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  1. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between sonographers. The spleen and left kidney lengths were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05).

  2. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Careful examination of the left upper quadrant of the pediatric patient will usually disclose the presence or absence of an enlarged spleen. Although the spleen has a wide variation in weight and mobility, the normal spleen rarely extends below the left costal margin. While the presence of a palpable spleen is usually of pathological significance, the wide variation in splenic weight and position may make the detection of splenomegaly difficult on routine physical examination. When present, it may be difficult to differentiate the enlarged spleen from other palpable masses in the left upper quadrant. For these reasons, radionuclide imaging of the spleen has become a simple and valuable method for precisely locating and establishing the accurate size of functioning splenic tissue. The size and weight of the spleen can be approximated by direct measurement from the scan; normal values have been established based on the splenic length and the age and weight of the child. The diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide s []anning of the spleen in lymphoma, leukemia, other malignancies, anemia and other blood dyscrasias, infectious diseases, granuloma, and cysts is discussed. (CH)

  3. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

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    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  4. Creating computer aided 3D model of spleen and kidney based based on Visible Human Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldur, Muhammad M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of computer aided 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique on visualization and modeling of gross anatomical structures with an affordable methodology applied on the spleen and kidney. From The Visible Human Project Dataset cryosection images, developed by the National Library of Medicine, the spleen and kidney sections were preferred to be used due to their highly distinct contours. The software used for the reconstruction were Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac and Cinema 4D X L version 7.1 for Mac OS X. This study was carried out in May 2004 at the Department of Anatomy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of this study, it is determined that these 2 programs could be effectively used both for 3D modeling of the mentioned organs and volumetric analyses on these models. It is also seen that it is possible to hold the physical models of these gross anatomical digital ones with stereolithography technique by means of the data exchange file format provided by the program and present such images as anaglyph. Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac OS and Cinema 4 DXL version 7.1 for Mac OS X can be used effectively for reconstruction of gross anatomical structures from serial parallel sections with distinct contours such as spleen and kidney and the animation of models. These software constitute a highly effective way of getting volumetric calculations, spatial relations and morphometrical measurements of reconstructed structures. (author)

  5. Morphological changes in the kidney, liver and spleen during prolonged administration of iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Bucharskya, A. B.; Kong, X. M.; Zuev, V. V.; Medvedev, B. A.; Ignatiev, A. A.; Bochkaryeva, T. V.

    2012-02-01

    We determined the cytotoxic effect of iron nanoparticles of 70 nm, with a single per oral administration in an experiment on white outbred mice. Morphological changes were evaluated in the internal organs. Thus, changes depend on the concentration of nanoparticles at long-term per oral exposure: identified violations of the structure of the liver, kidneys and spleen as venous plethora and degeneration of cells at 250 and 500 mkg / kg dose of nanoparticles are reversible, changes in the organs were pronounced with a dosage of 1000 mkg / kg.

  6. 3D segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekes, G.; Fidrich, M.; Nyul, L.G.; Mate, E.; Kuba, A.

    2007-01-01

    The clinicians often need to segment the abdominal organs for radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation of these organs is very time-consuming, therefore automated methods are desired. We developed a semi-automatic segmentation method to outline liver, spleen and kidneys. It works on CT images without contrast intake that are acquired with a routine clinical protocol. From an initial surface around a user defined seed point, the segmentation of the organ is obtained by an active surface algorithm. Pre- and post-processing steps are used to adapt the general method for specific organs. The evaluation results show that the accuracy of our method is about 90%, which can be further improved with little manual editing, and that the precision is slightly higher than that of manual contouring. Our method is accurate, precise and fast enough to use in the clinical practice. (orig.)

  7. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2012-12-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathologic abnormality, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human males. A prospective study of healthy men aged 18 to 35 years who died of sudden, traumatic deaths was undertaken. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, if prolonged medical treatment was performed, if there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, if body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ, which could have affected the weight. A total of 232 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had a mean age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm, with a mean length of 173 cm. The weight ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg, with a mean weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean weight of the brain was 1407 g (range, 1070-1767 g), that of the liver was 1561 g (range, 838-2584 g), that of the spleen was 139 g (range, 43-344 g), that of the right lung was 445 g (range, 185-967 g), that of the left lung was 395 g (range, 186-885 g), that of the right kidney was 129 g (range, 79-223 g), and that of the left kidney was 137 g (range, 74-235 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in men, much like those in use

  8. Differential transcriptomic response in the spleen and head kidney following vaccination and infection of Asian seabass with Streptococcus iniae.

