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Sample records for spleen cells showing

  1. Value of selective spleen scintigraphy when liver/spleen image shows equivocal spleen defects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Corley, J.H.; Kyle, R.W.; Stotler, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine the utility of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS) in the evaluation of equivocal defects on liver/splen (LS) image. Six of seven questionable features on LS image were classified on SSS to be definite defects in three, and normal in three. Three of seven patients had defects on SSS that were not seen on LS image. The inability of the LS image to exclude or delineate an abnormality in the spleen was attributed to an overlying left lobe of the liver in five, and to technique in one. The SSS is a valuable diagnostic tool in the further evaluation of equivocal spleen defects on LS image, and SSS may demonstrate abnormalities not demonstrated on LS image

  2. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Careful examination of the left upper quadrant of the pediatric patient will usually disclose the presence or absence of an enlarged spleen. Although the spleen has a wide variation in weight and mobility, the normal spleen rarely extends below the left costal margin. While the presence of a palpable spleen is usually of pathological significance, the wide variation in splenic weight and position may make the detection of splenomegaly difficult on routine physical examination. When present, it may be difficult to differentiate the enlarged spleen from other palpable masses in the left upper quadrant. For these reasons, radionuclide imaging of the spleen has become a simple and valuable method for precisely locating and establishing the accurate size of functioning splenic tissue. The size and weight of the spleen can be approximated by direct measurement from the scan; normal values have been established based on the splenic length and the age and weight of the child. The diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide s []anning of the spleen in lymphoma, leukemia, other malignancies, anemia and other blood dyscrasias, infectious diseases, granuloma, and cysts is discussed. (CH)

  3. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on cell death in frog spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.Yu.; Vojtovich, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the number of dead cells in frog spleen by means of coloration with trypan blue which allowed to estimate last stage of apoptosis dead of cells.The investigated frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in september 1997 at radionuclide contamination territory (the Gomel Region, the Khojniki District). Control animals were caught in village Ratamka of the Minsk District. The percent of dead cells was less in control group in 1,5 times. Under additional irradiation (2 Gy) the number of dead cells in spleen also differs significantly in the investigated and control groups

  5. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

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    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  6. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of Red Cells in Spleen: How Does Vesiculation Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Salehyar, Sara; Cabrales, Pedro; Asaro, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Vesiculation of red blood cells as a result of local separation between lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton is known to happen in vivo, most likely inside spleen where they sustain large mechanical loads during the passage through venus slits. There is, however, little knowledge about the detailed scenario and condition. We address this question via a fluid-cell interaction model by coupling a multiscale model of the cell membrane (including molecular details) with a fluid dynamics model based on boundary-integral equations. A numerical flow channel is created where the cell is driven through a narrow slit by pressure (imitating the transit through venus slits in spleen). The concentration is the occurrence of large dissociation (negative) pressure between the skeleton/membrane connection that promotes separation, a precursor of vesicle formation. Critical levels for the negative pressure are estimated using published data. By following the maximum range of pressure, we conclude that for vesiculation to happen there must be biochemical influences (e.g. binding of degraded haemoglobin) that significantly reduce effective attachment density. This is consistent with reported trends in vesiculation that are believed to occur in cases of various hereditary anemias and during blood storage. Our findings also suggest the criticality of understanding the biochemical phenomena involved with cytoskeleton/membrane attachment.

  8. Transcription from a spleen necrosis virus 5' long terminal repeat is suppressed in mouse cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Embretson, J E; Temin, H M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the block(s) to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) replication in mouse cells, we studied the expression of a dominant selectable marker, neo, or a gene whose product is easily assayed, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene, in SNV-derived and murine leukemia virus-derived vectors. Using transient (CAT) and stable (Neor phenotype) transfection assays, we showed that the SNV promoter was used in mouse cells only when the 3' SNV long terminal repeat (LTR) was absent. Infection ...

  9. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  10. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  11. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  12. Active suppression of in vitro reactivity of spleen cells after BCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach-Arbouys, S.; Poupon, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)

  13. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  14. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is ∼ 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing ∼ 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 μM, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of ∼ 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH 2 groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with [γ- 32 P]ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole 33 P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed

  15. The spleen is the site where mast cells are induced in the development of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Shota; Wakamatsu, Ei; Ishida, Yasuo; Obata, Yuuki; Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Abe, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that splenic immune responses play pivotal roles in the development of allergic diseases; however, the precise role of the spleen remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated a novel role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of food allergy (FA). We found that mast cells (MCs) developed from progenitor cells present in spleen during an antigen-specific T-cell response in vitro. In a Th2 response-mediated FA model, significant expansion of MCs was also observed in spleen. The incidence of allergic diarrhea was profoundly reduced in splenectomized mice, whereas adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced splenic MCs into these mice restored allergic symptoms, suggesting that the splenic MCs functioned as the pathogenic cells in the development of FA. The in vitro-generated MCs required not only IL-3 but also IFN-γ, and treatment of FA-induced mice with anti-IFN-γ antibody suppressed expansion of MCs in spleen as well as diarrhea development, highlighting that IFN-γ in the spleen orchestrated the development of FA, which was followed by a Th2 response in the local lesion. Overall, we propose that the role of the spleen in the development of FA is to provide a unique site where antigen-specific T cells induce development of pathogenic MCs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of several salt marsh plants on mouse spleen and thymus cell proliferation using mtt assay

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    Seo, Youngwan; Lee, Hee-Jung; Kim, You Ah; Youn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Burm-Jong

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, we have tested the effects of 21 salt marsh plants on cell proliferation of mouse immune cells (spleen and thymus) using MTT assay in culture. The methanolic extracts of six salt marsh plants ( Rosa rugosa, Ixeris tamagawaensis, Artemisia capillaris, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Erigeron annus, and Glehnia littoralis) showed very powerful suppressive effects of mouse immune cell death and significant activities of cell proliferation in vitro. Especially, the methanolic extract of Rosa rugosa was found to have fifteen times compared to the control treatment, demonstrating that Rosa rugosa may have a potent stimulation effect on immune cell proliferation. These results suggest that several salt marsh plants including Rosa rugosa could be useful for further study as an immunomodulating agent.

  17. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Dey, Manali; Bhattacharya, Shaswati; Sarkar, Samrat; Goswami, Suranjana; Ghosh, Nabanita; Dutta, Anuradha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for human physiological processes. To evaluate the potential adverse health impact/immunotoxicological effects of this metal in situ due to over exposure, Swiss albino mice were treated (via intraperitoneal injections) with copper (II) chloride (copper chloride) at doses of 0, 5, or 7.5 mg copper chloride/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week for 4 wk; these values were derived from LD 50 studies using copper chloride doses that ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg BW (2×/wk, for 4 wk). Copper treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related decreases and increases, respectively, in thymic and splenic weights. Histomorphological changes evidenced in these organs were thymic atrophy, white pulp shrinkage in the spleen, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes; these observations were confirmed by microscopic analyses. Cell count analyses indicated that the proliferative functions of the splenocytes and thymocytes were also altered because of the copper exposures. Among both cell types from the copper treated hosts, flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose related increase in the percentages of cells in the Sub-G 0 /G 1 state, indicative of apoptosis which was further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of selected cell death related genes such as EndoG and Bax in a dose related manner. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there was also increased ubiquitin expression in both the cell types. In conclusion, these studies show that sublethal exposure to copper (as copper chloride) induces toxicity in the thymus and spleen, and increased Sub G 0 /G 1 population among splenocytes and thymocytes that is mediated, in part, by the EndoG–Bax–ubiquitin pathway. This latter damage to these cells that reside in critical immune system organs are likely to be important contributing factors underlying the immunosuppression that has been documented by other

  18. Disorder of G2-M Checkpoint Control in Aniline-Induced Cell Proliferation in Rat Spleen.

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    Jianling Wang

    Full Text Available Aniline, a toxic aromatic amine, is known to cause hemopoietic toxicity both in humans and animals. Aniline exposure also leads to toxic response in spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and the eventual formation of tumors on chronic in vivo exposure. Previously, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation, which could eventually contribute to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. Despite our demonstration that cell proliferation was associated with deregulation of G1 phase cyclins and increased expression of G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, molecular mechanisms, especially the regulation of G2 phase and contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in aniline-induced splenic cellular proliferation remain largely unclear. This study therefore, mainly focused on the regulation of G2 phase in an animal model preceding a tumorigenic response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day in drinking water or drinking water only (controls for 30 days, and expression of G2 phase cyclins, CDK1, CDK inhibitors and miRNAs were measured in the spleen. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins A, B and CDK1, particularly phosphor-CDK1, and decreases in CDK inhibitors p21 and p27, which could promote the splenocytes to go through G2/M transition. Our data also showed upregulation of tumor markers Trx-1 and Ref-1 in rats treated with aniline. More importantly, we observed lower expression of miRNAs including Let-7a, miR-15b, miR24, miR-100 and miR-125, and greater expression of CDK inhibitor regulatory miRNAs such as miR-181a, miR-221 and miR-222 in the spleens of aniline-treated animals. Our findings suggest that significant increases in the expression of cyclins, CDK1 and aberrant regulation of miRNAs could lead to an accelerated G2/M transition of the splenocytes, and

  19. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  20. Differential antibody production by adherent and nonadherent spleen cells transferred to irradiated and cyclophosphamide-treated recipient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, J.F.; Deitchman, J.W.; Hassell, S.A.; Ozato, K.

    1975-01-01

    Mouse spleen cells were separated into adherent (Ad) and nonadherent (Nad) populations by incubation in plastic petri dishes. Adherent, Nad and unfractionated cell preparations (UCP) were transferred into syngeneic recipient mice that had been either irradiated or cyclophosphamide (CY) treated and the adoptive humoral Ab responses were studied by assessment of hemolytic Ab-forming cells (PFC) or humoral serum Ab production. Adherent cells failed to produce PFC in irradiated recipients, but functioned vigorously in CY-treated recipients. Nonadherent cells generated PFC in either type of host, as did UCP. Studies of comparative responses in CY-treated recipients revealed that: (a) Ad-cells generated 2 / 3 the number of PFC given by equivalent numbers of transferred Nad cells and UCP; (b) per equivalent numbers of transferred cells the Ad fraction generated 5 times more and 16 times more Ab than did the Nad cells and UCP, respectively. Spleen cells taken from mice 6 hr after CY treatment failed to respond to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, showing that all cells were temporarily incapable of proliferation. Transfer of spleen cells from donor mice 16 hr after CY treatment, into thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted recipients revealed substantial T-helper cell activity. We conclude that: (a) Ad preparations lacked T cells that were supplied by CY-treated recipients although T cell proliferation was temporarily inhibited in the latter; (b) B cells present in the Ad fraction were removed from some type of inhibitor of Ab synthesis and/or secretion, the production of which may be associated with T cells present in Nad preparations and UCP; (c) T-helper cells were only transiently affected by CY

  1. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  2. Kinetics of rebounding of lymphoid and myeloid cells in mouse peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow after treatment with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Mohamed L.; Al-Khami, Amir A.; El-Nagaar, Sabry A.; Zidan, Abdel-Aziz A.; Al-Sharkawi, Ismail M.; Díaz-Montero, C. Marcela; Cole, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we showed that post cyclophosphamide (CTX) microenvironment benefits the function of transferred T cells. Analysis of the kinetics of cellular recovery after CTX treatment showed that a single 4 mg/mouse CTX treatment decreased the absolute number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood (PBL) at days 3-15, and in the spleen and bone marrow (BM) at days 3-6. The absolute numbers of CD11c+CD11b− and CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs), CD11b+ and Ly6G+ myeloid cells, T and B cells, CD4+C...

  3. Splenectomy associated changes in IgM memory B cells in an adult spleen registry cohort.

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    Paul U Cameron

    Full Text Available Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591. A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140 were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45. Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB, occurred early (median 25 days and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population.

  4. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

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    Cameron, Paul U.; Jones, Penelope; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Dunster, Kate; Paul, Eldho; Lewin, Sharon; Woolley, Ian; Spelman, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (psplenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population. PMID:21829713

  5. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: Cytological findings and review of the literature

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    Mohammad H Anbardar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Littoral cell angioma (LCA is a unique lesion of the spleen that arises from the cells lining the venous sinuses of the splenic red pulp and shows the features of combined endothelial and histiocytic differentiation. Several cases of LCA have been reported in the literature; however, the cytological findings have been described for only a few cases. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy with anemia, epigastric abdominal pain, and splenomegaly. The splenic lesions showed anastomosing vascular channels with cyst-like spaces filled by many sloughed endothelial cells, which were positive for CD68 and CD31 and negative for CD34. Scraping cytology revealed isolated and clusters of three-dimensional bland looking, epithelioid foamy tumoral cells with low nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, which mostly contained intracytoplasmic hemosiderin pigment. Although the fine needle aspiration cytology of splenic lesions is uncommon and LCA is a rare splenic lesion, it must be noted in the differential diagnosis of any splenic vascular neoplasm.

  6. Murine neonatal spleen contains natural T and non-T suppressor cells capable of inhibiting adult alloreactive and newborn autoreactive T-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D C; Hoskin, D W; Gronvik, K O; Murgita, R A

    1986-05-01

    The spleen of neonatal mice is known to be a rich source of cells capable of suppressing a variety of immune functions of adult lymphocytes in vitro. From such observations has emerged the concept that the gradual development in ability to express immune functions after birth is due in part to the parallel normal physiological decay of naturally occurring regulatory suppressor cells. There is, however, some confusion in the literature as to the exact nature of the newborn of the newborn inhibitory cell type(s). In contrast to most previous reports which detect only a single type of neonatal suppressor cell, usually a T cell, we show here that newborn spleen harbors both T and non-T inhibitory cells. Both types of suppressor cells could be shown to suppress the proliferative response of adult spleen to alloantigens as well as newborn T cells reacting against self-Ia antigen in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). Newborn suppressor T cells were characterized as being non-adherent to Ig-anti-Ig affinity columns, soybean agglutinin receptor negative (SBA-), and susceptible to lysis by anti-T-cell specific antiserum plus complement. Non-T suppressor cells were identified as non-phagocytic, SBA receptor positive (SBA+), and resistant to cytotoxic treatment with anti-T-cell antibodies and complement. The apparent controversy surrounding previous reports as to the T versus non-T nature of newborn suppressor cells can be reconciled by the present observation that both types of inhibitory cells coexist in the spleen. Furthermore, the demonstration that newborn suppressor cells can effectively regulate T-cell proliferative activity mediated by other newborn cells provides more direct support for the contention that such inhibitory cells play a physiological role in controlling immune responsiveness during early ontogeny.

  7. Study of the kinetics and morphology of immune reaction spleen cells by immunocytoadherence method. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, J.

    1976-01-01

    The course of immunocytoadherence was followed in the mouse spleen during primary immune response to intraperitoneal administration of sheep erythrocytes at 24 hours, 72 hours and 6 days following whole-body irradiation with a dose of 450 R after antigen administration. The number of RFC becomes reduced immediately after irradiation. The reduction thereof always correlates with a relative increase of macrophages. Small and medium-sized lymphocytes rapidly disappear from the population of rosette-forming cells. If the irradiation had been carried out before the radiation-uninfluenced reaction reached its maximum, the large lymphocytes relatively increase in number. In other cases their immunocytoadherent activity also shows a steadily decreasing tendency. During the primary reaction, irradiation always increases the total relative plasma cell count as related to the other RFC. In such cases the proportion of mature forms is larger than of blastic forms. The values observed at the end of the studied postirradiation period in the course of the primary reaction are always characterized by a higher proportion of the plasma cell line after about 20 to 25 days. (author)

  8. Human heart, spleen, and perirenal fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogduijn, M J; Crop, M J; Peeters, A M A; Van Osch, G J V M; Balk, A H M M; Ijzermans, J N M; Weimar, W; Baan, C C

    2007-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have important tissue repair functions and show potent immunosuppressive capacities in vitro. Although usually isolated from the bone marrow, MSCs have been identified in other tissues, including the skin and liver. In the present study, we isolated and characterized MSCs from human heart, spleen, and perirenal adipose tissue. MSCs from these different tissue sites were similar to those derived from bone marrow in that they expressed comparable levels of the cell-surface markers CD90, CD105, CD166, and HLA class I, were negative for CD34, CD45, HLA class II, CD80, and CD86 expression, and were capable of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Like bone marrow-derived MSCs, MSCs from these different tissue sources inhibited the proliferation of alloactivated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), giving 85%, 79%, 79%, and 81% inhibition, respectively. Also in line with bone marrow-derived MSCs they inhibited proliferative responses of PBMCs to phytohemagglutinin, a nonspecific stimulator of lymphocyte proliferation, and reduced-memory T lymphocyte responses to tetanus toxoid. The results of this study demonstrate that MSCs from various tissues have similar immunophenotypes, in vitro immunosuppressive properties, and differentiation potential.

  9. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  10. Comparison of CTL reactivity in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after immunization with peptides pulsed on dendritic cells or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Buus, Søren

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare CTL reactivity in the spleen and the draining lymph nodes (LN) from C57BL/6 mice after immunization with self and non-self peptides pulsed on autologous dendritic cells (DC) or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). METHODS: Peptides showing high to low binding...... in the draining LN, whereas non-self peptides mixed with FIA generated the strongest response in the spleen. CONCLUSIONS: DC-based immunization with non-self and self peptides is more efficient than immunization based on peptides mixed with FIA. DC-based immunization focuses the CTL response towards the spleen....... Immunization based on FIA focuses the response against self peptides towards the draining LN and non-self peptides towards the spleen....

  11. Simultaneous increases in immune-competent cells and nitric oxide in the spleen during Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrevanian, Hossein; Dascombe, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    Nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) are thought to be important mediators of both immunological and pathological responses of the vertebrate host to malaria infection. The role of RNI has been studied most often by assay of stable RNI metabolites (nitrites, nitrates) in blood. This study evaluated the nature of the RNI response of mice to malaria by analyzing the subsets of immune-competent cells within the organ displaying increased RNI in vivo. We measured RNI production indirectly, as stable metabolites of nitric oxide activity in tissue homogenates (brain, liver, spleen) from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Only spleen exhibited an RNI concentration response during rising parasitemia. Subsets of immune-competent cells (B cells, CD19+), macrophages/monocytes (MOMA2+) and T cells (CD4+, CD8+) in the spleen were assayed by fluorescence activated cell scan flow cytometry. The spleen was confirmed as a major source of RNI during mid-phase P. berghei infection. Significant increases in CD19+ and MOMA2+ spleen cells were evident during the mid-phase of P. berghei infection in MF1 mice when RNI are maximally elevated. The time courses of the cellular and RNI responses indicate that CD19+ and MOMA2+ cells may be responsible for the increase in RNI in the spleen. However, experiments in vitro are needed to make a definitive identification of the cell type(s) responsible for the increase in RNI in the mouse spleen during P. berghei infection.

  12. A spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor attenuates the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang‑Hee Seo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and migration after vascular injury promotes the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, an effective chemical agent to suppress aberrant proliferation and migration of VSMCs can be a potential therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. To find an anti-proliferative chemical agent for VSMCs, we screened an in-house small molecule library, and the selected small molecule was further validated for its anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as cell proliferation assays, wound healing assays, transwell migration assays, and ex vivo aortic ring assay. Results Among 43 initially screened small molecule inhibitors of kinases that have no known anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs, a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor (BAY61-3606 showed significant anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs. Further experiments indicated that BAY61 attenuated the VSMC proliferation in both concentration- and time-dependent manner, and it also significantly suppressed the migration of VSMCs as assessed by both wound healing assays and transwell assays. Additionally, BAY61 suppressed the sprouting of VSMCs from endothelium-removed aortic rings. Conclusion The present study identified a Syk kinase inhibitor as a potent VSMC proliferation and migration inhibitor and warrants further studies to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms, such as its primary target, and to validate its in vivo efficacy as a therapeutic agent for restenosis and atherosclerosis.

  13. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: CT and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Uder, M.; Altmeyer, K.; Gruber, M.; Kramann, B. [Univ. Hospital Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Bonkhoff, H. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Saarland University, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of littoral cell angioma (LCA) of the spleen, a recently described splenic pathology, which imaging characteristics and pathologic morphology have been discussed only by a few authors. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and CT as well as histologic specimen are presented. Diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. Differential diagnosis of splenic tumors as well as the imaging findings in this particular case are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Dexamethasone Regulates Macrophage and Cd4+Cd25+ Cell Numbers in the Chicken Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Calefi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dexamethasone (DEX is a corticoid hormone that is experimentally used to mimic the effects of increased levels of endogenous corticosterone observed during the stress response. Currently, stress is considered one of the major predisposing factors for diseases in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of DEX and/or of a 20-fold coccidial vaccine dose on leukocyte phenotypes in the spleen and cecal tonsils of chickens. Twenty specific-pathogen-free (SPF Leghorn chickens were divided into four groups: a non-treated group (NT, a DEX-treated group (Dex, a vaccinated group (V and a DEX-treated+vaccinated group (Dex+V. On experimental day (ED 42, each bird in the vaccinated groups received a anti-coccidial vaccine. DEX was injected in the birds of the Dex and Dex+V groups (0.9 mg/kg onED42 and ED45. The immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry analysis of splenocytes and cecal tonsils cells onED48. DEX treatment per se was unable to change CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8+ and CD4-CD8+ populations with TCRgd or CD28 in the spleen, or macrophages and T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils. V group birds presented higher numbers of splenic macrophages compared with those measured in the Dex+V group. The number of CD4+CD25+ cells in the spleen of birds of the V group was higher than those measured in the other experimental groups. Our data suggest that CD4+CD25+ cells and macrophages might be influenced by DEX treatment in spleen, but not in the cecal tonsils of chickens inoculated with Eimeria.

  15. The effect of iron-deficiency anemia on cytolytic activity of mice spleen and peritoneal cells against allogenic tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvibidila, S.R.; Baliga, B.S.; Suskind, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    The capacity of spleen and peritoneal cells from iron deficient mice, ad libitum fed control mice, and pair-fed mice to kill allogenic tumor cells (mastocytoma tumor P815) has been investigated. In the first study, mice were sensitized in vivo with 10(7) viable tumor cells 51 and 56 days after weaning. The capacity of splenic cells and peritoneal cells from sensitized and nonsensitized mice to kill tumor cells was evaluated 5 days after the second dose of tumor cells. At ratios of 2.5:1 to 100:1 of attacker to target cells, the percentage /sup 51/Cr release after 4 h of incubation was significantly less in iron-deficient mice than control and/or pair-fed mice (p less than 0.05). Protein-energy undernutrition in pair-fed mice had no significant effect. In the second study, spleen cells and enriched T cell fractions were incubated in vitro for 5 days with uv irradiated Balb/C spleen cells in a 2:1 ratio. The cytotoxic capacity against the same allogenic tumor cells was again evaluated. The percentage chromium release at different attacker to target cells was less than 30% in the iron-deficient group compared to either control or pair-fed supporting the results of in vivo sensitized cells. The possible mode of impairment of the cytotoxic capacity is discussed.

  16. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  17. Gammaherpesvirus Colonization of the Spleen Requires Lytic Replication in B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Clara; de Miranda, Marta Pires; May, Janet; Wyer, Orry; Simas, J Pedro; Stevenson, Philip G

    2018-04-01

    Gammaherpesviruses infect lymphocytes and cause lymphocytic cancers. Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus all infect B cells. Latent infection can spread by B cell recirculation and proliferation, but whether this alone achieves systemic infection is unclear. To test the need of MuHV-4 for lytic infection in B cells, we flanked its essential ORF50 lytic transactivator with loxP sites and then infected mice expressing B cell-specific Cre (CD19-Cre). The floxed virus replicated normally in Cre - mice. In CD19-Cre mice, nasal and lymph node infections were maintained; but there was little splenomegaly, and splenic virus loads remained low. Cre-mediated removal of other essential lytic genes gave a similar phenotype. CD19-Cre spleen infection by intraperitoneal virus was also impaired. Therefore, MuHV-4 had to emerge lytically from B cells to colonize the spleen. An important role for B cell lytic infection in host colonization is consistent with the large CD8 + T cell responses made to gammaherpesvirus lytic antigens during infectious mononucleosis and suggests that vaccine-induced immunity capable of suppressing B cell lytic infection might reduce long-term virus loads. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses cause B cell cancers. Most models of host colonization derive from cell cultures with continuous, virus-driven B cell proliferation. However, vaccines based on these models have worked poorly. To test whether proliferating B cells suffice for host colonization, we inactivated the capacity of MuHV-4, a gammaherpesvirus of mice, to reemerge from B cells. The modified virus was able to colonize a first wave of B cells in lymph nodes but spread poorly to B cells in secondary sites such as the spleen. Consequently, viral loads remained low. These results were consistent with virus-driven B cell proliferation exploiting normal host pathways and thus having to transfer lytically to new B cells for new proliferation. We

  18. Long-term effects on the histology and function of livers and spleens in rats after 33% toploading of PEG-PLA-nano artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M S

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate the long-term effects of nanodimension PEG-PLA artificial red blood cells containing hemoglobin and red blood cell enzymes on the liver and spleen after 1/3 blood volume top loading in rats. The experimental rats received one of the following infusions: Nano artificial red blood cells in Ringer lactate, Ringer lactate, stroma-free hemoglobin, polyhemoglobin, and autologous rat whole blood. Blood samples were taken before infusions and on days 1, 7, and 21 after infusions for analysis. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not have any significant adverse effects on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, amylase and creatine kinase. On the other hand, stroma-free hemoglobin induced significant adverse effects on liver as shown by elevation in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase throughout the 21 days. On day 21 after infusions rats were sacrificed and livers and spleens were excised for histological examination. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not cause any abnormalities in the microscopic histology of the livers and spleens. In the stroma-free hemoglobin group the livers showed accumulation of hemoglobin in central veins and sinusoids, and hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, injected nano artificial red blood cells can be efficiently metabolized and removed by the reticuloendothelial system, and do not have any biochemical or histological adverse effects on the livers or the spleens.

  19. Comparative investigations about the DNA synthesis by thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and radiomimetic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempel, K.; Schmerold, I.; Pfahler, W.; Goette, A.

    1984-01-01

    In order to further characterize the different repairing behavior of thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), the effect of bleomycine (BM), L-cysteine (CY-E), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), I-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC), dideoxythymidine (ddT), and novobiocine (NB) on the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis as well as on the behavior of DNA under the alkaline elution was studied. The semiconservative DNA synthesis was inhibited by all examined agents except ddT, the restorative DNA synthesis only by NEM, araC, and NB. The stimulation of the restorative DNA synthesis was increased by UV radiation and MMS in spleen cells and by X-rays, BM and CY-E in thymus cells. Under the conditions of alkaline elution, there was a more sensitive reaction of spleen cells than of thymus cells to X-rays, BM and CY-E. The results show that thymus cells are especially qualified for the repair of short chains and spleen cells for the repair of long chains. (orig.) [de

  20. Comparative investigations about the DNA synthesis by thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and radiomimetic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Schmerold, I.; Pfahler, W.; Goette, A.

    1984-06-01

    In order to further characterize the different repairing behavior of thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), the effect of bleomycine (BM), L-cysteine (CY-E), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), I-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC), dideoxythymidine (ddT), and novobiocine (NB) on the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis as well as on the behavior of DNA under the alkaline elution was studied. The semiconservative DNA synthesis was inhibited by all examined agents except ddT, the restorative DNA synthesis only by NEM, araC, and NB. The stimulation of the restorative DNA synthesis was increased by UV radiation and MMS in spleen cells and by X-rays, BM and CY-E in thymus cells. Under the conditions of alkaline elution, there was a more sensitive reaction of spleen cells than of thymus cells to X-rays, BM and CY-E. The results show that thymus cells are especially qualified for the repair of short chains and spleen cells for the repair of long chains.

  1. Spleen cell proliferation during and after skin myiasis by human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jomara Mendes; Nascimento, Maria Fernanda Alves do; Breyner, Natália Martins; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Góes, Alfredo Miranda de; Leite, Antonio César Rios

    2009-01-01

    Spleen cells from mice were examined at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days post-infection (dpi) with Dermatobia hominis larva and at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Cell proliferation in vitro assays were carried out with RPMI-1640 medium and larval secretory product (LSP) of D. hominis at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. When each group of mice was tested against each medium, significance was only seen for 25 dpi, with increasing order: LSP-10 d, -25 d, -5 d, -20 d, -15 d and RPMI. Significant results were also observed when each medium was tested against mice at each dpi or dple. Each dple group vs. each medium produced significant results only for 10 dple, with increasing order: LSP-5 d, -20 d, -25 d, -10 d, -15 d and RPMI. Comparative tests were also carried out between groups to refine certain observations. The LSPs were also analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The results prove that myiasis caused depletion of spleen cells, particularly under the effect of the LSP-10 and -15, but the cells tended to increase up to 60 dple. This in vitro assay may represent the real systemic immune response in the relationship LSP-D. hominis-host.

  2. Allogeneic Th1 Cells Home to Host Bone Marrow and Spleen and Mediate IFNγ-Dependent Aplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewning, Joseph H.; Zhang, Weiwei; Randolph, David A.; Swindle, C. Scott; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow graft failure and poor graft function are frequent complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Both conditions are associated with graft versus host disease (GVHD), although the mechanism remains undefined. Here we show in two distinct murine models of GVHD (complete MHC- and class II-disparate) that mimic human peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that Th1 CD4+ cells induce bone marrow failure in allogeneic recipients. Bone marrow failure following transplant of allogeneic naïve CD4+ T cells was associated with increased CD4+ Th1 cell development within bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. Using IFNγ-reporter mice, we found that Th1 cells generated during GVHD induced bone marrow failure following transfers into secondary recipients. Homing studies demonstrated that transferred Th1 cells express CXCR4, which was associated with accumulation within bone marrow and spleen. Allogeneic Th1 cells were activated by radiation-resistant host bone marrow cells and induced bone marrow failure through an IFNγ-dependent mechanism. Thus, allogeneic Th1 CD4+ cells generated during GVHD traffic to hematopoietic sites and induce bone marrow failure via IFNγ-mediated toxicity. These results have important implications for prevention and treatment of bone marrow graft failure following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23523972

  3. Lack of galectin-3 modifies differentially Notch ligands in bone marrow and spleen stromal cells interfering with B cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Dos Santos, Sofia Nascimento; Ricon, Lauremilia; da Costa, Thayse Pinheiro; Pereira, Jonathas Xavier; Brand, Camila; Fermino, Marise Lopes; Chammas, Roger; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; El-Cheikh, Márcia Cury

    2018-02-22

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside binding protein that controls cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In lymphoid organs, gal-3 inhibits B cell differentiation by mechanisms poorly understood. The B cell development is dependent on tissue organization and stromal cell signaling, including IL-7 and Notch pathways. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms that gal-3 interferes during B lymphocyte differentiation in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen. The BM of gal-3-deficient mice (Lgals3 -/- mice) was evidenced by elevated numbers of B220 + CD19 + c-Kit + IL-7R + progenitor B cells. In parallel, CD45 - bone marrow stromal cells expressed high levels of mRNA IL-7, Notch ligands (Jagged-1 and Delta-like 4), and transcription factors (Hes-1, Hey-1, Hey-2 and Hey-L). The spleen of Lgals3 -/- mice was hallmarked by marginal zone disorganization, high number of IgM + IgD + B cells and CD138 + plasma cells, overexpression of Notch ligands (Jagged-1, Delta-like 1 and Delta-like 4) by stromal cells and Hey-1. Morever, IgM + IgD + B cells and B220 + CD138 + CXCR4 + plasmablasts were significantly increased in the BM and blood of Lgals3 -/- mice. For the first time, we demonstrated that gal-3 inhibits Notch signaling activation in lymphoid organs regulating earlier and terminal events of B cell differentiation.

  4. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis: a TNF-α related pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titze Ulf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Littoral cell angioma (LCA is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. Generally thought to be benign, additional cases of LCA with malignant features have been described. Thus, its malignant potential seems to vary and must be considered uncertain. The etiology remains unclear, but an immune dysregulation for the apparent association with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases has been proposed. Case Presentation We report a case of LCA in a 43-year old male patient who presented with a loss of appetite and intermittent upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed multiple hypoattenuating splenic lesions which were hyperechogenic on abdominal ultrasound. Lymphoma was presumed and splenectomy was performed. Pathological evaluation revealed LCA. Conclusions LCA is a rare, primary vascular neoplasm of the spleen that might etiologically be associated with immune dysregulation. In addition, it shows a striking association with synchronous or prior malignancies. With about one-third of the reported cases to date being co-existent with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases, this advocates for close follow-ups in all patients diagnosed with LCA. To our knowledge, this report is the first one of LCA associated with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis and hypothesizes a TNF-α related pathogenesis of this splenic tumor.

  5. ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-products improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionelia Taranu

    Full Text Available Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1, or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA (treatment 2-T2. The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47% with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin (IL-8 and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2 in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (P<0.05 in spleen the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1 by 3.43, 2.47 and 1.83 fold change respectively, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (4.60 fold, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS (3.23 fold and the total antioxidant level (9.02% in plasma. Camelina diet increased also peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ mRNA and decreased that of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38α MAPK and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB. At this level of inclusion (12% camelina oil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the stimulation

  6. Prion protein-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD4 T and LTi cell numbers and impaired spleen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soochan; Han, Sinsuk; Lee, Ye Eun; Jung, Woong-Jae; Lee, Hyung Soo; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein is expressed in almost all tissues, including the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues. To investigate the effects of the prion protein in lymphoid cells and spleen structure formation, we used prion protein-deficient (Prnp(0/0)) Zürich I mice generated by inactivation of the Prnp gene. Prnp(0/0) mice had decreased lymphocytes, in particular, CD4 T cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Decreased CD4 T cells resulted from impaired expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in the spleen rather than altered chemokine receptor CCR7 expression. Importantly, some of the white pulp regions in spleens from Prnp(0/0) mice displayed impaired T zone structure as a result of decreased LTi cell numbers and altered expression of the lymphoid tissue-organizing genes lymphotoxin-α and CXCR5, although expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin and CXCL13 by stromal cells was not affected. In addition, CD3(-)CD4(+)IL-7Rα(+) LTi cells were rarely detected in impaired white pulp in spleens of these mice. These data suggest that the prion protein is required to form the splenic white pulp structure and for development of normal levels of CD4 T and LTi cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  8. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1505-1509. Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  9. Improved transfection of spleen-derived antigen-presenting cells in culture using TATp-liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Juan Sebastián; Quattrocchi, Valeria; Langellotti, Cecilia; Di Giacomo, Sebastián; Gnazzo, Victoria; Olivera, Valeria; Calamante, Gabriela; Zamorano, Patricia I; Levchenko, Tatyana S; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2009-02-20

    Antigen presenting cells (APC) are among the most important cells of the immune system since they link the innate and the adaptative immune responses, directing the type of immune response to be elicited. To modulate the immune response in immune preventing or treating therapies, gene delivery into immunocompetent cells could be used. However, APC are very resistant to transfection. To increase the efficiency of APC transfection, we have used liposome-based lipoplexes additionally modified with cell-penetrating TAT peptide (TATp) for better intracellular delivery of a model plasmid encoding for the enhanced-green fluorescent protein (pEGFP). pEGFP-bearing lipoplexes made of a mixture of PC:Chol:DOTAP (60:30:10 molar ratio) with the addition of 2% mol of polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugate (plain-L) or TATp-PEG-PE (TATp-L) were shown to effectively protect the incorporated DNA from degradation. Uptake assays of rhodamine-labeled lipoplexes and transfections with the EGFP reporter gene were performed with APC derived from the mouse spleen. TATp-L-based lipoplexes allowed for significantly enhanced both, the uptake and transfection in APC. Such a tool could be used for the APC transfection as a first step in immune therapy.

  10. Killing of targets by CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly V Ganusov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been difficult to correlate the quality of CD8 T cell responses with protection against viral infections. To investigate the relationship between efficacy and magnitude of T cell responses, we quantify the rate at which individual CD8 effector and memory T cells kill target cells in the mouse spleen. Using mathematical modeling, we analyze recent data on the loss of target cells pulsed with three different peptides from the mouse lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV in mouse spleens with varying numbers of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. We find that the killing of targets follows the law of mass-action, i.e., the death rate of individual target cells remains proportional to the frequency (or the total number of specific CD8 T cells in the spleen despite the fact that effector cell densities and effector to target ratios vary about a 1000-fold. The killing rate of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells is largely independent of T cell specificity and differentiation stage. Our results thus allow one to calculate the critical T cell concentration at which growth of a virus with a given replication rate can be prevented from the start of infection by memory CD8 T cell response.

  11. Killing of targets by CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V; Barber, Daniel L; De Boer, Rob J

    2011-01-24

    It has been difficult to correlate the quality of CD8 T cell responses with protection against viral infections. To investigate the relationship between efficacy and magnitude of T cell responses, we quantify the rate at which individual CD8 effector and memory T cells kill target cells in the mouse spleen. Using mathematical modeling, we analyze recent data on the loss of target cells pulsed with three different peptides from the mouse lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mouse spleens with varying numbers of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. We find that the killing of targets follows the law of mass-action, i.e., the death rate of individual target cells remains proportional to the frequency (or the total number) of specific CD8 T cells in the spleen despite the fact that effector cell densities and effector to target ratios vary about a 1000-fold. The killing rate of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells is largely independent of T cell specificity and differentiation stage. Our results thus allow one to calculate the critical T cell concentration at which growth of a virus with a given replication rate can be prevented from the start of infection by memory CD8 T cell response.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on expressions of regulatory T cells and related molecules in mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fanxu; He Shumei; Dong Juancong; Guo Haizhuo; Jin Shunzi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes in expressions of spleen regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the related factor forkhead box protein-3 (Foxp3) after irradiation with different doses of X-ray in mice at different times, and to elaborate the effects of X-rays on regulatory T cells and Foxp3. Methods: 112 male ICR mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and irradiated by X-rays at the doses of 0.075 and 2 Gy, respectively. The mice were killed at 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h post-irradiation and the spleens removed. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Treg and protein expression of (Foxp3), and RT-PCR was used to exmiamine the mRNA expression of Fox3. Results: Compared with those before irradiation, the CD4 + CD25 + Treg positive rates began to increase and peaked at 8 h post-irradiation with 0.075 Gy at 8, 16, 24, 72 h (t=8.73, 10.55, 4.21, 4.65, P<0.05) and 2 Gy at 8, 16, 48, 72 h (t=4.65, 4.28, 3.71, 2.88, P<0.05), and then slightly decreased, but still remained at high levels. The mRNA protein levels of Fox3 did not change significantly after exposure to the dose of 0.075 Gy, but began to significantly increase at 8 h after exposure to the dose of 2 Gy. However, the Fox3 protein level began to increase 4 h post-irradiation, peaked at 16 h, and then slightly decreased, but still remained at high levels (t=2.59, 3.37, 3.70, 3.20, P<0.05). Conclusions: The changes in expressions of Tregs and Foxp3 after high- and low-dose X-ray irradiation may be used to explain the differences in immune effects induced ionizing radiation at different doses. (authors)

  13. Potent antigen-specific immune response induced by infusion of spleen cells coupled with succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) conjugated antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yixian; Werbel, Tyler; Wan, Suigui; Wu, Haitao; Li, Yaohua; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we report our recently developed new approach to inducing antigen-specific immune response. We use two nucleophilic substitution "click" chemistry processes to successfully couple protein antigens or peptides to mouse spleen cells or T cells by a heterobifunctional crosslinker, succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) or sulfo-SMCC. SMCC and its water-soluble analog sulfo-SMCC contain N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester and maleimide groups, which allow stable covalent conjugation of amine- and sulfhydryl-containing molecules in trans. Protein coupling to cells relies on the free sulfhydryls (thiols) on cell surfaces and the free amines on protein antigens. Although the amount of protein coupled to cells is limited due to the limited number of cell surface thiols, the injection of spleen cells coupled with antigenic proteins, such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or ovalbumin (OVA), induces a potent antigen-specific immune response in vivo, which is even stronger than that induced by the injection of a large dose of protein plus adjuvants. In addition, short peptides coupled to purified splenic T cells also potently elicit peptide-specific T cell proliferation in vivo after injection. Further studies show that antigen-coupled spleen cell treatment leads to augmented IFN-γ-producing T cells. Our study provides a unique antigen delivery method that efficiently distributes antigen to the entire immune system, subsequently eliciting a potent antigen-specific immune response with enhanced IFN-γ production. The findings in the present study suggest that this antigen-cell coupling strategy could be employed in immunotherapy for cancers, infectious diseases as well as immune-mediated disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells in rat spleen, with special reference to strongly Ia-positive branched cells in T-cell areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    By use of a monoclonal antibody against Ia antigen in an immunoperoxidase method, strongly Ia-positive branched cells are found in the T-cell areas of the splenic white pulp of the rat. In order to further characterize these cells, enzyme histochemical characteristics, phagocytic capacity, and irradiation sensitivity have been studied. Evidence is presented that these strongly Ia-positive branched cells represent interdigitating cells. The influence of whole-body irradiation on interdigitating cells is discussed. Comparison with data from the literature on the in vitro dendritic cell isolated from spleen cell suspensions reveals many similarities between the described interdigitating cell in vivo and the dendritic cell in vitro

  15. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells by serum from x-irradiated tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Tumor-specific antigens of the chemically induced MC 429 mouse fibrosarcoma were detected in a 3 M KCl extract of tumor by the inhibition of migration of specifically immune spleen cells. Using this assay with serum from tumor-bearing mice no tumor antigen was detected in serum of mice bearing small tumors, unless the tumor was exposed to local x irradiation (3000 R) 1 day prior to collection of serum. It was concluded that local x irradiation of tumor caused increased concentration of tumor antigen in the serum. When the tumor was allowed to grow extremely large, with necrosis, then host serum did cause migration inhibition of both nonimmune and immune spleen cells. This migration-inhibition effect was not associated with tumor antigen, but with a nonspecific serum factor

  16. Expression of cytokine genes in head kidney and spleen cells of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with Nocardia seriolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanekhy, M; Matsuda, S; Itano, T; Kawakami, H; Kono, T; Sakai, M

    2010-04-15

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is an important disease affecting marine fish for which neither control nor preventive measures are available. In this study, we investigated cytokine gene expression in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with N. seriolae to understand the innate immune response. Japanese flounder were challenged with different concentrations of N. seriolae suspensions (0, 1, and 10 mg/L) by immersion for 10min. Mortality was 75% and 95% in fish infected by 1 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The expression of cytokine genes (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, CC-chemokine) in head kidney and spleen cells to N. seriolae challenge was investigated 2, 24 h, 3 days, and 10 days post-challenge. TNF-alpha expression was significantly increased in spleen after 24 h in 1 mg/L group and in HK after 2 h in 10 mg/L group, but after 24 h and 3 days in 10 mg/L group and after 3 days in 1 mg/L group, it was significantly decreased. IL-1beta expression was significantly up-regulated in spleen after 24 h in 1 mg/l group while in HK only after 2 h in 10 mg/L group before suddenly down-regulated significantly 24 h in 10 mg/L group. The expression of CC-chemokine gene in both spleen and HK was significantly up-regulated in 10 mg/L group 2 h post-challenge and down-regulated in HK after 24 h and after 10 days in 1 mg/L group in spleen, compared to the control group. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermittent feeding as a factor enhancing hemopoietic stem cell proliferation and spleen colony formation in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of metabolic stimulation induced by a 3 weeks' adaption of the animals to intermittent food intake on hemopoietic stem cells was investigated in mice. The methods used included transplantation of bone marrow to lethally irradiated recipients, assay of CFUs number, seeding efficiency, and incorporation of 125 iodode oxyuridine into the DNA of spleen cells. A stimulatory effect of the metabolically influenced hemopoietic environment on the proliferative activity in stem cell compartments and on the recovery of hemopoietic organs was demonstrated. These stimulatory effects were most marked when the bone marrow of metabolically influenced donors was transplanted to similarly influenced recipients. (orig.)

  18. Effects of lead on ultrastructural charactristics of sinusoidal endothelial cell of fetal rat's spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Z

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Amount of environmental lead pollution is increased with progression of industry. This pollution is able to damage the living beings in many ways. Blood and Immune systems are more sensitive to toxic effects of lead. 30 female and 6 male rats from Sprague dawley race are chosen by simple random sampling. After copulation and vaginal plug observation, expectant rats are calssified in test and control groups. Since the first day of pregnancy, test group is given a drink containing lead acetate 0.13% in distilled water and control group is given distilled water. After delivery, for ultrastrectural studies, spleen specimens of newborn rats are fixed in glutaraldehyde solution 2% and after processing are studied by T.E.M. Sinusoidal endothelial cell show: morphological changes in mitochondria, appearance of primary & secondary lysosomes and multivesicular bodies and swelling in ER. It seems that these changes are caused by interaction of lead with enzymathic functions or lead accumulation in these cellular organels.

