissue homogenates convert dl-1-aminopropan-2-ol into aminoacetone. Liver homogenates have relatively high aminopropanol-dehydrogenase activity compared with kidney, heart, spleen and muscle preparations. 2. Maximum activity of liver homogenates is exhibited at pH9·8. The Km for aminopropanol is approx. 15mm, calculated for a single enantiomorph, and the maximum activity is approx. 9mμmoles of aminoacetone formed/mg. wet wt. of liver/hr.at 37°. Aminoacetone is also formed from l-threonine, but less rapidly. An unidentified amino ketone is formed from dl-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyrate, the Km for which is approx. 200mm at pH9·8. 3. Aminopropanol-dehydrogenase activity in homogenates is inhibited non-competitively by dl-3-hydroxybutyrate, the Ki being approx. 200mm. EDTA and other chelating agents are weakly inhibitory, and whereas potassium chloride activates slightly at low concentrations, inhibition occurs at 50–100mm. 4. It is concluded that aminopropanol-dehydrogenase is located in mitochondria, and in contrast with l-threonine dehydrogenase can be readily solubilized from mitochondrial preparations by ultrasonic treatment. 5. Soluble extracts of disintegrated mitochondria exhibit maximum aminopropanol-dehydrogenase activity at pH9·1 At this pH, Km values for the amino alcohol and NAD+ are approx. 200 and 1·3mm respectively. Under optimum conditions the maximum velocity is approx. 70mμmoles of aminoacetone formed/mg. of protein/hr. at 37°. Chelating agents and thiol reagents appear to have little effect on enzyme activity, but potassium chloride inhibits at all concentrations tested up to 80mm. dl-3-Hydroxybutyrate is only slightly inhibitory. 6. Dehydrogenase activities for l-threonine and dl-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyrate appear to be distinct from that for aminopropanol. 7. Intraperitoneal injection of aminopropanol into rats leads to excretion of aminoacetone in the urine. Aminoacetone excretion proportional to the amount of the amino alcohol

  4. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) and Allison ...

  5. Scannographic appearance of increased colloid uptake in the left liver lobe (Case presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadzher, Isak S.; Josifovska, Tatjana; Popgjorcheva, Daniela

    1996-01-01

    Incidentally increased uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid was found in scannographic images in the whole left liver lobe in all positions (PA, AP, DL, LL). The patient, a 60-year-old woman, was three years earlier cholocystecomized and had since occasional pain in the right upper abdominal quadrant due to biliary dyskinesia. Accessory spleen tissue was seen as well in the inferior lineal pole, probably presenting Shurer's phenomenon of 'lienis in liene' thus augmenting the serendipity of the scanographic findings. Imaging of the accessory spleen with heat denaturated spherocytes - Tc-99m confirmed the lienal structure of the tissue with preserved red pulp trabecular trapping mechanism in addition to phagocytic function of lineal Kupffer cells (in white pulp). Mebrofenin-Tc-99m (IDA-agent) showed in our patient normal distribution in both liver lobes contrary to focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma of the liver where IDA-radio- pharmaceuticals have delayed clearance due to abnormal biliary canaliculi. In our patient uptake, distribution, excretion and liver washout of mebrofenin-Tc-99m was found to be normal. This is in favor of an exclusive, solitary increase of the number of Kupffer cells confined to the whole left lobe of the liver. Increased colloid uptake in the left liver lobe is dependent on a greater number of Kupffer cells pro volume than in the right lobe. (Author)

  6. Factors associated with contralateral liver hypertrophy after unilateral radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Juliane; Sulke, Maximilian; Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Goebel, Thomas; Dechêne, Alexander; Bellendorf, Alexander; Mueller, Stefan; Umutlu, Lale; Theysohn, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Radioembolization for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induces liver volume changes referred to as "atrophy-hypertrophy complex". The aim of this study was to investigate lobar liver volume changes after unilateral radioembolization and to search for factors associated with hypertrophy of the untreated lobe. Seventy-five patients were retrospectively evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: (1) right-lobar radioembolization for unresectable unilateral HCC, (2) available liver computed tomography scans before, 1, 3, and at least 6 months after radioembolization. Baseline patient characteristics included clinical features, laboratory results, spleen volume, and liver computed tomography. Absolute and relative (referred to the whole liver volume) liver lobe volumes (LLV) as well as relative LLV (rLLV) change per month were evaluated and compared. Absolute and relative contralateral LLV continuously increased after radioembolization (phypertrophy and ipsilateral atrophy were common after unilateral radioembolization. Small spleen volume, low patient age, low Child Pugh score, absence of ascites, platelet count ≥100/nl, and low tumor burden were associated with increased contralateral hypertrophy, indicating that younger patients with compensated cirrhosis might benefit most from radioembolization in a "bridge-to-resection" setting.