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    Junhui Jiang

    Full Text Available Vaccination is an important strategy in the protection of aquaculture species from major diseases. However, we still do not have a good understanding of the mechanisms underlying vaccine-induced disease resistance. This is further complicated by the presence of several lymphoid organs that play different roles when mounting an immune response. In this study, we attempt to elucidate some of these mechanisms using a microarray-based approach. Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer were vaccinated against Streptococcus iniae and the transcriptomic changes within the spleen and head kidney at one and seven days post-vaccination were profiled. We subsequently challenged the seabass at three weeks post-vaccination with live S. iniae and similarly profiled the transcriptomes of the two organs after the challenge. We found that vaccination induced an early, but transient transcriptomic change in the spleens and a delayed response in the head kidneys, which became more similar to one another compared to un-vaccinated ones. When challenged with the pathogen, the spleen, but not the head kidneys, responded transcriptomically at 25-29 hours post-challenge. A unique set of genes, in particular those involved in the activation of NF-κB signaling, was up-regulated in the vaccinated spleens upon pathogen challenge but not in the un-vaccinated spleens. A semi-quantitative PCR detection of S. iniae using metagenomic DNA extracted from the water containing the seabass also revealed that vaccination resulted in reduction of pathogen shedding. This result indicated that vaccination not only led to a successful immune defense against the infection, but also reduced the chances for horizontal transmission of the pathogen. In conclusion, we have provided a transcriptomic analysis of how the teleost spleen and head kidneys responded to vaccination and subsequent infection. The different responses from the two organs are suggestive of their unique roles in establishing a

  9. Homing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs in head kidney and spleen – salmon head kidney hosts diverse APC types

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    Dimitar Borisov Iliev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes and spleen are major organs where mammalian APCs initiate and orchestrate Ag-specific immune responses. Unlike mammals, teleosts lack lymph nodes and an interesting question is whether alternative organs may serve as sites for antigen presentation in teleosts. In the current study, fluorescent ovalbumin (Ova and CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs injected intra-abdominally were detected in significant numbers of salmon head kidney (HK MHCII+ cells over a period of 2 weeks while in spleen the percentage of these was transient and declined from day 1 post injection. In vitro studies further shed light on the properties of the diverse MHCII+ cell types found in HK. The ultrastructure of a subpopulation of MHCII+ cells with a high capacity to endocytose and process Ova indicated that these were able to perform constitutive macropinocytosis. Upon stimulation with CpG ODNs these cells upregulated CD86 and gave very high levels of TNF mRNA indicating that these are professional APCs, related to macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. A subpopulation of HK granulocytes expressed high levels of surface MHCII and upon CpG stimulation upregulated most of the tested APC marker genes. Although these granulocytes expressed TNF weakly, they had relatively high basal levels of IL-1β mRNA and the CpG stimulation upregulated IL-1β, along with its signaling and decoy receptors, to the highest levels as compared to other HK cell types. Interestingly, the high expression of IL-1β mRNA in the granulocytes correlated with a high autophagy flux as demonstrated by LC3-II conversion. Autophagy has recently been found to be implicated in IL-1β processing and secretion and the presented data suggests that granulocytes of salmon, and perhaps other teleost species, may serve as a valuable model to study the involvement of autophagy in regulation of the vertebrate immune response.

  10. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  11. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

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    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  12. Ultrasonographic parameters of the liver, spleen and kidneys among a cohort of school children in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Dianne Tania Dayanthi; Peries, Pattiya Pathirennahalage Uddika Chamila; Rathnasekara, Yaddehi Arachchillage Chaminda; Jayawardena, KaluArachchige Thushari Madurika; Upasena, Angappulige; Wickremasinghe, Anada Rajitha