  19. Mouse B- and T-cell colony formation in vitro. I. Separation of colony-promoting and -inhibiting activities in concanavalin A rat spleen conditioned medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claësson, M H; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Röpke, C

    1984-01-01

    Rat spleen cell cultures exposed for 24 h to concanavalin A (Con A-CM) contain, in addition to interleukin 2 (IL-2), factors that promote colony formation in vitro by mouse T cells (TCPA) and B cells (BCPA). TCPA and BCPA are separable on a Sephadex G-75 column. TCPA has a molecular weight of 15......,000 daltons and shows the same elution profile as IL-2. Absorption studies with Con A-activated T cells suggested that TCPA and IL-2 are the same entity. BCPA has an apparent molecular weight of 45,000 daltons and stimulates colony formation by B lymphocytes seeded at very low cell density (10(4) - 5 X 10......,000-130,000 and about 50,000, respectively. Because of the specificity, simplicity and sensitivity of B and T colony formation these assay systems should be valuable tools for in vitro testing of biological activities regulating the immune system....

  20. Bulk protein biosynthesis of the spleen and some splenic cell populations after induction of splenomegaly by application of Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammenschneider, D.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies and liquid scintillation counting were carried out in female NMRI mice just reaching maturity. All animals had received a single injection, either of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or of pertussis organism (PO) or BSA + PO. The animals were sacrificed 4 d and 10 d after this pretreatment. 2 h before decapitation, a single dose of 3 H-l phenyl alamine was applied intraperitoneally. The following results were obtained: The splenic index (splenic weight in mg/mouse weight in g) increased as a result of splenomegaly caused by PO. Morphometric data suggested an enlarged cell and nuclear area with enhanced cellular amino acid turnover and migration of RNP-containing matter into the nucleus, especially in the megakaryocytes and in lymphocytoid blastic cells. Incorporation of 3 H-l-phenylalanine per unit of dry weight of the spleen is slowed down during the experiment while amiro acid incorporation by the total spleen increases with PO-induced splenomegaly. Incorporation of amino acid per unit of dry weight is constant in all experimental and control animals. The increased amino acid incorporation in lymphocytoid blastic cells is probably caused by the immunological situations during the experiment. An explanation of total cell increase and cell increase of megakaryocytic splenic cells is attempted. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  2. L-Arginine supplementation in mice enhances NO production in spleen cells and inhibits Plasmodium yoelii transmission in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Pan, Yanyan; Feng, Yonghui; Cui, Liwang; Cao, Yaming

    2015-06-14

    The life cycle of Plasmodium is complex, requiring invasion of two different hosts, humans and mosquitoes. In humans, initiation of an effective Th1 response during early infection is critical for the control of parasite multiplication. In mosquitoes, inhibition of the development of sexual-stage parasites interrupts the parasite transmission. In this study, we aim to investigate whether dietary supplementation of L-arginine (L-Arg) in mice affects Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (Py17XL) transmission in mosquitoes. BALB/c mice were orally administered with 1.5 mg/g L-Arg daily for 7 days and infected with Py17XL. The mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 1 in spleen cells were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) released by spleen cells in vitro was determined by the Griess method. The effect of L-Arg supplementation on subsequent development of P. yoelii gametocytes was evaluated by an in vitro ookinete culture assay and mosquito feeding assay. Pretreatment of mice with L-Arg significantly increased the transcript level of iNOS in spleen cells and the amount of NO synthesized. Dietary L-Arg supplementation also significantly reduced the number of zygotes and ookinetes formed during in vitro culture and the number of oocysts formed on mosquito midguts after blood feeding. L-Arg enhances host immunity against blood-stage parasites as well as suppressing subsequent parasite development in mosquitoes. L-Arg as an inexpensive and safe supplement may be used as a novel adjunct treatment against malarial infection.

  3. Spleen cells of whole body x-irradiated W/Fu rats enhance tumor growth in vivo and non-specific cytotoxicity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.; Schechter, M.; Herskovic, T.; Kurzman, I.; Rotman, M.; Friedenberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of spleen cells of normal Wistar/Furth (W/Fu) rats obtained after whole body x-irradiation (WBI) upon mammary carcinoma growth in vivo, and cell mediated cytotoxicity against several target cells in vitro. The ME/H mammary carcinoma employed here originally arose spontaneously in a W/Fu rat, metastasizing to the retroperitoneal lymph node and lungs. It was found that surviving non-adherent spleen cells taken two days after 500R WBI cause enhanced tumor growth and metastases development in a Winn assay compared with nonadherent spleen cells from unirradiated controls. These cells were also enriched in granulocytes compared with controls. While the level of nonspecific cell mediated cytotoxicity was variable, it increased significantly following WBI of the spleen cell donor. Our results indicate that there are apparently two opposing effects shown by non-adherent spleen cells surviving WBI of normal W/Fu rats: enhancement of in vivo tumor growth; and enhancement of in vitro cell mediated cytotoxicity. A possible mechanism to explain these contrasting results is suggested

  4. DX5+NKT cells display phenotypical and functional differences between spleen and liver as well as NK1.1-Balb/c and NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Busl, Elisabeth; Farkas, Stefan A; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Hornung, Matthias

    2011-04-29

    Natural killer T cells represent a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. They are a heterogeneous population of specialized T lymphocytes composed of different subsets. DX5+NKT cells are characterized by expression of the NK cell marker DX5 in the context of CD3. However, little is known about the phenotype and functional capacity of this unique cell population. Therefore, we investigated the expression of several T cell and NK cell markers, as well as functional parameters in spleen and liver subsets of DX5+NKT cells in NK1.1- Balb/c mice and compared our findings to NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice. In the spleen 34% of DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L and they up-regulated the functional receptors CD154 as well as CD178 upon activation. In contrast, only a few liver DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L, and they did not up-regulate CD154 upon activation. A further difference between spleen and liver subsets was observed in cytokine production. Spleen DX5+NKT cells produced more Th1 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, while liver DX5+NKT cells secreted more Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4) and even the Th17 cytokine, IL-17a. Furthermore, we found inter-strain differences. In NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice DX5+NKT cells represented a distinct T cell population expressing less CD4 and more CD8. Accordingly, these cells showed a CD178 and Th2-type functional capacity upon activation. These results show that DX5+NKT cells are a heterogeneous population, depending on the dedicated organ and mouse strain, that has diverse functional capacity.

  5. BAFF induces spleen CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Baojun [Laboratory of Lung, Inflammation and Cancers, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Han, Junli; Wang, Haining [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Shen, Gang [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Tao, Jiang, E-mail: taojiang2012@yahoo.cn [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4{sup +} T cell's role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member 'B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4{sup +} T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation.

  6. Syngeneic GvH induced in popliteal lymph nodes by spleen cells of old C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozes, Y.; Umiel, T.; Meshorer, A.; Trainin, N.

    1978-01-01

    The frequency of autoimmune processes seems to increase with age. We have studied here whether lymphoid cells of aged mice have the potential to express autoreactivity by the use of the in vivo graft-vs-host (GvH) assay. It was found that spleen cells from old (104 weeks) C57BL mice caused significant enlargement of the popliteal lymph node upon injection into the footpads of syngeneic young or old recipients. Histologically this enlargement presented characteristics of a GvH reaction. This effect, which was not abolished by irradiation of the hosts, was totally cancelled by in vitro irradiation or by anti-theta treatment of the donor cells. These results indicate that T cells from aged mice have the potential to manifest autoimmune reactivity

  7. Administration of sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate conjugated GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells effectively mounts antigen-specific immune response against mouse melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiaoli [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xia, Chang-Qing, E-mail: cqx65@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32610 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    It remains a top research priority to develop immunotherapeutic approaches to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. However, in spite of some promising results, most strategies are ineffective because they generate low numbers of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we designed a strategy to enhance antigen-specific immune response via administering sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC)-conjugated melanoma tumor antigen GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled syngeneic spleen cells in a mouse model of melanoma. We found that infusion of GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells significantly attenuated the growth of melanoma in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Consistent with these findings, the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immunized mice to naïve syngeneic mice was able to transfer anti-tumor effect, suggesting that GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-specific immune response was induced. Further studies showed that, CD8+ T cell proliferation and the frequency of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells upon ex vivo stimulation by GP100{sub 25–33} were significantly increased compared to control groups. Tumor antigen, GP100{sub 25–23} specific immune response was also confirmed by ELISpot and GP100-tetramer assays. This approach is simple, easy-handled, and efficiently delivering antigens to lymphoid tissues. Our study offers an opportunity for clinically translating this approach into tumor immunotherapy. - Highlights: • Infusion of GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cells leads to potent anti-melanoma immunity. • GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cell treatment induces antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells. • This approach takes advantage of homing nature of immune cells.

  8. Exogenous intervention modulates expression of radiosensitive proteins predominantly by regulating cell death pathway: study in mouse spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhinav; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Dutta, Ajaswrata; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) affects cellular macromolecule inclusive of proteins by regulating transcription, translation and signal transduction pathways. A combination of active principles, isolated from high altitude plant Podophyllum hexandrum, extensively studied in our group for its radioprotective efficacy in various in-vitro and in-vivo model system, has shown its high radioprotective potential. To study the modulatory effect of P. hexandrum on radiation mediated cell death pathway in mice spleen by measuring status of various apoptotic proteins in different experimental groups. Strain 'A' female mice, divided into four groups: control, drug only, radiation only (9 Gy) and drug+radiation, were sacrificed at 6,12, and 24 h post experimentation. Spleen were excised from the animal and processed for western blotting and flow cytometric based expression of various pro and anti-apoptotic proteins (bak, bax, caspase, p53, puma bcl-2 and bcl-xl). Drug is a combination of three active principles, isolated from the dried rhizome of P. hexandrum. These three components coded as A (Lignan), B (Glucoside) and C (Rutin), were mixed in 3:1:1 ratio and freshly dissolved in the DMSO at the time of experimentation. In IR group we observed time dependent up-regulation of various pro-apoptotic proteins (bak, bax, p53, puma, caspases) in contrast to untreated controls. Time dependent studies indicated expression of these proteins were maximum at 24 h in IR group. In G-003M treated and irradiated mice, pro-apoptotic proteins were found significantly down-regulated when compared to corresponding radiation treated group. In the same group, we observed that the protein responsible for the cytoprotection and antioxidation (Nrf-2, Bcl-2,) got up regulated in comparison to radiation alone group and untreated control. Present study clearly demonstrates the ability of G-003M to attenuate radiation induced cell death in mice spleen by altering the levels of pro-apoptotic and anti

  9. Alkaline phosphatase role in bone marrow and spleen hemopoietic cells recovery after mouse whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mouhamad, K.; Al Sheikh, F.

    2013-04-01

    Hematopoietic tissue is consisted of two distinctly different tissues, the first part is the hematopoietic stem cells and the second tissue is a mixture of many supportive cells which the most important one of them is alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-secreted-fibroblastic cells (FBCs). It was thought that FBCs play an important role in the hematopoiesis through ALP secretion. Our previous studies indicated that the ALP secretion in bone marrow (BM) increased after a whole mouse body irradiation when the BM cellular component is completely destroyed and, then it was decreased when the BM regain its cellular component. We performed some experiences to verify if there is any role to the ALP in the hematopoiesis. We irradiated three groups of mice to non-lethal dose, the first one was injected by Tetramizole (anti-ALP) 24 hours before irradiation, and the second was injected by Lisinopril (anti-hematopoiesis) 24 hours before irradiation and the third left without any injection. The fourth left as control. Many histological sections were taken from BM and spleen on 1, 3, 7 and 30 days after irradiation to perform ALP-histological detection. These experiences were repeated to count BM cells. ALP secretion level in the BM was reached the maximum 3 days after irradiation without any injection when the cell number was in minimum then, the level of ALP start to decrease and the cell number start to increase. ALP secretion delayed when the mice were injected by Tetramizole and BM cell population also delayed to return to its normal position. But, the ALP secretion increased directly after irradiation when the mice were injected by Lisinopril which, the ALP secretion, normally reached the maximum by the third day. These results may indicate a role to the ALP in BM and spleen hematopoietic cell recovery (author).

  10. Killing of targets by effector CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with antibody-based vaccines, it has been difficult to measure the efficacy of T cell-based vaccines and to correlate the efficacy of CD8 T cell responses with protection again viral infections. In part, this difficulty is due to poor understanding of the in vivo efficacy of CD8 T cells produced by vaccination. Using a: recently developed experimental method of in vivo cytotoxicity we have investigated quantitative aspects of killing of peptide-pulsed targets by effector and memory CD8 T cells, specific to three epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), in the mouse spleen. By analyzing data on killing of targets with varying number of epitope-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells, we find that killing of targets by effectors follows the law of mass-action, that is the death rate of peptide-pulsed targets is proportional to the frequency of CTLs in the spleen. In contrast, killing of targets by memory CD8 T cells does not follow the mass action law because the death rate of targets saturates at high frequencies of memory CD8 T cells. For both effector and memory cells, we also find little support for the killing term that includes the decrease of the death rate of targets with target cell density. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that at low CD8 T cell frequencies, memory CD8 T cells on the per capita basis are more efficient at killing peptide-pulsed targets than effectors, but at high frequencies, effectors are more efficient killers than memory T cells. Comparison of the estimated killing efficacy of effector T cells with the value that is predicted from theoretical physics and based on motility of T cells in lymphoid tissues, suggests that limiting step in the killing of peptide-pulsed targets is delivering the lethal hit and not finding the target. Our results thus form a basis for quantitative understanding of the process of killing of virus-infected cells by T cell responses in tissues and can be used to correlate the

  11. Nitric oxide production in murine spleen cells: role of interferons and prostaglandin E2 in the generation of cytotoxic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Vaillier

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of nitric oxide (NO was measured in cultures of spleen cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, IL-2 or LPS + IL-2. We observed that NO synthesis is increased by IFN-γ but inhibited by IFN-α/β. This is not the case when IL-2 is present in the cultures, since interferons play a minor role in the regulation of the NO production. When IL-2 and LPS were associated in the cultures, the IFN-α/β role seems more important than that of IFN-γ. PGE2 inhibits NO production in LPS supplemented cultures but has a slight effect in the presence of IL-2 and no effect with IL-2 + LPS. 3-isoButyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, induces a decrease of IFN production. In the presence of H-7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, NO production is reduced when the cultures are supplemented by LPS or IL-2 but not when IL-2 and LPS are both added. H-7 also reduced IFN production. In the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (N-MMA, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, IFN production was increased, with no change in the cytotoxic activity. Hence, interferons regulate NO production by mouse spleen cells and, in return, NO modulates the generation of IFN.

  12. Homing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs in head kidney and spleen – salmon head kidney hosts diverse APC types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Borisov Iliev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes and spleen are major organs where mammalian APCs initiate and orchestrate Ag-specific immune responses. Unlike mammals, teleosts lack lymph nodes and an interesting question is whether alternative organs may serve as sites for antigen presentation in teleosts. In the current study, fluorescent ovalbumin (Ova and CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs injected intra-abdominally were detected in significant numbers of salmon head kidney (HK MHCII+ cells over a period of 2 weeks while in spleen the percentage of these was transient and declined from day 1 post injection. In vitro studies further shed light on the properties of the diverse MHCII+ cell types found in HK. The ultrastructure of a subpopulation of MHCII+ cells with a high capacity to endocytose and process Ova indicated that these were able to perform constitutive macropinocytosis. Upon stimulation with CpG ODNs these cells upregulated CD86 and gave very high levels of TNF mRNA indicating that these are professional APCs, related to macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. A subpopulation of HK granulocytes expressed high levels of surface MHCII and upon CpG stimulation upregulated most of the tested APC marker genes. Although these granulocytes expressed TNF weakly, they had relatively high basal levels of IL-1β mRNA and the CpG stimulation upregulated IL-1β, along with its signaling and decoy receptors, to the highest levels as compared to other HK cell types. Interestingly, the high expression of IL-1β mRNA in the granulocytes correlated with a high autophagy flux as demonstrated by LC3-II conversion. Autophagy has recently been found to be implicated in IL-1β processing and secretion and the presented data suggests that granulocytes of salmon, and perhaps other teleost species, may serve as a valuable model to study the involvement of autophagy in regulation of the vertebrate immune response.

  13. MHC class I target recognition, immunophenotypes and proteomic profiles of natural killer cells within the spleens of day-14 chick embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken natural killer (NK) cells are not well defined, so little is known about the molecular interactions controlling their activity. At day 14 of embryonic development, chick spleens are a rich source of T-cellfree CD8aa+, CD3_ cells with natural killing activity. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay...

  14. Mouse B- and T-cell colony formation in vitro. I. Separation of colony-promoting and -inhibiting activities in concanavalin A rat spleen conditioned medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claësson, M H; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Röpke, C

    1984-01-01

    Rat spleen cell cultures exposed for 24 h to concanavalin A (Con A-CM) contain, in addition to interleukin 2 (IL-2), factors that promote colony formation in vitro by mouse T cells (TCPA) and B cells (BCPA). TCPA and BCPA are separable on a Sephadex G-75 column. TCPA has a molecular weight of 15...

  15. Arsenic interferes with the signaling transduction pathway of T cell receptor activation by increasing basal and induced phosphorylation of Lck and Fyn in spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Pena, Gerson A.; Vega, Libia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is known to produce inhibition as well as induction of immune cells proliferative responses depending on the doses as one of its mechanisms of immunotoxicity. Here we evaluate the effect of arsenic exposure on the activation of splenic mononuclear cells (SMC) in male CD57BL6N mice. Intra-gastric exposure to arsenic (as sodium arsenite) for 30 days (1, 0.1, or 0.01 mg/kg/day), reduced the proportion of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the spleen, increasing the proportion of CD11b+ cells. Arsenic exposure did not modify the proportion of B cells. SMC showed an increased level of phosphorylation of lck and fyn kinases (first kinases associated to TCR complex when activated). Although normal levels of apoptosis were observed on freshly isolated SMC, an increase in apoptotic cells related with the increase in phosphorylation of lck and fyn was observed when SMC were activated with Concanavalin-A (Con-A). Arsenic exposure reduced the proliferative response of SMC to Con-A, and also reduced secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 and IFNγ. No effect was observed on IL-4, and IL-10 secretion. The same effects were observed when SMC of exposed animals were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies for 24 h, but these effects were transitory since a recovery, up to control levels or even higher, were observed after 72 h of stimulation. This study demonstrates that repeated and prolonged exposure to arsenic alters cell populations and produces functional changes depending on the specific activation pathway, and could be related with the phosphorylation status of lck and fyn kinases

  16. Dendritic Cells from Peyer's Patches and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Differ from Spleen Dendritic Cells in their Response to Commensal Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Commensal gut bacteria have potent effects on the immune system, which are partially mediated by intestinal dendritic cells (DC). Distinct commensals confer different properties to in vitro-generated DC. The aim of the present study was to reveal strain-dependent maturation patterns in primary DC....... To this end, we compared the response of mouse Peyer's patch (PP) DC, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) DC and spleen DC to the commensal bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum Q46, Lactobacillus acidophilus X37 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. Bacterial maturation of DC occurred independently of tissue origin....... Expression of CCR7 and CD103 on the surface of MLN DC, necessary for the induction of gut-homing regulatory T cells, increased with stimulation by Gram-positive commensals. Bacteria-dependent cytokine production (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha) was similar in spleen and MLN DC, and contaminant cells in these DC...

  17. Malaria Induces Anemia through CD8+ T Cell-Dependent Parasite Clearance and Erythrocyte Removal in the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safeukui, Innocent; Gomez, Noé D.; Adelani, Aanuoluwa A.; Burte, Florence; Afolabi, Nathaniel K.; Akondy, Rama; Velazquez, Peter; Tewari, Rita; Buffet, Pierre; Brown, Biobele J.; Shokunbi, Wuraola A.; Olaleye, David; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro; Kazura, James; Ahmed, Rafi; Mohandas, Narla; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Severe malarial anemia (SMA) in semi-immune individuals eliminates both infected and uninfected erythrocytes and is a frequent fatal complication. It is proportional not to circulating parasitemia but total parasite mass (sequestered) in the organs. Thus, immune responses that clear parasites in organs may trigger changes leading to anemia. Here, we use an outbred-rat model where increasing parasite removal in the spleen escalated uninfected-erythrocyte removal. Splenic parasite clearance was associated with activated CD8+ T cells, immunodepletion of which prevented parasite clearance. CD8+ T cell repletion and concomitant reduction of the parasite load was associated with exacerbated (40 to 60%) hemoglobin loss and changes in properties of uninfected erythrocytes. Together, these data suggest that CD8+ T cell-dependent parasite clearance causes erythrocyte removal in the spleen and thus anemia. In children infected with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, elevation of parasite biomass (not the number of circulating parasites) increased the odds ratio for SMA by 3.5-fold (95% confidence intervals [CI95%], 1.8- to 7.5-fold). CD8+ T cell expansion/activation independently increased the odds ratio by 2.4-fold (CI95%, 1.0- to 5.7-fold). Concomitant increases in both conferred a 7-fold (CI95%, 1.9- to 27.4-fold)-greater risk for SMA. Together, these data suggest that CD8+-dependent parasite clearance may predispose individuals to uninfected-erythrocyte loss and SMA, thus informing severe disease diagnosis and strategies for vaccine development. PMID:25604792

  18. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  19. Emergence of long-lived autoreactive plasma cells in the spleen of primary warm auto-immune hemolytic anemia patients treated with rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahévas, Matthieu; Michel, Marc; Vingert, Benoit; Moroch, Julien; Boutboul, David; Audia, Sylvain; Cagnard, Nicolas; Ripa, Julie; Menard, Cédric; Tarte, Karin; Mégret, Jérôme; Le Gallou, Simon; Patin, Pauline; Thai, Lan; Galicier, Lionel; Bonnotte, Bernard; Godeau, Bertrand; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès

    2015-08-01

    Primary warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA) is a rare autoimmune disease in which red blood cells are eliminated by IgG autoantibodies. We analyzed the antibody-secreting cells in the spleen and the peripheral blood of wAIHA patients in various contexts of treatment. Plasmablasts were observed in peripheral blood of newly diagnosed wAIHA patients and, accordingly, active germinal center reactions were present in the spleen of patients receiving short-term corticosteroid therapy. Long-term corticosteroid regimens markedly reduced this response while splenic plasma cells were able to persist, a fraction of them secreting anti-red blood cell IgG in vitro. In wAIHA patients treated by rituximab and who underwent splenectomy because of treatment failure, plasma cells were still present in the spleen, some of them being autoreactive. By using a set of diagnostic genes that allowed us to assess the plasma cell maturation stage, we observed that these cells displayed a long-lived program, differing from the one of plasma cells from healthy donors or from wAIHA patients with various immunosuppressant treatments, and more similar to the one of normal long-lived bone-marrow plasma cells. Interestingly, an increased level of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) was observed in the supernatant of spleen cell cultures from such rituximab-treated wAIHA patients. These results suggest, in line with our previous report on primary immune thrombocytopenia, that the B-cell depletion induced by rituximab promoted a suitable environment for the maturation and survival of auto-immune long-lived plasma cells in the spleen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Follicular dendritic cell-specific prion protein (PrP expression alone is sufficient to sustain prion infection in the spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McCulloch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of PrP(Sc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, in affected tissues. Following peripheral exposure high levels of prion-specific PrP(Sc accumulate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC in lymphoid tissues before spreading to the CNS. Expression of PrP(C is mandatory for cells to sustain prion infection and FDC appear to express high levels. However, whether FDC actively replicate prions or simply acquire them from other infected cells is uncertain. In the attempts to-date to establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis it was not possible to dissociate the Prnp expression of FDC from that of the nervous system and all other non-haematopoietic lineages. This is important as FDC may simply acquire prions after synthesis by other infected cells. To establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis transgenic mice were created in which PrP(C expression was specifically "switched on" or "off" only on FDC. We show that PrP(C-expression only on FDC is sufficient to sustain prion replication in the spleen. Furthermore, prion replication is blocked in the spleen when PrP(C-expression is specifically ablated only on FDC. These data definitively demonstrate that FDC are the essential sites of prion replication in lymphoid tissues. The demonstration that Prnp-ablation only on FDC blocked splenic prion accumulation without apparent consequences for FDC status represents a novel opportunity to prevent neuroinvasion by modulation of PrP(C expression on FDC.

  1. 99 mTc-sulphur-colloid and heat-denatured 99mTc-labelled red cell scans demonstrating a giant intrapelvic spleen in a girl after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.F.; Tzen, K.Y.; Tsai, M.F.; Lin, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    A 17 x 12 x 5-cm giant intrapelvic mass in a 14-year-old girl is reported. This mass developed 6 years after a splenectomy for splenic torsion. The heat-denatured 99 m Tc-labelled red cell scan and 99 m Tc- sulphur-colloid scan confirmed the specific red cell sequestration function and reticuloendothelial activity in the giant intrapelvic spleen. The size and development of the giant intrapelvic spleen are unusual. The usefulness of functional images to diagnosis the nature of the intrapelvic mass is well demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Influence of some radioprotective and radiosensitizing compounds on the replicative and repair induced DNA synthesis of rats spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goette, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cysteine, dithiothreitol, N-ethylmaleimide, cytosinearabinoside, ethidiumbromide, bleomycine and diethyldithiocarbamate on the replicative and repair induced DNA synthesis in vitro was tested by using rats spleen cells. Besides the incorporation of a labeled DNA precursor (TdR- 3 H) the sedimentation of DNA in sucrose gradients was inquired. With respect to the DNA synthesis an uniform mechanism of action for the radioprotective substances can't be seen. Thymocytes and spleen cells seem to possess different systems of repair; this may be an explanation for their different sensibility against ionizing radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Selective accumulation of 147Pm in organism on induction of PCE's micronucleus and SCE of bone marrow cells as well as the chromosome aberrations on fetal liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zheng Siying; Wang Liuyi; Lu Zhongyan; Yang Shuqin

    1989-01-01

    Study of accumulation peculiarity of 147 Pm showed that I.V. different doses of 147 Pm were the same selectively localized in skeleton and liver. Retention of 147 Pm in skeleton and liver was elevated when the radioactive doses of 147 Pm were increased. At the same time absorption does of 147 Pm radiation was heightened. The ability of 147 Pm to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been investigated by IdU labelling methods. A statistically significant elevation of SCEs was observed after 147 Pm intake.In mice the number of SCEs per cell in bone marrow cells was always higher when the animals were maintained on the doses of 37 Bq/g. The injurious effects of 147 Pm, using PCE's micronucleus rates in bone marrow cells were observed. 147 Pm was dominantly deposited on maternal liver. Deposition of 147 Pm in maternal spleen was about quandrantal of the maternal liver. Studies indicated that maternal contamination of 147 Pm could induced chromosome aberrations in fetal liver and spleen cells. Among the type of aberrations induced by 147 Pm, chromatid breakage were predominant. The incidence of chromosome aberrations on fetal liver cells induced by 147 Pm was higher on fetal spleen cells

  4. Comparative Ultrastructure of Langerhans-Like Cells in Spleens of Ray-Finned Fishes (Actinopterygii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lovy, J.; Wright, G. M.; Speare, D. J.; Tyml, Tomáš; Dyková, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 10 (2010), s. 1229-1239 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish * cyprinidae * halibut * dendritic cells * Langerhans cell * Birbeck granules * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.773, year: 2010

  5. Radiosensitivity of hemopoietic stem cells on cloning in bone marrow and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, V.N.; Shafirkin, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown that population of stem cells from bone marrow of mice is heterogenous by radiosensitivity. A 55%-survival of CFU is exponential function of radiation dose (D 0 -9 rad). A dose-effect curve for radioresistant part of the population (D 0 =180 rad) is sygmoid (Dsub(q)=130 rad). Radiosensitive CFU are suggested to represent a primarily committed fraction of half-semi cells, and radioresistant CFU are referable to a pool of pluripotent stem cells. Heterogenous nature of CFU population is proved with different modifications of radiation effect and interactions of CFU with T-lymphocytes

  6. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  7. Conservation of mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and the MR1 restriction element in ruminants, and abundance of MAIT cells in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinch, Nick; Reinink, Peter; Connelley, Timothy; Koets, Ad; Morrison, Ivan; Van Rhijn, Ildiko

    2010-01-01

    MHC-related protein 1 (MR1) is a highly conserved MHC class I-like molecule. Human and murine mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are restricted by MR1 and express an invariant T cell receptor. Even though MR1 protein expression on the cell surface has not been demonstrated in vivo or ex vivo, it is assumed that MR1 presents a bacterial antigen from the intestinal lumen to MAIT cells because MAIT cells are present in the lamina propria and their expansion is dependent on the presence of intestinal micro flora. The existence of bovine MAIT cells and MR1 has been demonstrated recently although ovine MAIT cells and MR1 have not yet been described. We cloned bovine and ovine MR1 transcripts, including splice variants, and identified an anti human MR1 antibody that recognizes cells transfected with the bovine homolog. Using this antibody, no MR1 staining was detected using cells freshly isolated from blood, thymus, spleen, colon, ileum, and lymph node. MAIT cells are known to be enriched in the CD4/CD8 double negative peripheral blood T cell population, but their relative abundance in different tissues is not known. Comparison of the amount of MAIT cell-specific TCR transcript to the amount of constant alpha chain transcript revealed that numbers of MAIT cells are low in neonates and increase by 3-weeks of age. In 3-month old animals, MAIT cells are abundant in spleen and less so in ileum, peripheral blood, lymph node, colon, and thymus. © The authors, published by INRA/EDP Sciences, 2010.

  8. Immunity to Babesia in mice I. Adoptive transfer of immunity to Babesia rodhaini with immune spleen cells and the effect of irradiation on the protection of immune mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, H.; Zivkovic, D.; Seinen, W.; Albers-van Bemmel, C.M.G.; Speksnijder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Immunisation of Balb/c mice against Babesia rodhaini by an amicarbalide- controlled infection resulted in a solid immunity which lasted for 216 days. With spleen cells of immune mice protection could be transferred both to naive mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Treatment of naive mice with

  9. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of blood cells and immunohistochemical analysis of spleen cells from 2 species of frog, Rana (Aquarana) catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Nelson K; Raskin, Rose E; Densmore, Christine L

    2012-09-01

    Mechanisms of amphibian diseases are not characterized as well as those in domestic mammalian species. Antemortem laboratory testing is limited in frogs, presenting a diagnostic challenge to zoos, laboratories, and exotic veterinarians. This study aimed to characterize blood cells and splenic cells from 2 anuran species based on characteristics identified by Wright staining, cytochemical staining, and immunochemical analysis and on histologic examination of spleens. Blood specimens and spleens were obtained from 2 species of frog, the American bullfrog (Rana [Aquarana] catesbeiana) and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Blood smears were evaluated after Wright staining and cytochemical staining for α-naphthyl butyrate esterase (NBE), chloroacetate esterase (CAE), myeloperoxidase (PER), Sudan black B (SBB), and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) reactions and for immunoreactivity for antibodies against CD3ε, CD79a, and BLA.36 antigens. Histologic sections of spleen were evaluated after staining with H&E and for immunoreactivity for CD3ε, CD79a, and BLA.36 antigens. In bullfrogs, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes were positive for some or all of the following: NBE, CAE, PER, and SBB; lymphocytes occasionally were positive for CAE. In clawed frogs, neutrophils, basophils, and monocytes were positive for some or all of the following: NBE, CAE, PER, and SBB; eosinophils occasionally were positive for CAE and PER, and lymphocytes were negative for all cytochemical stains. LAP was not a useful marker for any leukocyte type. In both species, peripheral blood lymphocytes were strongly immunoreactive for CD3ε, CD79a, and BLA.36. In splenic tissue, histologic patterns varied and there was diffuse immunoreactivity for CD79a and BLA.36 with focal reactivity for CD3ε, but with different distribution patterns in each species. Cytochemical and immunochemical analysis of cells may be helpful in identification and characterization of amphibian blood cells and

  10. Role of the spleen in the maturation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spleen cells from unimmunized Lewis rats were fractionated by 1 x g velocity sedimentation and assayed for their ability to restore the adoptive primary antibody response to horse spleen ferritin in irradiated syngeneic recipients given T cell supplementation. Large, medium and small cell fractions all showed virgin B cell activity. Similar studies with thoractic duct cells show that virgin B cell activity is restricted to the small and medium cells. Large spleen cells produced a 2-ME sensitive adoptive antibody response which persisted for 21 days. All antibody produced by small cells at 21 days was 2-ME resistant. Examination of spleen cells during recovery from sublethal irradiation showed that virgin B cell activity was first detected at 14 days, and is confined to the large cell fraction. Experiments with congenic rats which differ at the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain allotype showed that small cells from the bone marrow injected intravenously can transform into large Ig-bearing cells in the spleen. The relationship of the subclasses of virgin B cells in the spleen to B cell maturation is discussed

  11. Distinct oxysterol requirements for positioning naïve and activated dendritic cells in the spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Erick; Dang, Eric V.; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Cyster, Jason G.

    2017-01-01

    Correct positioning of dendritic cells (DCs) is critical for efficient pathogen encounter and antigen presentation. Epstein-Barr virus–induced gene 2 (EBI2) has been identified as a chemoattractant receptor required for naïve CD4+DCIR2+ DC positioning in response to 7α,25-hydroxycholesterol (7α,25-HC). We now provide evidence that a second EBI2 ligand, 7α,27-HC, is involved in splenic DCIR2+ DC positioning and homeostasis. Cyp27a1, the enzyme uniquely required for 7α,27-HC synthesis, is expressed by stromal cells in the region of naïve DC localization. After activation, DCIR2+ DCs move into the T cell zone. We find that EBI2 is rapidly up-regulated in DCIR2+ DCs under certain activation conditions, and positioning at the B-T zone interface depends on EBI2. Under conditions of type I interferon induction, EBI2 ligand levels are elevated, causing activated DCIR2+ DCs to disperse throughout the T zone. Last, we provide evidence that oxysterol metabolism by Batf3-dependent DCs is important for EBI2-dependent positioning of activated DCIR2+DCs. This work indicates that 7α,27-HC functions as a guidance cue in vivo and reveals a multitiered role for EBI2 in DC positioning. Deficiency in this organizing system results in defective CD4+ T cell responses. PMID:28738017

  12. The influence of some prostaglandins on DNA synthesis and DNA excision repair in mouse spleen cells ''in vitro''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Altmann, H.; Kocsis, F.; Egg, D.; Guenther, R.

    1978-03-01

    ''In vitro'' experiments were performed on mouse spleen cells to establish possible influences of some naturally occurring prostaglandins on DNA synthesis and DNA excision repair. The prostaglandins A 1 , B 1 , E 1 , E 2 and Fsub(2α) were tested in concentrations of 10 pg, 5 ng and 2,5μg per ml cell suspension. DNA synthesis was significantly increased by PgFsub(2α) in all the three concentrations tested, while the other tested prostaglandins were essentially ineffective. DNA excision repair was significantly inhibited by PgE 1 and PgE 2 at 5 ng/ml and at 2,5 μg/ml but increased by PgFsub(2α) in the two lower concentrations. The rejoining of DNA-strand breaks after gamma-irradiation was slightly reduced by PgE 1 , PgE 2 and PgF 2 at 2,5 μg/ml. (author)

  13. Sedimentation of nucleoids from thymus and spleen cells of rats after X-irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction to irradiation of thymocytes was tested immediately and 6 hours after whole body X-irradiation of rats with doses from 190 cGy up to 1520 cGy by nucleoid sedimentation. For comparison, examinations of thymus and spleen cells after X-irradiation in vitro were done. Preliminary analyses should find a possible coergism between X-rays on one side and hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA-synthesis or DNA-repair (cytosinearabinoside, dideoxythymidine, 3-amino-benzamide, ethidiumbromide, and novobiocine) on the other side. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1) With respect to the detection of in vivo effects of X-irradiation, the nucleoid sedimentation is less sensitive than biochemical methods. 2) Some hours after sublethal X-irradiation in vivo, free DNA and/or polydesoxyribonucleotides appear. At the same time cross-links can be detected in the chromatin fraction. 3) The reduction of the nucleoid sedimentation immediately after high doses of whole-body irradiation is the result of primary DNA lesions. The changes detectable some hours after are due to the secondary enzymatic changes, that are connected with the interphase death of thymocytes, and coincide with the present opinions about the irradiation induced apoptosis of cells. (orig./ECB) [de

  14. [Percentage of Th17 Cells in Spleen and IL-17 Level in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Dermatophagoides farinae Allergic Asthma Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qin; Yang, Xiao-meng; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Chen, Si; Yang, Ping-chang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Zhang, Min

    2015-04-01

    To detect the percentage of Th17 cells in spleen and IL-17 level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in Dermatophagoides farinae allergic asthma mice. Twenty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control group (n=10) and asthma group (n=10). Mice in control group were treated with PBS plus 2 mg Al(OH)3 and those in asthma group were sensitized with 200 µl solution [50 µg Dermatophagoides farinae crude extracts plus 2 mg Al (OH)3] on day 0, 7 and 14. One week after the last sensitization, all mice were intranasally challenged with 50 µg Dermatophagoides farinae crude extracts daily for 7 days. Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, mice were sacrificed. The sera, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and spleens were collected. The serum levels of IgE and IgG1, and IL-17 level in BALF were determined by ELISA. The percentage of Th17 cells in spleen was tested by flow cytometry. The serum levels of IgG, and IgE in asthma group were (0.10 ± 0.01) pg/ml and (1.15 ± 0.10) pg/ml, respectively, which were higher than that of the control [(0.06 ± 0.01) pg/ml and (0.04 ± 0.01) pg/ml] (P mice, both the percentage of Th17 cells in spleen and IL-17 level in BALF have increased significantly in Dermatophagoides farinae allergic asthma mice.

  15. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of immunoglobulins containing plasma cells in the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen of vaccinated broiler chickens with Newcastle disease virus vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Masum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of immunoglobulins (Igs-containing plasma cells (IgA, IgG and IgM in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus was investigated in broiler chickens that were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. In the thymus, the Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the cortex and medulla. Their frequency and distribution were higher at D14 and at D28. The number of IgG- and IgM-positive cells was greater than IgA-positive cells in thymus. In the bursa of Fabricius, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed beneath the capsules; within and around the bursal follicles. Their frequency of occurrence significantly peaked at D14 and at D28 in comparison to day-old chickens, and IgG-positive cells were significantly greater than the IgA- and IgM-positive cells in the bursa of vaccinated chickens. In the spleen, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the white pulp, around the trabeculae, and in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. In this secondary lymphatic tissue, IgG- and IgM-positive cell numbers significantly greater than IgA-positive cells. In conclusion, mobilization of more Igs-positive cells in lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens is due to the effect of NDV vaccine as well as the advancement of age.

  18. M tuberculosis in the adjuvant modulates time of appearance of CNS-specific effector T cells in the spleen through a polymorphic site of TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nicolò

    Full Text Available DC deliver information regulating trafficking of effector T cells along T-cell priming. However, the role of pathogen-derived motives in the regulation of movement of T cells has not been studied. We hereinafter report that amount of M tuberculosis in the adjuvant modulates relocation of PLP139-151 specific T cells. In the presence of a low dose of M tuberculosis in the adjuvant, T cells (detected by CDR3 BV-BJ spectratyping, the so-called "immunoscope" mostly reach the spleen by day 28 after immunization ("late relocation" in the SJL strain, whereas T cells reach the spleen by d 14 with a high dose of M tuberculosis ("early relocation". The C57Bl/6 background confers a dominant "early relocation" phenotype to F1 (SJL×C57Bl/6 mice, allowing early relocation of T cells in the presence of low dose M tuberculosis. A single non-synonymous polymorphism of TLR2 is responsible for "early/late" relocation phenotype. Egress of T lymphocytes is regulated by TLR2 expressed on T cells. Thus, pathogens engaging TLR2 on T cells regulate directly T-cell trafficking, and polymorphisms of TLR2 condition T-cell trafficking upon a limiting concentration of ligand.

  19. Influence of x-rays and UV-light on the presence of oncogene proteins in spleen cells of leukemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic Hadzija, M.; Poljak Blazi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Proto-oncogenes are involved in growth, defferentiation and proliferation of normal cells, and in process of neoplastic transformation. In genome of normal cells, exist also tumor-suppressor genes, which contribute to cancer when they are inactivated. Those genes are target for carcinogenesis provoked by radiation. However, species specific genetic factors are important in determing which, if any, gene will be transformed by radiation. It is possible to presume that oncogenes are involved in the development of radioresistant phenotype of ML. Because of that, we examined the presence of c-myc protein in ML cells during the growth of ML and after the irradiation of these cells. Also, we examined the presence of tumor-suppressor protein p53, because inactivation or loss of p53 gene is in connection with transformation of cells. ML is strain specific for RFM mice. Spleen cells were tested 9 (nonterminal phase NTP) or 12 days (terminal phase TP) after inoculation of ML. Cells from NTP were also irradiate with x-rays or UV-light. C-myc protein expresse 74.98% spleen cells of healthy RFM mice. Wild type of p53 protein was detected in 60% of these cells, but mp53 was found in only 5.3% of cells. These results could be explained by the role of c-myc and p53 proteins in regulation of biologic processes. A few spleen cells of NTP expressed c-myc (15%) and mp53 (9.6%) proteins. But, in the same phase higher expressions of wp53 protein (30.5%) was found. On the other hand, the number of c-myc positive cells in TP of leukemia explanation lies in connection of c-myc protein and process of programmed cell death (apoptosis). During growth of ML the number of mp53 positive cells increased (to 47.8%), but wp53 positive cells decreased (to13.4%9). Both types of irradiation provoked strong activation of cellular c-myc gene in ML cells of NTP. We found about 95% c-myc positive cells after x-rays and 93% after UV-light

  20. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: cell and humoral immunity in spleen and gut of isogenic mice immunized with 60Co irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using ionizing radiation as a tool. Here we analyzed the production of systemic and intestinal immunity, with protection studies, in several strains of inbred mice, by oral or parenteral route, using 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain, with challenge with cysts of ME- 49 strain. C57Bl/6j, BALB/c and C57Bl/6j IFN-γ -/- mice were immunized with 10 7 irradiated tachyzoites, be parenteral or oral route. Those preparations, both by parenteral or oral routes, induced the production of specific IgG, mainly of the lgG2b subclass, and IgA immunoglobulins in serum, , as determined by ELISA. IgM production was negligible. Parenteral immunized mice showed higher IgG avidity maturation, as compared to oral immunized mice. Fecal excretion of IgG, IgA and IgM was detected in stools of immunized animals, more intense in oral immunized mice. In cellular immunity studies, induced by antigen, with detection of cytokine production by quantitative real-time PCR, there are a great production of IFN-y by spleen cells, with lower levels in Peyer patches cells, where there are a greater IL-2 production. Challenge studies in immunized mice demonstrated protection to infection in all used schedules, greater in BALB/c mice. C57Bl/6j IFN-γ - /- mice, when immunized, showed no signs of disease and produced similar or greater levels of antibodies than wild type mice. They also excreted S-lgA and S-IgM in stools, but with low numbers of brain cysts in parenteral immunized mice, despite similar mortality. Our data points to a fair possibility of use of those irradiated parasites as an oral vaccine, devised to use for veterinary or wild felines vaccination, reducing the production of oocysts by those hosts and interrupting the chain transmission of human toxoplasmosis. (author)

  1. Microscopy of vascular architecture and arteriovenous communications in the spleen of two odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y

    1994-08-01

    The red pulp of the spleens of the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and the Pacific bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gilli) (Odontoceti) were examined by light and electron microscopy and found to comprise two venous layers, an inner and an outer. The inner layer is homologous to the intermediate zone (IZ) of primitive-type mammalian spleens and contains sinusoids consisting of endothelial cells and a thin layer of extracellular deposits. Its vascular structure is unclear. The venous vessels of this layer eventually communicate with veins of the perivenous outer layer. The perivenous layer contains veins of various sizes, interstitial elements, and trabeculae. It is filled with blood cells, particularly plasma cells, but no myeloid cells. The perivenous layer (PVL) is homologous to the red pulp of common mammalian spleens but shows signs of involution. The white pulp gives origin to arterial terminals that end in the red pulp, where they communicate directly with the sinusoidal veins producing a closed circulation. The arterial terminals do not show ellipsoids. The presence of an IZ with a closed circulation and the involution of the red pulp makes the spleen of Odeontoceti another example of a mammalian spleen of the primitive type that has been altered by the evolutionary process. Vascular remodelling of the spleen of Odontoceti seems to follow the pattern noted in the spleens of nonmammalian vertebrates.