  7. Efficacy of Qianggan capsule in treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the clinical effects of Qianggan capsule and silibinin capsule in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia. Methods: A total of 112 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were included in the study and divided into the control group (n=50 and the observation group (n=62. The patients in the control group were given silibinin capsule, while the patients in the observation group were given Qianggan capsule. The patients in the two groups were treated for 24 weeks. The liver/ spleen CT was performed before and after treatment. BMI was measured. The liver function, serum lipid, and leptin were detected. Results: TG, LDL-C, BMI, and liver/spleen CT ratio in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with the control group. The levels of HDL-C and adiponectin in the observation group were significantly elevated when compared with the control group. The differences of ALT, GGT, and AST after treatment between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Qianggan capsule and silibinin capsule has an accurate efficacy and high safety in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease complicated with hyperlipidemia.

  8. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huaxian; Wang Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by ∼ 1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and ∼ 1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was ∼ 1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was ∼ 1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of mutagenic oxidative

  9. Liver Transplants for Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Fingerote

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol related end-stage liver disease is a principal cause of liver failure. The scarcity of donor livers and the predominance of alcohol related end-stage liver disease has raised the issue of including alcoholics as candidates for liver transplantation. In rationalizing the arguments for and against the treatment of alcoholic end-stage liver disease with transplantation, factors such as recidivism, resource allocation and principles of medical practice must be considered. Public confidence in organ transplantation depends on the scientific validity and moral integrity of the policies adopted. Sound policies will prove defensible while policies based on perceptions or prejudices will, in the long run, harm the process.

  10. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  11. What Is Heart Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which could relieve angina. Heart Valve Repair or Replacement For the heart to work well, blood must ... have blood flowing through it. Heart-Lung Bypass Machine The image shows how a heart-lung bypass ...

  12. Getting a New Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a procedure that opens clogged arteries. Repair the heart valve . This procedure can often make your heart function ... heart muscle. Ventricular assist devices (VAD) . These are mechanical pumps that surgeons insert to help the heart ...

  13. Pediatric heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... Ginther RM, Forbess JM. Pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass. In: ... Care . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 37. LeRoy S, ...

  14. Coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... more calcium, the higher your chance for CHD. Exercise stress test . Heart CT scan . Nuclear stress test .

  15. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging in the Definition of the Stage of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Konstantinov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop a method for noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis (LF in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC based on ultrasound imaging (UI of the abdominal cavity. We examined 124 patients with CHC. The diagnosis was verified on the basis of clinical and epidemiological, serological and molecular biological data. Direct ultrasonic parameters of the structure and hemodynamics of liver and spleen were supplemented with estimated indicators: square of the expected cross-section of the lobes of the liver and spleen, as well as their ratio. On the basis of the discriminant analysis of the survey data of 82 patients, we developed an analytical model (with predictive value of 95.2% for interval estimation of the fibrosis degree in CHC patients. We have concluded that UI performed on modern equipment, including Doppler, is able to determine the degree of LF without resorting to histological verification.

  16. Spleen irradiation and splenectomy for treatment of hypersplenism in chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphatic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolzenbach, G.; Franke, H.D.; Montz, R.; Schulze, P.J.; Hamburg Univ.; Hamburg Univ.

    1979-01-01

    Hypersplenism is characterized by cytopenia, splenomegaly (possibly hyperplastic bone-marrow), and lienal hypersequestration. It is necessary, in view of the rather important surgical risks of splenectomy, to clarify if the hypersplenism may be influenced by splenic irradiation in case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL). References in literature are rare and do not present a reliable differentiation of the syndrome, according to its present definition. Of our patients, three cases with hypersplenism verified by radioiron studies are reported: in one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia, irradiation of the spleen had no effect, whereas pancytopenia was completely repaired by means of splenectomy. The same result were seen in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia. In the last patient, however, who had chronic lymphatic leukemia, fractionated irradiation of the spleen led to a distinct improvement of anemia and thrombopenia, but the recovery lasted only six months. This effect is due to transient normalization of the lienal hypersequestration. (orig.) [de

  17. Splenic Pathology in Traumatic Rupture of the Spleen: A Five Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Hunaina; Devi, Leena; George, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To Study the histopathology of spleens with a history of traumatic rupture with a view to establish possible predisposing factors to the rupture Methods This study examined the gross and microscopic features of consecutive cases of splenectomies done for traumatic rupture during a five year period in order to evaluate the presence or absence of any pathology prior to rupture. Results Of the 17 cases of splenectomy during this period, 14 were normal and 3 cases showed pathology other than rupture. Conclusion In the five year period of studying splenic pathology in traumatic rupture, 82% of the spleens showed normal histology except for the rupture. 18% of the cases showed different pathological findings on histopathology which could have contributed to the rupture. PMID:22334849

  18. Abdominal pregnancy with placenta inserted in the spleen left in situ causing subphrenic abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pregnancy appears once in 3000 pregnancies. It usually terminates with abortion and urgent surgery. Thanks to ultrasonography and computed tomography the diagnosis is possible before surgery. Most frequently the diagnosis has been established during emergency laparotomy. Gynaecologists are not in agreement wheather removal of placenta is mandatory or not, as it may include removal of parts or entire organs or may be followed with serious bleeding difficult to control. We present a 21-year old woman in whom during an urgent laparotomy performed for abdominal pregnancy placenta inserted in the spleen was left in situ. Postoperatively the patient developed subphrenic abscess which could not be solved without reoperation during which both the placenta and the spleen were removed. Ten years after surgery she is symptom-free.

  19. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  20. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2017-05-16

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.