    2017-11-16

    Liver, spleen and kidney dimensions on ultrasonography vary with the age, weight and ethnicity. Reference standards of these parameters for normal Sri Lankan children are not available. Our aim was to establish normative data for longitudinal length of liver, spleen and kidneys in healthy children. Three hundred fifty-seven children, 5-13 years of age were selected from two randomly selected schools in the Gampaha district in the western province of Sri Lanka. A questionnaire was administered to the parents after obtaining informed written consent. Participants were screened for risk factors for organomegaly and were examined by a trained officer. Children with a past history of infective, inflammatory, haematological, malignant, congestive, collagenous or congenital conditions that can affect the size of the organs were excluded as well as those with clinically evident malnutrition, anemia, lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Ultrasonographic assessment was done using a high resolution real-time scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer by a trained officer. Children with ultrasonographic abnormalities of organs were also excluded from the study and referred for further evaluation. The study comprised 332 children comprising 176 girls (53%). There was a significant difference in the longitudinal dimension of the liver between the two sexes with a higher value recorded among females (Mann Whitney U = 11,830.5, p = 0.037). Body weight was correlated with the dimensions of the liver, the spleen and the kidneys. On multiple regression analysis body weight significantly associated with all the organs. (p < 0.01) Percentile graphs for longitudinal length of liver, spleen, right and left kidneys were formed according to the body weight. The organ dimensions showed the highest correlation with body weight. We hope the normal ultrasonographic values of healthy Sri Lankan children will assist in interpretation of sonographic examinations in daily clinical practice.

  13. Nonspecific targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles to the liver, kidney and spleen: A novel approach to achieving specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana Arachchige, Maheshika; Flack, Amanda; Chen, Xuequn; Li, Jing; Oupicky, David; Cheng, Y.-C. Norman; Shen, Yimin; Jena, Bhanu; Lawes, Gavin

    2013-03-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest in developing Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging. One of the major problems in these applications is the undesirable filtration of these materials by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Preliminary magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization studies on hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles injected intravenously into mice confirm that the nanoparticles accumulate in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. To identify whether certain specific proteins are responsible for nanoparticle accumulation in these organs, we exposed hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles to proteins extracted from the liver, spleen, and kidneys, together with blood plasma proteins, then subsequently used gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins binding to the nanoparticles. We find that the unwanted accumulation of nanoparticles in these organs can potentially be attributed to specific binding by a small number of proteins. By appropriately functionalizing the iron oxide nanoparticles, we expect that the nanoparticles uptake in the liver, spleen, and kidneys will be reduced.

  14. Expression of cytokine genes in head kidney and spleen cells of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with Nocardia seriolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanekhy, M; Matsuda, S; Itano, T; Kawakami, H; Kono, T; Sakai, M

    2010-04-15

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is an important disease affecting marine fish for which neither control nor preventive measures are available. In this study, we investigated cytokine gene expression in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with N. seriolae to understand the innate immune response. Japanese flounder were challenged with different concentrations of N. seriolae suspensions (0, 1, and 10 mg/L) by immersion for 10min. Mortality was 75% and 95% in fish infected by 1 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The expression of cytokine genes (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, CC-chemokine) in head kidney and spleen cells to N. seriolae challenge was investigated 2, 24 h, 3 days, and 10 days post-challenge. TNF-alpha expression was significantly increased in spleen after 24 h in 1 mg/L group and in HK after 2 h in 10 mg/L group, but after 24 h and 3 days in 10 mg/L group and after 3 days in 1 mg/L group, it was significantly decreased. IL-1beta expression was significantly up-regulated in spleen after 24 h in 1 mg/l group while in HK only after 2 h in 10 mg/L group before suddenly down-regulated significantly 24 h in 10 mg/L group. The expression of CC-chemokine gene in both spleen and HK was significantly up-regulated in 10 mg/L group 2 h post-challenge and down-regulated in HK after 24 h and after 10 days in 1 mg/L group in spleen, compared to the control group. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histoautoradiographic and liquid scintillometric studies on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen and tongue after bilateral adrenalectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1981-01-01

    Historadiographies and liquid scintillometries were carried out in 163 male Wistar rats in order to determine the effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on DNA synthesis in the liver, kidneys, spleen, and tongue. Both DNA synthesis and mitotic index are significantly increased from the 1st day p.o. onwards, with broad synthesis peaks between the 2nd and the 4th day. The intensity of DNA synthesis shows a gradual decrease with increasing duration of the experiment. In contrast to the adrenalectonized animals, the synthesis rate and mitotic index in the organs of sham-operated animals were significantly lower, although enhanced proliferation was observed after surgery. The enhanced DNA synthesis after bilateral adrenalectomy is interpreted in terms of a disinhibition; corticosteroids are assumed to play a key role. The effects of bilateral adrenalectromy on untreated organs are not organ-specific. The highest synthesis rate was observed in the tubular epithelia of the convoluted main parts, while the DNA synthesis in the tongue. The findings of autoradiography and liquid scintillometry are well correlated. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