  2. Low-dose synergistic immunosuppression of T-dependent antibody responses by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and arsenic in C57BL/6J murine spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Lauer, Fredine T.; Liu Kejian; Hudson, Laurie G.; Burchiel, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and arsenic are both environmental agents that are known to have significant immunotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that PAH exposure of spleen cells in vitro produces significant immune suppression of humoral immunity, especially when P450 activation products are examined. Exposure to arsenic, particularly sodium arsenite, has also been found to be suppressive to antibody responses in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of the present studies was to examine the immunotoxicity of PAHs and arsenite following coexposures with the theory being that the agents may exert synergistic actions, which might be based on their different mechanisms of action. Spleen cells were isolated from male C57BL/6J wild-type mice and treated with PAHs and/or arsenic (arsenite or arsenate). Immunotoxicity assays were used to assess the T-dependent antibody response (TDAR) to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), measured by a direct plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. Cell viability was measured by trypan blue staining. Spleen cell viability was not altered following 4 days of PAH and/or arsenic treatment. However, the TDAR demonstrated suppression by both PAHs and arsenic in a concentration-dependent manner. p53 was also induced by NaAsO 2 (As 3+ ) and PAHs alone or in combination. The PAHs and their metabolites investigated included benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), BaP-7,8-diol, BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), DMBA-3,4-diol, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). PAH metabolites were found to be more potent than parent compounds in producing immunosuppression and inducing p53 expression. Interestingly, DB[a,l]P, a potent carcinogenic PAH not previously characterized for immunotoxicity, was also found to be strongly immunosuppressive. Arsenite (NaAsO 2 , As 3+ ) was found to produce immunosuppression at concentrations as low as 0.5 μM and was immunosuppressive at a 10-fold lower concentration than sodium arsenate (Na 2 HAsO 4 , As 5

  3. Distinct transcriptomic features are associated with transitional and mature B-cell populations in the mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden eKleiman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Splenic transitional B-cells (T1 and T2 are selected to avoid self-reactivity and to safeguard against autoimmunity, then differentiate into mature follicular (FO-I and FO-II and marginal zone (MZ subsets. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq of the five B-cell subsets revealed T1 cell signature genes included RAG suggesting a potential for receptor revision. T1 to T2 B-cell differentiation was marked by a switch from Myb to Myc, increased expression of the PI3K adapter DAP10 and MHC class II. FO-II may be an intermediate in FO-I differentiation and may also become MZ B-cells as suggested by principal component analysis (PCA. MZ B-cells possessed the most distinct transcriptome including downregulation of CD45 phosphatase-associated protein (CD45-AP/PTPRC-AP, as well as upregulation of IL-9R and innate molecules TLR3, TLR7 and bactericidal Perforin-2 (MPEG1. Among the endosomal TLRs, stimulation via TLR3 further enhanced Perforin-2 expression exclusively in MZ B-cells. Using gene-deleted and overexpressing transgenic mice we show that IL-9/IL-9R interaction resulted in rapid activation of STAT1, 3 and 5, primarily in MZ B-cells. Importantly, CD45-AP mutant mice had reduced transitional and increased mature MZ and FO B-cells, suggesting that it prevents premature entry of transitional B-cells to the mature B-cell pool or their survival and proliferation. Together, these findings suggest, developmental plasticity among splenic B-cell subsets, potential for receptor revision in peripheral tolerance whereas enhanced metabolism coincides with T2 to mature B-cell differentiation. Further, unique core transcriptional signatures in MZ B-cells may control their innate features.

  4. Splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activation and cytokines production by extract of Scrophularia variegata; an in vitro study on mice spleen cells

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    A. Azadmehr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae is a medicinal plant, used for various inflammatory diseases in Iranian Traditional Medicine. In the present study, we evaluated the immune modulation and antioxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S.  variegata. Methods: The splenocytes were harvested from the spleen of Balb/c mice and were cultured. The splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, cytokines production and antioxidant effects were evaluated by MTT assay, enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and DPPH assay, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract significantly increased splenocyte proliferation. The results indicated that the extract increased NK cell cytotoxicity of Yac-1 tumor cells and at the concentration of 50-200 µg/mL significantly increased IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines, although the level of IL-4 cytokine was significantly reduced. The antioxidant activity was observed in the extract with IC50 302.34±0.11 μg/mL.Conclusion: The increasing in the splenocyte proliferation, anti-tumor NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion were indicated as potent immunomodulatory effects. These results suggest that S. variegata could be considered in the treatment of immunopathological disorders such as allergy and cancer; however, future studies are necessary.

  5. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  6. Wandering Spleen with Splenic Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wandering spleen is a rare clinical occurrence with fewer than 500 cases reported and an incidence of less than 0.2%1, 2. The spleen is an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is involved in immunological defence and can serve as a storage site for red blood cells3. The spleen is normally ...

  7. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  8. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    . ► Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell populations. ► The antibody response of a streptococcal vaccine showed numerous changes.

  9. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl 2 (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 + CD25 − (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 − CD25 + (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1 + ). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed. ► Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell

  10. Investigations of the radiosensitivity of enzymes of the NAD metabolism localized in the cell nucleus in the spleen of white mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisel, P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of enzymes of the NAD metabolism localized in the cell nuclei and of NAD glycohydrolase in the total homogenate of the spleen of white mice was investigated. At the same time the DNA and protein contents were determined. After whole-body irradiation with 510 R, the activity of NAD pyrophosphorylase and NAD glycohydrolase located in the cell nuclei is markedly lower as early as 3 hours after irradiation; this decrease is noticeable until the 10th day after irradiation. With regard to the dose dependence of the radiosensitivity at 6 and 24 hours after irradiation, it was found that NAD pyrophosphorylase and the NAD glycohydrolase localized in the cell nuclei were very radiosensitive even at doses [de

  11. A nuclear localization signal in the matrix of spleen necrosis virus (SNV) does not allow efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells with SNV-derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Marie-Christine; Caruso, Manuel

    2005-08-01

    A major limitation in gene therapy for vectors derived from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) is that they only deliver genes into dividing cells. In this study, a careful comparison of spleen necrosis virus (SNV)-derived vectors with MLV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 retroviral vectors indicated that SNV vectors can deliver genes 4-fold more efficiently than MLV vectors into aphidicolin-arrested cells, although at a 25-fold lower efficiency than HIV-1-derived vectors. Furthermore, the addition of a NLS in the SNV matrix (MA) that mimics the one located in HIV-1 MA did not increase the ability of SNV vectors to transfer genes into arrested cells. Also, we found that the RD114 envelope was able to pseudotype SNV viral particles in a very efficient manner.

  12. Effect of UV radiation on the surface of mammalian immunocompetent cells. 1. The change in expression of some antigens and receptors of murine spleen lymphocyte surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylenkov, V.A.; Malygin, A.M. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Tsitologii)

    1982-12-01

    Short-wave (254nm) and long-wave (365 nm) UV rays (ShUS and LUV rays) induce the increase in the expression of surface markers of T lymphocytes-THETA(Thy-1) antigens and B lymphocytes-MBLA-antigens and EAS receptors when affecting mouse spleen cells in nonlethal and small lethal doses. Total cell content with T and B lymphocyte characters in an irradiated suspension exceeds even the total cell quantity in non-irradiated suspension (100%) which points to the possibility of the expression of plasmatic membrane antigens and receptors not manifested on the surface of nonirradiated lymphocytes. In the isolethal dose range (LD/sup 15/-LD/sup 28/) ShUV rays suppress and LUV rays induce further increase of THETA and MBLA antigens expression. Among B lymphocytes surface markers the MBLA antigens are more resistant to ShUV an LUV radiation as compared with the EAC receptors.

  13. Anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody formation by NZB/W (F1) spleen cells in a microculture system detected by solid phase radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, H; Terada, E; Ogita, T; Aotsuka, S; Yokohari, R

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay method was devised to detect mouse anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody. This method could easily detect the anti-dsDNA antibody in 1 : 10,000 dilutions (1 unit) of pooled 9-10-month-old female NZB/W F1 sera. The sensitivity was about 10(3)- and 10(2)-fold higher than that of the modified Farr method and of the double antibody technique respectively. NZB/W mice developed high titer anti-dsDNA antibody as they grew older. Spleen cells brought to a microculture system using flat-bottomed polystyrene plates produced anti-dsDNA antibody clearly detectable by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-dsDNA antibody produced in vitro (y units) was in close correlation with the anti-dsDNA antibody titer of the spleen donor (x units) (y = 4.8 X 10(-2) x -65, gamma = 0.94, P less than 0.001). A combination of the microculture system and solid-phase radioimmunoassay was recommended for the characterization of anti-dsDNA antibody-forming cells.

  14. Anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody formation by NZB/W (F1) spleen cells in a microculture system detected by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudaira, H.; Terada, E.; Ogita, T.; Aotsuka, S.; Yokohari, R.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay method was devised to detect mouse anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody. This method could easily detect the anti-ds DNA antibody in 1 : 10,000 dilutions (1 unit) of pooled 9-10 month-old female NZB/W F1 sera. The sensitivity was about 10 3 and 10 2 -fold higher than that of the modified Farr method and of the double antibody technique respectively. NZB/W mice developed high titer anti-dsDNA antibody as they grew older. Spleen cells brought to a microculture system using flat-bottomed polystyrene plates produced anti-dsDNA antibody clearly detectable by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-dsDNA antibody produced in vitro (y units) was in close correlation with the anti-dsDNA antibody titer of the spleen donor (x units) (y = 4.8 X 10 -2 x-65, γ = 0.94, P < 0.001). A combination of the microculture system and solid-phase radioimmunoassay was recommended for the characterization of anti-dsDNA antibody-forming cells. (Auth.)

  15. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  16. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-06-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs.

  17. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had...... failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs....... hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction...

  18. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  19. Establishment of human cell lines showing circadian rhythms of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Aki; Shimada, Hiroko; Numazawa, Kahori; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kawashima, Minae; Kato, Nobumasa; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Ebisawa, Takashi

    2008-11-28

    We have established human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines stably expressing the luciferase gene, driven by the human Bmal1 promoter, to obtain human-derived cells that show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence after dexamethasone treatment. The average circadian period of bioluminescence for the obtained clones was 24.07+/-0.48 h. Lithium (10 mM) in the medium significantly lengthened the circadian period of bioluminescence, which is consistent with previous reports, while 2 mM or 5 mM lithium had no effect. This is the first report on the establishment of human-derived cell lines that proliferate infinitely and show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence, and also the first to investigate the effects of low-dose lithium on the circadian rhythms of human-derived cells in vitro. The established cells will be useful for various in vitro studies of human circadian rhythms and for the development of new therapies for human disorders related to circadian rhythm disturbances.

  20. Effects of tigerinin peptides on cytokine production by mouse peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells and by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Jelena M; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Conlon, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    The tigerinins are a family of cationic, cyclic peptides of unknown biological function produced in the skins of diverse frog species. Tigerinin-1R (RVCSAIPLPICH.NH2) from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Dicroglossidae), tigerinin-1V (RICYAMWIPYPC) from Lithobates vaillanti (Ranidae), and tigerinin-1M (WCPPMIPLCSRF.NH2) from Xenopus muelleri (Pipidae) did not inhibit growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations up to 500 μg/ml and were not hemolytic. Incubation of peritoneal macrophages from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with tigerinin-1M, -1R and -1V (20 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and potentiated the stimulation produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Incubation with the tigerinins (20 μg/ml) significantly increased production of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated macrophages from C57BL/6 mice but only tigerinin-1V potentiated IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages from BALB/c mice. The tigerinins did not have significant effects on the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 by macrophages from BALB/c mice. In a population of mononuclear cells derived from mouse spleen, tigerinin-1M and -1V suppressed production of IFN-γ with no effect on IL-17 production and the three tigerinins enhanced IL-10 production. The three tigerinins (≤ 5 μg/ml) also significantly increased production of IL-10 in unstimulated and LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The data indicate that the tigerinins may function as immunomodulatory host-defense peptides in frog skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  2. Generation of retroviral particles for the spleen necrosis virus (SNV)-based vector system and their use in transduction of various cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Zahida; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Pomerantz, Roger J

    2010-06-01

    Genetically engineered retroviruses are widely used for gene delivery into human cells. A number of investigators have studied spleen necrosis virus (SNV) as a vehicle for gene delivery. Vectors developed from SNV and its closely associated avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain A (REV-A) can be used for gene transfer into a variety of cells, including primary hematopoietic cells and human brain and post-mitotic neuronal cells that are difficult to transduce with other vector systems. SNV-based vector systems have the advantage of being quite safe, because wild-type SNV is unable to infect human cells and has less preference for integration into transcriptionally active sites or genes. However, the generation of retroviral vectors requires cotransfection of more than one plasmid into a packaging cell line, which is a tedious process. The development of stable packaging cell lines expressing envelope (Env) proteins and the structural proteins Gag-Pol will enhance mass production of retroviral vectors for future gene therapy experiments both in vitro and in vivo. This protocol describes the generation of retroviral particles for the SNV-based vector system. These particles can then be used for transduction of various cell types; as an example, a technique for transduction of post-mitotic neurons is also presented.

  3. In vivo immunotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate in BALB/c mice: Identification of T-cell receptor and calcium-mediated signaling pathway disruption through gene expression profiling of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Yang, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Hui

    2015-10-05

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant that is used worldwide and is continuously being detected in biota and the environment, thus presenting potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. Although PFOS is highly immunotoxic, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study examined PFOS-induced immunotoxicity in the mouse spleen and explored its underlying mechanisms by gene expression profiling. Oral exposure of male BALB/c mice for three weeks followed by one-week recovery showed that a 10 mg/kg/day PFOS exposure damaged the splenic architecture, inhibited T-cell proliferation in response to mitogen, and increased the percentages of T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and cytotoxic T (CD3(+)CD8(+)) cells, despite the decrease in the absolute number of these cells. A delayed type of PFOS immunotoxicity was observed, which mainly occurred during the recovery period. Global gene expression profiling of mouse spleens and QRT-PCR analyses suggest that PFOS inhibited the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, and upregulated those in TCR signaling, calcium signaling, and p38/MAPK signaling pathways. Western blot analysis confirmed that the expressions of CAMK4, THEMIS, and CD3G, which were involved in the upregulated pathways, were induced upon PFOS exposure. Acute PFOS exposure modulated calcium homoeostasis in splenocytes. These results indicate that PFOS exposure can activate TCR signaling and calcium ion influx, which provides a clue for the potential mechanism of PFOS immunotoxicity. The altered signaling pathways by PFOS treatment as revealed in the present study might facilitate in better understanding PFOS immunotoxicity and explain the association between immune disease and PFOS exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-sulphur-colloid and heat-denatured {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled red cell scans demonstrating a giant intrapelvic spleen in a girl after splenectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, P.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan); Tzen, K.Y.; Tsai, M.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Lin, J.N. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Chang Gung Childrens Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2001-04-01

    A 17 x 12 x 5-cm giant intrapelvic mass in a 14-year-old girl is reported. This mass developed 6 years after a splenectomy for splenic torsion. The heat-denatured {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled red cell scan and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc- sulphur-colloid scan confirmed the specific red cell sequestration function and reticuloendothelial activity in the giant intrapelvic spleen. The size and development of the giant intrapelvic spleen are unusual. The usefulness of functional images to diagnosis the nature of the intrapelvic mass is well demonstrated. (orig.)

  5. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge References Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  6. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  7. Role of spleen-derived IL-10 in prevention of systemic low-grade inflammation by obesity [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-04-29

    Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen. Splenectomy (SPX) aggravates the inflammatory response in hypothalamus, liver and WAT. These SPX-induced alterations are inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, in IL-10 deficiency, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in these multiple organs. We show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 on inflammatory responses in obesity.

  8. [Clinical and experimental study on treatment of anorexy in children with the activating spleen prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S C; You, R D

    1991-02-01

    The treatment of 488 cases with anorexy in children showed that the curative effect of the group using Chinese medicines based on the differentiation of symptoms and signs by (1) activating the Spleen, (2) invigorating and activating the spleen was significantly higher than the control using concentrated vitamin B complex (P less than 0.001). The results of the experimental study were as follows: Erbao instant granules (the medicine for activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the D-xylose excretion rate of urine; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; raising the quality of 8 mineral elements in hair and the quality of SIgA in saliva; adjusting the abnormal peristalsis of the experimental rabbits and promoting the ability that duodenums which had been separated from rabbits had to absorb different amino acids and glucose. Jian'er syrup (the medicine for invigorating and activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the quality of 14 mineral elements in hair; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; increasing the index of thymus and spleen in the experimental rats and stimulating them to produce hemolysin. The authors tend to think that the therapeutic principle of activating the Spleen can improve appetite, help the body to absorb and utilize various nutrients which contain many kinds of essential trace elements.

  9. Host origin of follicular dendritic cells induced in the spleen of SCID mice after transfer of allogeneic lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; Kaji, M.; Takahashi, T.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are uniquely characterized by the ability to trap immune complexes. In a previous report, it was shown that functional FDC with the capacity to trap immune complexes via complement receptor emerged in the splenic follicle after transferring syngeneic lymphocytes into

  10. Comparison of altered expression of histocompatibility antigens with altered immune function in murine spleen cells treated with ultraviolet radiation and/or TPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretell, J.O.; Cone, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that several treatments that inhibited the ability of cells to stimulate the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) also blocked the shedding of histocompatibility antigens and Ia antigens from murine spleen cells. In the present studies, one of these treatments, ultraviolet radiation (UV), was shown to cause an initial loss in the density of H-2K, IA, and IE antigens prior to the block in shedding observed after culture of these cells. Further analysis revealed that the UV-induced loss of antigens could be prevented by the presence of colchicine during irradiation. Biosynthetic analyses revealed the IA antigen synthesis was also inhibited in the UV-irradiated cells. Examination of the effects of a second agent, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the turnover of histocompatibility antigens revealed that the biosynthesis and shedding of these antigens were accelerated by this agent. However, addition of TPA to UV-irradiated cells did not result in a reversal of the UV-induced block in biosynthesis of IA antigens. Results of immune function assays correlated with the biochemical studies: UV-irradiation inhibited the generation of the MLR, but TPA enhanced this reaction, and addition of TPA to mixed lymphocyte cultures with UV-irradiated stimulators did not reverse the UV-induced inhibition. These results suggest that, although the turnover of histocompatibility antigens may be affected by TPA and UV in an antagonistic fashion, additional factors other than the expression of histocompatibility antigens are operating in the inhibition of stimulation of an MLR by UV radiation or its enhancement by TPA.

  11. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy......Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis...

  12. [Pyoderma gangrenosum with aseptic spleen abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, N; Maubec, E; Boccara, O; Marinho, E; Valeyrie-Allanore, L; Lecaille, C; Sebban, V; Hersent, B; Picard-Dahan, C; Descamps, V; Crickx, B

    2009-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis in which systemic involvement is rare. It may be associated with systemic disease. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in the spleen. A 68-year-old man presenting pyoderma gangrenosum with pustules and stage I multiple myeloma was admitted for asthenia and abdominal pain. There were no skin lesions. Laboratory tests showed inflammatory syndrome with polynuclear leucocytes of 25,000/mm(3). CAT scans and abdominal ultrasound revealed a splenic abscess. A spleen biopsy was performed and histological examination showed polynuclear leukocyte infiltration, while cultures were negatives. Diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum with splenic involvement was made. Increased systemic corticosteroid therapy produced a successful outcome. Haematological findings remained unchanged. Spleen involvement in pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare and can mimic an infectious process. In such cases, routine screening is essential for associated diseases, particularly haematological malignancies.

  13. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  14. Calcium phosphate particles stimulate interleukin-1β release from human vascular smooth muscle cells: A role for spleen tyrosine kinase and exosome release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautova, Yana; Kapustin, Alexander N; Pappert, Kevin; Epple, Matthias; Okkenhaug, Hanneke; Cook, Simon J; Shanahan, Catherine M; Bootman, Martin D; Proudfoot, Diane

    2018-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particle deposits are found in several inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis. CaP, and other forms of crystals and particles, can promote inflammasome formation in macrophages leading to caspase-1 activation and secretion of mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Given the close association of small CaP particles with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerotic fibrous caps, we aimed to determine if CaP particles affected pro-inflammatory signalling in human VSMCs. Using ELISA to measure IL-1β release from VSMCs, we demonstrated that CaP particles stimulated IL-1β release from proliferating and senescent human VSMCs, but with substantially greater IL-1β release from senescent cells; this required caspase-1 activity but not LPS-priming of cells. Potential inflammasome agonists including ATP, nigericin and monosodium urate crystals did not stimulate IL-1β release from VSMCs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that CaP particles induced rapid activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) (increased phospho-Y525/526). The SYK inhibitor R406 reduced IL-1β release and caspase-1 activation in CaP particle-treated VSMCs, indicating that SYK activation occurs upstream of and is required for caspase-1 activation. In addition, IL-1β and caspase-1 colocalised in intracellular endosome-like vesicles and we detected IL-1β in exosomes isolated from VSMC media. Furthermore, CaP particle treatment stimulated exosome secretion by VSMCs in a SYK-dependent manner, while the exosome-release inhibitor spiroepoxide reduced IL-1β release. CaP particles stimulate SYK and caspase-1 activation in VSMCs, leading to the release of IL-1β, at least in part via exosomes. These novel findings in human VSMCs highlight the pro-inflammatory and pro-calcific potential of microcalcification. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Nam Jeong [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Koo [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Kil, E-mail: skpark@amc.seoul.kr [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-10

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  16. Immunohistochemical evidences showing the presence of thymulin containing cells located in involuted thymus and in peripheral lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45. In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  17. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  18. Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Adoptive transfer of immunity with enriched populations of spleen T and B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, V.; Phillips, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Thymectomized NIH and C57BL mice were more susceptible to Plasmodium chabaudi than controls, indicating a role for T cells in acquired immunity to the parasite. Enriched populations of T and B cells were prepared from the spleens of immune mice using nylon-wool columns, and were adoptively transferred to syngeneic non-irradiated mice or mice irradiated with 600 or 800 rad. Some immunity could usually be transferred with immune T, B and glass-wool (g.w.) filtered spleen cell populations. In the heavily irradiated mice g.w. filtered immune spleen cells gave the best protection and the immune T cells the least. Preliminary attempts to show synergistic activity between immune T and B cells in irradiated mice were not successful. (author)

  19. Autotransplantation of Spleen Mitigates Drug-Induced Liver Damage in Splenectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Sabrine Teixeira Ferraz; Rezende, Alice Belleigoli; Figueiredo, Bárbara Bruna Muniz; Mendonça, Ana Carolina de Paula; Almeida, Caroline de Souza; de Oliveira, Erick Esteves; de Paoli, Flávia; Teixeira, Henrique Couto

    2017-12-01

    The spleen presents numerous functions, including the production of immunoglobulins and blood filtration, removing microorganisms and cellular debris. The spleen also has anatomical and functional relationship with the liver, but there are few studies on this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of splenectomy and autologous spleen transplantation on both filtering functions of spleen and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Fifty-two BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups: splenectomized; splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in the greater omentum; sham operated control; and non-operated control. At day 7th, 14th, and 28th after surgery, splenic filtration was assessed by counting Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB) and pitted red cells (PIT). The animals received 400 mg/kg acetaminophen by gavage at day 28 th and after 12 or 24 hours were euthanized for evaluation of splenic and hepatic morphology. The splenectomized group demonstrated reduced filtration of HJB and PIT in all analyzes, while the autotransplanted group developed progressive recovery of function after the 14th day. At day 28 after surgery the implants showed similar histology in comparison to normal spleen. Liver histology showed more intense centrilobular necrosis in splenectomized group in comparison to the others, suggesting a protective role of spleen in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Splenic implants showed structural and functional recovery, demonstrating the ability of autologous implant to rescue filtering function of intact spleen. Furthermore, the integrity of splenic function appears to influence liver morphology, since the presence of the splenic implants mitigated the effects of chemically-induced liver damage.

  20. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  1. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  2. Wandering spleen: Case report | Mwango | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the ...

  3. PrP protein is associated with follicular dendritic cells of spleens and lymph nodes in uninfected and scrapie-infected mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, P. A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Kraal, G.; Fraser, H.; Bruce, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Abnormal forms of a host protein, PrP, accumulate in the central nervous system in scrapie-affected animals. Here, PrP protein was detected immunocytochemically in tissue sections of spleen, lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and pancreas from uninfected mice and from mice infected with a range of

  4. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  5. Overview of the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  6. Spleen and Lymphatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along the network of lymph vessels. The nodes house lymphocytes , a type of white blood cell. Some ... Works Carrying Away Waste Lymph fluid drains into tiny vessels called lymph capillaries. The fluid is then ...

  7. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  8. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectors with Tat-PTD modified hexon and serotype 35 fiber show greatly enhanced transduction capacity of primary cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Yu

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 vectors represent one of the most efficient gene delivery vectors in life sciences. However, Ad5 is dependent on expression of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus-receptor (CAR on the surface of target cell for efficient transduction, which limits it's utility for certain cell types. Herein we present a new vector, Ad5PTDf35, which is an Ad5 vector having serotype 35 fiber-specificity and Tat-PTD hexon-modification. This vector shows dramatically increased transduction capacity of primary human cell cultures including T cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, pancreatic islets and exocrine cells, mesenchymal stem cells and tumor initiating cells. Biodistribution in mice following systemic administration (tail-vein injection show significantly reduced uptake in the liver and spleen of Ad5PTDf35 compared to unmodified Ad5. Therefore, replication-competent viruses with these modifications may be further developed as oncolytic agents for cancer therapy. User-friendly backbone plasmids containing these modifications were developed for compatibility to the AdEasy-system to facilitate the development of surface-modified adenoviruses for gene delivery to difficult-to-transduce cells in basic, pre-clinical and clinical research.

  9. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  10. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  11. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  12. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  13. Differential expression of heparan sulfate domains in rat spleen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the spleen is composed of a meshwork of reticulum cells and their matrix. Heparan sulfates (HS) are important components of this meshwork and are involved in processes such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytokine/growth factor binding. The expression of HS epitopes

  14. The small spleen: sonographic patterns of functional hyposplenia or asplenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, Christian; Eichkorn, Miriam; Zugmaier, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Functional hyposplenia or asplenia (FAS) can be associated with potential fatal infections. The diagnosis of FAS is traditionally made on liver-spleen scintigraphy and finding Howell-Jolly bodies within erythrocytes. In this retrospective study, our goal was to identify any characteristic sonographic findings of the spleen in patients with FAS in an attempt to determine whether the diagnosis of FAS can be made sonographically. In a review of all medical and sonographic records from the period of January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2001, we identified 24 patients (11 men, 13 women) in whom FAS had been diagnosed by liver-spleen scintigraphy (n = 13) or the finding of Howell-Jolly bodies (n = 11). The following sonographic parameters were determined: size of spleen (small, normal, or large), echotexture of the spleen (homogeneous versus inhomogeneous), echogenicity (isoechoic versus hyperechoic), presence of focal splenic lesions, and patterns of splenic vascularization as determined by color Doppler sonography (absent flow, hilar flow, or parenchymal flow). The spleen was small in 20 patients (83%) and normal in the other 4 (17%). Echotexture was homogeneous in 13 patients (54%) and inhomogeneous in 11 (46%). The spleen was isoechoic in 18 cases (75%) and hyperechoic in 6 (25%). Six patients (25%) had focal lesions. Color Doppler sonography showed absent flow in 4 patients (17%), hilar flow in 17 (71%), and hilar and parenchymal vascularization in 3 (12%). Sonographic findings in the spleen of patients with FAS are characterized predominantly by a small spleen with absence of parenchymal vascularization on color Doppler sonography in most cases. Future prospective studies will be necessary to confirm these findings and to determine whether FAS can be diagnosed reliably with sonography. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 31:152-155, 2003

  15. Hybrid cells derived from breast epithelial cell/breast cancer cell fusion events show a differential RAF-AKT crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Cem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise to stable M13MDA435 hybrid cells, which are characterised by a unique gene expression profile and migratory behaviour. Here we investigated the involvement of the PLC-β/γ1, PI3K/AKT and RAS-RAF-ERK signal transduction cascades in the EGF and SDF-1α induced migration of two M13MDA435 hybrid cell clones in comparison to their parental cells. Results Analysis of the migratory behaviour by using the three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay showed that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells as well as M13MDA435 hybrid cells, but not the breast cancer cell line, responded to EGF stimulation with an increased locomotory activity. By contrast, SDF-1α solely stimulated the migration of M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells, whereas the migratory activity of the other cell lines was blocked. Analysis of signal transduction cascades revealed a putative differential RAF-AKT crosstalk in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrid cell clones. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 effectively blocked the EGF induced migration of M13MDA435-3 hybrid cells, whereas the EGF induced locomotion of M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells was markedly increased. Analysis of RAF-1 S259 phosphorylation, being a major mediator of the negative regulation of RAF-1 by AKT, showed decreased pRAF-1 S259 levels in LY294002 treated M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells. By contrast, pRAF-1 S259 levels remained unaltered in the other cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling by Ly294002 relieves the AKT mediated phosphorylation of RAF-1, thereby restoring MAPK signalling. Conclusions Here we show that hybrid cells could evolve exhibiting a

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells show little tropism for the resting and differentiated cancer stem cell-like glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenlin; Jiang, Zhongmin; Huang, Jianyong; Huang, Shuqiang; Li, Yanxia; Sheng, Feng; Yu, Simiao; Yu, Shizhu; Liu, Xiaozhi

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic resistance of glioma cells to radiation and chemotherapy is currently hypothesized to be partially attributed to the existence of cancer stem cells. Emerging studies suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may serve as a potential carrier for delivery of therapeutic genes to disseminated glioma cells. However, the tropism character of mesenchymal stem cells for cancer stem cell-like glioma cells has rarely been described. In this study, we obtained homologous bone marrow-derived (BM-) and adipose tissue-derived (AT-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblast, and cancer stem cell-like glioma cells (CSGCs) from tumor-bearing mice, and compared the tropism character of BM- and AT-MSCs for CSGCs with various form of existence. To characterize the cell proliferation and differentiation, the spheroids of CSGCs were cultured on the surface of the substrate with different stiffness, combined with or withdrew basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in medium. Our results showed that the CSGCs during the process of cell proliferation, but not in resting and differentiated status, display strong tropism characteristics on both BM- and AT-MSCs, as well as the expression of their cell chemokine factors which mediate cell migration. If the conclusion is further confirmed, it may expose a fatal flaw of MSCs as tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents in the treatment of the CSGCs, even other cancer stem cells, because there always exist a part of cancer stem cells that are in resting status. Overall, our findings provide novel insight into the complex issue of the MSCs as drug delivery in the treatment of brain tumors, especially in tumor stem cells.

  17. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  18. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  19. Immunity in the spleen and blood of mice immunized with irradiated Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; Sato, Maria Notomi; do Nascimento, Nanci; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong and long-lasting immune response that is able to prevent most reinfections but allows tissue cysts. Irradiated, sterilized T. gondii tachyzoites are an interesting vaccine, and they induce immunity that is similar to infection, but without cysts. In this study, we evaluated the cellular immune response in the blood and spleen of mice immunized with this preparation by mouth (v.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) and analyzed the protection after challenge with viable parasites. BALB/c mice were immunized with three i.p. or v.o. doses of irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites. Oral challenge with ten cysts of the ME-49 or VEG strain at 90 days after the last dose resulted in high levels of protection with low parasite burden in the immunized animals. There were higher levels of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in the serum, and the i.p. immunized mice had higher levels of the high-affinity IgG and IgM antibodies than the orally immunized mice, which had more high-affinity IgA antibodies. B cells (CD19(+)), plasma cells (CD138(+)) and the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were increased in both the blood and spleen. Cells from the spleen of the i.p. immunized mice also showed antigen-induced production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). The CD4(+) T cells, B cells and likely CD8(+) T cells from the spleens of the i.p. immunized mice proliferated with a specific antigen. The protection was correlated with the spleen and blood CD8(+) T cell, high-affinity IgG and IgM and antigen-induced IL-10 and IL-4 production. Immunization with irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites induces an immune response that is mediated by B cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with increased humoral and cellular immune responses that are necessary for host protection after infection. The vaccine is similar to natural infection, but free of tissue cysts; this immunity restrains infection at challenge and can be an

  20. Relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, dramatic advances have taken place in our knowledge of the organization and functions of the thymus and lymphoid system. Some of our understanding has come form the application of radiation therapy to diseases derived from lymphoid organs. Human investigations using radiotherapy have shed light on the radiosensitivities of the system as well as on its important functional activities. Likewise, studies of cellular traffic in the lymphoid organs, i.e., the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, showed that extensive cellular exchange occurs between the bone marrow compartment with its hemopoietic and progenitor cells and the various central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Because this is so, the term lymphohemopoietic (LH) system is appropriate. This very selective review will recapitulate some of the ongoing research in radiotherapy and radiobiology in these closely related fields. The clinical therapeutic advances have taken place in four important settings closely related to clinical therapy of tumor derived from the LH system

  1. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus on the formation of hemopoietic colonies in the spleen of lethally irradiated mice after bone marrow cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, N.A.; Likhovetskaya, Z.M.; Kurbanova, G.N.; Prigozhina, T.A.; L'vovich, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Colony formation capability of serum from animals with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus was studied in lethally irradiated mice. Male-rats of Wistar line and hybrid mice (CBA x C57 BL) were used in the experiments. The serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus was injected simultaneously with bone marrow transplantation into lethally irradiated mice. The number of macrocolonies in the spleen was counted on the 9th day. It was ascertained that the serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus caused an increase of the number of macroscopically visible colonies in the spleen of lethally irradiated mice. The determination of hemopoetic types of colonies showed that the effect of the serum from those animals caused an increase of the number of granulocytic-type colonies. The initiation of colony stimulating and leukopoetic activity in the blood of animals after the destruction of mammillary body nuclei and posterior hypothalamic nucleus attested, according to the authors point of view, that humoral mediators (humoral mediator) could participated in the mechanism of hypothalamus effect on leulopoiesis

  3. [Inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen. An old concept with many questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, B; Pérez del Río, M J; Vara, A; Ablanedo, P; Ovidio González, L; Florentino Fresno, M

    1998-06-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen is an infrequent benign condition. It is difficult to differentiate, on a clinical and radiological basis, from haematologic neoplasms, granulomatous diseases as sarcoidosis and splenic hamartoma. Sometimes can be an incidental finding. Two women, aged 72 years, are presented. On the first case the sympthons mi micked a malignant disease. The second one was an incidental finding in a routine study for cholecystitis. Histological and immunohistochemical study showed a polymorphic cellular population including plasma cell, lymphoid cells, histiocytes, eosinophils and spindle cells, showing a reactive benign character. Plasma cells presented light chains polyclonality. Lymphoid cells were mature and with T inmunophenotype. Spindle cells were focally positive for muscle spe-cific actin and vimentine. In the first case, ultraestructural study showed myofibroblast morphology on the stromal spindle cells. Like many other authors have already postulated, immunohistochemical and ultraestructural findings would corroborate the mesenchymal reactive and benign nature of this type of lesions.

  4. Hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation and associated pagetoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yumi; Tanigawa, Hiroki; Harada, Miho; Fukushima, Satoshi; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Ishihara, Tsuyoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Iyama, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-01

    Herein, we report a 63-year-old man presenting with hidradenocarcinoma showing prominent mucinous and squamous differentiation on his back. The tumor was dermal-based, solid and cystic. Tumor cells with squamous differentiation and with keratin pearl formation were identified predominantly in the superficial dermis, and mucinous cells were identified principally in the cystic lesion in the deep dermis. Interestingly, the additional feature of pagetoid cells was identified in the overlying epidermis. Both the mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma and pagetoid cells had intracytoplasmic mucin; however, they had different histopathologic findings and immunophenotypes. Mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma had small nuclei and abundant intracytoplasmic mucin presenting goblet cells with low rate of positive immunostaining for p53 and Ki67. In contrast, pagetoid cells had larger nuclei with less intracytoplasmic mucin. Both p53- and Ki67-positive cells were increased in pagetoid cells. Additionally, mucinous cells in hidradenocarcinoma were MUC1(+)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(+)/MUC6(+), but pagetoid cells were MUC1(+; focal)/MUC2(-)/MUC5AC(-)/MUC6(+; focal). The derivation of pagetoid cells is unclear; however, the localized small region of pagetoid cells over the hidradenocarcinoma in the present case may suggest a common histogenesis of these two malignant neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Sup (99m) Tc-MDP accumulation and absence of concentration of sup (99m) Tc-sulfur colloid in the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.; Carvalho, A.C.M. de; Ulyssea, R.

    1984-01-01

    A case of a nine years old girl with sickle cell anemia, that showed splenic accumulation of sup (99m) Tc-MDP during bone scintigraphy is reported. On the other side, the scan with sup (99m) Tc-sulfur colloid showed no uptake in the spleen. These findings are discussed with a brief review of the pertinent literature. (Author) [pt

  6. Normal rat kidney cells secrete both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of osteopontin showing different physiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemir, M.; DeVouge, M.W.; Mukherjee, B.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have reported previously that the 69-kDa major phosphoprotein, secreted by normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, is osteopontin, a glycosylated bone matrix protein. Here we show that this 69-kDa osteopontin is secreted by NRK cells in both phosphorylated (pp69) and nonphosphorylated (np69) forms, with estimated isoelectric points of 3.8 and 4.5, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of radioiodinated cell surface proteins immunoprecipitated with an anti-69-kDa osteopontin serum, demonstrates that the 69-kDa osteopontin is also present on the cell surface, but only its phosphorylated form (pp69) shows such cell surface association. Because osteopontin mediates cell adhesion and spreading, and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser cell-binding sequence, our observations strongly suggest that the cell surface localization of pp69 osteopontin is receptor-mediated, and the modification by phosphorylation may be crucial for its receptor binding activity. We also report that antisera directed against either fibronectin or 69-kDa osteopontin co-immunoprecipitate both np69 osteopontin and fibronectin as a heat-dissociable complex. In contrast, pp69 osteopontin does not co-precipitate with fibronectin. Furthermore, compared to NRK cells, vanadyl sulfate-treated NRK cells which acquire a reversible transformed phenotype, including anchorage-independent growth, show increased levels of pp69 on the cell surface, concomitant with significantly decreased levels of pp69 and elevated levels of np69 in the conditioned media. The data presented here establish transformation sensitivity of NRK cell-secreted osteopontin with respect to its secretion and cell surface localization, and demonstrate that phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of osteopontin have different physiological properties, which may regulate the functional roles of this extracellular matrix protein

  7. Response of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF ) in blood and spleen mice that vaccinated with P.berghei radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlina; Tur R; Teja K

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is a glycoprotein derived from helper T lymphocytes that play an important role in the body's response against malaria infection. However, TNF-α has double play that is on appropriate levels will provide protection and healing, while at excessive levels which may be a response to hyperparasitemia. Thus investigated the expression of TNF alpha secreted blood lymphocytes and spleen cells the mice that's infected with 1 x 10 7 P.berghei infectious or inactivated by radiation. Levels of TNF alpha serum and spleen cell culture medium was monitored on days 2, 7, 14 post infection. Monitoring of parasite growth every two days for 60 days. Determination of TNF alpha levels were measure using ELISA. The results showed parasitaemia mice infected with 175 Gy irradiated parasites have pre patent period of 16 days longer than the control (non-irradiated parasites) with low parasitaemia. TNF alpha concentration that secreted spleen cells of mice vaccinated higher than control mice. Concentration of TNF alpha that secreted blood lymphocyte of mice vaccinated lower than control mice. It was concluded that the secretion of TNF alpha by blood lymphocytes caused more pathogenic factors of the parasite, while the secretion of TNF alpha in spleen due to an immune response against the parasite. (author)

  8. The effect of Echinococcus granulosus on spleen cells and TGF-β expression in the peripheral blood of BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S; Chen, X; Zhang, J; Xu, F; Fang, H; Hou, J; Zhang, X; Wu, X; Chen, X

    2017-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a zoonotic parasitic disease. The effective immune evasion mechanisms of E. granulosus allow it to parasitize its hosts. However, the status of the innate and adaptive immune cells and their contributions to E. granulosus progression remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of E. granulosus infection on T cells, NK cell responses and TGF-β expression during the early infection phase in BALB/c mice. In E. granulosus infections, there was an increasing tendency in the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + T cells and CD4 + Foxp3 + T cells and peripheral blood TGF-β levels and relative expression of the Foxp3 gene. Moreover, there were a decreasing tendency in the percentage of NK cells and NK cell cytotoxicity and the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. The TGF-β1/Smad pathway was activated by E. granulosus in mice. Above results can be reversed by the inhibitor SB-525334 (potent activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor). These results suggest that the TGF-β/Smad pathway plays an important role in changes of T-cell or NK cell responses. These results may contribute to revealing the preliminary molecular mechanisms in establishing hydatid infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Role of the spleen in cyclophosphamide-induced hematosuppression and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Meng, Qinggang; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2009-05-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced in spleens due to various diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of spleen in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematosuppression and EMH in mice. Balb/c mice were IP injected with 300 mg/kg CTX 2 weeks after splenectomy or sham operation and randomly sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. Blood samples were collected, and spleens were weighed, histologically analyzed, and then used for flow cytometry. There were significant differences in white blood count, red blood count, platelet numbers and hemoglobin concentration between the splenectomized and sham-operated mice after CTX injection. The cellularity of the spleen was reduced 3 days following CTX treatment but then rose 7 days after CTX treatment. The numbers of colony-forming units in the spleen reached a peak 7 days after CTX injection, then declined. Flow cytometry demonstrated the percentage of CD34(+) and CD117(+) cells in the spleen increased 7 days after CTX injection, indicating the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the spleen. The study indicates that EMH occurs as a compensatory reaction to CTX-induced hematosuppression in the murine spleen, implying that conservation of the spleen may promote the recovery of cancer patients from chemotherapy-induced hematosuppression.

  10. Radiologic findings of intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Acu

    2015-06-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital abnormality consisting of normal splenic tissue in ectopic sites. They are found most commonly near the splenic hilum. One in every six accessory spleens is located in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis of an IPAS should be considered when a pancreatic mass has the CT densities and/or MRI signal intensities similar to those of the spleen, with and without contrast medium. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 140-143

  11. Studi Histopatologi Limpa Anjing Penderita Distemper Dikaitkan Dengan Sebaran Sel-Sel Radang Pada Otak Dan Paru (HISTOPHATOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPLEEN ON DOGS INFECTED WITH DISTEMPER ASSOCIATED TO INFLAMATION IN THE BRAIN AND LUNGS)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Furkam Fadilah; I Ketut Berata; I Made Kardena

    2015-01-01

    This study aim was to determine the distribution of inflammatory cells in canine distemper in terms of the level of inflammation in the spleen, brain and lungs. The sample used 20 infected dogs wihich from the spleens, brains, and lungs of the dogs were collected. These organs were processed for histophatological observation using harris hematoxilyn-eosyn stain. The inflammation of the organs examined by using binocular microscope with 200X magnification. the results showed that inflammation ...

  12. Preparation of 99''m technitium labelled erythrocytes coated with anti-rhesus-D immunoglobulin (anti-Rho-D IgG) for defective spleen diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanny Kartini, H.; Karnama, S.; Ahmad Muhtadi; Karna Awangga

    1999-01-01

    Preparation of 99m technetium-red blood cells coated with anti-rhesus-D IgG has been carried out and evaluated. Some factors such as the concentration of Sn(II) and incubation time which can influence the labelling yield are discussed. A labelling efficiency of greater than 90% (93.1 ±1.4% ) was obtained. Biological studies in normal human volunteers, showed that 99m Tc-red blood cell coated with anti-rhesus-D IgG accumulated in the spleen and may become a spleen imaging agent. (author)

  13. Novel ruthenium methylcyclopentadienyl complex bearing a bipyridine perfluorinated ligand shows strong activity towards colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo G; Brás, Ana Rita; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Tatikonda, Rajendhraprasad; Sanches, Anabela; Robalo, M Paula; Avecilla, Fernando; Moreira, Tiago; Garcia, M Helena; Haukka, Matti; Preto, Ana; Valente, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Three new compounds have been synthesized and completely characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The new bipyridine-perfluorinated ligand L1 and the new organometallic complex [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 ) 2 Cl] (Ru1) crystalize in the centrosymmetric triclinic space group P1¯. Analysis of the phenotypic effects induced by both organometallic complexes Ru1 and [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 )(L1)][CF 3 SO 3 ] (Ru2), on human colorectal cancer cells (SW480 and RKO) survival, showed that Ru2 has a potent anti-proliferative activity, 4-6 times higher than cisplatin, and induce apoptosis in these cells. Data obtained in a noncancerous cell line derived from normal colon epithelial cells (NCM460) revealed an intrinsic selectivity of Ru2 for malignant cells at low concentrations, showing the high potential of this compound as a selective anticancer agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Head direction cells in the postsubiculum do not show replay of prior waking sequences during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark P; Bogaard, Andrew R; Andrews, Chris M; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    During slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, hippocampal place cells in the rat show replay of sequences previously observed during waking. We tested the hypothesis from computational modeling that the temporal structure of REM sleep replay could arise from an interplay of place cells with head direction cells in the postsubiculum. Physiological single-unit recording was performed simultaneously from five or more head direction or place by head direction cells in the postsubiculum during running on a circular track allowing sampling of a full range of head directions, and during sleep periods before and after running on the circular track. Data analysis compared the spiking activity during individual REM periods with waking as in previous analysis procedures for REM sleep. We also used a new procedure comparing groups of similar runs during waking with REM sleep periods. There was no consistent evidence for a statistically significant correlation of the temporal structure of spiking during REM sleep with spiking during waking running periods. Thus, the spiking activity of head direction cells during REM sleep does not show replay of head direction cell activity occurring during a previous waking period of running on the task. In addition, we compared the spiking of postsubiculum neurons during hippocampal sharp wave ripple events. We show that head direction cells are not activated during sharp wave ripples, whereas neurons responsive to place in the postsubiculum show reliable spiking at ripple events. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits of the spleen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... Tables 2 and 3 show a direct relationship of the spleen length with both age and body size indices. Table 3 shows a. Pearson correlation matrix of the splenic length with other variables. The splenic length correlated best with BSA, followed by WT. The splenic length was established to be longer in males.

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  17. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  18. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xin

    2014-05-29

    Background: Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition.Methods: Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher\\'s exact test.Results: Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells.Conclusions: Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular

  19. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  20. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  1. Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, show ability to maintain dermal papilla cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.

  2. Putative cancer stem cells in malignant pleural mesothelioma show resistance to cisplatin and pemetrexed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Dericks, Lourdes; Carboni, Giovanni L; Schmid, Ralph A; Karoubi, Golnaz

    2010-08-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal cancer of the mesothelium with high chemotherapeutic resistance via unknown mechanisms. A prevailing hypothesis states that cancer stem cells (CSCs) persist in tumors causing relapse after chemotherapy, thus, rendering these cells as critical targets responsible for tumor resistance and recurrence. We selected candidate CSC markers based on expansion under hypoxic conditions, a hallmark for the selection of chemoresistant cells; and investigated the expression of CSC markers: CD133, Bmi-1, uPAR and ABCG2 in three MPM cell lines and normal mesothelial cells by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, we evaluated the chemotherapeutic resistance associated with each CSC marker by determining the change in CSC marker-mRNA levels as an index of drug-resistance following treatment with either cisplatin or pemetrexed. We demonstrate the expression of CSC markers: CD133, Bmi-1, uPAR and ABCG2 in both normal and MPM cell lines. Bmi-1+, uPAR+ and ABCG2+ cells show a distinct role in conferring chemoresistance to cisplatin and pemetrexed in the malignant setting. By contrast, these markers have no apparent participation in chemoresistance to drug treatments in normal mesothelial cells. Intriguingly, CD133 revealed chemoresistant properties in both normal mesothelial and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells. This study provides evidence of putative CSCs conferring drug-resistance to cisplatin and pemetrexed in MPM cell lines. Specific targeting of these drug-resistant cells, while considering the functional heterogeneity of the MPM subtypes, may contribute to more focused and effective chemotherapeutic regimens for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  3. Cytotoxic hydrogen bridged ruthenium quinaldamide complexes showing induced cancer cell death by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Rianne M; Allison, Simon J; Rafferty, Karen; Ghandhi, Laura; Pask, Christopher M; McGowan, Patrick C

    2016-08-16

    This report presents the first known p-cymene ruthenium quinaldamide complexes which are stabilised by a hydrogen-bridging atom, [{(p-cym)Ru(II)X(N,N)}{H(+)}{(N,N)XRu(II)(p-cym)}][PF6] (N,N = functionalised quinaldamide and X = Cl or Br). These complexes are formed by a reaction of [p-cymRu(μ-X)2]2 with a functionalised quinaldamide ligand. When filtered over NH4PF6, and under aerobic conditions the equilibrium of NH4PF6 ⇔ NH3 + HPF6 enables incorporation of HPF6 and the stabilisation of two monomeric ruthenium complexes by a bridging H(+), which are counter-balanced by a PF6 counterion. X-ray crystallographic analysis is presented for six new structures with OO distances of 2.420(4)-2.448(15) Å, which is significant for strong hydrogen bonds. Chemosensitivity studies against HCT116, A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human cancer cells showed the ruthenium complexes with a bromide ancillary ligand to be more potent than those with a chloride ligand. The 4'-fluoro compounds show a reduction in potency for both chloride and bromide complexes against all cell lines, but an increase in selectivity towards cancer cells compared to non-cancer ARPE-19 cells, with a selectivity index >1. Mechanistic studies showed a clear correlation between IC50 values and induction of cell death by apoptosis.

  4. The endoperoxide ascaridol shows strong differential cytotoxicity in nucleotide excision repair-deficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Rashda [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Efferth, Thomas [Institute of Pharmacy und Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Kuhmann, Christine [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Opatz, Till [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hao, Xiaojiang [Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204 (China); Popanda, Odilia, E-mail: o.popanda@dkfz.de [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmezer, Peter [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Targeting synthetic lethality in DNA repair pathways has become a promising anti-cancer strategy. However little is known about such interactions with regard to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Therefore, cell lines with a defect in the NER genes ERCC6 or XPC and their normal counterparts were screened with 53 chemically defined phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for differential cytotoxic effects. The screening revealed 12 drugs that killed NER-deficient cells more efficiently than proficient cells. Five drugs were further analyzed for IC{sub 50} values, effects on cell cycle distribution, and induction of DNA damage. Ascaridol was the most effective compound with a difference of > 1000-fold in resistance between normal and NER-deficient cells (IC{sub 50} values for cells with deficiency in ERCC6: 0.15 μM, XPC: 0.18 μM, and normal cells: > 180 μM). NER-deficiency combined with ascaridol treatment led to G2/M-phase arrest, an increased percentage of subG1 cells, and a substantially higher DNA damage induction. These results were confirmed in a second set of NER-deficient and -proficient cell lines with isogenic background. Finally, ascaridol was characterized for its ability to generate oxidative DNA damage. The drug led to a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species at cytotoxic concentrations, but only NER-deficient cells showed a strongly induced amount of 8-oxodG sites. In summary, ascaridol is a cytotoxic and DNA-damaging compound which generates intracellular reactive oxidative intermediates and which selectively affects NER-deficient cells. This could provide a new therapeutic option to treat cancer cells with mutations in NER genes. -- Highlights: ► Thousand-fold higher Ascaridol activity in NER-deficient versus proficient cells. ► Impaired repair of Ascaridol-induced oxidative DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. ► Selective activity of Ascaridol opens new therapy

  5. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  6. Dihydrochalcone Compounds Isolated from Crabapple Leaves Showed Anticancer Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven dihydrochalcone compounds were isolated from the leaves of Malus crabapples, cv. “Radiant”, and their chemical structures were elucidated by UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. These compounds, which include trilobatin (A1, phloretin (A2, 3-hydroxyphloretin (A3, phloretin rutinoside (A4, phlorizin (A5, 6′′-O-coumaroyl-4′-O-glucopyranosylphloretin (A6, and 3′′′-methoxy-6′′-O-feruloy-4′-O-glucopyranosyl-phloretin (A7, all belong to the phloretin class and its derivatives. Compounds A6 and A7 are two new rare dihydrochalcone compounds. The results of a MTT cancer cell growth inhibition assay demonstrated that phloretin and these derivatives showed significant positive anticancer activities against several human cancer cell lines, including the A549 human lung cancer cell line, Bel 7402 liver cancer cell line, HepG2 human ileocecal cancer cell line, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. A7 had significant effects on all cancer cell lines, suggesting potential applications for phloretin and its derivatives. Adding a methoxyl group to phloretin dramatically increases phloretin’s anticancer activity.

  7. The reverse transcription inhibitor abacavir shows anticancer activity in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Carlini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transposable Elements (TEs comprise nearly 45% of the entire genome and are part of sophisticated regulatory network systems that control developmental processes in normal and pathological conditions. The retroviral/retrotransposon gene machinery consists mainly of Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs-1 and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs that code for their own endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT. Interestingly, RT is typically expressed at high levels in cancer cells. Recent studies report that RT inhibition by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs induces growth arrest and cell differentiation in vitro and antagonizes growth of human tumors in animal model. In the present study we analyze the anticancer activity of Abacavir (ABC, a nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI, on PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ABC significantly reduces cell growth, migration and invasion processes, considerably slows S phase progression, induces senescence and cell death in prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these observations, microarray analysis on PC3 cells shows that ABC induces specific and dose-dependent changes in gene expression, involving multiple cellular pathways. Notably, by quantitative Real-Time PCR we found that LINE-1 ORF1 and ORF2 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by ABC treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of ABC as anticancer agent able to induce antiproliferative activity and trigger senescence in prostate cancer cells. Noteworthy, we show that ABC elicits up-regulation of LINE-1 expression, suggesting the involvement of these elements in the observed cellular modifications.

  8. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579

  9. Effects of aluminum trichloride on the trace elements and cytokines in the spleen of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Li, Xinwei; Chen, Chongxiao; Wang, Fan; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Miao, Liguang

    2012-08-01

    The bioaccumulation and immunotoxicity of aluminum (Al) have been previously documented. Al accumulates in the organs of the organism, including spleen. Spleen is a peripheral organ of the immune system. The accumulated Al may alter the immune function. Here, we investigated the bioaccumulation of Al in spleen and its alterations in the immune system. Forty male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) weighed 110-120 g were orally exposed to aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) (0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water for 120 days. The concentrations of spleen's Al, iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and growth index were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of Al and Cu in the spleen were increased in an AlCl(3)-dose dependent manner, and the concentrations of spleen's growth index, Fe, Zn, IL-2 and TNF-α were reduced in AlCl(3)-treated rats. The results suggest that AlCl(3) can suppress the growth of spleen, disorder the balance of trace elements and inhibit the immune regulation of cytokines in the spleen. It indicates that AlCl(3) suppresses the immune function of spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  11. Indolent B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancy in the Spleen of a Man Who Handled Benzene: Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a history of benzene exposure who developed splenic marginal zone lymphoma. For 6 years, he had worked in an enclosed space cleaning instruments with benzene. He was diagnosed with splenic marginal zone lymphoma 19 years after retirement. During his time of working in the laboratory in the 1980s, working environments were not monitored for hazardous materials. We indirectly estimated the cumulative level of past benzene exposure using job-exposure matrices and technical assumptions. Care must be taken in investigating the relevance of occupational benzene exposure in the occurrence of indolent B-cell lymphoma. Because of the long latency period and because occupational measurement data do not exist for the period during the patient's exposure, the epidemiological impact of benzene exposure may be underestimated.

  12. Human small-cell lung cancers show amplification and expression of the N-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, M.M.; Brooks, B.J. Jr.; Carney, D.N.; Gazdar, A.F.; Battey, J.F.; Sausville, E.A.; Minna, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found that 6 of 31 independently derived human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines have 5- to 170-fold amplified N-myc gene sequences. The amplification is seen with probes from two separate exons of N-myc, which are homologous to either the second or the third exon of the c-myc gene. Amplified N-myc sequences were found in a tumor cell line started prior to chemotherapy, in SCLC tumor samples harvested directly from tumor metastases at autopsy, and from a resected primary lung cancer. Several N-myc-amplified tumor cell lines also exhibited N-myc hybridizing fragments not in the germ-line position. In one patient's tumor, an additional amplitifed N-myc DNA fragment was observed and this fragment was heterogeneously distributed in liver metastases. In contrast to SCLC with neuroendocrine properties, no non-small-cell lung cancer lines examined were found to have N-myc amplification. Fragments encoding two N-myc exons also detect increased amounts of a 3.1-kilobase N-myc mRNA in N-myc-amplified SCLC lines and in one cell line that does not show N-myc gene amplification. Both DNA and RNA hybridization experiments, using a 32 P-labelled restriction probe, show that in any one SCLC cell line, only one myc-related gene is amplified and expressed. They conclude that N-myc amplification is both common and potentially significant in the tumorigenesis or tumor progression of SCLC

  13. Characterization of Fetal Keratinocytes, Showing Enhanced Stem Cell-Like Properties: A Potential Source of Cells for Skin Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K.B. Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal stem cells have been in clinical application as a source of culture-generated grafts. Although applications for such cells are increasing due to aging populations and the greater incidence of diabetes, current keratinocyte grafting technology is limited by immunological barriers and the time needed for culture amplification. We studied the feasibility of using human fetal skin cells for allogeneic transplantation and showed that fetal keratinocytes have faster expansion times, longer telomeres, lower immunogenicity indicators, and greater clonogenicity with more stem cell indicators than adult keratinocytes. The fetal cells did not induce proliferation of T cells in coculture and were able to suppress the proliferation of stimulated T cells. Nevertheless, fetal keratinocytes could stratify normally in vitro. Experimental transplantation of fetal keratinocytes in vivo seeded on an engineered plasma scaffold yielded a well-stratified epidermal architecture and showed stable skin regeneration. These results support the possibility of using fetal skin cells for cell-based therapeutic grafting.

  14. Change of the NADPH depending superoxide producing and ferri hemoglobin reducing activities of cytochrome b558 from spleen cells and erythrocytes membranes induced by the radiation of different character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, L.G.; Simonyan, R.M.; Simonyan, M.A.; Sekoyan, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    After the X radiation, UVA radiation and ultrasound radiation of new isoforms of cytochrome cyt b 5 58 from rats erythrocyte membranes - EM (cyt b 5 58III) and from spleen cell membranes (SCM) in vitro, as well as after the radiation of EM ex vivo, the suppression of both NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferrihemoglobin (ferriHb)-reducing activities of cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogeneous (in solution) and heterogeneous phases (in EM and SCM) at various scopes takes place. These changes are associated with the destabilization of EM and SCM, conditioned by the change of the aggregation degree of these hemoproteins in EM and SCM, hemoproteins as a result of the influence of the hydrogen peroxide formed during radiolysis and photolysis of the water medium. After He-Ne laser radiation of the cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in vitro an increase of the NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferriHb-reducing activities of the cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogenous and heterogeneous phases (in membranes) takes place. It is supposed that the suppression (by X-, UVA- and US-radiation) and the stimulation (by He-Ne laser radiation) of the immune system activity and the oxygen homeostasis are associated with the corresponding decrease and increase of the NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferriHb-reducings activity of the new isoforms of cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases

  15. Epithelial cyst of the spleen with squamous metaplasia: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Vissa; Reddy, Vengala Chidananda; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Grandhi, Bhavana; Kona, Suneetha

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial splenic cysts are uncommon lesions which occur the spleen. The aetiopathogenesis of these cysts is not clear. We are reporting a case of an epithelial cyst which occurred in the spleen in a 40-year-old female, which was multi loculated and which had flattened lining epithelium. Some foci showed squamous metaplasia.

  16. Cells in the supraoculomotor area in monkeys with strabismus show activity related to the strabismus angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Vallabh E

    2011-09-01

    We have earlier shown that monkeys reared with daily alternating monocular occlusion for the first few months of life develop large horizontal strabismus, A/V patterns, dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), and dissociated horizontal deviation (DHD). Here, we present results from neurophysiological experiments that show that neuronal activity of cells within the supraoculomotor area (SOA) of juvenile strabismic monkeys is correlated with the angle of strabismus. There was no modulation of SOA cell activity with conjugate eye position as tested during horizontal smooth pursuit. Comparison of SOA population activity in these strabismic animals and normal monkeys (described in the literature) suggests that both vergence (misalignment in the case of the strabismic animals) thresholds and vergence position sensitivities are different in the strabismic animals compared to the normals. Our data suggest that activity within the SOA cells is important in determining the state of horizontal strabismus possibly by altering vergence tone in extraocular muscle. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Monocyte subset accumulation in the human heart following acute myocardial infarction and the role of the spleen as monocyte reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Anja M; Ter Horst, Ellis N; Delewi, Ronak; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Hirsch, Alexander; Lavaei, Mehrdad; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Horrevoets, Anton J; Niessen, Hans W M; Piek, Jan J

    2014-02-01

    Monocytes are critical mediators of healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), making them an interesting target to improve myocardial repair. The purpose of this study was a gain of insight into the source and recruitment of monocytes following AMI in humans. Post-mortem tissue specimens of myocardium, spleen and bone marrow were collected from 28 patients who died at different time points after AMI. Twelve patients who died from other causes served as controls. The presence and localization of monocytes (CD14(+) cells), and their CD14(+)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets, were evaluated by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. CD14(+) cells localized at distinct regions of the infarcted myocardium in different phases of healing following AMI. In the inflammatory phase after AMI, CD14(+) cells were predominantly located in the infarct border zone, adjacent to cardiomyocytes, and consisted for 85% (78-92%) of CD14(+)CD16(-) cells. In contrast, in the subsequent post-AMI proliferative phase, massive accumulation of CD14(+) cells was observed in the infarct core, containing comparable proportions of both the CD14(+)CD16(-) [60% (31-67%)] and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets [40% (33-69%)]. Importantly, in AMI patients, of the number of CD14(+) cells was decreased by 39% in the bone marrow and by 58% in the spleen, in comparison with control patients (P = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively). Overall, this study showed a unique spatiotemporal pattern of monocyte accumulation in the human myocardium following AMI that coincides with a marked depletion of monocytes from the spleen, suggesting that the human spleen contains an important reservoir function for monocytes.

  18. Peri-prosthetic tissue cells show osteogenic capacity to differentiate into the osteoblastic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Monique A E; Oostlander, Angela E; Rooij, Karien Ede; Valstar, Edward R; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2017-08-01

    During the process of aseptic loosening of prostheses, particulate wear debris induces a continuous inflammatory-like response resulting in the formation of a layer of fibrous peri-prosthetic tissue at the bone-prosthesis interface. The current treatment for loosening is revision surgery which is associated with a high-morbidity rate, especially in old patients. Therefore, less invasive alternatives are necessary. One approach could be to re-establish osseointegration of the prosthesis by inducing osteoblast differentiation in the peri-prosthetic tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of peri-prosthetic tissue cells to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage. Cells isolated from peri-prosthetic tissue samples (n = 22)-obtained during revision surgeries-were cultured under normal and several osteogenic culture conditions. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by measurement of Alkaline Phosphatse (ALP), mineralization of the matrix and expression of several osteogenic genes. Cells cultured in osteogenic medium showed a significant increase in ALP staining (p = 0.024), mineralization of the matrix (p prosthetic tissue cells, cultured under osteogenic conditions, can produce alkaline phosphatase and mineralized matrix, and therefore show characteristics of differentiation into the osteoblastic lineage. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 35:1732-1742, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. Radioresistant DNA synthesis in cells of patients showing increased chromosomal sensitivity to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenfeld, L.S.; Pleskach, N.M.; Bildin, V.N.; Prokofjeva, V.V.; Mikhelson, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of DNA synthesis after γ-irradiation was studied either by analysis of the steady-state distribution of daughter [ 3 H]DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients or by direct assay of the amount of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated into DNA of fibroblasts derived from a normal donor (LCH882) and from Down's syndrome (LCH944), Werner's syndrome (WS1LE) and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP2LE) patients with chromosomal sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Doses of γ-irradiation that markedly inhibited the rate of DNA synthesis in normal human cells caused almost no inhibition of DNA synthesis in the cells from the affected individuals. The radioresistant DNA synthesis in Down's syndrome cells was mainly due to a much lower inhibition of replicon initiation than that in normal cells; these cells were also more resistant to damage that inhibited replicon elongation. Our data suggest that radioresistant DNA synthesis may be an intrinsic feature of all genetic disorders showing increased radiosensitivity in terms of chromosome aberrations. (orig.)

  20. Maintenance of CD8+memory T lymphocytes in the spleen but not in the bone marrow is dependent on proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Francesco; Alp, Özen Sercan; Maschmeyer, Patrick; McGrath, Mairi; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Hojyo, Shintaro; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Tokoyoda, Koji; Radbruch, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    It is current belief that numbers of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes in the memory phase of an immune response are maintained by homeostatic proliferation. Here, we compare the proliferation of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes, generated by natural infections and by intentional immunization, in spleen and bone marrow (BM). Fifty percent of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes in the spleen are eliminated by cyclophosphamide within 14 days, indicating that numbers of at least 50% of splenic CD8 + memory T lymphocytes are maintained by proliferation. The numbers of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes in the BM, however, were not affected by cyclophosphamide. This stability was independent of circulating CD8 + memory T cells, blocked by FTY720, showing that BM is a privileged site for the maintenance of memory T lymphocytes, as resident cells, resting in terms of proliferation. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Appropriate nonwoven filters effectively capture human peripheral blood cells and mesenchymal stem cells, which show enhanced production of growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hideo; Iwamoto, Ushio; Niimi, Gen; Shinzato, Masanori; Hiki, Yoshiyuki; Tokushima, Yasuo; Kawaguchi, Kazunori; Ohashi, Atsushi; Nakai, Shigeru; Yasutake, Mikitomo; Kitaguchi, Nobuya

    2015-03-01

    Scaffolds, growth factors, and cells are three essential components in regenerative medicine. Nonwoven filters, which capture cells, provide a scaffold that localizes and concentrates cells near injured tissues. Further, the cells captured on the filters are expected to serve as a local supply of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the growth factors produced by cells captured on nonwoven filters. Nonwoven filters made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA), or chitin (1.2-22 μm fiber diameter) were cut out as 13 mm disks and placed into cell-capturing devices. Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissues (h-ASCs) and peripheral blood cells (h-PBCs) were captured on the filter and cultured to evaluate growth factor production. The cell-capture rates strongly depended on the fiber diameter and the number of filter disks. Nonwoven filter disks were composed of PET or PLA fibers with fiber diameters of 1.2-1.8 μm captured over 70% of leukocytes or 90% of h-ASCs added. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor β1, and platelet-derived growth factor AB were significantly enhanced by the h-PBCs captured on PET or PLA filters. h-ASCs on PLA filters showed significantly enhanced production of VEGF. These enhancements varied with the combination of the nonwoven filter and cells. Because of the enhanced growth factor production, the proliferation of human fibroblasts increased in conditioned medium from h-PBCs on PET filters. This device consisting of nonwoven filters and cells should be investigated further for possible use in the regeneration of impaired tissues.

  2. Immunotoxicity of skin acid secretion produced by the sea slug Berthellina citrina in mice spleen: Histological and Immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaad, Aziz; Moustafa, Alaa Y

    2016-07-01

    Acid secretion containing sulfuric and hydrochloric acids is a fascinating defensive phenomenon within many groups of marine organisms. This study aimed to investigate the mice spleen histology and immunotoxicity using skin acid secretion (SAS) of the sea slug Berthellina citrina after oral administration. The spleen showed atrophy in the white pulp, decrease in the splenocytes density, megakaryocytes cytoplasmic degeneration as well as inflammatory cells infiltrations. The white and red pulp splenocytes number decreased time-dependently in the treated spleens. Additionally, the size of the megakaryocytes increased as compared with the control. The administration with SAS increased the number of the IgA(+) cells aggregation in the splenic red pulp. Furthermore, after 7days of the administration, large number of dispersed IgA(+) cells were distributed in splenic parenchyma. The IgA(+) cells numbers increased time-dependently as compared with those in the control. The aggregation sizes and number of the F4/80(+) cell in the splenic red pulp were increased. Furthermore the F4/80(+) cells numbers increased time-dependently as compared with those in the control. The UEAI(+) cells were found as free cells but not in aggregations in the control splenic red pulp. Contradictory to the number of IgA(+) cells and F4/80(+) cells the number of the UEAI(+) cells decreased time-dependently after administration with SAS. Hematologically, abnormal numbers of WBCs different cells were observed after administration with SAS. This study provides new insight about the toxicity of a marine extract may be used in natural products industry or medical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Dalmas, E; Nout, M J R; Abee, T

    2010-07-01

    Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested by a 4 log CFU ml(-1) reduction, within the first 15 min of exposure. Tempe extracts also rapidly inactivated B. cereus spores upon germination. Viability and membrane permeability assessments using fluorescence probes showed rapid inactivation and permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane confirming the bactericidal mode of action. Cooked beans and Rhizopus grown on different media did not show antibacterial activity, indicating the unique association of the antibacterial activity with tempe. Subsequent characterization of the antibacterial activity revealed that heat treatment and protease addition nullified the bactericidal effect, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the bioactive compound. During fermentation of soya beans with Rhizopus, compounds are released with extensive antibacterial activity against B. cereus cells and spores. The results show the potential of producing natural antibacterial compounds that could be used as ingredients in food preservation and pathogen control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation (< 90/sup 0/) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue.

  5. The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found at high concentrations in food; they may even appear together at toxic concentrations. The present work examines, via real-time cell analysis, whether histamine and tyramine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cell cultures. Employing a constant equipotency ratio, their interaction was examined via the combination index (CI) method of Chou & Talalay. Co-treatment with tyramine and histamine was associated with a stronger cytotoxic effect than was treatment with either BA or on its own. Indeed, a synergistic interaction (CIhistamine, at concentrations below the legal limit, increases the cytotoxicity of tyramine at concentrations frequently reached in some foods. The synergistic cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine should be taken into account when establishing legal limits designed to ensure consumer safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of the Depression of Heart-spleen Deficiency with Wuling Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Liu Ping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on the treatment of depression belong to the type of heart-spleen deficiency with Wuling capsule, 37 patients were assigned into two groups: the deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (I) and the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (II). The efficacy of two groups was surveyed and compared after taken Wuling capsule 2 and 4 weeks,respectively. After treatment, there was a difference (P 0.05). The satisfactory effects were showed on various kinds of depressions using wuling capsules,while deficiency of both the heart and spleen group effects were better than that of the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group. (authors)

  7. Characterization of the rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identification of immune-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eAli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resistance against diseases affects profitability of rainbow trout. Limited information is available about functions and mechanisms of teleost immune pathways. Immunogenomics provides powerful tools to determine disease resistance genes/gene pathways and develop genetic markers for genomic selection.RNA-Seq sequencing of the rainbow trout spleen yielded 93,532,200 reads (100bp. High quality reads were assembled into 43,047 contigs. 26,333 (61.17% of the contigs had hits to the NR protein database and 7,024 (16.32% had hits to the KEGG database. Gene ontology showed significant percentages of transcripts assigned to binding (51%, signaling (7%, response to stimuli (9% and receptor activity (4% suggesting existence of many immune-related genes. KEGG annotation revealed 2,825 sequences belonging to organismal systems with the highest number of sequences, 842 (29.81%, assigned to immune system. A number of sequences were identified for the first time in rainbow trout belonging to Toll-like receptor signaling (25, B cell receptor signaling pathway (28, T cell receptor signaling pathway (33, chemokine signaling pathway (44, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis (23, leukocyte transendothelial migration (34 and NK cell mediated cytotoxicity (21. In addition, 51 transcripts were identified as spleen-specific genes. The list includes 277 full-length cDNAs.The presence of a large number of immune-related genes and pathways similar to other vertebrates suggests that innate and adaptive immunity in fish are conserved. This study provides deep-sequence data of rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identifies many new immune-related genes and full-length cDNAs. This data will help identify allelic variations suitable for genomic selection and genetic manipulation in aquaculture.

  8. Different methods to quantify Listeria monocytogenesbiofilms cells showed different profile in their viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Kretli Winkelströter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to adhere and to form biofilms in several materials commonly present in food processing plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes attached to abiotic surface, after treatment with sanitizers, by culture method, microscopy and Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR. Biofilms of L. monocytogenes were obtained in stainless steel coupons immersed in Brain Heart Infusion Broth, under agitation at 37 °C for 24 h. The methods selected for this study were based on plate count, microscopic count with the aid of viability dyes (CTC-DAPI, and qPCR. Results of culture method showed that peroxyacetic acid was efficient to kill sessile L. monocytogenes populations, while sodium hypochlorite was only partially effective to kill attached L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05. When, viability dyes (CTC/DAPI combined with fluorescence microscopy and qPCR were used and lower counts were found after treatments (p < 0.05. Selective quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes by qPCR using EMA revelead that the pre-treatment with EMA was not appropriate since it also inhibited amplification of DNA from live cells by ca. 2 log. Thus, the use of CTC counts was the best method to count viable cells in biofilms.

  9. Preservative spleen surgery and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Cintra, Luiz Cálice; Santos, Maria Carmem Silva; Rodrigues, Hildegardo; Ferrari, Thiago Antunes; Azevedo, Tiago Caetano V de; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da

    2007-01-01

    To assess functional and morphological aspects of spleen auto-implants and of the splenic inferior pole of rats, post-operatively treated or not with hyperbaric oxygen, as well as the survival of these animals, were studied. Seventy-eight male Wistar rats, weighing between 192 and 283 g ( 238,3 +/- 9,6g), were randomly distributed into three groups: Group 1--(n=20), spleen manipulation; group 2--(n=36), spleen auto-implantation; group 3--(n= 22), subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior pole. Each group was subdivided as follows: subgroup a, not submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: 1a(n=10), 2a(n=21), 3a(n= 13); subgroup b, submitted to the therapy: 1b(n=10), 2b(n=15), 3b(n=9). Blood was collected pre-operatively and 11 days after surgery, for the estimation of lipids and immunoglobulins and the counting of platelets and Howell-Jolly corpuscles. The spleen and remains were taken for histological study. The number of surviving animals was significantly higher in groups 1(p 2. The macro and microscopic appearance in subgroup 2b were more viable than in subgroup 2a, and that of group 3 more viable than in group 2. The survival of the animals carrying their whole spleen or its inferior pole was more frequent than that of the auto-implanted animals. Functionality and viability of the whole spleen or of its inferior pole, were better than in the auto-implanted animals. Hyperbaric oxygen-therapy contributed to increased survival frequency of auto-implanted animals, and to improve the functionality and viability of the auto-implants and the function of the inferior splenic pole, and did not interfere in animals carrying their whole spleen.

  10. Imaging Diagnosis of Central Giant Cell Granuloma showing Massive Osteoid Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sol Mi; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-15

    A 19-year-old man was referred to Seoul National University Dental Hospital for evaluation of a large painless swelling of the left mandibular angle area in August, 1999. The growth had been first noted 6 years ago. He had visited other hospital in 1997. In spite of the treatment given at the hospital, the mass continued to grow rapidly. Conventional radiographs in 1999 showed an expansible, lobulated, and destructive lesion of the left mandibular body. CT scan demonstrated an expansible mass with a corticated margin. Bony septa were seen within the lesion. Internal calcification noted on the bone-setting CT image, and corresponded to the hypointense area in T1-weighted MRI image. MRI clearly delineated the extent of the lesion which had heterogenous intermediate signal intensity in T1-weighted images and heterogenous hyperintense signal intensity in T2-weighted images. The lesion was well-enhanced. Histopathologically, the lesion was completely encapsulated. Multinucleated giant cells were presented in a fibrous background, demonstrating a storiform pattern. Areas of osteoid rimmed by a few osteoblasts were scattered throughout the lesion. Inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and hemosiderin deposition were also shown. CGCG may show lots of internal calcification foci on the CT, and varied signal intensity in MRI. More cases will be needed to understand the features of the CT and MR finding of CGCG.

  11. Release and retention of labelled DNA in the thymus and spleen of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Abraham, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process of release and retention of labelled DNA in thymus and spleen of normal and irradiated ( 06 Co) mice has been studied after administration of 3 H-thymidine. The results indicate that the dividing fraction of lymphoid cells is more resistant to radiation than the fraction of nondividing lymphoytes. The time courses of the specific activities of DNA in thymus and spleen were different especially after irradiation with lethal doses. It is suggested that the process of depletion in the lymphoid series is probably similar for both thymus and spleen but, the different cellular composition of these organs led to apparently unrelated results. (orig.) [de

  12. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  13. Autophagy induces apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hongchao; Zhao, Mingqiu; Fan, Shuangqi; Yuan, Jin; Liao, Jiedan; He, Wencheng; Xu, Hailuan; Chen, Jinding

    2017-10-19

    Lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression are typical clinical characteristics of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The apoptosis of virus-infected and bystander cells plays a role in the immunopathology of classical swine fever (CSF). Here, we offer the first evidence that autophagy is involved in apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV. Using immunohistochemical assays, we observed that more LC3II-positive cells appear in the T-cell zone of spleens. Spleen cell apoptosis was demonstrated using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed that partial LC3II-positive cells were simultaneously TUNEL-positive. By cultivating spleen cells ex vivo, we demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA treatment inhibited apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes caused by CSFV infection but did not have this effect  on B lymphocytes. Further observations demonstrated that uninfected cells in the spleen were also undergoing autophagy in vivo. In summary, these results linked autophagy with the apoptosis and cell death of splenic T cells, providing a new outlook to understand the mechanism of T lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression during CSF.

  14. Two functionally different follicular dendritic cells in secondary lymphoid follicles of mouse spleen, as revealed by CR1/2 and FcR gamma II-mediated immune-complex trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    The capacity to trap immune complexes (IC) was examined using purified peroxidase-antiperoxidase IgG on frozen sections of mouse spleen. In the absence of serum, binding of IC was confined to macrophages in the red pulp. However, when IC were applied in the presence of fresh mouse serum as a source

  15. SadA-Expressing Staphylococci in the Human Gut Show Increased Cell Adherence and Internalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Luqman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs, are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA. SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora. Furthermore, sadA-expressing staphylococci showed increased adherence to HT-29 cells and 2- to 3-fold increased internalization. Internalization and adherence was also increased in a sadA mutant in the presence of tryptamine. The α2-adrenergic receptor is required for enhanced adherence and internalization. Thus, staphylococci in the gut might contribute to gut activity and intestinal colonization. : Luqman et al. examine the sadA gene and argue that it contributes to TAs. They found that neuromodulator-producing staphylococci were present in the gut of most probands. The produced neuromodulators enhanced the adherence and internalization of staphylococci to cells in culture. Keywords: adherence, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, gut microbiota, internalization, neuromodulator, neurotransmitter, staphylococcus

  16. Towards a greener world : hydrogen and fuel cells 2004 conference and trade show. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Fuel Cells Canada and the Canadian Hydrogen Association hosted the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2004 Conference and Tradeshow in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on September 25-28, 2004. Industry leaders from around the world showcased the latest developments in fuel cell and hydrogen technology, and shared research breakthroughs. The conference focussed on many aspects of hydrogen and fuel cell technology, specifically: hydrogen technology progress, including storage, infrastructure and production; fuel cells, including quality, cost and applications; economics and policy, including government and industry strategies; fuel cell demonstrations, including transportation, micro-fuel cells, and portable power; and, impact on climate change, including health and the Kyoto Accord

  17. Study on the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guang-yao; Zhang, Wu-ning; Shen, Xiao-jing; He, Xue-fen; Chen, Yi

    2004-08-01

    Spleen in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is not actually the spleen in the anatomic sense designated in western medicine because its functions basically belong to the physiological category of digestive system in modern medicine, and it represents a macroscopic concept of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. Spleen deficiency syndrome refers to the clinical phenomena such as hypofunction of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. By integrating TCM with modern medicine, this paper is intended to explore the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis. By means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and histochemical staining, we conducted histopathological and subcellular ultrastructural (nuclei and mitochondrial) analysis of gastric mucosa of 188 patients of spleen deficiency, and that of 42 voluntary blood donors without clinical symptoms. The gastric mucosa of patients with spleen Qi deficiency (SQD) and spleen yang deficiency (SyangD) could either be affected by organic lesion (type G-occurring on the basis of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)) or unaffected (type F-chiefly belonging to functional indigestion); spleen yin deficiency (SyinD) and spleen deficiency with Qi stagnation (SDQS) both occurred on the basis of CSG and CAG; and the degree of mucosa inflammatory cells infiltration, the degree of decrease in glands propria, and the incidence of IMIIb in CSG and CAG were more serious than those of G-SQD and G-SyangD, P < 0.05 - 0.01. Spleen deficiency syndrome is likely to occur on the basis of organic lesion of gastric mucosa (disease with symptoms of both CSG or CAG and spleen deficiency symptoms), as well as on the basis of inorganic lesion of gastric mucosa (nondisease with symptoms, which is, despite spleen deficiency symptoms, there is no CSG or CAG). Besides, the clinical phenomenon of disease without

  18. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  19. Which common test should be used to assess spleen autotransplant effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ehsan; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Historically, total splenectomy was the only choice of treatment for traumatic splenic injuries. However, nonoperative management and spleen-preserving surgical techniques are preferred in modern medicine. In some situations in which the surgeon has to perform splenectomy, spleen autotransplant may preserve the splenic function. Selecting the best method for evaluating the splenic autotransplant effect has been debated for several years. In this study, we compared three common tests in evaluating the implanted spleen function. Participants included 10 patients who were candidates for laparotomy and splenectomy. After performing splenectomy, we implanted five pieces of the spleen in the greater omentum of each patient. After 3 months, the implanted spleen function was evaluated by nuclear red blood cell (RBC) scan, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M level, and presence of Howell-Jolly (HJ) bodies in the peripheral blood smear. All patients had normal peripheral blood smear. The IgM level was lower than normal in one patient, and scintigraphy did not demonstrate the transplanted spleen in another patient. All these tests may have comparable results, but because of availability and low cost of peripheral blood smear, which is also easily performed, it can be considered as the first option to evaluate the implanted spleen function.

  20. Reduced Noradrenergic Signaling in the Spleen Capsule in the Absence of CB1and CB2Cannabinoid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tyrell J; Fried, David; Parikh, Kevin; Galligan, James J; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2016-12-01

    The spleen is a visceral organ that contracts during hypoxia to expel erythrocytes and immune cells into the circulation. Spleen contraction is under the control of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation. The activity of noradrenergic neurons terminating in the spleen capsule is regulated by α2-adrenergic receptors (AR). Interactions between endogenous cannabinoid signaling and noradrenergic signaling in other organ systems suggest endocannabinoids might also regulate spleen contraction. Spleens from mice congenitally lacking both CB 1 and CB 2 cannabinoid receptors (Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mice) were used to explore the role of endocannabinoids in spleen contraction. Spleen contraction in response to exogenous norepinephrine (NE) was found to be significantly lower in Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mouse spleens, likely due to decreased expression of capsular α1AR. The majority of splenic Cnr1 mRNA expression is by cells of the spleen capsule, suggestive of post-synaptic CB 1 receptor signaling. Thus, these studies demonstrate a role for CB 1 and/or CB 2 in noradrenergic splenic contraction.

  1. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus petal ethanolic extract on hematology, antibody response, and spleen histology in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Babaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6 were used in a completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC and different white blood cells (WBC and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD. Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology. Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.

  2. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  3. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  4. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  5. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  6. Changes in mouse thymus and spleen after return from the STS-135 mission in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daila S Gridley

    Full Text Available Our previous results with flight (FLT mice showed abnormalities in thymuses and spleens that have potential to compromise immune defense mechanisms. In this study, the organs were further evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after Space Shuttle Atlantis returned from a 13-day mission. Thymuses and spleens were harvested from FLT mice and ground controls housed in similar animal enclosure modules (AEM. Organ and body mass, DNA fragmentation and expression of genes related to T cells and cancer were determined. Although significance was not obtained for thymus mass, DNA fragmentation was greater in the FLT group (P<0.01. Spleen mass alone and relative to body mass was significantly decreased in FLT mice (P<0.05. In FLT thymuses, 6/84 T cell-related genes were affected versus the AEM control group (P<0.05; up: IL10, Il18bp, Il18r1, Spp1; down: Ccl7, IL6; 15/84 cancer-related genes had altered expression (P<0.05; up: Casp8, FGFR2, Figf, Hgf, IGF1, Itga4, Ncam1, Pdgfa, Pik3r1, Serpinb2, Sykb; down: Cdc25a, E2F1, Mmp9, Myc. In the spleen, 8/84 cancer-related genes were affected in FLT mice compared to AEM controls (P<0.05; up: Cdkn2a; down: Birc5, Casp8, Ctnnb1, Map2k1, Mdm2, NFkB1, Pdgfa. Pathway analysis (apoptosis signaling and checkpoint regulation was used to map relationships among the cancer-related genes. The results showed that a relatively short mission in space had a significant impact on both organs. The findings also indicate that immune system aberrations due to stressors associated with space travel should be included when estimating risk for pathologies such as cancer and infection and in designing appropriate countermeasures. Although this was the historic last flight of NASA's Space Shuttle Program, exploration of space will undoubtedly continue.

  7. Primary transgenic bovine cells and their rejuvenated cloned equivalents show transgene-specific epigenetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Lucia; Couldrey, Christine; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Cole, Sally A; Wells, David N; Laible, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Cell-mediated transgenesis, based on somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), provides the opportunity to shape the genetic make-up of cattle. Bovine primary fetal fibroblasts, commonly used cells for SCNT, have a limited lifespan, and complex genetic modifications that require sequential transfections can be challenging time and cost-wise. To overcome these limitations, SCNT is frequently used to rejuvenate the cell lines and restore exhausted growth potential. We have designed a construct to be used in a 2-step cassette exchange experiment. Our transgene contains a puromycin resistance marker gene and an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression cassette, both driven by a strong mammalian promoter, and flanked by loxP sites and sequences from the bovine β-casein locus. Several transgenic cell lines were generated by random insertion into primary bovine cell lines. Two of these original cell lines were rederived by SCNT and new primary cells, with the same genetic makeup as the original donors, were established. While the original cell lines were puromycin-resistant and had a characteristic EGFP expression profile, all rejuvenated cell lines were sensitive to puromycin, and displayed varied EGFP expression, indicative of various degrees of silencing. When the methylation states of individual CpG sites within the transgene were analyzed, a striking increase in transgene-specific methylation was observed in all rederived cell lines. The results indicate that original transgenic donor cells and their rejuvenated derivatives may not be equivalent and differ in the functionality of their transgene sequences.

  8. Radiosensitivity of mice and its modifiers based on the endogeneous spleen colony formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Jindo; Wagatuma, Kaoru

    1987-02-01

    In irradiated mouse hematopoietic tissue, there is a group of cells which can proliferate and form macroscopic colonies. In the spleen, the colonies formed in this manner are discrete and easy to count. In order to look into a difference of radiosensitivity between male and female and the mechanisms of the modification, such as protective agent and hormones on radiosensitivity, the spleen colony forming (SCF) is used as an indicator of reactions in the x-rays irradiated mice. A linear decrease was found in SCF depended on x-rays dose. From the colony forming after irradiation the male was more radiosensitive than female. AET protected from the injury depended on the radiation dose in male mice, but in female mice, protection effects were not observed. Gonatropin showed protective effects for radiation injury on high dose irradiation both in male and female mice. Adrenaline showed similar effects as Gonatropin. Insuline showed a negative effects of protection on 400 R irradiation, while on 600 R irradiation, protective effects were observed.

  9. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  10. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Lu; Zhen, Weng-Ya; Wang, Le-Feng; Pan, Meng; Lv, Jia-Qian; Wang, Fan; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is a bioactive compound with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PSG-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results showed that PSG-1 protected mice against CTX-mediated immunosuppression, as evidenced by enhancing the ratios of thymus and spleen weights to body weight, promoting T cell and B cell survival, and increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-2. Apoptosis, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the immune organs of the immunosuppressed animals were ameliorated by PSG-1. The immune benefits of PSG-1 were associated with the enhancement of the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the immune organs, implying that antioxidant activities of PSG-1 may play an important role in PSG-1-evoked immune protection. Taken together, these findings have demonstrated that PSG-1 may ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression through reducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Kaiso is a key regulator of spleen germinal center formation by repressing Bcl6 expression in splenocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Dong-In; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyeong; An, Haemin; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Man-Wook, E-mail: mwhur2@yuhs.ac

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •Knockout of Kaiso results in concordant high expression of Bcl6 and c-Myc in spleen. •Kaiso binds the Bcl6 promoter and represses Bcl6 transcription by recruiting NCoR. •Upregulated Bcl6 increases splenocyte proliferation and causes large diffused GC. •Cell cycle-inhibition genes such as Cdkn1b and Cdkn1a are repressed by Bcl6. -- Abstract: Kaiso was previously described as a methylated DNA-binding protein and a transcription repressor interacting with the corepressor protein complex NCoR. In the current study, we show that generation-3 Kaiso knockout mice show a phenotype of splenomegaly and large diffused germinal centers (GC). In the spleens of Kaiso knockout mice, Bcl6 (a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in GC development in spleen) and c-Myc were highly expressed, while the cell cycle arrest genes p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a were downregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transcription assays suggested that Kaiso represses Bcl6 expression, and in Kaiso knockout mice, derepressed Bcl6 increased cell proliferation by suppressing p27 (CDKN1B), p21 (CDKN1A) and Gadd45a, while upregulating the oncogene c-Myc. Further evidence for Kaiso regulation of splenomegaly was provided by B lymphocyte Ramos cells, in which ectopic KAISO repressed BCL6 and c-MYC expression, while concomitantly increasing the expression of the cell cycle arrestors p21, p27 and Gadd45a. In summary, derepressed Bcl6 expression may be responsible for increases in GC cell proliferation and splenomegaly of Kaiso knockout mice.

  12. X-ray sensitive strains of CHO cells show decreased frequency of stable transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.; Smith, J.

    1987-01-01

    Six X-ray sensitive (xrs) strains of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line have previously been isolated and shown to have a defect in double strand break rejoining. In this study, these strains have been investigated for their ability to take up and integrate foreign DNA. All the xrs strains investigated so far have shown a decreased frequency of stable transfectants compared to their parent line, in experiments using the plasmid pSV2gpt, which contains the selectable bacterial gene, guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This decreased frequency is observed over a wide range of DNA concentrations (0.1 to 20 μg DNA) but is more pronounced at higher DNA concentrations. In contrast, these xrs strains show the same level of transfection proficiency as the wild type parent using a transient transfection system with a plasmid containing the bacterial CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) gene. Since the level of CAT activity does not depend on integration of foreign DNA, this suggests that the xrs strains are able to take up the same amount of DNA as the parent strains, but have a defect in the integration of foreign DNA. Since this integration of foreign DNA probably occurs by non-homologous recombination, this may indicate a role of the xrs gene product in this process

  13. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qiuwei; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  14. SadA-Expressing Staphylococci in the Human Gut Show Increased Cell Adherence and Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, Arif; Nega, Mulugeta; Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Ebner, Patrick; Götz, Friedrich

    2018-01-09

    A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs), are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA). SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora. Furthermore, sadA-expressing staphylococci showed increased adherence to HT-29 cells and 2- to 3-fold increased internalization. Internalization and adherence was also increased in a sadA mutant in the presence of tryptamine. The α2-adrenergic receptor is required for enhanced adherence and internalization. Thus, staphylococci in the gut might contribute to gut activity and intestinal colonization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Igs Expressed by Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells Show Limited Binding-Site Structure Variability

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, P.