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    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  17. Evaluation of a manual biopsy device, the 'Spirotome', on fresh canine organs: liver, spleen, and kidneys, and first clinical experiences in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Massimo; Barberet, Virginie; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Bacci, Barbara; Terragni, Rossella; Rossi, Federica; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2011-03-01

    Several methods for obtaining specimens from abdominal organs have been described. Imaging-guided biopsy, particularly ultrasound-guided biopsy, is the most frequently used in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic quality of histological samples obtained with a manual biopsy device (Spirotome) on biopsies of the liver, spleen, and kidney, in fresh canine organs and in live animals in a clinical trial. The study was divided into two different parts, one using normal fresh canine organs with a total of 60 biopsies, 20 of liver, spleen, and kidney, respectively; and one on clinical patients, including 35 biopsied lesions in 28 animals (25 dogs and three cats) for a total of 95 biopsies. All the biopsy samples were considered satisfactory from canine cadavers, and all specimens were diagnostic in clinical cases. The technique was accurate and safe and no major complications were noted.

  18. Effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the growth, immune function and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency up-regulated the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), Fas ligand (FasL), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase -2, -3, -7, -8 and -9, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), whereas it depressed the glutathione (GSH) contents and antioxidant enzymes activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and tight junction complexes to attenuate fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesions morbidity. Finally, based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and the ability to combat skin hemorrhage and lesions, the dietary available phosphorus requirements for young grass carp (254.56-898.23 g) were estimated to be 4.10 and 4.13 g/kg diet, respectively. In summary, phosphorus deficiency decreases the growth

  19. Abnormal positioning of multiple abdominal organs with anomalous direct drainage of hepatic vein into the right atrium in a post operative omphalocele patient: A case report

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    Hyun, Su Jeong; Cho, Bum Sang; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Seung Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik [Chungbuk National Univ. Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    An omphalocele is a rare congenital anomaly in which the infant's intestines protrude through the navel. Additional anomalies that are associated with omphalocele remain present in as many as 50% of cases, and these anomalies vary greatly from patient to patient. However, the persistent anomalies or abnormal position of the abdominal organs in post operative omphalocele patients have not reported previously. Herein, we report the case of an omphalocele patient with abnormal positioning of the liver, spleen and both kidneys, as well as abnormal drainage of the hepatic vein into the right atrium, which was found during a routine, postoperative follow-up computed tomography scan.

  20. Accumulation of Copper in Gill, Liver, Spleen, Kidney and Muscle Tissues of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to the Metal Singly and in Mixture with Chitosan.

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    Tunçsoy, Mustafa; Duran, Servet; Ay, Özcan; Cicik, Bedii; Erdem, Cahit

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of copper (Cu), applied singly and in mixture with chitosan (CT), in gill, liver, spleen, kidney and muscle tissues of Clarias gariepinus was studied after exposing the fish to no Cu (control), 5 ppm Cu, 5 ppm Cu + 75 ppm CT mixture over 1, 7 and 15 days. Metal levels in tissues were determined using an ICP-AES spectrophotometer. No mortality was observed during the experiments. Highest accumulation of Cu was observed in liver while lowest accumulation was observed in muscle tissue. Exposure to Cu-CT mixture decreased Cu accumulation in liver at all exposure periods and in kidney on the 15th day compared to Cu alone. Exposure to Cu alone and Cu-CT mixture had no effect on Cu accumulation in spleen or muscle tissue. Copper accumulation increased in gill tissue compared to control when exposed to Cu alone at all exposure periods, and exposure to the Cu-CT mixture significantly increased Cu accumulation in this tissue at all exposure periods compared to Cu alone.

  1. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1505-1509. Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  2. Application and development of a TaqMan real-time PCR for detecting infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus in Siniperca chuatsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Fu, Xiaozhe; Liu, Lihui; Liang, Hongru; Guo, Huizhi; Yin, Shuwen; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Huang, Zhibin; Li, Ningqiu

    2017-06-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is one of the major epidemiological agents that had caused great economic loss in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi). In this study, a specific TaqMan real-time PCR was developed using a pair of primers and a TaqMan probe specific to the ORF007 gene of ISKNV to rapidly detect ISKNV copies in Chinese perch samples. This assay was optimized to produce linearity from 8.75 × 10 8 to 8.75 × 10 1 copies in standard curve with an efficiency of 98% and a R 2 value of 0.9999. Moreover, the minimum detection limit of this assay was 10,000 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR method. The coefficients of variation of intra- and inter-assay repeatability were less than 2.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The viral distribution in different tissues of diseased Chinese perch was evaluated by TaqMan real-time PCR method and the highest level of viral copies was detected in spleen. Among the 76 diseased Chinese perch clinical samples, 35 and 29 were positive samples based on the TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods, respectively, indicating that the TaqMan real-time PCR was more sensitive than conventional PCR. Therefore, the TaqMan real-time PCR should be a useful tool for the early surveillance and quantitation of ISKNV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

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    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  4. Serpentinous structure in the right atrium

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    Monish S Raut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin, slender, filament like structure is common finding in right atrium echocardiographically. These structures generally represent embryological remnants like thebasian valve, eustachian valve and chiari network. Apart from these variants, they can also be initial finding of thrombotic process specially in the presence of central venous catheter. Early detection and removing the catheter can prevent further thromboembolism in such cases.

  5. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

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    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  6. New Engineering Principles in Atrium Smoke Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valkvist, Morten Birk Sabroe

    A typical atrium smoke management setup was divided into characteristic flow regions; axisymmetric plume, ceiling jet/approach flow, rotation region and spill plume. A grid convergence study was conducted on each of the flow regions in order to determine the non-dimensional grid resolution required...

  7. Investigating atrium in hot and humid climate and providing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atrium has thermal comfort space since the old time by two methods of greenhouse effect and chimney effect. Now these questions are raised: What impact does atrium have in terms of performance in reducing energy consumption in buildings and how is the performance of atrium in the hot and humid climate, and how it ...

  8. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  9. Detection of dwarf gourami iridovirus (Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus) in populations of ornamental fish prior to and after importation into Australia, with the first evidence of infection in domestically farmed Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Anneke E; Becker, Joy A; Tweedie, Alison; Lintermans, Mark; Landos, Matthew; Stephens, Fran; Whittington, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    The movement of ornamental fish through international trade is a major factor for the transboundary spread of pathogens. In Australia, ornamental fish which may carry dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV), a strain of Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), have been identified as a biosecurity risk despite relatively stringent import quarantine measures being applied. In order to gain knowledge of the potential for DGIV to enter Australia, imported ornamental fish were sampled prior to entering quarantine, during quarantine, and post quarantine from wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets in Australia. Samples were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the presence of megalocytivirus. Farmed and wild ornamental fish were also tested. Megalocytivirus was detected in ten of fourteen species or varieties of ornamental fish. Out of the 2086 imported gourami tested prior to entering quarantine, megalocytivirus was detected in 18.7% of fish and out of the 51 moribund/dead ornamental fish tested during the quarantine period, 68.6% were positive for megalocytivirus. Of fish from Australian wholesalers and aquatic retail outlets 14.5% and 21.9%, respectively, were positive. Out of 365 farmed ornamental fish, ISKNV-like megalocytivirus was detected in 1.1%; these were Platy (Xiphophorus maculatus). Megalocytivirus was not detected in free-living breeding populations of Blue gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus) caught in Queensland. This study showed that imported ornamental fish are vectors for DGIV and it was used to support an import risk analysis completed by the Australian Department of Agriculture. Subsequently, the national biosecurity policy was revised and from 1 March 2016, a health certification is required for susceptible families of fish to be free of this virus prior to importation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  11. Mediastinal lymphoma eroding the right atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Mangi, S.A.; Ahmad, R.; Rashid, A.