    2013-05-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. High-speed broadband monitoring of cell viscoelasticity in real time shows myosin-dependent oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Ren, Juan; Zheng, Xi; Liu, Yue; Zou, Qingze

    2017-12-01

    Study of the dynamic evolutions of cell viscoelasticity is important as during cell activities such as cell metastasis and invasion, the rheological behaviors of the cells also change dynamically, reflecting the biophysical and biochemical connections between the outer cortex and the intracellular structures. Although the time variations of the static modulus of cells have been investigated, few studies have been reported on the dynamic variations of the frequency-dependent viscoelasticity of cells. Measuring and monitoring such dynamic evolutions of cells at nanoscale can be challenging as the measurement needs to meet two objectives inherently contradictory to each other-the measurement must be broadband (to cover a large frequency spectrum) but also rapid (to capture the time-elapsed changes). In this study, we exploited a recently developed control-based nanomechanical protocol of atomic force microscope to monitor in real time the dynamic evolutions of the viscoelasticity of live human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 cells) and study its dependence on myosin activities. We found that the viscoelasticity of PC-3 cells, followed the power law, and oscillated at a period of about 200 s. Both the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillation strongly depended on the intracellular calcium and blebbistatin-sensitive motor proteins.

  17. Enhancement of erythroid colony formation in vitro by spleen extract from irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shiro; Terasawa, Waka; Kodama, Hiroaki; Terasawa, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    The effect of spleen extract from irradiated rats on CFU-e and BFU-e colony formation of rat bone marrow cells was investigated by using modified plasma clot culture media. In the presence of erythropoietin (Ep), CFU-e colony formation peaked at 48 hr of culture, and the Ep-induced increase of CFU-e colonies was dose-dependent. The addition of spleen extract enhanced the colony formation more than two-fold in the Ep-containing culture. BFU-e colony formation was also enhanced by the addition of spleen extract. These results indicate that spleen extract from irradiated rats contains factor(s) which stimulates the proliferation of erythroid progenitors. (author)

  18. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  19. Depletion of spleen macrophages delays AA amyloid development: a study performed in the rapid mouse model of AA amyloidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lundmark

    Full Text Available AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease that develops secondary to chronic inflammatory diseases Macrophages are often found in the vicinity of amyloid deposits and considered to play a role in both formation and degradation of amyloid fibrils. In spleen reside at least three types of macrophages, red pulp macrophages (RPM, marginal zone macrophages (MZM, metallophilic marginal zone macrophages (MMZM. MMZM and MZM are located in the marginal zone and express a unique collection of scavenger receptors that are involved in the uptake of blood-born particles. The murine AA amyloid model that resembles the human form of the disease has been used to study amyloid effects on different macrophage populations. Amyloid was induced by intravenous injection of amyloid enhancing factor and subcutaneous injections of silver nitrate and macrophages were identified with specific antibodies. We show that MZMs are highly sensitive to amyloid and decrease in number progressively with increasing amyloid load. Total area of MMZMs is unaffected by amyloid but cells are activated and migrate into the white pulp. In a group of mice spleen macrophages were depleted by an intravenous injection of clodronate filled liposomes. Subsequent injections of AEF and silver nitrate showed a sustained amyloid development. RPMs that constitute the majority of macrophages in spleen, appear insensitive to amyloid and do not participate in amyloid formation.

  20. A comparison of microRNA expression profiles from splenic hemangiosarcoma, splenic nodular hyperplasia, and normal spleens of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn; Cattley, Russell; Lindley, Stephanie; Boothe, Harry W; Henderson, Ralph A; Smith, Bruce F

    2016-12-03

    Splenic masses are common in older dogs; yet diagnosis preceding splenectomy and histopathology remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that play a role in post-transcriptional regulation, and differential expression of miRNAs between normal and tumor tissue has been used to diagnose neoplastic diseases. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of miRNAs by use of RNA-sequencing in canine spleens that were histologically confirmed as hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, or normal. Twenty-two miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in hemangiosarcoma samples (4 between hemangiosarcoma and both nodular hyperplasia and normal spleen and 18 between hemangiosarcoma and normal spleen only). In particular, mir-26a, mir-126, mir-139, mir-140, mir-150, mir-203, mir-424, mir-503, mir-505, mir-542, mir-30e, mir-33b, mir-365, mir-758, mir-22, and mir-452 are of interest in the pathogenesis of hemangiosarcoma. Findings of this study confirm the hypothesis that miRNA expression profiles are different between canine splenic hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, and normal spleens. A large portion of the differentially expressed miRNAs have roles in angiogenesis, with an additional group of miRNAs being dysregulated in vascular disease processes. Two other miRNAs have been implicated in cancer pathways such as PTEN and cell cycle checkpoints. The finding of multiple miRNAs with roles in angiogenesis and vascular disease is important, as hemangiosarcoma is a tumor of endothelial cells, which are driven by angiogenic stimuli. This study shows that miRNA dysregulation is a potential player in the pathogenesis of canine splenic hemangiosarcoma.

  1. Novel small molecule drugs inhibit tumor cell metabolism and show potent anti-tumorigenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojel-Hansen, Christina; Erichsen, Kamille Dumong; Christensen, Mette Knak

    2011-01-01

    oxyphenisatine analogs TOP001 and TOP216 exert their anti-cancer effect by affecting tumor cell metabolism and inducing intracellular amino acid deprivation, leading to a block of cell proliferation. GCN2-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2a as well as mTOR pathway inhibition supports the above notion. In addition...

  2. Novel small molecule drugs inhibit tumor cell metabolism and show potent anti-tumorigenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojel-Hansen, Christina; Erichsen, Kamille Dumong; Christensen, Mette Knak

    2011-01-01

    oxyphenisatine analogs TOP001 and TOP216 exert their anti-cancer effect by affecting tumor cell metabolism and inducing intracellular amino acid deprivation, leading to a block of cell proliferation. GCN2-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α as well as mTOR pathway inhibition supports the above notion. In addition...

  3. Size matters: Spleen and lung volumes predict performance in human apneic diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eSchagatay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans share with e.g. seals the ability to contract the spleen and increase circulating hematocrit, which may improve apneic performance by enhancing gas storage. Seals have large spleens and while human spleen size is small in comparison, it shows great individual variation. Unlike many marine mammals, human divers rely to a great extent on lung oxygen stores, but the impact of lung volume on competitive apnea performance has never been determined. We studied if spleen- and lung size correlated with performance in elite apnea divers. Volunteers were 14 male apnea world championship participants, with a mean(SE of 5.8(1.2 years of previous apnea training. Spleen volume was calculated from spleen length, width and thickness measured via ultrasound during rest, and vital capacity via spirometry. Accumulated competition scores from dives of maximal depth, time and distance were compared to anthropometric measurements and training data. Mean dive performance was 75(4 m for constant weight depth, 5 min 53(39 s for static apnea and 139(13 m for dynamic apnea distance. Subjects’ mean height was 184(2 cm, weight 82(3 kg, vital capacity (VC 7.3(0.3 L and spleen volume 336(32 ml. Spleen volume did not correlate with subject height or weight, but was positively correlated with competition score (r=0.57; P<0.05. Total competition score was also positively correlated with VC (r=0.54; P<0.05. The three highest scoring divers had the greatest spleen volumes, averaging 538(53 ml, while the three lowest scoring divers had a volume of 270(71 ml (P<0.01. VC was also greater in the high-scorers, at 7.9(0.36 L as compared to 6.7(0.19 L in the low-scorers (P<0.01. Spleen volume was reduced to half after 2 min of apnea in the highest scoring divers, and the estimated resting apnea time gain from the difference between high and low scorers was 15 s for spleen volume and 60 s for VC. We conclude that both spleen- and lung volume predict apnea performance in elite

  4. Murine scid cells complement ataxia-telangiectasia cells and show a normal port-irradiation response of DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.; Yoshida, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The murine severe combined immunodeficient mutation (scid) is characterized by a lack of both B and T cells, due to a deficit in lymphoid variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) rearrangement. Scid cells are highly sensitive to both radiation-induced killing and chromosomal aberrations. Significantly reduced D 0 and n values were demonstrated in scid cells and were similar to ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells (a unique human disease conferring whole body radiosensitivity). However, the kinetics of DNA synthesis after irradiation were different between the two cell types. In contrast with the radioresistant DNA synthesis of AT cells, DNA synthesis of scid cells was markedly inhibited after irradiation. The existence of different mutations was also supported by evidence of complementation in somatic cell hybrids between scid cells and AT cells. Results indicate that the radiobiological character of scid is similar to AT but is presumably caused by different mechanisms. (author)

  5. Sonographic assessment and grading of spleen index in various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani N

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a useful procedure in evaluation of spleen size in different clinical conditions. In this study, we used it to evaluate spleen size in patients with various heptologic, hematologic and autoimmune diseases. To express spleen size, a spleen index (SI, the product of the transverse diameter and its perpendiculr diameter measured on the maximum-sectional image of the spleen, was used. Splenomegaly was present in high percentages of patients with liver, blood, collagen or autoimmune diseases, even though a majority of these spleens were not large enough to palpate. By grading the SI, characteristic distributions of SI were obtained for patients with different types of diseases. Obtaining and grading the SI by the use of ultrasound appears to be a significant supplemental aid for evaluating spleen size, especially in patients whose spleen are not palpable.

  6. Wandering spleen with a ten-time twisted vascular pedicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Peretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen in children, usually diagnosed with color-Doppler ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography. We report a pediatric case of torsion of wandering spleen.

  7. Novel small molecule drugs inhibit tumor cell metabolism and show potent anti-tumorigenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojel-Hansen, Christina; Erichsen, Kamille Dumong; Christensen, Mette Knak

    2011-01-01

    , these novel anti-cancer compounds inhibit DNA and protein synthesis and induce apoptosis in a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines. In vivo, the compounds induce tumor stasis and regression in mouse xenograft models of human breast, prostate, ovarian and pancreatic cancer, both when administered intravenously...

  8. Antidiabetics and diuretics show phototoxicity in HaCaT cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaag, Edgar; Petersen, Anita B.; Gniadecki, Robert; Thorn, Tine; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2001-10-01

    The antidiabetics tolbutamide, glibenclamide, and glipizide, and the diuretics bendroflumethiazide, butizide, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and trichlormethiazide were investigated for potential phototoxicity in the HaCaT cell line. The cells were incubated with the drugs and then exposed to UVA1 irradiation. The effects of the antioxidants L-ascorbic acid, and (alpha) -tocopherol on oxidative DNA damage were assessed. Bendroflumethiazide, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, trichlormethiazide, or tolbutamide induced dose-dependent phototoxicity. Cells incubated with bendroflumethiazide, tolbutamide, and glibenclamide, and irradiated with UVA1 demonstrated an increased oxidative DNA damage. Pre-treatment with L-ascorbic acid, or (alpha) -tocopherol, suppressed the UVA-induced DNA damage in cells incubated with 1 mM of bendroflumethiazide, furosemide, glibenclamide, glipizide, tolbutamide, and trichloromethiazide, further implying the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the phototoxic DNA damage. These results may indicate a link between phototoxic and photocancerogenic potential of the sulfonamide-derived oral antidiabetic and diuretic drugs, as it has previously been recognized for psoralen, chlorpromazine, and fluoroquinolones. Excessive exposure to UV light may be deleterious for patients treated with these drugs.

  9. Valproic Acid Increases CD133 Positive Cells that Show Low Sensitivity to Cytostatics in Neuroblastoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalil, M.A.; Hraběta, J.; Groh, T.; Procházka, Pavel; Doktorová, H.; Eckschlager, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 9 (2016), e0162916 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1734 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cancer stem-cells * histone deacetylase * colon-cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  10. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  11. Selenium antagonizes cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleen but not involving Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Li, Xiaojing; Fan, Ruifeng; Cao, Changyu; Yao, Haidong; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) and is involved in the regulation of genes participated in defending cells against oxidative damage, which have been confirmed in animal models. Selenium (Se), known as an important element in the regulation of antioxidant activity, can antagonize Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in birds. However, the role of Nrf2 in selenium-cadmium interaction has not been reported in birds. To further explore the mechanism of selenium attenuating spleen toxicity induced by cadmium in chickens, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 , 150mg/kg) and sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 , 2mg/kg) were co-administrated or individually administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. The results showed that Cd exposure increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT). Cd exposure increased obviously nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and the expression of Nrf2 downstream heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), reduced the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (keap1), Gpx-1 and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1). In addition, Cd induced the increase of bak, caspase9, p53, Cyt c mRNA levels, increased bax/bcl-2 ratio, increased caspase3 mRNA and protein levels. Selenium treatment reduced the accumulation of Cd in the spleen, attenuates Cd-induced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the spleen. In summary, our results demonstrate that Se ameliorated spleen toxicity induced by cadmium by modulating the antioxidant system, independently of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE) shows in vitro and in vivo biological activity against invasive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatori, Stefano; Mazzoni, Luca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Yuliett; Afrin, Sadia; Errico Provenzano, Alfredo; Persico, Giuseppe; Mezzetti, Bruno; Amici, Augusto; Fanelli, Mirco; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-08-08

    We describe the biological effects of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE), obtained from the "Alba" variety, on the highly aggressive and invasive basal-like breast cancer cell line A17. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that PRSE is able to decrease the cellular viability of A17 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PRSE effect on cell survival was investigated in other tumor and normal cell lines of both mouse and human origin, demonstrating that PRSE is more active against breast cancer cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis of A17 cells demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of PRSE reduce the number of cells in S phase, inducing the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of cell cycle. In addition, the migration of A17 cells was studied monitoring the ability of PRSE to inhibit cellular mobility. Gene expression analysis revealed the modulation of 12 genes playing different roles in the cellular migration, adhesion and invasion processes. Finally, in vivo experiments showed the growth inhibition of A17 cells orthotopically transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice fed with PRSE. Overall, we demonstrated that PRSE exerts important biological activities against a highly invasive breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo suggesting the strawberry extracts as preventive/curative food strategy.

  13. The involvement of the spleen during chronic phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection in galectin-3-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Camila; Oliveira, Felipe L; Takiya, Christina M; Palumbo, Antônio; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Borojevic, Radovan; Chammas, Roger; El-Cheikh, Márcia C

    2012-08-01

    Schistosoma mansoni synthesizes glycoconjugates which interact with galectin-3, eliciting an intense humoral immune response. Moreover, it was demonstrated that galectin-3 regulates B cell differentiation into plasma cells. Splenomegaly is a hallmark event characterized by polyclonal B cell activation and enhancement of antibody production. Here, we investigated whether galectin-3 interferes with spleen organization and B cell compartment during chronic schistosomiasis, using wild type (WT) and galectin-3-/- mice. In chronically-infected galectin-3-/- mice the histological architecture of the spleen, including white and red pulps, was disturbed with heterogeneous lymphoid follicles, an increased number of plasma cells (CD19-B220-/lowCD138+) and a reduced number of macrophages (CD19-B220-Mac-1+CD138-) and B lymphocytes (CD19+B220+/highCD138-), compared with the WT infected mice. In the absence of galectin-3 there was an increase of annexin-V+PI- cells and a major presence of apoptotic cells in spleen compared with WT infected mice. In spleen of WT infected mice galectin-3 was largely expressed in lymphoid follicles and extrafollicular sites. Thus, we propose that galectin-3 plays a role in splenic architecture, controlling distinct events such as apoptosis, macrophage activity, B cell differentiation and plasmacytogenesis in the course of S. mansoni infection.

  14. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  15. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  16. Survival of motor neurone protein is required for normal postnatal development of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alison K; Somers, Eilidh; Powis, Rachael A; Shorrock, Hannah K; Murphy, Kelley; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Parson, Simon H

    2017-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn -/- ;SMN2 tg/0 ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death. Spleen lacks its distinctive red appearance and presents with a degenerated capsule and a disorganised fibrotic architecture. Histologically distinct white pulp failed to form and this was reflected in an almost complete absence of B lymphocytes necessary for normal immune function. In addition, megakaryoctyes persisted in the red pulp. However, the vascular density remained unchanged in SMA spleen. Assessment of the spleen in SMA patients with the infantile form of the disease indicated a range of pathologies. We conclude that development of the spleen fails to occur normally in SMA mouse models and human patients. Thus, further analysis of immune function is likely to be required to fully understand the full extent of systemic disease pathology in SMA. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  17. Integrating transcriptomics and proteomics to show that tanshinone IIA suppresses cell growth by blocking glucose metabolism in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Ling; Hsia, Chieh-Ren; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-02-05

    Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) is a diterpene quinone extracted from the plant Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. It has been reported to have anti-tumor potential against several kinds of cancer, including gastric cancer. In most solid tumors, a metabolic switch to glucose is a hallmark of cancer cells, which do this to provide nutrients for cell proliferation. However, the mechanism associated with glucose metabolism by which TIIA acts on gastric cancer cells remains to be elucidated. We found that TIIA treatment is able to significantly inhibit cell growth and the proliferation of gastric cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Using next-generation sequencing-based RNA-seq transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics-isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we characterized the mechanism of TIIA regulation in gastric cancer cell line AGS. In total, 16,603 unique transcripts and 102 proteins were identified. After enrichment analysis, we found that TIIA regulated genes are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, the cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage and cytoskeleton reorganization. Our proteomics data revealed the downregulation of intracellular ATP levels, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chains by TIIA, which might work with disorders of glucose metabolism and extracellular lactate levels to suppress cell proliferation. The up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of AKT was shown in TIIA- treated cells, which indicates the transformation of oncogenes. Severe DNA damage, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition and apoptosis with cytoskeleton reorganization were detected in TIIA-treated gastric cancer cells. Combining transcriptomics and proteomics results, we propose that TIIA treatment could lead cell stresses, including nutrient deficiency and DNA damage, by inhibiting the glucose metabolism of cancer cells. This study provides an insight into how the TIIA regulatory metabolism in

  18. Maxadilan prevents apoptosis in iPS cells and shows no effects on the pluripotent state or karyotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Zhao

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1. Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC. After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype.

  19. Angiogenic endothelium shows lactadherin-dependent phagocytosis of aged erythrocytes and apoptotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fens, Marcel H. A. M.; Mastrobattista, Enrico; De Graaff, Anko M.; Flesch, Frits M.; Ultee, Anton; Rasmussen, Jan T.; Molema, Grietje; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenic endothelium plays a crucial role in tumor growth. During angiogenesis, complex alterations in the microenvironment occur. In response, the endothelium undergoes phenotypic changes, for example overexpression of alpha(v)-integrins. Here, we show that the overexpression of

  20. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-02-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors.

  1. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+T cell population in the spleen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Bergström, Anders

    2015-01-01

    colonized (CONV) mice than in mono-colonized (MC) and germfree (GF) mice, and the CD4+ T cell population established faster in CONV mice. At the day of birth, compared to GF mice, the expression of Cxcl2 was up-regulated and Arg1 down-regulated in livers of CONV mice. This coincided with lower abundance...... of polylobed cells in the liver of CONV mice. An earlier peak in the expression of the genes Tjp1, Cdh1, and JamA in intestinal epithelial cells of CONV mice indicated an accelerated closure of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, we have identified an important microbiota-dependent neonatal hematopoietic...

  2. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with

  3. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46+/CD3−) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small

  4. Combined Analysis of Endothelial, Hematopoietic, and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Compartments Shows Simultaneous but Independent Effects of Age and Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Ghem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials using stem cell therapy for heart diseases have not reproduced the initial positive results obtained with animal models. This might be explained by a decreased regenerative capacity of stem cells collected from the patients. This work aimed at the simultaneous investigation of endothelial stem/progenitor cells (EPCs, mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs, and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs in sternal bone marrow samples of patients with ischemic or valvular heart disease, using flow cytometry and colony assays. The study included 36 patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement surgery. A decreased frequency of stem cells was observed in both groups of patients. Left ventricular dysfunction, diabetes, and intermediate risk in EuroSCORE and SYNTAX score were associated with lower EPCs frequency, and the use of aspirin and β-blockers correlated with a higher frequency of HSCs and EPCs, respectively. Most importantly, the distribution of frequencies in the three stem cell compartments showed independent patterns. The combined investigation of the three stem cell compartments in patients with cardiovascular diseases showed that they are independently affected by the disease, suggesting the investigation of prognostic factors that may be used to determine when autologous stem cells may be used in cell therapy.

  5. Mosquito cell line C6/36 shows resistence to Cyt1Aa6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Huang, E.; Tang, B.; Guan, X.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-269 ISSN 0019-5189 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Grant - others:National Nature Science Foundation of China(CN) 31071745; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515110010; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515120010; Transformation Fund for Agricultural Science and Technology Achievements(CN) 2010GB2C400212; Fujian Colleges and Universities for the Development of the West Strait(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * C6/36 cells * indirect immunofluorescence assay Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2012 http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13748/1/IJEB%2050(4)%20265-269.pdf

  6. Rationally engineered nanoparticles target multiple myeloma cells, overcome cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance, and show enhanced efficacy in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiziltepe, T; Ashley, J D; Stefanick, J F; Qi, Y M; Alves, N J; Handlogten, M W; Suckow, M A; Navari, R M; Bilgicer, B

    2012-01-01

    In the continuing search for effective cancer treatments, we report the rational engineering of a multifunctional nanoparticle that combines traditional chemotherapy with cell targeting and anti-adhesion functionalities. Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) mediated adhesion of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to bone marrow stroma confers MM cells with cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). In our design, we used micellar nanoparticles as dynamic self-assembling scaffolds to present VLA-4-antagonist peptides and doxorubicin (Dox) conjugates, simultaneously, to selectively target MM cells and to overcome CAM-DR. Dox was conjugated to the nanoparticles through an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond. VLA-4-antagonist peptides were conjugated via a multifaceted synthetic procedure for generating precisely controlled number of targeting functionalities. The nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by MM cells and induced cytotoxicity. Mechanistic studies revealed that nanoparticles induced DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in MM cells. Importantly, multifunctional nanoparticles overcame CAM-DR, and were more efficacious than Dox when MM cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated plates. Finally, in a MM xenograft model, nanoparticles preferentially homed to MM tumors with ∼10 fold more drug accumulation and demonstrated dramatic tumor growth inhibition with a reduced overall systemic toxicity. Altogether, we demonstrate the disease driven engineering of a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system, enabling the model of an integrative approach in the treatment of MM

  7. Pancreatic beta cells from db/db mice show cell-specific [Ca2+]i and NADH responses to glucose but not to alpha-ketoisocaproic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Larsson-Nyrén, Gerd; Lindström, Per

    2005-01-01

    induced cell-specific NADH responses in all 3 models, but KIC did so only in lean mouse [beta] cells. CONCLUSIONS: A cell-specific response may be induced at several steps of beta-cell stimulus-secretion coupling. Mitochondrial metabolism generates a cell-specific response in normal beta cells......OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that timing and magnitude of the glucose-induced cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]i response are reproducible and specific for the individual beta cell. We now wanted to identify which step(s) of stimulus-secretion coupling determine the cell specificity of the [Ca2+]i...

  8. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  9. Copper induced immunotoxicity promote differential apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Ghosh, Nabanita; Goswami, Suranjana; Datta, Anuradha; Das, Salomie; Maity, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Copper-induced ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes result in different consequences in spleen and thymus. ► Inflammation appeared in both the spleen and thymus after to copper treatment. ► Apoptosis in the spleen appears to follow a p53-independent pathway. ► Apoptosis in the thymus appears to follow a p53-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. ► In both the spleen and thymus, the CD4+ T cell population decreased and CD8+ T cell population increased after copper treatment. - Abstract: Inorganic copper, such as that in drinking water and copper supplements, largely bypasses the liver and enters the free copper pool of the blood directly and that promote immunosuppression. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways underlying copper-induced immune cell death remains largely unclear. According to our previous in vivo report, to evaluate the further details of the apoptotic mechanism, we have investigated how copper regulates apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus. We have analyzed different protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression by RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis. We also have measured mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, ROS and CD4 + and CD8 + population by flow cytometry. Sub lethal doses of copper in spleen and thymus of in vivo Swiss albino mice promote different apoptotic pathways. In case of spleen, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes promotes intrinsic pathway of apoptosis that was p53 independent, ultimately leads to decrease in CD4 + T cell population and increase in CD8 + T cell population. However in case of thymus, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes lead to death receptor that regulate extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and the apoptotic mechanism which was p53 dependent. Due to copper treatment, thymic CD4 + T cell population decreased and CD8 + T cell population was increased or

  10. Characterization of a GM7 glioblastoma cell line showing CD133 positivity and both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of nestin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loja, Tomas; Chlapek, Petr; Kuglik, Petr; Pesakova, Martina; Oltova, Alexandra; Cejpek, Pavel; Veselska, Renata

    2009-01-01

    A newly established GM7 cell line was derived from the tumor tissue of a 65-year-old man surgically treated for a relapse of glioblastoma multiforme that occurred 10 months after first surgery following radiotherapy. GM7 cells exhibit spindle or glia-like morphology, and multinucleated giant cells are also present in the culture. The cells proliferate rapidly (PDT is about 18 h) and tend to grow in multilayer without contact inhibition. Using G-banding and SKY, the GM7 cell line was identified as near-triploid with a large number of structural and numerical abnormalities. Repeated karyotyping during long-term cultivation confirmed a chromosome number of 70+/-3 chromosomes per cell. Special attention was paid to the immunocytochemical analysis of protein markers in this cell line; GM7 cells showed strong positivity for CD133, vimentin, nestin, NF-160 and S-100 protein and weak positivity for GFAP and NSE, but were negative for synaptophysin. The most important features of the GM7 cell line are its stable phenotype CD133+/nestin+, which are accepted as stem cell markers in neural stem/progenitor cells, and especially unusual intracellular localization of the IF protein nestin, which was detected and repeatedly confirmed both in the cytoplasm and cell nucleus. For this reason, the new GM7 glioblastoma cell line represents an important model suitable not only for further studies on glioblastoma biology and cancer stem cells, but particularly for the detailed investigation of the role of nestin in transformed cells.

  11. Luminal and basal-like breast cancer cells show increased migration induced by hypoxia, mediated by an autocrine mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Melanie J; Möller, Mischa F; Powe, Desmond G; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Entschladen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Some breast cancer patients receiving anti-angiogenic treatment show increased metastases, possibly as a result of induced hypoxia. The effect of hypoxia on tumor cell migration was assessed in selected luminal, post-EMT and basal-like breast carcinoma cell lines. Migration was assessed in luminal (MCF-7), post-EMT (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435S), and basal-like (MDA-MB-468) human breast carcinoma cell lines under normal and oxygen-deprived conditions, using a collagen-based assay. Cell proliferation was determined, secreted cytokine and chemokine levels were measured using flow-cytometry and a bead-based immunoassay, and the hypoxic genes HIF-1α and CA IX were assessed using PCR. The functional effect of tumor-cell conditioned medium on the migration of neutrophil granulocytes (NG) was tested. Hypoxia caused increased migratory activity but not proliferation in all tumor cell lines, involving the release and autocrine action of soluble mediators. Conditioned medium (CM) from hypoxic cells induced migration in normoxic cells. Hypoxia changed the profile of released inflammatory mediators according to cell type. Interleukin-8 was produced only by post-EMT and basal-like cell lines, regardless of hypoxia. MCP-1 was produced by MDA-MB-435 and -468 cells, whereas IL-6 was present only in MDA-MB-231. IL-2, TNF-α, and NGF production was stimulated by hypoxia in MCF-7 cells. CM from normoxic and hypoxic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435S cells and hypoxic MCF-7 cells, but not MDA-MB-468, induced NG migration. Hypoxia increases migration by the autocrine action of released signal substances in selected luminal and basal-like breast carcinoma cell lines which might explain why anti-angiogenic treatment can worsen clinical outcome in some patients

  12. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

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    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  13. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE) shows in vitro and in vivo biological activity against invasive breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amatori, Stefano; Mazzoni, Luca; Alvarez-Suarez, Jos? Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Yuliett; Afrin, Sadia; Errico Provenzano, Alfredo; Persico, Giuseppe; Mezzetti, Bruno; Amici, Augusto; Fanelli, Mirco; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the biological effects of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE), obtained from the ?Alba? variety, on the highly aggressive and invasive basal-like breast cancer cell line A17. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that PRSE is able to decrease the cellular viability of A17 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PRSE effect on cell survival was investigated in other tumor and normal cell lines of both mouse and human origin, demonstrating that PRSE is more ac...

  15. Neural stem cells show bidirectional experience-dependent plasticity in the perinatal mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippin, Tod E; Cain, Sean W; Masum, Zahra; Ralph, Martin R

    2004-03-17

    Many of the effects of prenatal stress on the endocrine function, brain morphology, and behavior in mammals can be reversed by brief sessions of postnatal separation and handling. We have tested the hypothesis that the effects of both the prenatal and postnatal experiences are mediated by negative and positive regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) number during critical stages in neurodevelopment. We used the in vitro clonal neurosphere assay to quantify NSCs in hamsters that had experienced prenatal stress (maternal restraint stress for 2 hr per day, for the last 7 d of gestation), postnatal handling (maternal-offspring separation for 15 min per day during postnatal days 1-21), orboth. Prenatal stress reduced the number of NSCs derived from the subependyma of the lateral ventricle. The effect was already present at postnatal day 1 and persisted into adulthood (at least 14 months of age). Similarly, prenatal stress reduced in vivo proliferation in the adult subependyma of the lateral ventricle. Conversely, postnatal handling increased NSC number and reversed the effect of prenatal stress. The effects of prenatal stress on NSCs and proliferation and the effect of postnatal handling on NSCs did not differ between male and females. The findings demonstrate that environmental factors can produce changes in NSC number that are present at birth and endure into late adulthood. These changes may underlie some of the behavioral effects produced by prenatal stress and postnatal handling.

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Meissen

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS, gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs. With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  17. Induced pluripotent stem cells show metabolomic differences to embryonic stem cells in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and primary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissen, John K; Yuen, Benjamin T K; Kind, Tobias; Riggs, John W; Barupal, Dinesh K; Knoepfler, Paul S; Fiehn, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells as shown by epigenetic and genomics analyses. Depending on cell types and culture conditions, such genetic alterations can lead to different metabolic phenotypes which may impact replication rates, membrane properties and cell differentiation. We here applied a comprehensive metabolomics strategy incorporating nanoelectrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography-time of flight MS, and hydrophilic interaction- and reversed phase-liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS to examine the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) compared to parental fibroblasts as well as to reference embryonic stem cells (ESCs). With over 250 identified metabolites and a range of structurally unknown compounds, quantitative and statistical metabolome data were mapped onto a metabolite networks describing the metabolic state of iPSCs relative to other cell types. Overall iPSCs exhibited a striking shift metabolically away from parental fibroblasts and toward ESCs, suggestive of near complete metabolic reprogramming. Differences between pluripotent cell types were not observed in carbohydrate or hydroxyl acid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, or free fatty acids. However, significant differences between iPSCs and ESCs were evident in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid structures, essential and non-essential amino acids, and metabolites involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Together our findings demonstrate that during cellular reprogramming, the metabolome of fibroblasts is also reprogrammed to take on an ESC-like profile, but there are select unique differences apparent in iPSCs. The identified metabolomics signatures of iPSCs and ESCs may have important implications for functional regulation of maintenance and induction of pluripotency.

  18. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  19. Segmentation of liver and spleen based on computational anatomy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhua; Chen, Yen-Wei; Foruzan, Amir Hossein; Lin, Lanfen; Han, Xian-Hua; Tateyama, Tomoko; Wu, Xing; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Huiyan

    2015-12-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs is a key step in developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Probabilistic atlas based on human anatomical structure, used as a priori information in a Bayes framework, has been widely used for organ segmentation. How to register the probabilistic atlas to the patient volume is the main challenge. Additionally, there is the disadvantage that the conventional probabilistic atlas may cause a bias toward the specific patient study because of the single reference. Taking these into consideration, a template matching framework based on an iterative probabilistic atlas for liver and spleen segmentation is presented in this paper. First, a bounding box based on human anatomical localization, which refers to the statistical geometric location of the organ, is detected for the candidate organ. Then, the probabilistic atlas is used as a template to find the organ in this bounding box by using template matching technology. We applied our method to 60 datasets including normal and pathological cases. For the liver, the Dice/Tanimoto volume overlaps were 0.930/0.870, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 2.906mm. For the spleen, quantification led to 0.922 Dice/0.857 Tanimoto overlaps, 1.992mm RMSE. The algorithm is robust in segmenting normal and abnormal spleens and livers, such as the presence of tumors and large morphological changes. Comparing our method with conventional and recently developed atlas-based methods, our results show an improvement in the segmentation accuracy for multi-organs (p<0.00001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alveolar architecture of clear cell renal carcinomas (≤5.0 cm) show high attenuation on dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Tobisu, Kenichi; Kakizoe, Tadao; Sakamoto, Michiie

    1999-01-01

    To establish the correlation between tumor appearance on CT and tumor histology in renal cell carcinomas. The density and attenuation patterns of 96 renal cell carcinomas, each ≤5 cm in greatest diameter, were studied by non-enhanced CT and early and late after bolus injection of contrast medium using dynamic CT. The density and attenuation patterns and pathological maps of each tumor were individually correlated. High attenuated areas were present in 72 of the 96 tumors on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. All 72 high attenuated areas were of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma and had alveolar architecture. The remaining 24 tumors that did not demonstrate high attenuated foci on early enhanced scanning included three clear cell, nine granular cell, six papillary, five chromophobe and one collecting duct type. With respect to tumor architecture, all clear cell tumors of alveolar architecture demonstrated high attenuation on early enhanced scanning. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas of alveolar architecture show high attenuation on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. A larger number of patients are indispensable to obtaining clear results. However, these findings seem to be an important clue to the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas as having an alveolar structure. (author)

  1. After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Pilch, Kjara S; van der Lans, Milou; Fazal, Shaline V; Benito, Cristina; Wagstaff, Laura J; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R

    2017-09-13

    There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair. Using genetic lineage-tracing and scanning-block face electron microscopy, we show that injury of sciatic nerves from mice of either sex triggers extensive and unexpected Schwann cell elongation and branching to form long, parallel processes. Repair cells are 2- to 3-fold longer than myelin and Remak cells and 7- to 10-fold longer than immature Schwann cells. Remarkably, when repair cells transit back to myelinating cells, they shorten ∼7-fold to generate the typically short internodes of regenerated nerves. The present experiments define novel morphological transitions in injured nerves and show that repair Schwann cells have a cell-type-specific structure that differentiates them from other cells in the Schwann cell lineage. They also provide the first direct evidence using genetic lineage tracing for two basic assumptions in Schwann cell biology: that myelin and Remak cells generate the elongated cells that build Bungner bands in injured nerves and that such cells can transform to myelin cells after regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After injury to peripheral nerves, the myelin and Remak Schwann cells distal to the injury site reorganize and modify their properties to form cells that support the survival of injured neurons, promote axon growth, remove myelin-associated growth inhibitors, and guide regenerating axons to their targets. We show that the

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. The Effects of 6 Weeks of Endurance Training and Consumption of Different Doses of Boldenone on Hematological Factors and Spleen Structure Changes in Male Wistar Rats

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    Asieh Abbassi Daloii

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regardless of how many periods and how long the androgenic-anabolic steroids have been used, they can cause side effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect a 6-week endurance training and using different doses of anabolic steroid boldenone on hematological factors and changes in spleen structure in male Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 47 male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks, were randomly divided into 7 groups (control, sham, boldenone-1, boldenone-2, endurance training, endurance training+boldenone-1, endurance training+boldenone-2. Increasing endurance training program was performed at the speed of 10-30m/min (Vo2max, 75-80% for 6 weeks and 5 days/week. The drug was injected deeply into the quadriceps and hamstring muscles once a week, on an appointed day. After anesthesia and dissection, the spleen was removed. Finally, the selected microscopic sections, were studied using a light microscope after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Data were analyzed by dependent t-, one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc LSD tests at α<0.05 level. Results: In this study, boldenone supplementation at different doses led to weight gain, non-significant decrease in spleen weight (p=0.297, increase in white blood cells (p=0.041, and increase in hematocrit level (p=0.017. Also, there was a significant difference between the effect of exercise and boldenone consumption on the extent of damage to white pulp, red pulp, and the spleen sinusoidal space (p=0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed it is likely that short-term consumption of boldenone have negative effects on the spleen structure, followed by negative changes in hematological factors.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: cell and humoral immunity in spleen and gut of isogenic mice immunized with {sup 60}Co irradiated tachyzoites; Toxoplasma gondii vs radiacao ionizante: imunidade humoral e celular em baco e intestino de camundongos isogenicos imunizados com taquizoitos irradiados por cobalto 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez

    2008-07-01

    We are developing a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using ionizing radiation as a tool. Here we analyzed the production of systemic and intestinal immunity, with protection studies, in several strains of inbred mice, by oral or parenteral route, using 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain, with challenge with cysts of ME- 49 strain. C57Bl/6j, BALB/c and C57Bl/6j IFN-{gamma}{sup -/-} mice were immunized with 10{sup 7} irradiated tachyzoites, be parenteral or oral route. Those preparations, both by parenteral or oral routes, induced the production of specific IgG, mainly of the lgG2b subclass, and IgA immunoglobulins in serum, , as determined by ELISA. IgM production was negligible. Parenteral immunized mice showed higher IgG avidity maturation, as compared to oral immunized mice. Fecal excretion of IgG, IgA and IgM was detected in stools of immunized animals, more intense in oral immunized mice. In cellular immunity studies, induced by antigen, with detection of cytokine production by quantitative real-time PCR, there are a great production of IFN-y by spleen cells, with lower levels in Peyer patches cells, where there are a greater IL-2 production. Challenge studies in immunized mice demonstrated protection to infection in all used schedules, greater in BALB/c mice. C57Bl/6j IFN-{gamma} -{sup /-} mice, when immunized, showed no signs of disease and produced similar or greater levels of antibodies than wild type mice. They also excreted S-lgA and S-IgM in stools, but with low numbers of brain cysts in parenteral immunized mice, despite similar mortality. Our data points to a fair possibility of use of those irradiated parasites as an oral vaccine, devised to use for veterinary or wild felines vaccination, reducing the production of oocysts by those hosts and interrupting the chain transmission of human toxoplasmosis. (author)

  5. Electronmicroscopic study of gamma irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneva, V.G.; Gitsov, L.G.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhajlova, A.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Viklichka, St.

    1978-01-01

    An electronmicroscopic study of the mouse spleen immunocompetent cells during the productive phase of the primary immune response after sublethal gamma ray irradiation is carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep red blood cells 24 hours after irradiation and sacrified on the 5th day after immunization. The number of small lymphocytes is reduced in all zones of the spleen. Only in the periarteriolar area the lymphoid sheaths are well outlines and the ultrastructure of the cells preserved. Three types of reticulohistocytic elements, according to their radiosensitivity are observed. The most radioresistant cells are the fixed ''dark'' reticular cells which do not complete phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of their nucleus and cytoplasm is not damaged. The macrophages are also quite resistant. The ''light'' reticular cells are the most radiosensitive. The chromatine of their nuclei is dispersed. The mitochondria are imbibed, with a reduced number of cristae. The cytoplasm contains many electron light vesicles, different in size. The changes in the processes of the dendridic cells in the spleen lymph follicles are of particular interest. Compared with the control animals the processes of dendritic reticular cells are markedly reduced. The postirradiation ultrastructural changes of the spleen cells indicate that parallel with the basic factor (the death of a considerable part of the small lymphocytes, precursors of the antibody-synthetizing cells) the reduced antibody-formation is due also to the limited capacity for ''traping'' the antigen on the processes of the dendritic follicular cells and to the reduced capacity of the reticulo-histocytic cells for antigen phagocytosis. The later is determined both by the damage of a considerable part of the phagocytes (radiosensitive ''light'' reticulo-histocytic cells) and by the blocking of the functionally undamaged phagocytes from ingested debris. (K.M.)

  6. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Schille, Regine; Beer, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Schille, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Department, Leipzig (Germany); Beer, Joerg [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  9. Pathologic rupture of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Cunha De Santis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic rupture has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic rupture. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6 mg/dL. Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory shock and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic rupture. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic rupture. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic rupture, as it is essentially atraumatic.

  10. Glycosylation and immunocytochemistry of binucleate cells in pronghorn (Antilocapra Americana, Antilocapridae) shows features of both Giraffidae and Bovidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) resembles an antelope, its nearest relatives are the Giraffe and Okapi. In this study we have examined the placentae of 6 pronghorns using lectin histochemistry to identify any giraffid features. Results showed that the binucleate cell (BNC) of the pla...

  11. The Transcriptional Heat Shock Response of Salmonella Typhimurium Shows Hysteresis and Heated Cells Show Increased Resistance to Heat and Acid Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pin, C.; Hansen, Trine; Munoz-Cuevas, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if the transcriptional response of Salmonella Typhimurium to temperature and acid variations was hysteretic, i.e. whether the transcriptional regulation caused by environmental stimuli showed memory and remained after the stimuli ceased. The transcriptional activity of non.......e., they remained up-regulated after the environmental stress ceased. At 25uC the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding for heat shock proteins was determined by the previous environment. Gene networks constructed with up-regulated genes were significantly more modular than those of down-regulated genes......H 4.5 were not affected. The exposure to pH 5 only caused up-regulation of 12 genes and this response was neither hysteretic nor accompanied of increased resistance to inactivation conditions. Cellular memory at the transcriptional level may represent a mechanism of adaptation to the environment...

  12. Orientia tsutsugamushi in human scrub typhus eschars shows tropism for dendritic cells and monocytes rather than endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Daniel H; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jones, Margaret; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Ferguson, David P J; Blacksell, Stuart D; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Turner, Gareth D H

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a common and underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in Southeast Asia, caused by infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi. Inoculation of the organism at a cutaneous mite bite site commonly results in formation of a localized pathological skin reaction termed an eschar. The site of development of the obligate intracellular bacteria within the eschar and the mechanisms of dissemination to cause systemic infection are unclear. Previous postmortem and in vitro reports demonstrated infection of endothelial cells, but recent pathophysiological investigations of typhus patients using surrogate markers of endothelial cell and leucocyte activation indicated a more prevalent host leucocyte than endothelial cell response in vivo. We therefore examined eschar skin biopsies from patients with scrub typhus to determine and characterize the phenotypes of host cells in vivo with intracellular infection by O. tsutsugamushi, using histology, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy. Immunophenotyping of host leucocytes infected with O. tsutsugamushi showed a tropism for host monocytes and dendritic cells, which were spatially related to different histological zones of the eschar. Infected leucocyte subsets were characterized by expression of HLADR+, with an "inflammatory" monocyte phenotype of CD14/LSP-1/CD68 positive or dendritic cell phenotype of CD1a/DCSIGN/S100/FXIIIa and CD163 positive staining, or occasional CD3 positive T-cells. Endothelial cell infection was rare, and histology did not indicate a widespread inflammatory vasculitis as the cause of the eschar. Infection of dendritic cells and activated inflammatory monocytes offers a potential route for dissemination of O. tsutsugamushi from the initial eschar site. This newly described cellular tropism for O. tsutsugamushi may influence its interaction with local host immune responses.

  13. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  14. AFM study shows prominent physical changes in elasticity and pericellular layer in human acute leukemic cells due to inadequate cell-cell communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia V.; Patel, Sapan J.; Dokukin, Maxim E.; Clarkson, Bayard; Sokolov, Igor

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical properties of single cells in vitro or ex vivo and their pericellular interfaces have recently attracted a lot of attention as a potential biophysical (and possibly prognostic) marker of various diseases and cell abnormalities. At the same time, the influence of the cell environment on the biomechanical properties of cells is not well studied. Here we use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that cell-cell communication can have a profound effect on both cell elasticity and its pericellular coat. A human pre-B p190BCR/ABL acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (ALL3) was used in this study. Assuming that cell-cell communication is inversely proportional to the distance between cells, we study ALL3 cells in vitro growing at different cell densities. ALL3 cells demonstrate a clear density dependent behavior. These cells grow very well if started at a relatively high cell density (HD, >2 × 105 cells ml-1) and are poised to grow at low cell density (LD, <1 × 104 cells ml-1). Here we observe ˜6× increase in the elastic (Young’s) modulus of the cell body and ˜3.6× decrease in the pericellular brush length of LD cells compared to HD ALL3 cells. The difference observed in the elastic modulus is much larger than typically reported for pathologically transformed cells. Thus, cell-cell communication must be taken into account when studying biomechanics of cells, in particular, correlating cell phenotype and its biophysical properties.