    2013-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumours are an uncommon cause of intra-cardiac mass. Most common intra-cardiac mass is thrombus followed by infiltrating secondary cardiac tumours. These secondary tumours are more likely to invade the cardiac chambers when they arise from close vicinity of the heart. We report an unusual case of mediastinal lymphoma in a 55 years old lady presenting as an intra-cardiac mass in the right atrium, which was detected by a transthoracic echocardiogram and later confirmed with more specific modalities. (author)

  12. Interaction of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus ORF119L with PINCH leads to dominant-negative inhibition of integrin-linked kinase and cardiovascular defects in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji-Min; He, Bai-Liang; Yang, Lu-Yun; Guo, Chang-Jun; Weng, Shao-Ping; Li, Shengwen Calvin; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the Megalocytivirus genus, Iridoviridae family, causing a severe systemic disease with high mortality in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) in China and Southeast Asia. At present, the pathogenesis of ISKNV infection is still not fully understood. Based on a genome-wide bioinformatics analysis of ISKNV-encoded proteins, we found that ISKNV open reading frame 119L (ORF119L) is predicted to encode a three-ankyrin-repeat (3ANK)-domain-containing protein, which shows high similarity to the dominant negative form of integrin-linked kinase (ILK); i.e., viral ORF119L lacks the ILK kinase domain. Thus, we speculated that viral ORF119L might affect the host ILK complex. Here, we demonstrated that viral ORF119L directly interacts with particularly interesting Cys-His-rich protein (PINCH) and affects the host ILK-PINCH interaction in vitro in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. In vivo ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos resulted in myocardial dysfunctions with disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disk. Importantly, ORF119L overexpression in zebrafish highly resembles the phenotype of endogenous ILK inhibition, either by overexpressing a dominant negative form of ILK or by injecting an ILK antisense morpholino oligonucleotide. Intriguingly, ISKNV-infected mandarin fish develop disorganized sarcomeric Z disks in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream effector of ILK, was remarkably decreased in ORF119L-overexpressing zebrafish embryos. With these results, we show that ISKNV ORF119L acts as a domain-negative inhibitor of the host ILK, providing a novel mechanism for the megalocytivirus pathogenesis. Our work is the first to show the role of a dominant negative inhibitor of the host ILK from ISKNV (an iridovirus). Mechanistically, the viral ORF119L directly binds to the host PINCH, attenuates the host PINCH-ILK interaction, and thus impairs ILK signaling. Intriguingly

  13. Shear mechanical properties of the spleen: experiment and analytical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Noguer, L; Palierne, J-F

    2012-05-01

    This paper aims at providing the first shear mechanical properties of spleen tissue. Rheometric tests on porcine splenic tissues were performed in the linear and nonlinear regime, revealing a weak frequency dependence of the dynamic moduli in linear regime and a distinct strain-hardening effect in nonlinear regime. These behaviours are typical of soft tissues such as kidney and liver, with however a less pronounced strain-hardening for the spleen. An analytical model based on power laws is then proposed to describe the general shear viscoelastic behaviour of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge References Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  15. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  16. The decreased growth performance and impaired immune function and structural integrity by dietary iron deficiency or excess are associated with TOR, NF-κB, p38MAPK, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling in head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Feng, Lin

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary iron on the growth, and immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin as well as the underlying signaling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Total 630 grass carp (242.32 ± 0.58 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of iron at 12.15 (basal diet), 35.38, 63.47, 86.43, 111.09, 136.37 mg/kg (diets 2-6 were added with ferrous fumarate) and 73.50 mg/kg (diet 7 was added with ferrous sulfate) diet for 60 days. Then, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results firstly showed that compared with optimal iron level, iron deficiency decreased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antibacterial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, IκB kinases β (IKKβ) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) in head kidney and spleen of young grass carp (P skin hemorrhage and lesion morbidity, and impaired immune function and structural integrity in skin of fish. Fourthly, iron excess decreased growth and impaired the immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin of fish. Besides, in young grass carp, based on PWG and ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, the efficacy of ferrous fumarate relative to ferrous sulfate was 140.32% and 126.48%, respectively, and the iron requirements based on PWG, ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, ACP activities and MDA contents in head kidney and spleen were estimated to be 75.65, 87.03, 79.74, 78.93, 83.17 and 82.14 mg/kg diet (based on ferrous fumarate), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  18. UFO in the Left Atrium: How to Capture Metal Debris Floating in the Left Atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassini, Gaetano; Moltrasio, Massimo; Conti, Sergio; Biagioli, Viviana; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Electrophysiology procedures involving left atrium navigation are becoming more frequent, mostly due to the increase of atrial fibrillation ablation. Mapping catheters of different shapes and size as well as dedicated sheaths are mandatory tools for the accomplishment of procedural end point. Therefore, technical issues are expected, usually unrelated to significant risk. However, any accidental intra-atrial device loss of integrity implies a risk of cerebrovascular embolization. The lack of clear evidence on how to manage these events and the need for a quick solution complicate the scenario. We report an empirical solution in the case of debris floating in the left atrium. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Case Report: Giant Right Atrium in Rheumatic Mitral Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dilation and hypertrophy of the atria occur in patients with valvular heart disease especially in mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis or tricuspid abnormalities. Dilatation of the atriums which occurs slowly in time, becomes evident with ritim disturbances and embolic events. We report a case of an unusual giant right atrium in context of rheumatic mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, pulmonar hypertansion and severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 40-year-old man who underwent succesfull operations as mitral valve replacement, Maze-IV radiofrequency ablation, right atrium atrioplasty and De Vega anuloplasty. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 98-102