  15. Spleen and thymic sonography as estimator of the immune response in children with repeated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Jesus; Fundora, Hermes; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2010-01-01

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. The spleen has many functions: IgM class antibody production and phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria. We propose to measure the dimensions of the spleen in children with repeated infections, in order to describe them as a diagnosis marker and to explore the probable correlation between the thymic characteristics and the dimensions of the spleen. We study 81 patients that attended the consultation of Immunology from Aballi hospital with repeated infections and they were from 8 months to 9 years old. Children with nutritional value up to the third percentile and those taking steroids 45 days before the study were excluded. We measured the thymic and splenic areas by mediastinal and abdominal echography. The length, the splenic index and the weight are less in patients with repeated infections. These data were significant in 12 to 23 month of age group. The length and the splenic index were less in patients with depletion of thymic area. The sonographic evaluation of the spleen is very important in patients from 1 to 2 years old and in patients with thymic depletion, because they are on the age of vaccine administration according to the Cuban schedule and having affected a main organ for immune response might be a reason for them to show a deficient response and need special schedules

  16. Interstitial interfaces show marked differences in regenerating tubules, matured tubules, and the renal stem/progenitor cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. After an implantation stem/progenitor cells must migrate through the interstitial space to concentrate at the site of damage. However, information is lacking to what extent the interstitial interface is influencing the development of stem/progenitor cells into nephron structures. In consequence, tubule regeneration within an artificial polyester interstitium was analyzed by electron microscopy in comparison with the interstitial interface of matured tubules and the interstitium within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. The experiments demonstrate that fixation of specimens with glutaraldehyde (GA) is leading in all cases to inconspicuously looking interstitial interfaces. In contrast, fixation of regenerating tubules in GA containing ruthenium red and tannic acid shows a dense network of fibers lining along the basal lamina. In contrast, matured tubules reveal after ruthenium red label an extremely thickened basal lamina, while only a punctate pattern is obtained after tannic acid treatment. Finally, within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche ruthenium red and tannic acid label reveals large amounts of extracellular matrix spanning through the interstitium. Thus, fixation of tissue in GA containing ruthenium red and tannic acid exhibits an unexpectedly regional heterogeneity of the renal interstitial interface. This fact has to be considered for an optimal therapeutic repair of parenchyma, since contacts between stem/progenitor cells with the interstitial interface influence further development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  18. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showing structural changes to bacterial cells treated with electrolyzed water and an acidic sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A

    2012-04-01

    The effects of various sanitizers on the viability and cellular injury to structures of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were investigated. A food grade organic acidic formulation (pH 2.5) and acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyzed water [AEW (pH 2.7, oxidation reduction potential; ORP: 1100 mV, free available chlorine; FAC: 150 ppm), NEW (pH 6.9, ORP: 840 mV, FAC: 150 ppm), BEW (pH 11.6, ORP: -810 mV)] were used to treat E. coli and L. innocua cells. After 10 min of exposure to the sanitizers, changes to the bacterial numbers and cell structures were evaluated by plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. It was concluded from the results that the sanitizers reduced the E. coli cells between 2 and 3 log CFU/mL. Except for the BEW treatment, reductions in L. innocua population were greater (>1 log CFU/mL) than that of E. coli for all treatments. Data from the TEM showed that all sanitizers caused changes to the cell envelope and cytoplasm of both organisms. However, smaller changes were observed for L. innocua cells. Decrease in the integrity of the cell envelope and aggregation of the cytoplasmic components appeared to be mainly because of exposure to the sanitizers. The organic acid formulation and AEW were the most effective sanitizers against bacterial cells, indicating that penetration of acidic substances effectively caused the cell inactivation. An understanding of the method in which E-water and an acidic sanitizer cause injury to E. coli and L. innocua would be helpful in selecting an effective chemical agent as a food safety tool. This will allow a scientist to target similar microorganisms such as food borne bacteria with structures that are vulnerable to the sanitizer. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. MHC Expression on Spleen Lymphocyte Subsets in Genetically Resistant and Susceptible Chickens Infected with Marek's Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina; Bøving, Mette K.; Handberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    cytometry for MHC surface expression. In the spleen, constitutive MHC class I surface expression was found to be highest in homozygous B19, lowest in homozygous B21, and intermediate in heterozygous B19/B21 animals. This was observed on CD4(+), CD8(+), and Bu-1(+) splenic lymphocytes. Chickens of all three...... genotypes were subjected to infection with MD virus (GA strain) and spleen samples from infected as well as MHC-matched negative controls were analyzed at 1, 4, and 8 wk post-infection (p.i.). It was observed that MDV induced an increase in MHC class I expression late in the infection. Thus, MHC class I...... was increased on the surface of CD4(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i. compared with negative controls. Also, MHC class I expression was increased on CD8(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i., except for the homozygous B19 animals, that showed...

  20. Studi Histopatologi Limpa Anjing Penderita Distemper Dikaitkan Dengan Sebaran Sel-Sel Radang Pada Otak Dan Paru (HISTOPHATOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPLEEN ON DOGS INFECTED WITH DISTEMPER ASSOCIATED TO INFLAMATION IN THE BRAIN AND LUNGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Furkam Fadilah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to determine the distribution of inflammatory cells in canine distemper in terms of the level of inflammation in the spleen, brain and lungs. The sample used 20 infected dogs wihich from the spleens, brains, and lungs of the dogs were collected. These organs were processed for histophatological observation using harris hematoxilyn-eosyn stain. The inflammation of the organs examined by using binocular microscope with 200X magnification. the results showed that inflammation was observed in the spleens: 9 samples (45% showed the presence of lymphoidcells that experienced a mild inflammation 7 (35% moderate inflammation, and 4 (20% severe inflammation in brain, 3 samples (15% did not show observe inflammation, 12 (60% mild, 5(25% moderate inflammation, and not observed any severe inflammation in brain, pulmonary: 6(30% mild inflammation, 11 (55% moderate inflammation, and 3 (15% severe inflammation. It can be concluded that the inflammation was observed microscopically in the spleen, brain and lungin the dog that infected with canine distemper virus

  1. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... of CSPH. We recently showed the algorithm to rule-out CSPH using sequential liver- (L-SWE) and spleen-Shear-wave elastography (S-SWE). This study investigated the diagnostic value of S-SWE for diagnosis of CSPH. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight cirrhotic patients with pressure gradient measurements...... were included into this prospective multicentre study. L-SWE was measured in 155 patients, S-SWE in 112 patients, and both in 109 patients. RESULTS: Liver-shear-wave elastography and S-SWE correlated with clinical events and decompensation. SWE of liver and spleen revealed strong correlations...

  2. Use of liver-spleen scintigraphy to detect immune status and Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, W.I.; Heiba, S.; Ganz, S.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) underwent liver-spleen scintigraphy. In 43 clinically immunocompromised patients splenic activity was decreased or absent. Eight of these patients had enlarged spleens with decreased uptake. Autopsy results are available on three, all of whom had Kaposi sarcoma of the spleen. Splenic uptake was initially demonstrated in six HTV-positive patients. In three of these subsequently symptomatic patients, follow-up scans showed decreased splenic uptake. Two non-AIDS, HIV-positive patients had normal splenic uptake. These preliminary data suggest that AIDS patients initially have increased uptake, which progresses to decreased splenic uptake as the patients become immunocompromised. Azidothymidine reversed this pattern in one patient. In addition, splenic enlargement with decreased uptake suggests the presence of Kaposi sarcoma

  3. Skin fibroblast cell lines derived from non-Hodgkin's-lymphoma (NHL) patients show increased sensitivity to chronic gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Greer, W; Smith, B P; Sigut, D; Ali, M A; Amer, M H

    1991-01-21

    Cultured fibroblast cells from 19 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 3 patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), 3 AT heterozygotes and 11 (presumed) normal subjects were studied for impaired colony-forming ability after chronic gamma irradiation. Five cell lines from the NHL patients were also examined for the sensitivity to acute gamma irradiation, as compared with those of normal subjects. To ascertain the degree of radiosensitivity of different cell lines, a comparison was made of the D10 values (radiation dose resulting in 10% survival) for each cell line, estimated "by eye" from the actual survival curves, and also from the calculated curves fitted to a log-linear model. It was observed that the acute gamma irradiation failed to show any appreciable difference in the radiation response of the cell lines from NHL patients as compared with those of normal subjects. However, chronic irradiation demonstrated significantly increased radiosensitivity in at least 10-12 NHL patients with a p value of less than 0.05, when the D10 values of each patient's cell line were compared with the calculated composite values for the normals. When the D10 values of the NHL patients and the normal subjects were compared as 2 groups, the former appeared to be significantly more sensitive to chronic gamma irradiation (p less than 0.0001). The same level of significant difference in radiosensitivity was found between the 2 groups when their D37 values (radiation dose resulting in 37% survival) were compared. In general, the radiation response of the NHL patients was similar to that of the AT homozygotes and heterozygotes used as a positive control group. Our data thus show that increased radiosensitivity is associated with the NHL patients studied, indicating an underlying abnormality of their DNA repair.

  4. Pancreatic beta cells from db/db mice show cell-specific [Ca2+]i and NADH responses to glucose but not to alpha-ketoisocaproic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Larsson-Nyrén, Gerd; Lindström, Per

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that timing and magnitude of the glucose-induced cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]i response are reproducible and specific for the individual beta cell. We now wanted to identify which step(s) of stimulus-secretion coupling determine the cell specificity of the [Ca2+]i resp...

  5. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  6. A comparison of foamy and lentiviral vector genotoxicity in SCID-repopulating cells shows foamy vectors are less prone to clonal dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Everson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy using retroviral vectors has immense potential, but vector-mediated genotoxicity limits use in the clinic. Lentiviral vectors are less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors and have become the vector of choice in clinical trials. Foamy retroviral vectors have a promising integration profile and are less prone to read-through transcription than gammaretroviral or lentiviral vectors. Here, we directly compared the safety and efficacy of foamy vectors to lentiviral vectors in human CD34+ repopulating cells in immunodeficient mice. To increase their genotoxic potential, foamy and lentiviral vectors with identical transgene cassettes with a known genotoxic spleen focus forming virus promoter were used. Both vectors resulted in efficient marking in vivo and a total of 825 foamy and 460 lentiviral vector unique integration sites were recovered in repopulating cells 19 weeks after transplantation. Foamy vector proviruses were observed less often near RefSeq gene and proto-oncogene transcription start sites than lentiviral vectors. The foamy vector group were also more polyclonal with fewer dominant clones (two out of six mice than the lentiviral vector group (eight out of eight mice, and only lentiviral vectors had integrants near known proto-oncogenes in dominant clones. Our data further support the relative safety of foamy vectors for HSC gene therapy.

  7. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.G.; Fogh, J.; Graem, N.; Hansen, O.P.; Hippe, E.

    1984-04-15

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy, which showed only a few minor focal changes in the spine and ribs, angioscintigraphy with in vitro labeled /sup 99m/Tc-erythrocytes revealed extensive pathologic accumulations throughout the spine, femurs, and the liver, indicating the presence of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas.

  8. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between sonographers. The spleen and left kidney lengths were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05).

  9. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  10. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Misawa T, Yoshida K, Shiba H, Kobayashi S, Yanaga K. Wandering spleen with chronic torsion. Am J Surg. 2008 Apr;195(4):504-5. This article on PubMed. 7. Fiquet-Francois C, Belouadah M, Ludot H, Defauw B. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study. J Pediatr Surg. 2010.

  11. A true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen: a very rare anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, T; Tollens, T; Aelvoet, Chr; Vanrykel, J P

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to a wandering or ectopic spleen which is vascularized by the original splenic vessels this case describes a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis. To our knowledge this anomaly has never been described in the literature before.

  12. Antibody and T-cell responses associated with experimental human malaria infection or vaccination show limited relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen M; Okitsu, Shinji; Porter, David W; Duncan, Christopher; Amacker, Mario; Pluschke, Gerd; Cavanagh, David R; Hill, Adrian V S; Todryk, Stephen M

    2015-05-01

    This study examined specific antibody and T-cell responses associated with experimental malaria infection or malaria vaccination, in malaria-naive human volunteers within phase I/IIa vaccine trials, with a view to investigating inter-relationships between these types of response. Malaria infection was via five bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes, with individuals reaching patent infection by 11-12 days, having harboured four or five blood-stage cycles before drug clearance. Infection elicited a robust antibody response against merozoite surface protein-119 , correlating with parasite load. Classical class switching was seen from an early IgM to an IgG1-dominant response of increasing affinity. Malaria-specific T-cell responses were detected in the form of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELIspot, but their magnitude did not correlate with the magnitude of antibody or its avidity, or with parasite load. Different individuals who were immunized with a virosome vaccine comprising influenza antigens combined with P. falciparum antigens, demonstrated pre-existing interferon-γ, IL-2 and IL-5 ELIspot responses against the influenza antigens, and showed boosting of anti-influenza T-cell responses only for IL-5. The large IgG1-dominated anti-parasite responses showed limited correlation with T-cell responses for magnitude or avidity, both parameters being only negatively correlated for IL-5 secretion versus anti-apical membrane antigen-1 antibody titres. Overall, these findings suggest that cognate T-cell responses across a range of magnitudes contribute towards driving potentially effective antibody responses in infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity against malaria, and their existence during immunization is beneficial, but magnitudes are mostly not inter-related. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Transfection of glioma cells with the neural-cell adhesion molecule NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Pedersen, P H; Bjerkvig, R

    1994-01-01

    of the injection site, with a sharply demarcated border between the tumor and brain tissue. In contrast, the parental cell line showed single-cell infiltration and more pronounced destruction of normal brain tissue. Using a 51Cr-release assay, spleen cells from rats transplanted with BT4Cn tumor cells generally...

  14. Effect of rapamycin on spleen size in longstanding renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, N C; Sampaio Gonçalves de Lucena, S B; da Silveira Rioja, S

    2014-06-01

    Based on evidence available in the literature, rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, but not calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), has been shown to decrease spleen size. Small spleen, in some instances, is associated with hyposplenism, a condition recently reported in patients with longstanding renal transplant. Accordingly, the effect of immunosuppressive drugs on spleen size was evaluated. Renal transplant recipients (35 taking mTOR and 68 CNI) were included, in whom a standardized investigation of the kidney allograft and spleen with the use of color Doppler ultrasound was performed and a peripheral smear were reviewed for the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs). We enrolled 103 patients (64 men; 66 from a deceased donor). The mean age was 47.7 years (range, 23.0-74.0 y). Mean transplant duration was 1,899 days (range, 181-6,883 d). According to the presence of HJBs, the prevalence of hyposplenism was 47.6% for the entire cohort. The differences between the mTOR and CNI groups regarding sex and the presence of HJBs were not statistically significant (P > .05). Age, creatinine, hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, and Doppler parameters in spleen and kidney were similar in both groups (P > .05). mTOR patients had a decreased spleen length size (90.09 ± 13.02 mm vs 111.95 ± 18.66 mm; P < .001), a longer transplant duration (3,576 ± 1,594 d vs 1,036 ± 1,369 d; P < .001) and higher serum cholesterol (227.50 ± 38.75 mg/dL vs 182.67 ± 37.74 mg/dL; P < .001) and triglycerides (194.23 ± 79.88 mg/dL vs 148.70 ± 55.54 mg/dL; P = .003) levels compared with the CNI group. A multivariate analysis showed mTOR inhibitor to be the most important predictor of spleen size. In both the mTOR and CNI groups, the comparison between the subgroups of present and absent HJBs did not show any difference. The findings of this study suggest that small spleens in transplant recipients may be linked to treatment with an mTOR inhibitor, although this apparently does

  15. Topically Delivered Adipose Derived Stem Cells Show an Activated-Fibroblast Phenotype and Enhance Granulation Tissue Formation in Skin Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Jong; Xu, Wei; Leung, Kai P.; Mustoe, Thomas A.; Galiano, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are found in various tissues and can proliferate extensively in vitro. MSCs have been used in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in many fields. Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) have several advantages compared to other MSCs for use in cell-based treatments because they are easy to isolate with relative abundance. However, quantitative approaches for wound repair using ASCs have been limited because of lack of animal models which allow for quantification. Here, we addressed the effect of topically delivered ASCs in wound repair by quantitative analysis using the rabbit ear model. We characterized rabbit ASCs, and analyzed their multipotency in comparison to bone marrow derived-MSCs (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) in vitro. Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not. These studies suggest that ASCs and BM-MSCs are not identical, though they have similar surface markers. We found that topically delivered ASCs are engrafted and proliferate in the wounds. We showed that transplanted ASCs exhibited activated fibroblast phenotype, increased endothelial cell recruitment, and enhanced macrophage recruitment in vivo. PMID:23383253

  16. A novel irreversible FLT3 inhibitor, FF-10101, shows excellent efficacy against AML cells withFLT3mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takeshi; Nakatani, Toshiyuki; Uda, Ken; Ogura, Hayato; Shin, Wigyon; Kurokawa, Naoya; Saito, Koichi; Fujikawa, Norie; Date, Tomomi; Takasaki, Masaru; Terada, Daisuke; Hirai, Atsushi; Akashi, Akimi; Chen, Fangli; Adachi, Yoshiya; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Hagiwara, Shinji; Naoe, Tomoki; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2018-01-25

    An activating mutation of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ( FLT3 ) is the most frequent genetic alteration associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although many FLT3 inhibitors have been clinically developed, no first-generation inhibitors have demonstrated clinical efficacy by monotherapy, due to poor pharmacokinetics or unfavorable safety profiles possibly associated with low selectivity against FLT3 kinase. Recently, a selective FLT3 inhibitor, quizartinib, demonstrated favorable outcomes in clinical studies. However, several resistant mutations emerged during the disease progression. To overcome these problems, we developed a novel FLT3 inhibitor, FF-10101, designed to possess selective and irreversible FLT3 inhibition. The co-crystal structure of FLT3 protein bound to FF-10101 revealed the formation of a covalent bond between FF-10101 and the cysteine residue at 695 of FLT3. The unique binding brought high selectivity and inhibitory activity against FLT3 kinase. FF-10101 showed potent growth inhibitory effects on human AML cell lines harboring FLT3 internal tandem duplication ( FLT3 -ITD), MOLM-13, MOLM-14, and MV4-11, and all tested types of mutant FLT3-expressing 32D cells including quizartinib-resistant mutations at D835, Y842, and F691 residues in the FLT3 kinase domain. In mouse subcutaneous implantation models, orally administered FF-10101 showed significant growth inhibitory effect on FLT3-ITD-D835Y- and FLT3-ITD-F691L-expressing 32D cells. Furthermore, FF-10101 potently inhibited growth of primary AML cells harboring either FLT3 -ITD or FLT3 -D835 mutation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that FF-10101 is a promising agent for the treatment of patients with AML with FLT3 mutations, including the activation loop mutations clinically identified as quizartinib-resistant mutations. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberger, John M; Martínez, Ricardo N

    2015-01-01

    Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals. Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered) bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha) than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  18. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Rensberger

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals.Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  19. Effect of orally administered zinc oxide nanoparticles on albino rat thymus and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Marwa A; Selim, Sally A; Selim, Assmaa O; El-Shal, Amal S; Gouda, Zienab A

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral intake of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the structure of thymus and spleen. Twenty-four young male Wistar albino rats were assigned into two groups: group I (control) and group II (ZnO NPs treated group).The thymus and spleen were analyzed biochemically, histopathologically and immunohistochemically. After ZnO NPs intake, hematologically, the total leucocytic count was significantly increased while the RBCs and platelets counts and Hb % were significantly decreased. Biochemically, a significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 4 and 10 (IL-4 and IL-10) levels was noted. While a significant increase in splenic and thymic malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA shearing, as well as the studied proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1β, tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α) and interferon (INF-γ) levels was detected. Notably, we noted upregulation of the immunomodulatory [CD3, CD11b, heme oxygenase (HO-1)] and the inflammatory [toll-like receptor 4 and 6 (TLR4 and TLR6)] genes. Histopathologically, degenerative changes were detected in thymus and spleen of ZnO NPs treated group. While the immunohistochemical analysis of the ZnO NPs treated group revealed a decrease in the number of cells expressed positive reactions of anti-PCNA and an increase in the number of cells expressed positive reaction of anti-p53 in the thymus and spleen. In conclusion, ZnO NPs induced obvious immunotoxicity in the thymus and spleen, where oxidative/inflammatory pathway may be the potential mechanism underlying this immunotoxicity. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(7):528-539, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Synergistic effect of lidocaine with pingyangmycin for treatment of venous malformation using a mouse spleen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Yuan-Zheng; Mao, Kai-Ping; Fu, Yanjie; Lin, Qiang; Xue, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether lidocaine has the synergistic effect with pingyangmycin (PYM) in the venous malformations (VMs) treatment. Methods: The mouse spleen was chosen as a VM model and injected with different concentration of lidocaine or PYM or jointly treated with lidocaine and PYM. After 2, 5, 8 or 14 days, the mouse spleen tissues were acquired for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, TUNEL assay and quantitative RT-PCR analysis to examine the toxicological effects of lidocaine and PYM on splenic vascular endothelial cells. Results: 0.4% of lidocaine mildly promoted the apoptosis of endothelial cells, while 2 mg/ml PYM significantly elevated the apoptotic ratios. However, the combination of 0.2% lidocaine and 0.5 mg/ml PYM notably elevated the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells and severely destroyed the configuration of spleen, compared to those of treatment with 0.5 mg/ml PYM alone. Conclusion: Lidocaine exerts synergistic effects with PYM in promoting the apoptosis of mouse splenic endothelial cells, indicating that lidocaine possibly promotes the therapeutic effects of PYM in VMs treatment via synergistically enhancing the apoptosis of endothelial cells of malformed venous lesions. PMID:24966943

  1. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  2. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  3. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T; Diack, Abigail B; Ritchie, Diane L; Ironside, James W; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C

    2013-04-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and recipient spleen

  4. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T.; Diack, Abigail B.; Ritchie, Diane L.; Ironside, James W.; Will, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and

  5. Immunofluorescence Analysis of Testicular Biopsies With Germ Cell and Sertoli Cell Markers Shows Significant MVH Negative Germ Cell Depletion With Older Age of Orchidopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Sun, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Undescended testis is the most common defect in newborn boys. It is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in these testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. The aim of our study was to analyse germ cell development verses ...... age of orchidopexy using a germ cell marker and a Sertoli cell marker on testicular biopsies.......Undescended testis is the most common defect in newborn boys. It is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in these testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. The aim of our study was to analyse germ cell development verses...

  6. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim Noor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide

  7. Shear mechanical properties of the spleen: experiment and analytical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Noguer, L; Palierne, J-F

    2012-05-01

    This paper aims at providing the first shear mechanical properties of spleen tissue. Rheometric tests on porcine splenic tissues were performed in the linear and nonlinear regime, revealing a weak frequency dependence of the dynamic moduli in linear regime and a distinct strain-hardening effect in nonlinear regime. These behaviours are typical of soft tissues such as kidney and liver, with however a less pronounced strain-hardening for the spleen. An analytical model based on power laws is then proposed to describe the general shear viscoelastic behaviour of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  9. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  10. The guinea fowl spleen at embryonic and post-hatch periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeanusi, B I

    2006-06-01

    The spleen of the guinea fowl was bean-shaped but without a dented hilus. It is supplied by three short arteries that came from the ventral surface, two on the cranial end and one at the caudal end of the organ. The whole organ had a thin but tough capsule covering the outer surface except at the point of entry of the blood vessels. By day 18 of incubation, the spleen had a thin but well-defined capsule and internal to this been complete network of sinusoids filled with erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes. By day 19, dark and light staining zones, which could be termed red and white pulps, had appeared. By day 20, the granulocytes with a lot of granules within their cytoplasm, had become the biggest-sized cells in the spleen. At day 21, arteries and veins were noticed clearly in the spleen and many lymphocytes, few granulocytes and reticular cells surrounded these. Red pulp with its sinusoids was now distinct. A giant cell containing three nuclei was seen within the red pulp. At day 1 post-hatch, the capsule was at its greatest thickness so far and muscle cells were seen at the inner most part of the capsule. Granulocytes that had been a constant feature suddenly disappeared. At day 5, the small lymphocytes had dominated the large and medium-sized ones. By 2 weeks, the red and white pulps were virtually equal in distribution but by 3 weeks, the red pulp was convincingly greater. By 7 weeks, plasma cells had appeared in the peripheral splenic cords. Monocytes were observed in the sinusoids. Two germinal centres were identified for the first time in week 13 post-hatch.

  11. Cannabis Users Show Enhanced Expression of CB1-5HT2AReceptor Heteromers in Olfactory Neuroepithelium Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Liliana; Moreno, Estefanía; López-Armenta, Fernando; Guinart, Daniel; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Izquierdo-Serra, Mercè; Xicota, Laura; Fernandez, Cristina; Menoyo, Esther; Fernández-Fernández, José M; Benítez-King, Gloria; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; Pérez, Víctor; de la Torre, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2018-01-02

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB 1 R) and serotonergic 2A receptors (5HT 2A R) form heteromers in the brain of mice where they mediate the cognitive deficits produced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. However, it is still unknown whether the expression of this heterodimer is modulated by chronic cannabis use in humans. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and functionality of CB 1 R-5HT 2A R heteromers in human olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) cells of cannabis users and control subjects, and determined their molecular characteristics through adenylate cyclase and the ERK 1/2 pathway signaling studies. We also assessed whether heteromer expression levels correlated with cannabis consumption and cognitive performance in neuropsychological tests. ON cells from controls and cannabis users expressed neuronal markers such as βIII-tubulin and nestin, displayed similar expression levels of genes related to cellular self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, and generation of neural crest cells, and showed comparable Na + currents in patch clamp recordings. Interestingly, CB 1 R-5HT 2A R heteromer expression was significantly increased in cannabis users and positively correlated with the amount of cannabis consumed, and negatively with age of onset of cannabis use. In addition, a negative correlation was found between heteromer expression levels and attention and working memory performance in cannabis users and control subjects. Our findings suggest that cannabis consumption regulates the formation of CB 1 R-5HT 2A R heteromers, and may have a key role in cognitive processing. These heterodimers could be potential new targets to develop treatment alternatives for cognitive impairments.

  12. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oleuropein shows copper complexing properties and noxious effect on cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells depending on cell copper content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, Concetta R; Pedersen, Jens Z; Falconi, Mattia; Rossi, Luisa

    2017-12-01

    The secoiridoid oleuropein is a non-flavonoid polyphenol, found in the fruit, leaves and food derivatives from Olea europea. Like other polyphenols it shows a very low toxicity towards healthy tissues and a protective action against cancer or neurodegeneration, but its mechanism of action is not yet understood. In the present report we have used optical and ESR spectroscopy as well as molecular modelling to demonstrate that oleuropein forms a complex with the transition metal copper; the dysmetabolism of this metal is suspected to be involved in both cancer and neurodegeneration. Experiments carried out with the aglycon derivative of oleuropein, produced by β-glycosidase treatment of oleuropein glycoside, showed that also the aglycon forms copper-complexes, but with different spectroscopic features than the glycosidic form. Molecular modelling analysis confirmed that two oleuropein molecules (glycosidic or aglycon forms) can easily coordinate one copper ion. The relationship between oleuropein and copper was investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. When cells were depleted of copper by treatment with the copper chelator triethylenetetramine (Trien), that binds copper with higher affinity than oleuropein, oleuropein was less toxic than to copper-adequate cells. Conversely, incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with exogenous copper sulphate increased cell susceptibility to oleuropein. Furthermore SH-SY5Y cells differentiated by retinoic acid pre-treatment showed a lower level of copper, and were more resistant to oleuropein treatment. The oleuropein aglycon was not toxic towards SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, the copper-oleuropein complex may be involved in the toxicity of oleuropein towards tumour cells, depending on their copper level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic anion transporter 2 transcript variant 1 shows broad ligand selectivity when expressed in multiple cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Adam G; Berrigan, Liam; Pelis, Ryan M

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2) is likely important for renal and hepatic drug elimination. Three variants of the OAT2 peptide sequence have been described - OAT2 transcript variant 1 (OAT2-tv1), OAT2 transcript variant 2 (OAT2-tv2), and OAT2 transcript variant 3 (OAT2-tv3). Early studies helping to define the ligand selectivity of OAT2 failed to identify the variant used, and the studies used several heterologous expression systems. In preliminary studies using OAT2-tv1, we failed to observe transport of several previously identified substrates, leading us to speculate that ligand selectivity of OAT2 differs with variant and/or heterologous expression system. The purpose was to further investigate the ligand selectivity of the OAT2 variants expressed in multiple cell types. We cloned OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2, but were unsuccessful at amplifying mRNA for OAT2-tv3 from human kidney. OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 were individually expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. mRNA for OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 was demonstrated in each cell type transfected with the respective construct, indicating their expression. OAT2-tv1 trafficked to the plasma membrane of all three cell types, but OAT2-tv2 did not. OAT2-tv1 transported penciclovir in all three cell types, but failed to transport para-aminohippurate, succinate, glutarate, estrone-3-sulfate, paclitaxel or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate - previously identified substrates of OAT2-tv2. Not surprising given its lack of plasma membrane expression, OAT2-tv2 failed to transport any of the organic solutes examined, including penciclovir. Penciclovir transport by OAT2-tv1 was sensitive to large (e.g., cyclosporine A) and small (e.g., allopurinol) organic compounds, as well as organic anions, cations and neutral compounds, highlighting the multiselectivity of OAT2-tv1. The potencies with which indomethacin, furosemide, cyclosporine A and cimetidine inhibited OAT2-tv1

  15. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  16. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  17. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  18. Torsion of a wandering spleen | Carapinha | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare and difficult diagnosis in the paediatric population, with death a possible outcome. In this paper we present our experience of a single case and discuss the embryology and management thereof.

  19. Increased Levels of Type 1 Interferon in a Type 1 Diabetic Mouse Model Induce the Elimination of B Cells from the Periphery by Apoptosis and Increase their Retention in the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Mohamed Badr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D is associated with a defect in the immune response, which increases susceptibility to infection. We recently demonstrated that prolonged elevated levels of type 1 interferon (IFN induce lymphocyte exhaustion during T1D. Aims: In the present study, we further investigated the effect of blocking the type I IFN receptor signaling pathway on diabetic dyslipidemia, in which an abnormal lipid profile leads to the exhaustion of B cells and alteration of their distribution and functions. Methods: T1D was induced in a mouse model by an intraperitoneal injection of a single dose (60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ. Three groups of mice were examined: a non-diabetic control group, a diabetic group and a diabetic group treated with an anti-IFN (alpha, beta and omega receptor 1 (IFNAR1 blocking antibody to block type I IFN signaling. Results: We observed that induction of T1D was accompanied by a marked destruction of β cells and a reduction in the insulin levels in the diabetic group. Diabetic mice exhibited many changes, including alterations in their lipid profiles, expansion of splenic B cells, increased caspase-3, -8 and -9 activity, and apoptosis in peripheral B cells. Blocking type 1 IFN signaling in diabetic mice significantly returned the insulin and lipid profiles to normal levels, subsequently restored the B cell distribution, and rescued the peripheral B cells from apoptosis. Conclusion: Our data suggest the potential role of type I IFN in mediating diabetic dyslipidemia and an exhausted state of B cells during T1D.

  20. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, pMDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, pMDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (pMDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  1. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  2. A Potent and Selective Quinoxalinone-Based STK33 Inhibitor Does Not Show Synthetic Lethality in KRAS-Dependent Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weïwer, Michel; Spoonamore, James; Wei, Jingqiang; Guichard, Boris; Ross, Nathan T; Masson, Kristina; Silkworth, Whitney; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Palmer, Michelle; Scherer, Christina A; Stern, Andrew M; Schreiber, Stuart L; Munoz, Benito

    2012-12-13

    The KRAS oncogene is found in up to 30% of all human tumors. In 2009, RNAi experiments revealed that lowering mRNA levels of a transcript encoding the serine/threonine kinase STK33 was selectively toxic to KRAS-dependent cancer cell lines, suggesting that small-molecule inhibitors of STK33 might selectively target KRAS-dependent cancers. To test this hypothesis, we initiated a high-throughput screen using compounds in the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR). Several hits were identified, and one of these, a quinoxalinone derivative, was optimized. Extensive SAR studies were performed and led to the chemical probe ML281 that showed low nanomolar inhibition of purified recombinant STK33 and a distinct selectivity profile as compared to other STK33 inhibitors that were reported in the course of these studies. Even at the highest concentration tested (10 μM), ML281 had no effect on the viability of KRAS-dependent cancer cells. These results are consistent with other recent reports using small-molecule STK33 inhibitors. Small molecules having different chemical structures and kinase-selectivity profiles are needed to fully understand the role of STK33 in KRAS-dependent cancers. In this regard, ML281 is a valuable addition to small-molecule probes of STK33.

  3. TGF-β-Induced CD8+CD103+Regulatory T Cells Show Potent Therapeutic Effect on Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Lupus by Suppressing B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haowen; Liu, Ya; Xu, Zhenjian; Liang, Peifeng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Junzhen; Fu, Sha; Tang, Ying; Lv, Jun; Wang, Julie; Olsen, Nancy; Xu, Anping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2018-01-01

    Lupus nephritis is one of most severe complications of systemic erythematosus lupus and current approaches are not curative for lupus nephritis. Although CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg) are crucial for prevention of autoimmunity, the therapeutic effect of these cells on lupus nephritis is not satisfactory. We previously reported that CD8 + CD103 + Treg induced ex vivo with TGF-β1 and IL-2 (CD8 + CD103 + iTreg), regardless of Foxp3 expression, displayed potent immunosuppressive effect on Th cell response and had therapeutic effect on Th cell-mediated colitis. Here, we tested whether CD8 + CD103 + iTreg can ameliorate lupus nephritis and determined potential molecular mechanisms. Adoptive transfer of CD8 + CD103 + iTreg but not control cells to chronic graft-versus-host disease with a typical lupus syndrome showed decreased levels of autoantibodies and proteinuria, reduced renal pathological lesions, lowered renal deposition of IgG/C3, and improved survival. CD8 + CD103 + iTreg cells suppressed not only T helper cells but also B cell responses directly that may involve in both TGF-β and IL-10 signals. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrated CD8 + CD103 + iTreg have its own unique expression profiles of transcription factors. Thus, current study has identified and extended the target cells of CD8 + CD103 + iTreg and provided a possible application of this new iTreg subset on lupus nephritis and other autoimmune diseases.

  4. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  5. Modulation of gamma radiation induced changes in the weight of spleen and thymus by centella asiatica pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Radha; Jaimala

    2003-01-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn) is a medicinal plant widely used in several Ayurvedic preparations. Pretreatment of swiss albino mice with Centella asiatica one hour before irradiation with a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight protected the animal from death by way of reducing the histopathological changes and loss of weight of the spleen and thymus against radiation. In irradiated animals (6 and 8 Gy) the reduction in the weight of spleen and thymus was significantly higher and recovery was slower in comparison to animals pretreated with Centella asiatica. It might be due to the increased cell population in the spleen and thymus of the animal pretreated with the plant extract or plant extract might have inhibited the cell death caused by radiation. (author)

  6. The multifunctional FUS, EWS and TAF15 proto-oncoproteins show cell type-specific expression patterns and involvement in cell spreading and stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Göran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FUS, EWS and TAF15 are structurally similar multifunctional proteins that were first discovered upon characterization of fusion oncogenes in human sarcomas and leukemias. The proteins belong to the FET (previously TET family of RNA-binding proteins and are implicated in central cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression, maintenance of genomic integrity and mRNA/microRNA processing. In the present study, we investigated the expression and cellular localization of FET proteins in multiple human tissues and cell types. Results FUS, EWS and TAF15 were expressed in both distinct and overlapping patterns in human tissues. The three proteins showed almost ubiquitous nuclear expression and FUS and TAF15 were in addition present in the cytoplasm of most cell types. Cytoplasmic EWS was more rarely detected and seen mainly in secretory cell types. Furthermore, FET expression was downregulated in differentiating human embryonic stem cells, during induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and absent in terminally differentiated melanocytes and cardiac muscle cells. The FET proteins were targeted to stress granules induced by heat shock and oxidative stress and FUS required its RNA-binding domain for this translocation. Furthermore, FUS and TAF15 were detected in spreading initiation centers of adhering cells. Conclusion Our results point to cell-specific expression patterns and functions of the FET proteins rather than the housekeeping roles inferred from earlier studies. The localization of FET proteins to stress granules suggests activities in translational regulation during stress conditions. Roles in central processes such as stress response, translational control and adhesion may explain the FET proteins frequent involvement in human cancer.

  7. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  8. Spleen and Lymphatic System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along the network of lymph vessels. The nodes house lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Some ... Lymph fluid drains into lymph capillaries, which are tiny vessels. The fluid is then pushed along when ...

  9. The Transcriptional Profile of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Populations in Primary Osteoporosis Is Distinct and Shows Overexpression of Osteogenic Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisch, Peggy; Schilling, Tatjana; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Frey, Sönke P.; Seefried, Lothar; Raaijmakers, Nadja; Krug, Melanie; Regensburger, Martina; Zeck, Sabine; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Ebert, Regina; Jakob, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79–94 years old) suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP). In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1) and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R), but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP. Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L2, a novel

  10. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  11. Splenic Pathology in Traumatic Rupture of the Spleen: A Five Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Hunaina; Devi, Leena; George, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To Study the histopathology of spleens with a history of traumatic rupture with a view to establish possible predisposing factors to the rupture Methods This study examined the gross and microscopic features of consecutive cases of splenectomies done for traumatic rupture during a five year period in order to evaluate the presence or absence of any pathology prior to rupture. Results Of the 17 cases of splenectomy during this period, 14 were normal and 3 cases showed pathology other than rupture. Conclusion In the five year period of studying splenic pathology in traumatic rupture, 82% of the spleens showed normal histology except for the rupture. 18% of the cases showed different pathological findings on histopathology which could have contributed to the rupture. PMID:22334849

  12. Life-long in vivo cell-lineage tracing shows that no oogenesis originates from putative germline stem cells in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Lian; Li, Xin; Busayavalasa, Kiran; Shen, Yan; Hovatta, Outi; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Liu, Kui

    2014-12-16

    Whether or not oocyte regeneration occurs in adult life has been the subject of much debate. In this study, we have traced germ-cell lineages over the life spans of three genetically modified mouse models and provide direct evidence that oogenesis does not originate from any germline stem cells (GSCs) in adult mice. By selective ablation of all existing oocytes in a Gdf9-Cre;iDTR mouse model, we have demonstrated that no new germ cells were ever regenerated under pathological conditions. By in vivo tracing of oocytes and follicles in the Sohlh1-CreER(T2);R26R and Foxl2-CreER(T2);mT/mG mouse models, respectively, we have shown that the initial pool of oocytes is the only source of germ cells throughout the life span of the mice and that no adult oogenesis ever occurs under physiological conditions. Our findings clearly show that there are no GSCs that contribute to adult oogenesis in mice and that the initial pool of oocytes formed in early life is the only source of germ cells throughout the entire reproductive life span.

  13. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells express the pericyte marker 3G5 in culture and show enhanced chondrogenesis in hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasim S; Adesida, Adetola B; Tew, Simon R; Lowe, Emma T; Hardingham, Timothy E

    2010-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a potential source of cells for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Hypoxia has been shown to improve chondrogenesis in some cells. In this study, bone marrow-derived stem cells were characterized and the effects of hypoxia on chondrogenesis investigated. Adherent bone marrow colony-forming cells were characterized for stem cell surface epitopes, and then cultured as cell aggregates in chondrogenic medium under normoxic (20% oxygen) or hypoxic (5% oxygen) conditions. The cells stained strongly for markers of adult mesenchymal stem cells, and a high number of cells were also positive for the pericyte marker 3G5. The cells showed a chondrogenic response in cell aggregate cultures and, in lowered oxygen, there was increased matrix accumulation of proteoglycan, but less cell proliferation. In hypoxia, there was increased expression of key transcription factor SOX6, and of collagens II and XI, and aggrecan. Pericytes are a candidate stem cell in many tissue, and our results show that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells express the pericyte marker 3G5. The response to chondrogenic culture in these cells was enhanced by lowered oxygen tension. This has important implications for tissue engineering applications of bone marrow-derived stem cells. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Relation between PMI and FTIR spectral changes in asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to observe the postmortem degradation process in mechanical asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen for providing a new method of estimating PMI. Rats were sacrificed by mechanical asphyxia and cadavers were kept at (20 +/- 2) degrees C in a control chamber. The liver and spleen were sub-sampled from the same rat at intervals of 0-15 days postmortem and the data were measured by FTIR spectrometer. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish mathematical models by the statistical software. The band absorbance ratios showed increase, decrease and stable with PMI. The cubic model functions showed the strongest correlation coefficient. Compared with the spleen, the liver showed a higher correlation coefficient. The A1541/A1396 of liver showed the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.966). After 6-7 days postmortem, band absorbance ratios showed a steady period. FTIR spectroscopy can be a new and efficient method to estimate PMI within 7 days.

  15. Unfolding the mechanism of cisplatin induced pathophysiology in spleen and its amelioration by carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sinha, Krishnendu; Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sil, Parames C

    2018-01-05

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) is an effective chemotherapeutic and is widely used for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. Bio-distribution of cisplatin to other organs due to poor targeting towards only cancer cells constitutes the backbone of cisplatin-induced toxicity. The adverse effect of this drug on spleen is not well characterized so far. Therefore, we have set our goal to explore the mechanism of the cisplatin-induced pathophysiology of the spleen and would also like to evaluate whether carnosine, an endogenous neurotransmitter and antioxidant, can ameliorate this pathophysiological response. We found a dose and time-dependent increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the spleen tissue of the experimental mice exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin. The increase in inflammatory cytokine can be attributed to the activation of the transcription factor, NF-ĸB. This also aids in the transcription of other pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. Exposure of animals to cisplatin at both the doses resulted in ROS and NO production leading to oxidative stress. The MAP Kinase pathway, especially JNK activation, was also triggered by cisplatin. Eventually, the persistence of inflammatory response and oxidative stress lead to apoptosis through extrinsic pathway. Carnosine has been found to restore the expression of inflammatory molecules and catalase to normal levels through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, NF-ĸB and JNK. Carnosine also protected the splenic cells from apoptosis. Our study elucidated the detailed mechanism of cisplatin-induced spleen toxicity and use of carnosine as a protective agent against this cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related macular degeneration and cognitive impairment show similarities in changes of neutral lipids in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Enrico; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Vinci, Michela; Piludu, Stefania; Casu, Maura; Caminiti, Giulia; Dessì, Sandra; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-07-01

    Starting from previous studies showing that patients with cognitive deficit present neutral lipids (NLs) accumulation in cytoplasm of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and considering that there is epidemiological evidence linking age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to cognitive deficit, the first purpose of this study was to test whether neutral lipids also accumulated in PBMCs from AMD subjects. Moreover, the impact of statin use on AMD was explored and whether such use in AMD subjects was associated with NLs accumulation in PBMCs. The study was conducted on 222 subjects: 136 AMD (36 of which - 26.5% - using statins], 48 cognitive deficit (20 of which - 41.7% - using statins) and 38 healthy controls (4 of which -10.1% - using statins), AMD lesions were assessed from color fundus photographs. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), demographics, lifestyle factors and medical history were collected at interview. MMSE score was categorized as normal (24-30), and impaired (<24), NLs content was evaluated by oil red 0 (ORO) staining method. ORO determination showed that neutral lipids were generally absent or very low (score between 0 and 1) in healthy controls while most of PBMCs from cognitive deficit and AMD had ORO staining levels scoring 2-4. Post hoc analysis (Bonferroni) in a one-way ANOVA revealed that ORO score was significantly higher in cognitive deficit and AMD subjects compared to healthy controls and in cognitive deficit compared to AMD. Bonferroni-test also showed that AMD subjects had significantly lower total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to healthy controls while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) did not reach statistical significance. The results also revealed a significant higher number of statin-users in AMD compared to healthy controls. Likewise when cognitive deficit vs healthy controls was analyzed, the number of statin users were found to be significant higher in cognitive deficit than in healthy controls. There

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs, whereas highly standardized PRP

  18. Babesia microti Infection Changes Host Spleen Architecture and Is Cleared by a Th1 Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Babesia microti is a malaria-like parasite, which infects ∼2000 people annually, such that babesiosis is now a notifiable disease in the United States. Immunocompetent individuals often remain asymptomatic and are tested only after they feel ill. Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show several human-like disease manifestations and are ideal to study pathogenesis of Babesia species. In this study, we examined parasitemia of B. microti at different time points and assessed its impact on hemoglobin levels in blood, on spleen pathology and overall immune response in C3H/HeJ mice. Peak parasitemia of 42.5% was immediately followed by diminished hemoglobin level. Parasitemia at 21 days of infection was barely detectable by microscopy presented 5.7 × 108 to 5.9 × 109B. microti DNA copies confirming the sensitivity of our qPCR. We hypothesize that qPCR detects DNA released from recently lysed parasites or from extracellular B. microti in blood, which are not easily detected in blood smears and might result in under-diagnosis of babesiosis in patients. Splenectomized patients have been reported to show increased babesiosis severity and result in high morbidity and mortality. These results emphasize the importance of splenic immunity in resolution of B. microti infection. Splenomegaly in infected mice associated with destruction of marginal zone with lysed erythrocytes and released B. microti life forms in our experiments support this premise. At conclusion of the experiment at 21 days post-infection, significant splenic B and T cells depletion and increase in macrophages levels were observed in B. microti infected mice suggesting a role of macrophage in disease resolution. Infected mice also showed significantly higher plasmatic concentration of CD4 Th1 cells secreted cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ while cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secreted by Th2 cells increase was not always significant. Thus, Th1 cells-mediated immunity appears to be

  19. A novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor blocks c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated gene expression in synoviocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cha, Hoon-Suk; Boyle, David L.; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Schoot, Reineke; Tak, Paul P.; Pine, Polly; Firestein, Gary S.

    2006-01-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a key regulator of cell signaling induced by cytokines or Fc receptor engagement. However, the role of Syk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not known yet. We investigated the pathways activated by Syk in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-stimulated fibroblast-like

  20. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, I.J.; Spiekstra, S.W.; de Gruijl, T.D.; Gibbs, S.

    2015-01-01

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a

  1. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schütz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549 were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6. In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  2. PAT1 (SLC36A1) shows nuclear localization and affect growth of smooth muscle cells from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    substrate, in A7r5 cells suggested an alternative role for PAT1 in SMCs than in transport. To shed light on the function of PAT1 in A7r5 cells, experiments with down regulation of the PAT1 level using a siRNA approach were conducted. The growth rates of the cells were evaluated and knock-down of PAT1 lead......The proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) is a transporter of amino acids in small intestinal enterocytes. PAT1 is, however, also capable of regulating cell growth and sensing the availability of amino acids in other cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... to induced cellular growth suggesting a role for PAT1 in regulating cellular proliferation of SMCs....

  3. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  4. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  5. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  6. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  7. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  8. Tumor-initiating cells of breast and prostate origin show alterations in the expression of genes related to iron metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychtarčíková, Zuzana; Lettlová, Sandra; Tomkova, Veronika; Korenková, Vlasta; Langerová, Lucie; Simonova, Ekaterina; Zjablovskaja, Polina; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Neužil, Jiří; Truksa, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2017), s. 6376-6398 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28830S; GA ČR GA15-03796S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : tumor-initiating cells * breast cancer * iron metabolism Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) OBOR OECD: Cell biology; Cell biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  9. Melanomacrophage centers aggregation in P. lineatus spleen as bioindicator of environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiyappan Balamurugan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor the water quality parameters and climatic impact on the health condition of the fish through pathology study of Marine catfish spleen using Melano-macrophage centers (MMCs aggregation as a biomarker Marine catfishes along the parangipettai coast of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Replicate samples were done for all the seasons along the coast. Condition factor (K and Histopathology technique, were used to evaluate the condition. Results: The result revealed the Condition factor (K of fish was minimum in winter 1.0874 and maximum in summer 1.6726. Histology show the number of MMCs aggregation in spleen 59.5 暲8.3 MMCs/mm2 was observed in at post monsoon and 2-5 MMCs/mm2 in summer. Anova shows significantly different at P<0.05. The MMCs aggregation excited 30/mm2 when the water temperature is below 22曟and reaches maximum at temperatures of below 20 曟. The MMCs were correlated with water temperature shows positive correlation mean drop in water temperature may also reason for MMCs aggregation in spleen. Conclusion: The rise in temperature causes effect in health of the fish which was indicated in condition factor and MMCs aggregation. Animals are vulnerable to disease due to lowering of temperature and other environmental conditions. The MMCs aggregation can be used as bio-indicators for environmental.

  10. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John M

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  12. Spleen cell proliferation during and after skin myiasis by human bot fly Dermatobia hominis Proliferação de células do baço durante e após miíase por Dermatobia hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jomara Mendes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spleen cells from mice were examined at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days post-infection (dpi with Dermatobia hominis larva and at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple. Cell proliferation in vitro assays were carried out with RPMI-1640 medium and larval secretory product (LSP of D. hominis at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. When each group of mice was tested against each medium, significance was only seen for 25 dpi, with increasing order: LSP-10 d, -25 d, -5 d, -20 d, -15 d and RPMI. Significant results were also observed when each medium was tested against mice at each dpi or dple. Each dple group vs. each medium produced significant results only for 10 dple, with increasing order: LSP-5 d, -20 d, -25 d, -10 d, -15 d and RPMI. Comparative tests were also carried out between groups to refine certain observations. The LSPs were also analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The results prove that myiasis caused depletion of spleen cells, particularly under the effect of the LSP-10 and -15, but the cells tended to increase up to 60 dple. This in vitro assay may represent the real systemic immune response in the relationship LSP-D. hominis-host.Células do baço de camundongos foram examinadas aos 5, 10, 20 e 25 dias pós-infecção (dpi com Dermatobia hominis e examinadas aos 5, 10, 15, 30 e 60 dias pós-emergência da larva (dpel. As células foram cultivadas em meio RPMI-1640 contendo, ou não (controle, produtos de secreção das larvas (PSL de D. hominis com idade de 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 dias. Em cada grupo com cinco camundongos testados nos meios de cultura, o número de células foi significativo para 25 dpi, com crescente aumento na seguinte ordem: PSL-10 d, -25 d, -5 d, -20 d, -15 d e RPMI. Resultados significantes foram também observados nos testes entre cada meio contendo células tanto de camundongos dpi ou dpel. Em cada dpel grupo versus meio significância foi somente verificada para 10 dpel, na ordem crescente: PSL-5 d, -20 d, -25 d, -10 d, -15 d

  13. Aging is associated with an expansion of CD49fhi mammary stem cells that show a decline in function and increased transformation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Zhang, Fuchuang; Gu, Xiang; Wu, Anqi; Wang, Danhan; Chen, Yuanhong; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Yeh, I-Tien; Daniel, Benjamin J; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Rebel, Vivienne L; Walter, Christi A; Lu, Jianxin; Huang, Changjiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-11-15

    Breast cancer incidence increases during aging, yet the mechanism of age-associated mammary tumorigenesis is unclear. Mammary stem cells are believed to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, but how their function changes with age is unknown. We compared mammary epithelial cells isolated from young and old mammary glands of different cohorts of C57BL6/J and BALB/c mice, and our findings revealed that old mammary glands were characterized by increased basal cell pool comprised of mostly CD49f hi cells, altered luminal-to-basal cell ratio, and irregular ductal morphology. More interestingly, basal stem cells in old mice were increased in frequency, but showed a functional decline of differentiation and increased neoplastic transformation potential. Gene signature enrichment analysis revealed a significant enrichment of a luminal cell gene expression signature in the basal stem cell-enriched population from old mice, suggesting some luminal cells were expressing basal markers. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the presence of luminal cells with high CD49f expression in hyperplastic lesions implicating these cells as undergoing luminal to basal phenotypic changes during aging. Whole transcriptome analysis showed elevated immune and inflammatory responses in old basal stem cells and stromal cells, which may be the underlying cause for increased CD49f hi basal-like cells in aged glands.

  14. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  15. PIXE analysis showed that the preirradiation enhanced recovery of bone marrow elements after challenging irradiation in C57BL/6N Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Yonezawa, M.; Nishiyama, F.

    2000-01-01

    Priming X-irradiation with 0.3-0.5 Gy induces radio-resistance in C57BL/6 strain of mice 2 weeks afterward. Elements in the bone marrow, sampled 11 days after challenging exposure to 5.0 Gy, were determined by PIXE. The challenging irradiation decreased Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn as well as dried bone marrow weight. The pre-irradiation enhanced recovery of these levels, indicating stimulated recovery of the metabolism int he tissue. Fe in both control (without pre-irradiation) and experimental groups increased to about twice the original value, showing elevated hemoglobin synthesis after challenging exposure. In previous studies we have reported that recovery of peripheral blood cell counts after sub-lethal irradiation was enhanced by the pre-irradiation. Further, study on accumulation of p53 and Bax proteins, which lead to apoptotic cell death, revealed that the pre-irradiation significantly suppressed accumulation of these proteins in the spleen after challenging irradiation with 3 Gy. These results and our present study suggest that the pre-irradiation decreased the spleen cell death, and favored re-growth of the spleen cells, resulting in stimulated recovery of metabolism for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as well as in the spleen after challenging high dose irradiation. Stimulated recovery of Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn levels might indicate the importance of these elements in hematopoiesis. (author)

  16. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix. An update of the central Netherlands registry showing twin age incidence peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselaar, A; van Loosbroek, M; Schuurbiers, O; Helmerhorst, T; Bulten, J; Bernhelm, J

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this study was to update the registry of women in the Netherlands with clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the cervix or vagina with or without intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). From a nationwide search in PALGA, the automated pathology registry in the Netherlands, data were gathered on women with CCAC born after 1947. Information obtained from the clinical files of the patients included reported exposure to DES, patterns of complaints previous to diagnosis, the current status of the patients, and the results of cytopathologic examinations previous to histopathologic diagnosis. After review of the histopathologic slides, the specific pathologic characteristics of CCAC were determined. The age distribution of women born after 1947 was compared with that of women born before 1947. Information about possible exposure to DES during pregnancy was available for 73 of 88 women with CCAC born after 1947. Exposure to DES was reported for 47 (64%) of these women. The DES medication was most often reported as having started before the 18th week of pregnancy. Cytopathologic examination was informative in 81% of the cases of CCAC of the cervix, but only in 41% of the cases of CCAC of the vagina. Most patients had Stage I or II tumors at diagnosis. Tumor Stage III and IV and a high grade of nuclear atypia were related to unfavorable outcome. The age distribution of all patients with CCAC showed two distinct peaks; one at young age, (a mean age of 26 years), and one at older age (a mean age of 71 years). This bimodal age distribution still applied when the cases in which DES exposure was reported had been excluded. Despite the fact that DES has not been prescribed to pregnant women in the Netherlands in the last 20 years, CCAC is still relevant in our times. It is important to stay alert and periodically to update and evaluate the data of this registry, including data on women born outside the DES exposure period. The bimodal age distribution in

  17. Liver/spleen volume ratio as a predictor of prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yosuke; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The course of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is determined by clinical symptoms and histological findings. The present study examined the prognostic importance of imaging parameters in PBC. The volumes of the liver and spleen of patients with PBC were assessed by computed tomography (CT). The volume ratio of liver to spleen (LV/SV ratio) was evaluated and used for further analyses. The prognosis was significantly poorer in PBC patients with a low, rather than high, LV/SV ratio. The Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that the serum bilirubin level and the LV/SV ratio could predict the prognosis of PBC patients. In addition, the LV/SV ratio was significantly lower in patients who developed symptoms (s-PBC) than in those who remained asymptomatic (a-PBC) during the observation period. The LV/SV ratio is of prognostic importance in patients with PBC. (author)

  18. Administration of a Polyphenol-Enriched Feed to Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. Modulates Intestinal and Spleen Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Magrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed fish are exposed to a continuous antigenic pressure by microbial and environmental agents, which may lead to a condition of chronic inflammation. In view of the notion that polyphenols, largely contained in fruits and vegetables, are endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. have been administered with red grape polyphenol-enriched feed. Polyphenols were extracted from the seeds of Canosina Nero di Troia Vitis vinifera and mixed with conventional feed at two different concentrations (100 and 200 mg/kg, resp.. Fish samples collected at days 223 and 273, respectively, were evaluated for intestinal and spleen cytokine release as well as for spleen macrophage (MØ and melanomacrophage center (MMC areas and distribution. Data will show that in treated fish decrease of intestinal interleukin- (IL- 1β and IL-6 and increase of splenic interferon- (IFN- γ occur. On the other hand, in the spleen reduction of MØ number seems to parallel increase in MMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that polyphenol-administered sea bass generate lower levels of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines, while producing larger amounts of spleen IFN-γ, as an expression of a robust and protective adaptive immune response. Increase of MMCs corroborates the evidence for a protective spleen response induced by feed enriched with polyphenols.

  19. Administration of a Polyphenol-Enriched Feed to Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Modulates Intestinal and Spleen Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Fontana, Sergio; Laforgia, Flavia; Dragone, Teresa; Jirillo, Emilio; Passantino, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Farmed fish are exposed to a continuous antigenic pressure by microbial and environmental agents, which may lead to a condition of chronic inflammation. In view of the notion that polyphenols, largely contained in fruits and vegetables, are endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) have been administered with red grape polyphenol-enriched feed. Polyphenols were extracted from the seeds of Canosina Nero di Troia Vitis vinifera and mixed with conventional feed at two different concentrations (100 and 200 mg/kg, resp.). Fish samples collected at days 223 and 273, respectively, were evaluated for intestinal and spleen cytokine release as well as for spleen macrophage (MØ) and melanomacrophage center (MMC) areas and distribution. Data will show that in treated fish decrease of intestinal interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 and increase of splenic interferon- (IFN-) γ occur. On the other hand, in the spleen reduction of MØ number seems to parallel increase in MMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that polyphenol-administered sea bass generate lower levels of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines, while producing larger amounts of spleen IFN-γ, as an expression of a robust and protective adaptive immune response. Increase of MMCs corroborates the evidence for a protective spleen response induced by feed enriched with polyphenols. PMID:26779301

  20. A CD44high/EGFRlow subpopulation within head and neck cancer cell lines shows an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and resistance to treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea La Fleur

    Full Text Available Mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is high due to emergence of therapy resistance which results in local and regional recurrences that may have their origin in resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs or cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of using the cell surface expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, both of which have been used as stem cell markers, to identify subpopulations within HNSCC cell lines that differ with respect to phenotype and treatment sensitivity. Three subpopulations, consisting of CD44(high/EGFR(low, CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low cells, respectively, were collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population showed a spindle-shaped EMT-like morphology, while the CD44(low population was dominated by cobblestone-shaped cells. The CD44(high/EGFR(low population was enriched with cells in G0/G1 and showed a relatively low proliferation rate and a high plating efficiency. Using a real time PCR array, 27 genes, of which 14 were related to an EMT phenotype and two with stemness, were found to be differentially expressed in CD44(high/EGFR(low cells in comparison to CD44(low cells. Moreover, CD44(high/EGFR(low cells showed a low sensitivity to radiation, cisplatin, cetuximab and gefitinib, and a high sensitivity to dasatinib relative to its CD44(high/EGFR(high and CD44(low counterparts. In conclusion, our results show that the combination of CD44 (high and EGFR (low cell surface expression can be used to identify a treatment resistant subpopulation with an EMT phenotype in HNSCC cell lines.

  1. Discovery of LPMO activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane W.; Isaksen, Trine; Várnai, Anikó

    2014-01-01

    of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some LPMOs may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether to cellulose microfibrils. We demonstrate that an LPMO from Neurospora crassa, NcLPMO9C, indeed degrades...... various hemicelluloses, in particular xyloglucan. This activity was discovered using a glycan microarray-based screening method for detection of substrate specificities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and further explored using defined oligomeric hemicelluloses, isolated polymeric hemicelluloses and cell...

  2. MHC expression on spleen lymphocyte subsets in genetically resistant and susceptible chickens infected with Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Tina; Boving, Mette K; Handberg, Kurt; Jensen, Karin H; Norup, Liselotte R; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2009-10-01

    Resistance and susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) are strongly influenced by the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In this study, splenic lymphocytes from MD-resistant and MD-susceptible chickens of three MHC genotypes (B21/B21, B19/B21, and B19/B19) were analyzed by flow cytometry for MHC surface expression. In the spleen, constitutive MHC class I surface expression was found to be highest in homozygous B19, lowest in homozygous B21, and intermediate in heterozygous B19/B21 animals. This was observed on CD4(+), CD8(+), and Bu-1(+) splenic lymphocytes. Chickens of all three genotypes were subjected to infection with MD virus (GA strain) and spleen samples from infected as well as MHC-matched negative controls were analyzed at 1, 4, and 8 wk post-infection (p.i.). It was observed that MDV induced an increase in MHC class I expression late in the infection. Thus, MHC class I was increased on the surface of CD4(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i. compared with negative controls. Also, MHC class I expression was increased on CD8(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i., except for the homozygous B19 animals, that showed no increase at 8 wk p.i. MDV-induced differences in MHC class II surface levels were also found. Thus, MHC class II expression was increased on CD4(+) cells from infected B19/21 and B21/B21 chickens at 4 wk p.i., and also at 8 wk p.i. on CD4(+) cells from infected B19/B21 animals. MHC class II expression was increased on CD8(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 wk p.i. These findings suggest that MDV infection in vivo increases the level of MHC surface expression on splenic T cells, indicating a possible role in immunity against MDV.

  3. Fever of unknown origin and the value of gallium-67 and technetium-99/sup m/ for defining abnormality of the spleen: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coopersmith, A.; Ritchey, A.K.; Zinkham, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A three-year-old white female with acute promyelocytic leukemia developed persistent fever after successful induction-remission therapy; many large monilial abscesses were later found in the grossly enlarged spleen. Although the technetium/sup 99M/-sulfur colloid scan prior to splenectomy suggested only a slight abnormality of the spleen, the gallium-67 citrate scintigraph showed a marked increase in gallium accumulation. The disparate results of the scanning techniques utilized in this patient suggest that it may be necessary to use more than one type of radiopharmaceutical to define an enlarged spleen, as well as the pathological process responsible for its enlargement

  4. Arabidopsis AAL-toxin-resistant mutant atr1 shows enhanced tolerance to programmed cell death induced by reactive oxygen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S.; Ferwerda, MargFiet A.; Mehterov, Nikolay; Laloi, Christophe; Qureshi, Muhammad K.; Hille, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The fungal AAL-toxin triggers programmed cell death (PCD) through perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism in AAL-toxin-sensitive plants. While Arabidopsis is relatively insensitive to the toxin, the loh2 mutant exhibits increased Susceptibility to AAL-toxin due to the knockout of a gene involved in

  5. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  6. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  7. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  8. Histopathological study and audit of the spleen in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    underreporting both the gross and microscopic changes in the organ by pathologists. This paper therefore is a study on spleen specimens with a view to auditing the gross and microscopic description and analysing the pathological findings in splenectomy specimens with respect to gender and age. Materials and Methods.

  9. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  10. Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured ...

  11. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  12. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  13. Sonographic Dimensions of the Spleen in Healthy School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spleen is the largest recticuloendothelial organ in the body which increases in size with several pathologies. Its average length and other dimensions have been documented in adults but none in children in our environment. This study is aimed at investigating with Ultrasonography the normal splenic dimensions in ...

  14. Sonographic evaluation of the spleen among sickle cell disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confirmed to have either HbSS/HbSC or HbAA gen- otype, were negative for malaria and typhoid disease, with no history of surgical splenectomy nor any other surgery in the last one year. The controls had no history of blood transfusion and no chronic or acute ailment of recurrent nature; while SCD subjects had no crisis in.

  15. MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells in human skin equivalents show differential migration and phenotypic plasticity after allergen or irritant exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Ilona J.; Spiekstra, Sander W. [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gruijl, Tanja D. de [Department of Dermatology Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gibbs, Susan, E-mail: s.gibbs@acta.nl [Department of Dermatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Center for Dentistry (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    After allergen or irritant exposure, Langerhans cells (LC) undergo phenotypic changes and exit the epidermis. In this study we describe the unique ability of MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells (MUTZ-LC) to display similar phenotypic plasticity as their primary counterparts when incorporated into a physiologically relevant full-thickness skin equivalent model (SE-LC). We describe differences and similarities in the mechanisms regulating LC migration and plasticity upon allergen or irritant exposure. The skin equivalent consisted of a reconstructed epidermis containing primary differentiated keratinocytes and CD1a{sup +} MUTZ-LC on a primary fibroblast-populated dermis. Skin equivalents were exposed to a panel of allergens and irritants. Topical exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of allergens (nickel sulfate, resorcinol, cinnamaldehyde) and irritants (Triton X-100, SDS, Tween 80) resulted in LC migration out of the epidermis and into the dermis. Neutralizing antibody to CXCL12 blocked allergen-induced migration, whereas anti-CCL5 blocked irritant-induced migration. In contrast to allergen exposure, irritant exposure resulted in cells within the dermis becoming CD1a{sup −}/CD14{sup +}/CD68{sup +} which is characteristic of a phenotypic switch of MUTZ-LC to a macrophage-like cell in the dermis. This phenotypic switch was blocked with anti-IL-10. Mechanisms previously identified as being involved in LC activation and migration in native human skin could thus be reproduced in the in vitro constructed skin equivalent model containing functional LC. This model therefore provides a unique and relevant research tool to study human LC biology in situ under controlled in vitro conditions, and will provide a powerful tool for hazard identification, testing novel therapeutics and identifying new drug targets. - Highlights: • MUTZ-3 derived Langerhans cells integrated into skin equivalents are fully functional. • Anti-CXCL12 blocks allergen-induced MUTZ-LC migration.

  16. Effects of splenic allograft in lipid profile of non-splenectomized rats: the immune and metabolic role of the "double spleen"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barbosa Gonçalves

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of the spleen and splenic allograft in lipid control and evaluate its effect on the lipid profile of rats.METHOD: 32 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (1, total splenectomy group (2, splenectomy and implantation of allograft group (3 and double spleen group (4. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups: A and B, based on the death of the animals after 30 or 120 days of monitoring. The procedures in groups 2, 3 and 4 were made simultaneously, and splenectomized animals, groups 2 and 3 were donors, respectively, for the animals of groups 3 and 4. In group 4 the spleen was preserved and the animals received implants from the spleens of rats from group 3. The regeneration of splenic tissue was evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic analyzes of the grafts and own spleens, as well as with measurements of VLDL, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides.RESULTS: after 120 days, Group 4 showed levels of total cholesterol and LDL lower than the other groups. Group 1 had higher levels of lipids.CONCLUSION: The technique of double spleen was effective in the control of lipid metabolism, corroborating the function of the spleen as a reserve of lipids.

  17. Nelfinavir and lopinavir impair Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote infection in mammalian host cells and show anti-amastigote activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangenito, Leandro S; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2016-12-01

    There is an urgent need to implement new strategies and to search for new chemotherapeutic targets to combat Chagas' disease. In this context, repositioning of clinically approved drugs appears as a viable tool to combat this and several other neglected pathologies. An example is the use of aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) currently applied in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment against different infectious agents. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to verify the effects of the HIV-PIs nelfinavir and lopinavir against Trypanosoma cruzi using in vitro models of infection. Cytotoxicity assays with LLC-MK 2 epithelial cells and RAW macrophages allowed an evaluation of the effects of HIV-PIs on the interaction between trypomastigotes and these cells as well as the survival of intracellular amastigotes. Pre-treatment of trypomastigotes with nelfinavir and lopinavir inhibited the association index with LLC-MK 2 cells and RAW macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, nelfinavir and lopinavir also significantly reduced the number of intracellular amastigotes in both mammalian cell lineages, particularly when administered in daily doses. Both compounds had no effect on nitric oxide production in infected RAW macrophages. These results open the possibility for the use of HIV-PIs as a tangible alternative in the treatment of Chagas' disease. However, the main mechanism of action of nelfinavir and lopinavir has yet to be elucidated, and more studies using in vivo models must be conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of GmENOD40, a gene showing novel patterns of cell-specific expression during soybean nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Katinakis, P.; Hendriks, P.; Smolders, A.; Vries, de F.; Spee, J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the soybean 'early nodulin' clone pGmENOD40 is characterized. The GmENOD40 encoded protein does not contain methionine and does not show homology to proteins identified so far. In situ hybridizations showed that this gene has a complex expression pattern during development of

  19. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  20. The function of the spleen in adults after ligation of the splenic artery of the traumatized spleen in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Dimitrios C; Soutis, Michael

    2003-05-01

    Ligation of the splenic artery (LSA) has been successfully used as a spleen-saving procedure in rare cases of splenic trauma in children in which management with splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomy alone was not possible. There are no data regarding the long-term effects of the procedure on the functional status of the spleen. The purpose of this study is to present and discuss our clinical and laboratory findings in adults who underwent LSA in childhood. Our first 2 patients in whom LSA was done at ages 4 and 2 years in 1977 underwent the following examinations in the year 2000: 1, imaging of the spleen; 2, immunologic studies; and 3, peripheral blood tests. Their ages at reexamination were 27 and 25 years, respectively. Results were as follows: triplex ultrasound revealed normal size and echomorphology; Doppler techniques revealed normal vasculature; 99mTc-Tin colloid scanning revealed normal uptake. Immunoglobulins (IgG1 to IgG4, IgA, IgM, IgE), complement fraction (C3, C4), antibodies response to vaccinations, and peripheral blood tests all had normal results. No Howell-Jolly bodies were found. Laboratory investigations in adults with LSA during childhood disclosed undisturbed function of the spleen. LSA can be used as an adjunct to splenorrhaphy in children with rare splenic injuries involving major hilar vessels.

  1. Mutational profiles of Brenner tumors show distinctive features uncoupling urothelial carcinomas and ovarian carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Nicole; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Leichsenring, Jonas; Taube, Eliane; Boxberg, Melanie; Braicu, Ioana; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Penzel, Roland; Endris, Volker; Noske, Aurelia; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter; Denkert, Carsten; Stenzinger, Albrecht

    2017-10-01

    Brenner tumors (BT) are rare ovarian tumors encompassing benign, borderline, and malignant variants. While the histopathology of BTs and their clinical course is well described, little is known about the underlying genetic defects. We employed targeted next generation sequencing to analyze the mutational landscape in a cohort of 23 BT cases (17 benign, 2 borderline, and 4 malignant) and 3 ovarian carcinomas with transitional cell histology (TCC). Copy number variations (CNV) were validated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative PCR-based copy number assays. Additionally, we analyzed the TERT promotor region by conventional Sanger sequencing. We identified 25 different point mutations in 23 of the analyzed genes in BTs and 10 mutations in 8 genes in TCCs. About 57% percent of mutations occurred in genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation processes. All TCC cases harbored TP53 mutations whereas all BTs were negative and none of the mutations observed in BTs were present in TCCs. CNV analysis revealed recurrent MDM2 amplifications in 3 out of 4 of the malignant BT cases with one case harboring a concomitant amplification of CCND1. No mutations were observed in the TERT promoter region in BTs and TCCs, which is mutated in about 50%-75% of urothelial carcinoma and in 16% of ovarian clear-cell carcinomas. In conclusion, our study highlights distinct genetic features of BTs, and detection of the triplet phenotype MDM2 amplification/TP53 wt/TERT wt may aid diagnosis of malignant BT in difficult cases. Moreover, selected genetic lesions may be clinically exploitable in a metastatic setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mouse nuclear myosin I knock-out shows interchangeability and redundancy of myosin isoforms in the cell nucleus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venit, Tomáš; Dzijak, Rastislav; Kalendová, Alžběta; Kahle, Michal; Rohožková, Jana; Schmidt, V.; Rülicke, T.; Rathkolb, B.; Hans, W.; Bohla, A.; Eickelberg, O.; Stoeger, T.; Wolf, E.; Yildirim, A.Ö.; Gailus-Durner, V.; Fuchs, H.; de Angelis, M.H.; Hozák, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), e61406 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA TA ČR TE01020022; GA MŠk LH12143; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : nuclear myosin * myosin isoforms * cell nucleus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  3. High interferon type I responses in the lung, plasma and spleen during highly pathogenic H5N1 infection of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Hervé R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study shows that high pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection of chicken induced high levels of bioactive interferon type I in the lung (4.3 × 105 U/mg tissue, plasma (1.1 × 105 U/mL, and spleen (9.1 × 105 U/mg tissue. In contrast, a low pathogenic attenuated H5N1 vaccine strain only induced approximately 24 times less IFN in the lung, 441 times less in the spleen and 649 less in the plasma. This was in the same range as a reassortant carrying the HA from the vaccine strain and the remaining genes from the high pathogenic virus. On the other hand, a reassortant virus with the HA from the high pathogenic H5N1 with the remaining genes from the vaccine strain had intermediate levels of IFN. The level of interferon responses related to the viral load, and those in the spleen and blood to the spread of virus to lymphoid tissue, as well as disease severity. In vitro, the viruses did not induce interferon in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, but high levels in splenocytes, with not clear relationship to pathogenicity and virulence. This, and the responses also with inactivated viruses imply the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cell-like leukocytes within the chicken immune system, possibly responsible for the high interferon responses during H5N1 infection. Our data also indicate that the viral load as well as the cleavability of the HA enabling systemic spread of the virus are two major factors controlling systemic IFN responses in chicken.

  4. Peripheral blood cells from children with RASopathies show enhanced spontaneous colonies growth in vitro and hyperactive RAS signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaipa, G; Bugarin, C; Cianci, P; Sarno, J; Bonaccorso, P; Biondi, A; Selicorni, A

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in genes coding for molecules involved in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway are the hallmarks of a newly classified family of autosomal dominant syndromes termed RASopathies. Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), in particular, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, can lead to potentially severe complications in children with Noonan syndrome (NS). We studied 27 children with NS or other RASopathies and 35 age-matched children as control subjects. Peripheral blood (PB) cells from these patients were studied for in vitro colony-forming units (CFUs) activity, as well as for intracellular phosphosignaling. Higher spontaneous growth of both burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E) and CFU-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies from RAS-mutated patients were observed as compared with control subjects. We also observed a significantly higher amount of GM-colony-stimulating factor-induced p-ERK in children with RASopathies. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that PB cells isolated from children suffering from NS or other RASopathies without MPD display enhanced BFU-E and CFU-GM colony formation in vitro. The biological significance of these findings clearly awaits further studies. Collectively, our data provide a basis for further investigating of only partially characterized hematological alterations present in children suffering from RASopathies, and may provide new markers for progression toward malignant MPD in these patients

  5. T cell immunity to Zika virus targets immunodominant epitopes that show cross-reactivity with other Flaviviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C J; Suleyman, O M; Ortega-Prieto, A M; Skelton, J K; Bonnesoeur, P; Blohm, A; Carregaro, V; Silva, J S; James, E A; Maillère, B; Dorner, M; Boyton, R J; Altmann, D M

    2018-01-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) Infection has several outcomes from asymptomatic exposure to rash, conjunctivitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome or congenital Zika syndrome. Analysis of ZIKV immunity is confounded by the fact that several related Flaviviruses infect humans, including Dengue virus 1-4, West Nile virus and Yellow Fever virus. HLA class II restricted T cell cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other Flaviviruses infection(s) or vaccination may contribute to protection or to enhanced immunopathology. We mapped immunodominant, HLA class II restricted, CD4 epitopes from ZIKV Envelope (Env), and Non-structural (NS) NS1, NS3 and NS5 antigens in HLA class II transgenic mice. In several cases, ZIKV primed CD4 cells responded to homologous sequences from other viruses, including DENV1-4, WNV or YFV. However, cross-reactive responses could confer immune deviation - the response to the Env DENV4 p1 epitope in HLA-DR1 resulted in IL-17A immunity, often associated with exacerbated immunopathogenesis. This conservation of recognition across Flaviviruses, may encompass protective and/or pathogenic components and poses challenges to characterization of ZIKV protective immunity.

  6. Live cell imaging shows reversible assembly of the TatA component of the twin-arginine protein transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Felicity; Baker, Matthew A B; Greene, Nicholas P; Palmer, Tracy; Wallace, Mark I; Berks, Ben C

    2013-09-17

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) machinery transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. It has been inferred that the Tat translocation site is assembled on demand by substrate-induced association of the protein TatA. We tested this model by imaging YFP-tagged TatA expressed at native levels in living Escherichia coli cells in the presence of low levels of the TatA paralogue TatE. Under these conditions the TatA-YFP fusion supports full physiological Tat transport activity. In agreement with the TatA association model, raising the number of transport-competent substrate proteins within the cell leads to an increase in the number of large TatA complexes present. Formation of these complexes requires both a functional TatBC substrate receptor and the transmembrane proton motive force (PMF). Removing the PMF causes TatA complexes to dissociate, except in strains with impaired Tat transport activity. Based on these observations we propose that TatA assembly reaches a critical point at which oligomerization can be reversed only by substrate transport. In contrast to TatA-YFP, the oligomeric states of TatB-YFP and TatC-YFP fusions are not affected by substrate or the PMF, although TatB-YFP oligomerization does require TatC.

  7. Morphological changes in the kidney, liver and spleen during prolonged administration of iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Bucharskya, A. B.; Kong, X. M.; Zuev, V. V.; Medvedev, B. A.; Ignatiev, A. A.; Bochkaryeva, T. V.

    2012-02-01

    We determined the cytotoxic effect of iron nanoparticles of 70 nm, with a single per oral administration in an experiment on white outbred mice. Morphological changes were evaluated in the internal organs. Thus, changes depend on the concentration of nanoparticles at long-term per oral exposure: identified violations of the structure of the liver, kidneys and spleen as venous plethora and degeneration of cells at 250 and 500 mkg / kg dose of nanoparticles are reversible, changes in the organs were pronounced with a dosage of 1000 mkg / kg.

  8. Antitumor effect of a Coliolus preparation, PSK: induction of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) in spleens of tumor bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, K; Majima, T; Ebina, T

    1992-01-01

    The effect of administration of PSK (Polysaccharide Kureha), a Coliolus preparation, in Meth-A solid tumors was analyzed in BALB/c mice. Spleen cells prepared from normal, non-treated Meth-A bearing, PSK-treated normal and PSK-treated tumor bearing mice were examined for induction of macrophage chemotatic factor (MCF). Only spleen cells from the latter mice produced MCF after 48 hrs of cultivation in the presence of Meth-A cells or concanavalin A (Con A). MCF-producing cells were indicated to be Lyt-1 positive, L3T4 positive and Lyt-2 negative cells in the negative elimination assay. There were no differences in the production of other cytokines including interleukin-2, interferon and tumor necrosing factor, spleen cells obtained other different groups of mice. The antitumor effect of either crude or purified MCF (molecular weight 100,000) was examined by daily consecutive intratumoral injections into Meth-A tumor tissues, and a significant inhibitory effect was detected.

  9. The oral commensal Streptococcus mitis shows a mixed memory Th cell signature that is similar to and cross-reactive with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Stian André; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Becattini, Simone; Jarrossay, David; Blix, Inger Johanne; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Sallusto, Federica; Schenck, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Carriage of and infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is known to predominantly induce T helper 17 (Th17) responses in humans, but the types of Th cells showing reactivity towards commensal streptococci with low pathogenic potential, such as the oral commensals S. mitis and S. salivarius, remain uncharacterized. Memory CD4(+) T helper (Th) cell subsets were isolated from healthy human blood donors according to differential expression of chemokine receptors, expanded in vitro using polyclonal stimuli and characterized for reactivity against different streptococcal strains. Th cells responding to S. mitis, S. salivarius and S. pneumoniae were predominantly in a CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) subset and produced IFN-γ, and in a CCR6(+)CCR4(+) subset and produced IL-17 and IL-22. Frequencies of S. pneumoniae-reactive Th cells were higher than frequencies of S. mitis- and S. salivarius-specific Th cells. S. mitis and S. pneumoniae isogenic capsule knock-out mutants and a S. mitis mutant expressing the serotype 4 capsule of S. pneumoniae showed no different Th cell responses as compared to wild type strains. S. mitis-specific Th17 cells showed cross-reactivity with S. pneumoniae. As Th17 cells partly control clearance of S. pneumoniae, cross-reactive Th17 cells that may be induced by commensal bacterial species may influence the immune response, independent of capsule expression.

  10. The oral commensal Streptococcus mitis shows a mixed memory Th cell signature that is similar to and cross-reactive with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian André Engen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carriage of and infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is known to predominantly induce T helper 17 (Th17 responses in humans, but the types of Th cells showing reactivity towards commensal streptococci with low pathogenic potential, such as the oral commensals S. mitis and S. salivarius, remain uncharacterized. METHODS: Memory CD4(+ T helper (Th cell subsets were isolated from healthy human blood donors according to differential expression of chemokine receptors, expanded in vitro using polyclonal stimuli and characterized for reactivity against different streptococcal strains. RESULTS: Th cells responding to S. mitis, S. salivarius and S. pneumoniae were predominantly in a CCR6(+CXCR3(+ subset and produced IFN-γ, and in a CCR6(+CCR4(+ subset and produced IL-17 and IL-22. Frequencies of S. pneumoniae-reactive Th cells were higher than frequencies of S. mitis- and S. salivarius-specific Th cells. S. mitis and S. pneumoniae isogenic capsule knock-out mutants and a S. mitis mutant expressing the serotype 4 capsule of S. pneumoniae showed no different Th cell responses as compared to wild type strains. S. mitis-specific Th17 cells showed cross-reactivity with S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: As Th17 cells partly control clearance of S. pneumoniae, cross-reactive Th17 cells that may be induced by commensal bacterial species may influence the immune response, independent of capsule expression.

  11. Prodigiosin, the red pigment of Serratia marcescens, shows cytotoxic effects and apoptosis induction in HT-29 and T47D cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalili, D; Fouladdel, Sh; Rastkari, N; Samadi, N; Ahmadkhaniha, R; Ardavan, A; Azizi, E

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a red pigment of Serratia marcescens PTCC 1111 was purified and identified for antiproliferative activities in HT-29 and T47D cancer cell lines. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and LC/MS analysis confirmed prodigiosin structure. The antiproliferative effects of prodigiosin were determined by employing the MTT assay. The changes in cell cycle pattern were studied with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) reagent using flow cytometry assay, and Annexin V-PI method was used for apoptotic analysis. Results of MTT assay showed that HT-29 cells were more sensitive to prodigiosin than T47D cells. Prodigiosin-treated HT-29 cells showed increase in S phase and decrease in G2/M, but treated T47D cells showed cell cycle pattern relatively similar to Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI). Apoptotic effect of prodigiosin was higher than doxorubicin in HT-29 cells. The data reported here indicate that prodigiosin is a promising antineoplastic agent that triggers apoptosis in different cancer cell lines.

  12. Spleen dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a new method for staging liver fibrosis in a piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore spleen hemodynamic alteration in liver fibrosis with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI, and to determine how to stage liver fibrosis with spleen DCE-MRI parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen piglets were prospectively used to model liver fibrosis staged by liver biopsy, and underwent spleen DCE-MRI on 0, 5th, 9th, 16th and 21st weekend after modeling this disease. DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak (TTP, positive enhancement integral (PEI, maximum slope of increase (MSI and maximum slope of decrease (MSD of spleen were measured, and statistically analyzed to stage this disease. RESULTS: Spearman's rank correlation tests showed that TTP tended to increase with increasing stages of liver fibrosis (r = 0.647, P0.05, and decreased from stage 2 to 4 (P0.05. Mann-Whitney tests demonstrated that TTP and PEI could classify fibrosis between stage 0 and 1-4, between 0-1 and 2-4, between 0-2 and 3-4, or between 0-3 and 4 (all P<0.01. MSD could discriminate between 0-2 and 3-4 (P = 0.006, or between 0-3 and 4 (P = 0.012. MSI could not differentiate between any two stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis illustrated that area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of TTP was larger than of PEI for classifying stage ≥1 and ≥2 (AUC = 0.851 and 0.783, respectively. PEI could best classify stage ≥3 and 4 (AUC = 0.903 and 0.96, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spleen DCE-MRI has potential to monitor spleen hemodynamic alteration and classify liver fibrosis stages.

  13. Effects of Aluminum Chloride on the some ‎Blood Parameters and Histological Spleen in ‎White Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Abdul Hadi Kadhum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum exists in numerous produced foods, medicines and likewise added to drinking water for refining purpose. Its existence has so heavily contaminated with the surroundings that exposed to, it is almost inescapable. This survey was aimed at evaluating the possible effects that Aluminum chloride could exposure have in the blood parameters and histopathology of spleen twenty four rats were used and  divided into four groups; “first group  was the control injected with normal saline, group II injected into subcutaneous with (240 ppm from Aluminum chloride (AlCl3,  group III injected with (320 ppm from (AlCl3, group IV injected with (400 ppm from (AlCl3 for 45 days. This study  showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin when compared to control group, while there was a significant increase (P<0.05 in total leucocyte count (TLC and Differential leucocytes count (DLC especially in lymphocyte. The results showed a significant elevated (P<0.05 in ESR value. Changes increased with increase in concentration of Aluminum chloride injected. Observation of blood parameters allows the most rapid detection of changes in wistar rats after the exposure of poisonous(AlCl3”

  14. [The study on the morphology character of blood-spleen barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, An-long; Jiang, Hong-chi; Liu, Lian-xin; Piao, Da-xun; Pan, Shang-ha; Qiao, Hai-quan

    2005-05-01

    To study the morphology and functional character of blood-spleen barrier (BSB) and establish the concept of BSB. Thirty healthy Wistar rats were studied. Ten rats were injected with 1.5 ml mixed fluid of India ink and physiological saline through the tail vein. Histological changes of the spleen in all animals were observed with light and electron microscopy, including HE, Foot, Masson staining and immunohistochemistry of CD68 and CD34. Most of the carbon particles were within the splenic sinuses in marginal zone but not in the white pulp after 6 h. There was a characteristic distribution of the macrophagocytes, vessel endothelial cell, reticular tissue and collagen fiber in the BSB. BSB, surrounding the white pulp, is composed of macrophagocytes, marginal-sinus-endothelial cells and their basement membrane, the reticular tissue (reticular cells and reticular fibers) and collagen fibers. The role of BSB is to keep the microenvironment of white pulp stable. It becomes mature while the formation of germinal center of the white pulp. The permeability of BSB changes during its development.

  15. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in the Spleen for Treatment of Hypersplenism in Cirrhosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, XiangWu; Gao, Fei; Ma, Yan; Feng, ShuFen; Liu, XueLian; Zhou, HongKe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the feasibility and therapeutic effectiveness of percutaneous microwave ablation in the treatment of hypersplenism in cirrhosis. Forty-one cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism were treated with ultrasonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation between February 2007 and August 2011. Peripheral blood cell counts, portal vein diameter, splenic vein diameter, and blood flow of splenic vein were evaluated before and after the operation, and complications of the treatment were also investigated. All patients were followed up for 24 months. The levels of platelets and white blood cells were increased, while the splenic vein diameter narrowed gradually after the therapy and 24 months later. Moreover, patients received percutaneous microwave ablation had much lower splenic venous flow velocity. The portal vein diameter did not change significantly 6 months after the treatment, although it narrowed gradually within 3 months after the treatment. Furthermore, no complications such as uncontrollable bleeding, splenic abscess, spleen rupture, and damage in surrounding organ happened after the therapy. Graded percutaneous microwave ablation, as a minimally invasive therapy, could damage the spleen, increase the levels of platelets and white blood cells, and reduce portal hypertension effectively without serious complications. Percutaneous microwave ablation is an effective, safe, and feasible method for cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism.

  16. Cell-mediated immune response to Leishmania chagasi experimental infection of BALB/c immunosuppressed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, presents a significant impact on immunosupressed patients. This study aimed to evaluate Leishmania chagasi infection in BALB/c mice immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spleen cells stimulated or not with L. chagasi were cultured for cytokine quantification (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 by sandwich ELISA. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were determined by means of culture microtitration. Immunosuppressed groups showed statistically lower spleen weight and CD4-cell percentage in blood on the day of infection and produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines on other days of the study. The other infected groups, weather immunosupressed or not, also produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were not statistically different among the groups. It was concluded that L. chagasi infection was not affected by dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression, probably due the reversible effect of the treatment.

  17. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated.

  18. Autoradiographic study of gamma-irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitsov, L.G.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Burneva, V.G.; Martinova, J.Sh.; Viklichka, S.

    1978-01-01

    Study on the kinetics of the cells in the mouse spleen during the primary immune response against thymusdependent antigen after sublethal irradiation was carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep erythrocytes one day after their irradiation with 700 r gamma rays. On the 5th day after the immunization, tritium labelled thymidine was injected three times at two hourly intervals. Mice were killed two hours after the third injection for preparation of routine histological samples and autoradiographs. Immunized, but not irradiated mice were utilized as controls. Extensive zones of lymphocyte destruction were observed in the spleen of the irradiated mice - accumulation of picnotic lymphocyte nuclei, surrounded by reticulo-histocyte elements. The number of the labelled cells and the intensity of labelled are lower than that of the germinal centres in control animal. There is no marked cell destruction in the periarteriolar zone nor labelled cells, whereas in the controls there is a considerable number of labelled blast cells. In the red pulp of the irradiated animals islands of erythroblasts were found, whereas in the controls - parallely to the erythroblast islands, there are islands of proliferating lymphocytes and plasmocytes. The decrease of lymphocyte number in irradiated mice is connected with their destruction and with the altered lymphocytopoiesis in the red pulp. It is assumed that the observed preservation of the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths in an expression of a higher radioresistance of the T-cells as compared to the B-cells in the white pulp. This study contributes for elucidation of the irradiation immunosuppressive effect. It points out also that the post-irradiation lymphopaenia is due not only to the cell death but also to the exclusion of part of the T-lymphocytes from the circulation and their selective deposition in the thymus-dependent zones of the peripheral lymphoid organs. (A.B.)

  19. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

  20. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  1. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq of lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome from wild Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Ee Uli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis is an extensively utilised nonhuman primate model for biomedical research due to its biological, behavioural, and genetic similarities to humans. Genomic information of cynomolgus macaque is vital for research in various fields; however, there is presently a shortage of genomic information on the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and profile the Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque transcriptome derived from three tissues (lymph node, spleen, and thymus using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. A total of 174,208,078 paired end 70 base pair sequencing reads were obtained from the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 sequencer. The overall mapping percentage of the sequencing reads to the M. fascicularis reference genome ranged from 53–63%. Categorisation of expressed genes to Gene Ontology (GO and KEGG pathway categories revealed that GO terms with the highest number of associated expressed genes include Cellular process, Catalytic activity, and Cell part, while for pathway categorisation, the majority of expressed genes in lymph node, spleen, and thymus fall under the Global overview and maps pathway category, while 266, 221, and 138 genes from lymph node, spleen, and thymus were respectively enriched in the Immune system category. Enriched Immune system pathways include Platelet activation pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, B cell receptor signalling pathway, and Intestinal immune network for IgA production. Differential gene expression analysis among the three tissues revealed 574 differentially expressed genes (DEG between lymph and spleen, 5402 DEGs between lymph and thymus, and 7008 DEGs between spleen and thymus. Venn diagram analysis of expressed genes revealed a total of 2,630, 253, and 279 tissue-specific genes respectively for lymph node, spleen, and thymus tissues. This is the first time the lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome of the

  2. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...... of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas....

  3. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  4. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  5. A novel cell line derived from pleomorphic adenoma expresses MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2, and shows numeric chromosomal anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Semblano Carreira Falcão

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary gland neoplasm, and it can be locally invasive, despite its slow growth. This study aimed to establish a novel cell line (AP-1 derived from a human pleomorphic adenoma sample to better understand local invasiveness of this tumor. AP-1 cell line was characterized by cell growth analysis, expression of epithelial and myoepithelial markers by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, 3D cell culture assays, cytogenetic features and transcriptomic study. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs was also analyzed by immunofluorescence and zymography. Furthermore, epithelial and myoepithelial markers, MMPs and TIMPs were studied in the tumor that originated the cell line. AP-1 cells showed neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial markers, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, S100 protein and smooth-muscle actin. These molecules were also found in vivo, in the tumor that originated the cell line. MMPs and TIMPs were observed in vivo and in AP-1 cells. Growth curve showed that AP-1 exhibited a doubling time of 3.342 days. AP-1 cells grown inside Matrigel recapitulated tumor architecture. Different numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies were visualized in cytogenetic analysis. Transcriptomic analysis addressed expression of 7 target genes (VIM, TIMP2, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, ACTA2 e PLAG1. Results were compared to transcriptomic profile of non-neoplastic salivary gland cells (HSG. Only MMP9 was not expressed in both libraries, and VIM was expressed solely in AP-1 library. The major difference regarding gene expression level between AP-1 and HSG samples occurred for MMP2. This gene was 184 times more expressed in AP-1 cells. Our findings suggest that AP-1 cell line could be a useful model for further studies on pleomorphic adenoma biology.

  6. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  7. Comparative study on glucocerebrosidase in spleens from patients with Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Donker-Koopman, W. E.; Brul, S.; van Weely, S.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.; Schram, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Gaucher disease (glucosylceramide lipidosis), deficiency of glucocerebrosidase causes pathological storage of glucosylceramide, particularly in the spleen. A comparative biochemical and immunological analysis has therefore been made of glucocerebrosidase in spleens from normal subjects (n = 4)

  8. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  9. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian F; Tano, Keizo; Afonin, Valeriy; Elder, Rhoderick H; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase beta.

  10. Bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than MDCK cells to human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tessa; Eckerle, Isabella; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2018-04-10

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza A viruses. To this end, three bat species (Eidolon helvum, Carollia perspicillata and Tadarida brasiliensis) of lung epithelial cells were separately infected with two avian and two human influenza viruses to determine their relative host innate immune resistance to infection. All three species of bat cells were more resistant than positive control Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to all four influenza viruses. TB1-Lu cells lacked sialic acid α2,6-Gal receptors and were most resistant among the three bat species. Interestingly, avian viruses were relatively more replication permissive in all three bat species of cells than with the use of human viruses which suggest that bats could potentially play a role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses. Chemical inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway in bat cells had no effect on virus production suggesting that type I interferon signalling is not a major factor in resisting influenza virus infection. Although all three species of bat cells are relatively more resistant to influenza virus infection than control MDCK cells, they are more permissive to avian than human viruses which suggest that bats could have a contributory role in the ecology of avian influenza viruses.

  11. Early expression of nucleolar SURF-6 protein in mouse spleen lymphocytes activated for proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleva, A A; Malysheva, M V; Magoulas, Ch; Polzikov, M A; Zatsepina, O V

    2009-05-01

    Using specific antibodies we studied the content of nucleolar SURF-6 protein, which participates in rRNA processing, in mouser spleen lymphocytes activated for proliferation with concanavalin A and compared it with the content of nucleolar nucleophosmin/B23 protein and DNA replication factor PCNA, well-known markers of proliferating cells. Using immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting methods we demonstrate that the concentration of all these proteins increases simultaneously with increasing the proportion of proliferating cells. Unlike nucleophosmin/B23, SURF-6 protein was not revealed in quiescent lymphocyte nucleoli, while the increase of its level in activated lymphocytes preceded elevation of PCNA level. These observations suggest that nucleolar protein SURF-6 can act as a marker of early T lymphocyte activation for proliferation and that it could participate in cell cycle regulation in mammals.

  12. Pinus Monophylla (Single Needled Pinyon Pine) show morphological changes in needle cell size and stomata over the past 100 years of rising CO2 in Western Arid Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Water, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The size, frequency, and morphology of leaf surface stomata is used to reconstruct past levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time. This technique relies on measuring cell and cell-clusters to correlate with changes of known carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, not all plants are suitable because the occurrence and placement of stomatal cell-complexes differ significantly between plant families. Monocot and dicot angiosperms exhibit different types of stomata and stomatal complexes that lack order and thus are unsuitable. But, in gymnosperms, the number and distribution of stomata and pavement cells is formalized and can be used to reconstruct past atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. However, characteristic of each plant species must still be considered. For example, conifers are useful but are divided into two-needle to five-needle pines, or have irregular surface morphology (Pseudotsuga sp. and Tsuga sp. needles). This study uses Pinus monophylla an undivided needle morphology, that being a cylinder has no interior surface cells. Pinus monophylla (single needle pinyon) needles were collected along Geiger Grade (Nevada State Highway 341, Reno) in 2005 and 2013 from 1500m to 2195m. Herbarium samples were also collected from 13 historic collections made between 1911 and 1994. The study determined changes with elevation and/or over time using in these populations. Using Pinus monophylla, insured needles represented a single surface with stomata, stomatal complex cells, and co-occurring pavement cell types. Results show decreased stomatal densities (stomata/area), stomatal index (stomata/stomata + epidermal cells) and stable stomata per row (stomata/row) . Epidermal cell density (Epidermal Cells /Area), and Pavement cell density (Pavement cell/area) track stomatal density similarly. Data comparison, using elevation in the 2005 and 2013 collections showed no-significant trends. Individual stomatal complexes show no differences in the size

  13. Global inhibition of DC priming capacity in the spleen of self-antigen vaccinated mice requires IL-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Matthew Marvel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available DC in the spleen are highly activated following intravenous vaccination with a foreign antigen, promoting expansion of effector T cells, but remain phenotypically and functionally immature after vaccination with a self-antigen. Up-regulation or suppression of expression of a cohort of pancreatic enzymes 24-72 hours post-vaccination can be used as a biomarker of stimulatory versus toleragenic DC, respectively. Here we show, using MUC1 transgenic mice (MUC1.Tg and a vaccine based on the MUC1 peptide which these mice perceive as a self-antigen, that the difference in enzyme expression that predicts whether DC will promote immune response or immune tolerance, is seen as early as 4-8 hours following vaccination. We also identify early production of IL-10 as a predominant factor that both correlates with this early time point and controls DC function. Pre-treating mice with an antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R prior to vaccination results in DC that up-regulate CD40, CD80, and CD86 and promote stronger IFNγ+ T cell responses. This study suggests that transient inhibition of IL-10 prior to vaccination could improve responses to cancer vaccines that utilize self-tumor antigens.

  14. Re-establishment of Anxiety in Stress-Sensitized Mice Is Caused by Monocyte Trafficking from the Spleen to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohleb, Eric S.; McKim, Daniel B.; Shea, Daniel T.; Powell, Nicole D.; Tarr, Andrew J.; Sheridan, John F.; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent anxiety-like symptoms may have an inflammatory-related pathophysiology. Our previous work using repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice showed that recruitment of peripheral myeloid cells to the brain is required for the development of anxiety. Here, we aimed to determine if 1) RSD promotes prolonged anxiety through redistribution of myeloid cells and 2) prior exposure to RSD sensitizes the neuroimmune axis to secondary subthreshold stress. Methods Mice were subjected to RSD and several immune and behavioral parameters were determined 0.5, 8, or 24 days later. In follow-up studies, control and RSD mice were subjected to subthreshold stress at 24 days. Results Repeated social defeat-induced macrophage recruitment to the brain corresponded with development and maintenance of anxiety-like behavior 8 days after RSD, but neither remained at 24 days. Nonetheless, social avoidance and an elevated neuroinflammatory profile were maintained at 24 days. Subthreshold social defeat in RSD-sensitized mice increased peripheral macrophage trafficking to the brain that promoted re-establishment of anxiety. Moreover, subthreshold social defeat increased social avoidance in RSD-sensitized mice compared with naïve mice. Stress-induced monocyte trafficking was linked to redistribution of myeloid progenitor cells in the spleen. Splenectomy before subthreshold stress attenuated macrophage recruitment to the brain and prevented anxiety-like behavior in RSD-sensitized mice. Conclusions These data indicate that monocyte trafficking from the spleen to the brain contributes re-establishment of anxiety in stress-sensitized mice. These findings show that neuroinflammatory mechanisms promote mood disturbances following stress-sensitization and outline novel neuroimmune interactions that underlie recurring anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:24439304

  15. Studies on the superoxide dismutase activity in the cytosolic fractions of the liver and spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Rai; Chung, Doo Young; Yang, Jong Dai; Cha, Jong Hee

    1985-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase(SOD, superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) is a metalloprotein ubiquitously present in all aerobic living cells. At present, three types of SOD: copper and zinc-containing (Cu, Zn-SOD), manganese-containing(Mn-SOD) and iron-containing(Fe-SOD) enzyme have been isolated from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. As a scanvenger of euperoxide radicals in biological tissues, these metalloenzymes are undoubtedly of importance in the protection of living organisms against the effect of highly toxic superoxide radicals. A variety of biologically important processes are accompaied by formation of these radiation. The present paper report the results of experiments dealing with SOD activity in the cytosolic fraction of the liver and spleen of mice exposed to 400R whole-body irradiation. The whole-body irradiation caused a decrease in the specific activity of SOD in the both liver and spleen which persist more than 21 days.(Author)

  16. The Oral Commensal Streptococcus mitis Shows a Mixed Memory Th Cell Signature That Is Similar to and Cross-Reactive with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Stian André; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Becattini, Simone; Jarrossay, David; Blix, Inger Johanne; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Sallusto, Federica; Schenck, Karl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carriage of and infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is known to predominantly induce T helper 17 (Th17) responses in humans, but the types of Th cells showing reactivity towards commensal streptococci with low pathogenic potential, such as the oral commensals S. mitis and S. salivarius, remain uncharacterized. METHODS: Memory CD4(+) T helper (Th) cell subsets were isolated from healthy human blood donors according to differential expression of chemokine receptors, expanded in ...

  17. Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum extracts show their antitumor activity through induction of p53-mediated apoptosis on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgun, Onur; Akca, Hakan; Mammadov, Ramazan; Aykurt, Candan; Deniz, Gökhan

    2012-11-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. It has been reported that several members of the Convolvulaceae, Iridaceae, and Liliaceae families have antitumor activity against some tumor cell lines. Here we first report that Convolvulus galaticus, Crocus antalyensis, and Lilium candidum species have cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells. Plant samples were collected and identified, and their cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 cell line were examined at different concentrations of methanol extracts. We found that all three plants have cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells but that C. galaticus has the strongest cytotoxic effect even in the lowest extract concentration tested (0.32 μg/mL). Our results indicate that these plant extracts have cytotoxic effects on human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 cells and that this cytotoxic effect comes from p53-mediated stimulation of apoptosis.

  18. B Cells Negatively Regulate the Establishment of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) Resting Memory T Helper Cells in the Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojyo, Shintaro; Sarkander, Jana; Männe, Christian; Mursell, Mathias; Hanazawa, Asami; Zimmel, David; Zhu, Jinfang; Paul, William E; Fillatreau, Simon; Löhning, Max; Radbruch, Andreas; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    During an immune reaction, some antigen-experienced CD4 T cells relocate from secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) to the bone marrow (BM) in a CD49b-dependent manner and reside and rest there as professional memory CD4 T cells. However, it remains unclear how the precursors of BM memory CD4 T cells are generated in the SLOs. While several studies have so far shown that B cell depletion reduces the persistence of memory CD4 T cells in the spleen, we here show that B cell depletion enhances the establishment of memory CD4 T cells in the BM and that B cell transfer conversely suppresses it. Interestingly, the number of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the BM synchronizes the number of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the spleen. CD49b(+)T-bet(+) antigen-experienced CD4 T cells preferentially localize in the red pulp area of the spleen and the BM in a T-bet-independent manner. We suggest that B cells negatively control the generation of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) precursors of resting memory CD4 T cells in the spleen and may play a role in bifurcation of activated effector and resting memory CD4 T cell lineages.

  19. B cells negatively regulate the establishment of CD49b+T-bet+ resting memory T helper cells in the bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro eHojyo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During an immune reaction, some antigen-experienced CD4 T cells relocate from secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs to the bone marrow (BM in a CD49b-dependent manner and reside and rest there as professional memory CD4 T cells. However, it remains unclear how the precursors of BM memory CD4 T cells are generated in the SLOs. While several studies have so far shown that B cell depletion reduces the persistence of memory CD4 T cells in the spleen, we here show that B cell depletion enhances the establishment of memory CD4 T cells in the BM and that B cell transfer conversely suppresses it. Interestingly, the number of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the BM synchronizes the number of CD49b+T-bet+ antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the spleen. CD49b+T-bet+ antigen-experienced CD4 T cells preferentially localize in the red pulp area of the spleen and the BM in a T-bet-independent manner. We suggest that B cells negatively control the generation of CD49b+T-bet+ precursors of resting memory CD4 T cells in the spleen and may play a role in bifurcation of activated effector and resting memory CD4 T cell lineages.

  20. Time-dependent effect of E. coli LPS in spleen DC activation in vivo: Alteration of numbers, expression of co-stimulatory molecules, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and presentation of antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Kwak, Minseok; Zhang, Wei; Lee, Peter Chang-Whan; Jin, Jun-O

    2017-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a well-known stimuli of dendritic cells (DCs). However, in vivo spleen DC maturation by Escherichia coli (E.coli) LPS has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the effect of LPS on the activation of spleen DCs and its subsets in a time-dependent manner on mice in vivo. The frequency, number and migration of spleen conventional DCs (cDCs) were increased 6 and 12h after completion of LPS treatment. Those increased DC numbers in spleen were then gradually decreased with apoptosis of the DCs. The highest levels of co-stimulatory molecule expression in the spleen cDCs and their subsets occurred 18h after LPS treatment, while the pro-inflammatory cytokines reached their maximum in the intracellular levels of the spleen cDCs and their subsets 3h after LPS treatment. The antigen presentation of the spleen cDCs and their subsets increased gradually from 3 to 12h after LPS treatment, but those levels decreased rapidly after 18h post-LPS treatment. Thus, by highlighting the importance of time in the stimulation of spleen DCs by LPS in mice in vivo, our data provided a model that could be used by immunologists when considering the manipulation of DC functions in vivo for experimental and clinical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. In-vitro-induced Th17 cells fail to induce inflammation in vivo and show an impaired migration into inflamed sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Marko; Peine, Michael; Nass, Alexia; Morawietz, Lars; Hamann, Alf; Scheffold, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Recently, IL-17 produced by Th17 cells was described as pro-inflammatory cytokine with an eminent role in autoimmune diseases, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis. A lack of IL-17 leads to amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis. IL-17 induction in naïve CD4(+) T cells depends on IL-6 and TGF-beta and is enhanced by IL-23. The in vivo inflammatory potential of in vitro-primed Th17 cells however, remains unclear. Here, we show that, although IL-17 neutralisation results in amelioration of murine OVA-induced arthritis, in vitro-primed Th17 cells cannot exacerbate arthritic symptoms after adoptive transfer. Furthermore, Th17 cells cannot induce an inflammatory delayed type hypersensitivity reaction because they fail to migrate into inflamed sites, possibly due to the lack of CXCR3 expression. Also, re-isolated Th17 cells acquired IFN-gamma expression, indicating instability of the Th17 phenotype. Taken together, the data show that IL-6, TGF-beta and IL-23 might not provide sufficient signals to induce "fully qualified" Th17 cells.

  2. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  3. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen mimicking metastasis of melanoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Ilhan; Kinkel, Horst; Antoine, Dirk; Szynaka, Marc; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Herold, Susanne; Janßen, Hermann

    2017-09-03

    Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation is a benign disorder of splenic tissue and is often mistaken as a potentially malignant entity in the diagnostic process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation mimicking metastasis of melanoma in the literature. A 43-year-old white man presented with a newly found splenic mass 4 years ago to our Department of Gastroenterology. He was diagnosed as having a superficial spreading malignant melanoma localized at his left instep 7 years ago and was successfully treated with radical local resection. Several diagnostic procedures were conducted. Ultrasound showed a hypoechoic lesion in the inferior pole of his spleen with a diameter of 2 cm, blurred boundaries, and inhomogeneous interior pattern. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was inconclusive and showed only discrete contrast enhancement of the lesion with accentuated nodule-like enrichment of the boundaries in the arterial phase. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed two splenic lesions which were highly suspicious of metastasis. Magnetic resonance imaging of his head was inconspicuous. Bone scintigraphy showed no abnormal results. Fine-needle aspiration indicated metastasis of the above-mentioned malignant melanoma. We conducted a laparoscopic splenectomy. His intraoperative and postoperative course were uneventful. In contrast to the result of the fine-needle aspiration, the presence of metastasis of melanoma could not be confirmed. Histological analysis revealed nodule-like arrangement of fibroblasts with low cell density and a predominance of dilated capillaries, indicating sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen. There are no preoperative diagnostic imaging procedures which can definitely differentiate sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation from malignancies in cases of morphological and immunophenotypic variations of the specimen. Morphological and

  4. Roasted and green coffee extracts show antioxidant and cytotoxic activity in myoblast and endothelial cell lines in a cell specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Alexandros; Panagiotou, Eleftheria-Maria; Lakis, Konstantinos; Plika, Christina; Halabalaki, Maria; Ntasi, Georgia; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Stagos, Dimitrios; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is one of the most highly consumed beverages with potential beneficial health implications, however its molecular mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated yet. To that cause, the polyphenolic composition of different coffee extracts (from Light, Medium and Dark roasts as well as green beans) was examined by UHPLC-HRMS analysis, indicating chlorogenic acids isomers as the main constituents. In the following step, the toxicity of the extracts was tested in myoblasts and endothelial cells and differential toxicity of green and roasted samples was displayed as the myoblasts were more sensitive to green coffee extracts, in contrast to the endothelial cells. Subsequently, biologically relevant, non-cytotoxic extract concentrations were administered to explore their potential effect on cell redox status using flow cytometry and spectrophotometric assays. The results indicated that all coffee extracts improved cell redox status, however differences were observed between the two different cell lines tested, implying that coffee compounds display cell- and tissue-specificity. Glutathione levels were increased in almost all cases up to 70%, while the roasting degree affected the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts and their ability to protect from macromolecular oxidation as exhibited by the differences in ROS, CARB and TBARS levels, especially in the myoblasts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium induces BNIP3-dependent autophagy in chicken spleen by modulating miR-33-AMPK axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Li, Xiaojing; Fan, Ruifeng; Yang, Jie; Jin, Xi; Hamid, Sattar; Xu, Shiwen

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a widespread environmental pollutant, has toxic effects on organs including spleen. However, the underlying mechanisms of Cd induced spleen toxicity and the roles of micro-RNA (miRNA) in this process remain poorly understood. To investigate this, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 , 10 mg/kg) was administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. Electron microscopy, qPCR and Western blot were performed. Results showed that Cd exposure suppressed miR-33-5q which increased the levels of AMPK. Subsequently, significant decrease in AKT/mTOR signaling and HSP70 were observed. Concurrently, levels of NF-κB, p-JNK/JNK increased significantly. Moreover, the expression of BNIP3 and other autophagy markers (LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin-1) increased significantly. Additionally, the levels of ions (Ca, Cr, Se, Sr, Sn, Ba) and (Na, Mg, V, Fe, Mo, Cu, Zn, Cd) significantly decreased and increased, respectively. Taken together, we conclude that Cd induced the deregulation of miR-33-AMPK axis led to BNIP3-dependent autophagy in chicken spleen through AKT/mTOR and HSP70-NF-κB/JNK signal pathways. In-addition Cd could affect ion homeostasis in chicken spleen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of a novel cell adhesion method and digital measurement to show stimulus-dependent variation in somatic and oral ciliary beat frequency in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Wade E; Hallworth, Richard; Wyatt, Todd A; Sisson, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    When Paramecium encounters positive stimuli, the membrane hyperpolarizes and ciliary beat frequency increases. We adapted an established immobilization protocol using a biological adhesive and a novel digital analysis system to quantify beat frequency in immobilized Paramecium. Cells showed low mortality and demonstrated beat frequencies consistent with previous studies. Chemoattractant molecules, reduction in external potassium, and posterior stimulation all increased somatic beat frequency. In all cases, the oral groove cilia maintained a higher beat frequency than mid-body cilia, but only oral cilia from cells stimulated with chemoattactants showed an increase from basal levels. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  8. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to d-Limonene Show Changes to the Cell Wall but Not to the Plasma Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy C. R.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Monoterpenes can, upon hydrogenation, be used as light-fraction components of sustainable aviation fuels. Fermentative production of monoterpenes in engineered microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has gained attention as a potential route to deliver these next-generation fuels from renewable biomass. However, end product toxicity presents a formidable problem for microbial synthesis. Due to their hydrophobicity, monoterpene inhibition has long been attributed to membrane interference, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unsolved. In order to gain a better understanding of the mode of action, we analyzed the composition and structural integrity of the cell envelope as well as the transcriptional response of yeast cells treated with an inhibitory amount of d-limonene (107 mg/liter). We found no alterations in membrane fluidity, structural membrane integrity, or fatty acid composition after the solvent challenge. A 4-fold increase in the mean fluorescence intensity per cell (using calcofluor white stain) and increased sensitivity to cell wall-degrading enzymes demonstrated that limonene disrupts cell wall properties. Global transcript measurements confirmed the membrane integrity observations by showing no upregulation of ergosterol or fatty acid biosynthesis pathways, which are commonly overexpressed in yeast to reinforce membrane rigidity during ethanol exposure. Limonene shock did cause a compensatory response to cell wall damage through overexpression of several genes (ROM1, RLM1, PIR3, CTT1, YGP1, MLP1, PST1, and CWP1) involved with the cell wall integrity signaling pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that cell wall, rather than plasma membrane, deterioration is the main source of monoterpene inhibition. We show that limonene can alter the structure and function of the cell wall, which has a clear effect on cytokinesis. PMID:23542628

  9. Leprosy Reactions Show Increased Th17 Cell Activity and Reduced FOXP3+ Tregs with Concomitant Decrease in TGF-β and Increase in IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Saini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 50% of leprosy patients suffer from episodes of Type 1/ reversal reactions (RR and Type 2/ Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL reactions which lead to morbidity and nerve damage. CD4+ subsets of Th17 cells and CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs have been shown to play a major role in disease associated immunopathology and in stable leprosy as reported by us and others. The aim of our study was to analyze their role in leprosy reactions.Quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qPCR, flowcytometry and ELISA were used to respectively investigate gene expression, cell phenotypes and supernatant levels of cytokines in antigen stimulated PBMC cultures in patients with stable disease and those undergoing leprosy reactions. Both types of reactions are associated with significant increase of Th17 cells and associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and chemokines CCL20, CCL22 as compared to matching stable forms of leprosy. Concurrently patients in reactions show reduction in FOXP3+ Treg cells as well as reduction in TGF-β and increase in IL-6. Moreover, expression of many T cell markers, cytokines, chemokines and signaling factors were observed to be increased in RR as compared to ENL reaction patients.Patients with leprosy reactions show an imbalance in Th17 and Treg populations. The reduction in Treg suppressor activity is associated withhigherTh17cell activity. The combined effect of reduced TGF-β and enhanced IL-6, IL-21 cytokines influence the balance between Th17 or Treg cells in leprosy reactions as reported in the murine models and autoimmune diseases. The increase in Th17 cell associated cytokines may contribute to lesional inflammation.

  10. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  11. Haemocyanins from Rapana venosa and Helix vulgaris display an antitumour activity via specific activation of spleen lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Toshkova, R.; Yossifova, L.; Zacharieva, S.; Dolashka-Angelova, P.; Hristova, R.; Yaneva, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have determined and analysed some immuno-adjuvant properties of haemocyanins isolated from the haemolymph of the snails Rapana venosa (RvH) and Helix vulgaris (HvH) acting via activation of cell-mediated immunity. As a result of nonspecific activation of the immune system in tumour-bearing animals treated with RvH and HvH, an increased resistance against Guerin ascites tumour progression was observed in comparison with controls (non-immunized animals). The investigations were focused on elucidation of the different mechanisms of immune response of spleen lymphocytes from experimental animals preliminary immunized with vaccines supplemented with either RvH or HvH. Experimental data showed significant immune activation, much higher than that in the control group immunized with Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Supporting these data are the results on the survival rate determination of tumour-bearing animals immunized with each of the haemocyanins or conjugates haemocyanin/tumour antigen showing highest survival in animals treated with HvH, RvH and KLH in comparison with non immunized animals. (authors)

  12. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Weinreb, Ilan; Hyrcza, Martin; Simpson, Roderick H W; Laco, Jan; Agaimy, Abbas; Vazmitel, Marina; Majewska, Hanna; Vanecek, Tomas; Talarčik, Peter; Manajlovic, Spomenka; Losito, Simona N; Šteiner, Petr; Klimkova, Adela; Michal, Michal

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients

  13. Implications of prostaglandin E2 synthesis and phospholipase C activation in potentiation of T-cell proliferation by LF 1695.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrepas, P; Annat, J; Dutartre, P; Pascal, M

    1991-01-01

    Murine spleen cells, T-enriched by nylon wool filtration, proliferate in the presence of a protein kinase C stimulator and a calcium ionophore. Using this cell proliferation system, we show that LF 1695 can potentiate phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) action in the presence of A 23187. This potentiation can be due to PGE2 inhibition since it is found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or A 23187 induced PGE2 release from spleen cells is inhibited by LF 1695. Indomethacin and LF 1695 gave similar stimulation of spleen cell proliferation, and exogeneously added PGE2 inhibits this phenomenon. Considering two of the main early components of intracellular signal transduction, LF 1695 induces IP3 release and calcium mobilization. However, the compound is not mitogenic per se. These results show that LF 1695 behaves only as a costimulant for T-cell proliferation.

  14. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  15. Anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Ferraz de Melo, A; de Souza, W Machado; Rodrigues, R Felipe; Alves, F Ribeiro; Rici, R Eli Graci; Guerra, R Romão; Favaron, P Oliveira; Miglino, M Angélica; Di Dio, L John Aphonso

    2011-08-01

    With 2 figures The anatomosurgical segmentation of the arteries of the spleen was studied in 31 deer of the species Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus by means of vascular injection with latex and vinyl acetate and radiographic examination. The arteria lienalis penetrated through the hilus lienis in 87% of the cases, whereas an extrahilar artery was present in the other cases. An extraparenchymal division of the lineal artery into two, three or four segmental arteries was observed in 74% of the cases. Anastomoses between intraparenchymal arterial branches were rare and of a reduced calibre. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  17. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  18. Laparoscopic Resection of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1 were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

  19. Expression of non-TLR pattern recognition receptors in the spleen of BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosanas-Urgell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spleen plays a crucial role in the development of immunity to malaria, but the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs in splenic effector cells during malaria infection is poorly understood. In the present study, we analysed the expression of selected PRRs in splenic effector cells from BALB/c mice infected with the lethal and non-lethal Plasmodium yoelii strains 17XL and 17X, respectively, and the non-lethal Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS strain. The results of these experiments showed fewer significant changes in the expression of PRRs in AS-infected mice than in 17X and 17XL-infected mice. Mannose receptor C type 2 (MRC2 expression increased with parasitemia, whereas Toll-like receptors and sialoadhesin (Sn decreased in mice infected with P. chabaudi AS. In contrast, MRC type 1 (MRC1, MRC2 and EGF-like module containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like sequence 1 (F4/80 expression decreased with parasitemia in mice infected with 17X, whereas MRC1 an MRC2 increased and F4/80 decreased in mice infected with 17XL. Furthermore, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure and CD68 declined rapidly after initial parasitemia. SIGNR1 and Sn expression demonstrated minor variations in the spleens of mice infected with either strain. Notably, macrophage scavenger receptor (Msr1 and dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin 2 expression increased at both the transcript and protein levels in 17XL-infected mice with 50% parasitemia. Furthermore, the increased lethality of 17X infection in Msr1 -/- mice demonstrated a protective role for Msr1. Our results suggest a dual role for these receptors in parasite clearance and protection in 17X infection and lethality in 17XL infection.

  20. Developmental fluoride exposure influenced rat's splenic development and cell cycle via disruption of the ERK signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanqin; Zhang, Kankan; Ren, Fengjun; Wang, Jundong

    2017-11-01

    Excessive fluoride exposure has been reported to cause damage to spleen. Neonatal period is characterized by rapid proliferation and differentiation of lymphocyte in the spleen. Children may be more sensitive to the toxicity of fluoride compared to the adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postnatal exposure (from neonatal period to early adulthood) to fluoride on the development of spleen on a regular basis and the underlying signal pathway. Results showed a marked decrease in spleen weight index and altered morphology in the spleen of fluoride-treated group on PND-84, which reflected fluoride inhibition of the development of spleen. Fluoride exposure induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes and decreased the mRNA expression of IL-2, which indicated compromised baseline lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen. Time course research from 3-wk-of-age until 12-wk-of-age showed an adverse and cumulative impact of fluoride on the development of spleen. In view of the key role of MAPK/ERK pathway in lymphocyte development, Raf-1/MEK-1/ERK-2/c-fos mRNA expression and ERK/p-ERK protein expression were detected. Results showed despite a transitory increase in mRNA expression from PND-42 to PND-63 in fluoride-treated group, the expression of these genes on PND-84 decreased significantly compared with PND-42 or PND-63. NaF significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK protein on PND-84. Taken together, these results emphasized the vital role of ERK pathway in the interfered development of spleen induced by a high dose of fluoride exposure in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiosensitive SCID patients with Artemis gene mutations show a complete B-cell differentiation arrest at the pre-B-cell receptor checkpoint in bone marrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Noordzij; M.Z. Zdzienicka (Malgorzata); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); D.C. van Gent (Dik); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); L.R. van Veelen (Lieneke); S. de Bruin-Versteeg (Sandra); W. Wiegant; J.M.J.J. Vossen; R. de Groot (Ronald); C.M.R. Weemaes (Corry)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSevere combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) can be immunologically classified by the absence or presence of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. About 30% of T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID patients carry mutations in the recombination activating genes (RAG). Some

  2. Radiosensitive SCID patients with Artemis gene mutations show a complete B-cell differentiation arrest at the pre-B-cell receptor checkpoint in bone marrow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, J.G.; Verkaik, N.S.; Burg, M.E.L. van der; Veelen, L.R. van; Bruin-Versteeg, S. de; Wiegant, W.; Vossen, J.M.J.J.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Groot, R. de; Zdzienicka, M.Z.; Gent, D.C. van; Dongen, J.J.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) can be immunologically classified by the absence or presence of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. About 30% of T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID patients carry mutations in the recombination activating genes (RAG). Some T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID patients without RAG gene

  3. Lack of cross-resistance to fostriecin in a human small-cell lung carcinoma cell line showing topoisomerase II-related drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Zijlstra, J G; Mulder, Nanno; de Vries, Liesbeth

    1991-01-01

    Cells exhibiting decreased topoisomerase II (Topo II) activity are resistant to several drugs that require Topo II as an intermediate. These drugs are cytotoxic due to the formation of a cleavable complex between the drug, Topo II and DNA. Fostriecin belongs to a new class of drugs that inhibit Topo

  4. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wesley-Smith, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available of Botany, Volume 115, Issue 6 pp. 991-1000. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo- exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum James Wesley-Smith1,2, Christina...

  5. The case of the mysterious vanishing spleen: autosplenectomy complicating pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Georgina; Jenkins, Megan; Shetty, Dushyant; Blundell, Julie

    2017-05-04

    A 57-year-old previously healthy fisherman was admitted in fulminant pneumococcal septic shock, with disseminated intravascular coagulation, requiring aggressive management including bilateral below-knee amputations for ischaemic necrosis. He began to recover and was discharged for rehabilitation, however during his convalescence was found to be hypercalcaemic. No malignancy was found on CT scan, but it was noted that his spleen was absent, replaced by a 4 cm smooth-walled, fluid-filled lesion. This was unexpected as an ultrasound in intensive care 10 weeks previously had demonstrated a normal spleen. Functional hyposplenism was confirmed on a peripheral blood film with evidence of target cells, spherocytes and Howell-Jolly bodies. A diagnosis of autosplenectomy complicating pneumococcal sepsis was therefore made, of which there is just one case previously reported. The patient continues to recover well and was discharged on penicillin prophylaxis after receiving vaccinations for hyposplenism. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Histopathological effects of sodium nitrite on the spleen of male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Juibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrite and nitrate are common additives in meat processed products. In spite of all technological advantages of nitrite, creation of nitrosamine carcinogenic substances causes a lot of concerns for use of these additives. In this study, the histopatological effects of sodium nitrite on the splenic tissue in adult male and female rats were evaluated. Material and method: In recent studies, 60 adult male and female rats strain Vistar, divided in 6 groups of 10. They were examined for 60 day, and they (male and female rats separately were divided in 175 mg/kg/day dose recipient group, 350 mg/kg/day dose recipient group and control group which was absorbed nitrite through drinking water. At the end of day 60, using cotton dipped in ether in the jar of anesthesia, were anesthetized. After anesthesia, blood from the left ventricle was taken .the spleen was taking out of body, and then tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. The samples were stained with Hematoxilin- Eozin method. In both sex, factors like morphometric and morphologic from spleen tissue, body weight changes before and after test and blood NOx level was checked. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 17 with using Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. P value of less than 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. Result: The results showed that consume of sodium nitrite, cause background inflammation type of Mononuclear in both sex, especially around the pulp. Also, in both sex NOx levels in the blood of animals in the group receiving 350 mg/ kg and group receiving 175 mg of sodium nitrite per kg compared with the control group, significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Considering of this study and other studies, Nitrite can cause damage to blood vessels, liver, spleen and other organs. Also sodium nitrite has to switching to other food preservatives.

  7. Robotic splenectomy with ex vivo bench surgery and hemi-spleen autotransplant: the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis F; Bianco, Francesco M

    2017-06-01

    We describe our experience with what is, to our knowledge, the first case of robotic assisted ex vivo partial splenectomy with auto-transplantation for a benign non parasitic cyst. The patient is a 32 year-old female with a giant, benign splenic cyst causing persistent abdominal pain. Preoperative imaging showed a cystic lesion measuring 8.3 × 7.6 cm, in the middle portion of the spleen. Due to the central location of the bulky lesion a partial splenectomy was not feasible. As an alternative to a total splenectomy, a possible reimplantation of hemi-spleen after bench surgery was offered. We proceeded with a robotic total splenectomy and bench hemisplenectomy, preserving the lower pole and a portion of the middle segment of the organ. A robotic reconstruction of the splenic vessels was then performed intra-abdominally. The reperfusion was optimal. The total operative time was 305 min, with 78 min of robotic time. Postoperative ultrasound confirmed a patent arterial and venous flow. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. The pathology report was consistent with epithelial cyst of the spleen. The patient is doing well at 6-month follow-up. The optimized vision and dexterity provided by the robotic system allowed a safe and precise reconstruction of the splenic vessels, even in a deep and narrow operative field. Partial splenectomy with autotransplantation of the organ was thus achieved, avoiding a total splenectomy in a young patient.

  8. MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib (PF-02341066) shows differential antitumor effects in non-small cell lung cancer according to MET alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Junko; Okamoto, Isamu; Okamoto, Kunio; Takezawa, Ken; Kuwata, Kiyoko; Yamaguchi, Haruka; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2011-10-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeted to MET are undergoing clinical trials in patients with solid tumors, but the precise mechanism of the antitumor activity of these drugs remains unclear. We examined the antitumor action of the MET-TKI crizotinib (PF-02341066) in lung cancer cells that are positive or negative for MET amplification or mutation. The antitumor action of crizotinib was evaluated on the basis of signal transduction, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and progression of tumor xenografts. Inhibition of MET signaling by crizotinib or by RNA interference-mediated MET depletion resulted in the induction of apoptosis accompanied by inhibition of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in lung cancer cells with MET amplification but not in cells with a MET mutation or in those without amplification or mutation of MET. These results suggest that MET signaling is essential for the survival of cells with MET amplification but not for that of cells without this genetic change, including those with a MET mutation. Crizotinib up-regulated the expression of BIM, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, and down-regulated that of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, in cells with MET amplification. Forced depletion of BIM and expression of survivin each inhibited crizotinib-induced apoptosis, suggesting that both up-regulation of BIM and down-regulation of survivin contribute to the proapoptotic effect of crizotinib. Crizotinib shows a marked antitumor action in MET amplification-positive lung cancer cells but not in cells without MET amplification, including those with a MET mutation.

  9. Intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells from HCV-infected patients show an exhausted phenotype but can inhibit HCV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, E; Bordoni, V; Sacchi, A; Visco-Comandini, U; Montalbano, M; Taibi, C; Casetti, R; Lalle, E; D'Offizi, G; Capobianchi, M R; Agrati, C

    2018-01-02

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence results from inefficiencies of both innate and adaptive immune responses to eradicate the infection. A functional impairment of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was described but few data are available on Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in the liver that, however, represents the battlefield in the HCV/host interaction. Aim of this work was to compare circulating and intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in chronic HCV-infected patients (HCV pos ) and in HCV-negative (HCV neg ) subjects. Phenotypic and functional analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Anti-HCV activity was analyzed by using an in vitro autologous liver culture system. Independently from HCV infection, the liver was enriched of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells expressing an effector/activated phenotype. In contrast, an enrichment of PD-1 expressing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was observed both in the peripheral blood and in the liver of HCV pos patients, probably due to a persistent antigenic stimulation. Moreover, a lower frequency of IFN-γ producing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was observed in the liver of HCV pos patients, suggesting a functional impairment in the cytokine production in HCV pos liver. Despite this hypo-responsiveness, intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells are able to exert an anti-HCV activity after specific stimulation. Altogether, our data show that HCV infection induced a dysregulation of intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells that maintain their anti-HCV activity after specific stimulation. A study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of the antiviral activity may be useful to identify new pathways able to improve Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells intrahepatic function during HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of rhG-CSF on spleen transcriptome in mouse leukopenia model induced by cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, He; Sun, Fei; Huang, Wei; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhou, Qiuli; Liang, Chongyang

    2014-04-01

    RhG-CSF significantly elevates the otherwise reduced numbers of leukocytes following chemotherapy. However, prior work has predominantly focused on the effect of rhG-CSF on the hematopoietic system, and few studies have focused on the immune system. We aimed to investigate the effect of rhG-CSF on the immune system transcriptome in a mouse leukopenia model that was induced by cyclophosphamide. A cyclophosphamide leukopenia model was established in C57BL/6 mice, which were randomly divided into a normal control group (CK), a cyclophosphamide model group (CY) and a rhG-CSF treatment group (rhG-CSF). After 3 d of rhG-CSF treatment, a mouse gene expression microarray enabled evaluation of changes in the transcriptome in the mouse spleen. About 3552 differentially expressed genes occurred among the three experimental groups, of which 74.9% (2659) concentrated on three gene expression patterns. Gene ontology and pathway analysis of 2659 differential genes showed that early in treatment when leukocyte counts remained low, rhG-CSF recovered the transcription of genes that were related to DNA damage repair and metabolism of nucleotides and amino acids. By contrast, rhG-CSF inhibited the transcription of genes involved in transendothelial migration and endocytosis, and dampened the transcription of genes associated with cell proliferation as compared with the CY group. Our study suggests that rhG-CSF recovered metabolism in immune cells, suppressed in vivo immune defense, and attenuated immune cell proliferation in a cyclophosphamide induced leukopenia model. Use of gene expression microarrays can macroscopically and systematically inform the mechanism of rhG-CSF on immune cells.

  11. Determination of unique power conversion efficiency of solar cell showing hysteresis in the I-V curve under various light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Ludmila; Uchida, Satoshi; Tamaki, Koichi; Jayaweera, Piyankarage V V; Kaneko, Shoji; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2017-09-18

    Energy harvesting at low light intensities has recently attracted a great deal of attention of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) which are regarded as promising candidate for indoor application. Anomalous hysteresis of the PSCs a complex issue for reliable evaluation of the cell performance. In order to address these challenges, we constructed two new evaluation methods to determinate the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PSCs. The first setup is a solar simulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) allowing evaluation of the solar cells at wider range of light intensities, ranging from 10 2  to 10 -3  mW·cm -2 . As the overestimate error, we found that the PCEs of dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) and PSCs increase dramatically at low light intensities conditions. Due to the internal capacitance at the interfaces on hybrid solar cells, the measurement of current below 10 -2  mW·cm -2 shows constant value given high PCE, which is related to the capacitive current and origin of the hysteresis. The second setup is a photovoltaic power analyzing system, designed for tracking the maximum power (P max ) with time. The paper suggests the combination of the LED solar simulator and P max tracking technique as a standard to evaluate the PCE of capacitive solar cells.

  12. 2[125I]Iodomelatonin binding sites in spleens of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, A.M.S.; Pang, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    2-[ 125 I]Iodomelatonin was found to bind specifically to the membrane preparations of the spleens of guinea pigs with high affinity. The binding was rapid, stable, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the binding assays revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 49.8±4.12 pmol/l and binding site density (Bmax) of 0.69±0.082 fmol/mg protein at mid-light. There was no significant change in the Kd or the Bmax at mid-dark. Kinetic analysis showed a Kd of 23.13±4.81 pmol/l, in agreement to that derived from the saturation studies. The 2-[ 125 I]iodomelatonin binding sites have the following order of potency: 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > 6-chloromelatonin much-gt N-acetylserotonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin > 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-methoxytryptophol > serotonin, 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid > 5-hydroxytryptophol, 3-acetylindole, 1-acetylindole-3-carboxyaldehyde, L-tryptophan > tryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Differential centrifugation studies showed that the binding sites are localized mainly in the nuclear fraction, the rest are distributed in the microsomal fraction, mitochondrial fraction and cytosolic fraction. The demonstration of 2-[ 125 I]iodomelatonin binding sites in the spleen suggests the presence of melatonin receptors and a direct mechanism of action of melatonin on the immune system

  13. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  14. Detection of Babesia DNA in blood and spleen samples from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Babesia are intraerythrocytic parasites of importance worldwide within the fields of human and veterinary medicine, as some Babesia sp., including Babesia microti are potentially zoonotic and can cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. The aims of this study were to use a nested PCR (amplifying the 18S rRNA gene) to determine the presence and species of Babesia parasite DNA found in blood (n = 47) and spleen (n = 47) samples collected from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland. The results showed 28/47 (59·6%) blood and 14/47 (29·8%) spleen samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia DNA. Initial sequence analysis of the Babesia DNA identified three distinct sequence types (submitted to GenBank KX528553, KX528554 and KX528555), which demonstrated ⩾99% identity to Babesia sp. parasites previously identified in badgers in Spain (KT223484 and KT223485). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three isolates are closely related to Babesia annae, B. microti and other Piroplasmida species found in wildlife. Further sequence analysis of the samples demonstrated that the badgers were routinely infected with more than one parasite isolate and there was also evidence of genetic recombination between the Babesia parasite isolates (submitted to GenBank KY250472 - KY250477).

  15. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; San Luis, T. Jr.; Lange, C.E.; Thelen, M.; Veltman, G.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1977-01-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and 197 Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma. (orig.) [de

  16. A case of Kearns-Sayre syndrome showing a constant proportion of deleted mitochondrial DNA in blood cells during 6 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, I; Taniike, M; Fujimura, H; Matsuoka, T; Inui, K; Nagai, T; Okada, S

    1998-06-11

    Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and Pearson syndrome (PS) show quite different phenotypes despite the same underlying genetic defect, i.e. a large deletion of one population of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. The main feature of KSS is progressive encephalomyopathy; on the other hand, PS shows fatal hematological problems in early infancy. Through Southern blot analysis of mtDNA of blood cells, deletion has been consistently found in patients with PS but usually undetectable in KSS patients. Therefore, their different clinical phenotypes have been explained by the different tissue distribution of mutant mtDNA. Recently, a few cases were reported which had features of PS in infancy and later developed KSS. These observations suggest that phenotypes may also be modi