  20. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Right Atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerod K. Jha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is a rare entity and is associated with distinct clinical, pathological and molecular features. The clinical behavior, natural history, biological potential, management and prognosis of such tumors are unclear. We present herewith an adolescent girl who presented with similar entity involving the junction of the right atrium and the inferior vena cava (IVC in association with thrombocytosis and IVC thrombosis leading to obstruction of blood flow. Diagnostic tools included imaging and immuno-histopathology studies. Surgical management included resection of the tumor and thrombo-embolectomy of the IVC under cardiopulmonary bypass. This case is unique due to association of complete obstruction of IVC caused by the strategic location of the tumor, thrombosis of vena cava and association of thrombocytosis. These features have not been reported yet in relation to the cardiac IMT. This report will help in better understanding and management of similar cases in terms of planning cannulation of femoral veins or application of total hypothermic circulatory arrest during cardiopulmonary bypass and prompt us to look for recurrence or metastasis during follow up using echocardiography and laboratory investigations. The possibility of IMT should be kept in the differential diagnosis of cardiac tumors especially in children and adolescents.

  1. Giant left atrium encountered during right-sided thoracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Advani

    Full Text Available Giant left atrium is an uncommon pathology to encounter during bedside chest ultrasound, but is an important structure to be aware of when considering thoracentesis. This cardiac structure could easily be mistaken for loculated pleural fluid. This case also supports growing evidence that expert users can safely perform thoracentesis without completely reversing therapeutic anticoagulation. Keywords: Giant left atrium, Thoracentesis, Rheumatic heart disease, Ultrasound

  2. Left Atrium Papillary Fibroelastomas: A Cause of Cerebral Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ciss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary fibroelastomas are cardiac benign tumours. Among the benign cardiac tumor, papillary fibroelastomas are reported second after myxomas. Most often diagnosed incidentally, papillary fibroelastomas may embolize to cerebral circulation. Valvular locations are predominant; location in left atrium is rare. In this paper, we present a case of papillary fibroelastoma located in left atrium with symptoms of cerebral embolization. Transoesophageal echocardiography diagnosed a mobile mass. The patient was treated with surgical resection without further embolic complication.

  3. Mechanical discordance between left atrium and left atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khamooshian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During standard transesophageal echocardiographic examinations in sinus rhythm (SR patients, the left atrial appendage (LAA is not routinely assessed with Doppler. Despite having a SR, it is still possible to have irregular activity in the LAA. This situation is even more important for SR patients where assessment of the left atrium is often foregone. We describe a case where we encountered this situation and briefly review how to assess the left atrium and its appendage in such a case scenario.

  4. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  5. Daylighting in linear atrium buildings at high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiak, Barbara

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes new criteria for visual comfort based on knowledge of visual perception and a method for estimating the modelling ability of light by using inter-reflection calculations. Simplified calculations are presented for the daylight factor in linear building structures, using the projected solid angle principle, for uniform sky and for CIE overcast sky conditions. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Simple diagrams are created based on calculations of the mean daylight factor in rooms adjacent to a narrow street. These diagrams and presented formulas and tables can be used as a simple design tool. Daylighting strategies for linear atrium buildings at high latitudes are developed and examined. These strategies are divided into three groups: (1) the atrium space and facades as light conductor/reflector, (2) the glass roof as a light conductor, and (3) light reflectors on the neighbouring roof. The atrium space and facade strategies are subdivided into passive and active. The strategies connected to the glazed roof includes different configurations of glazing: horizontal, single pitched, double pitched, and the use of laser cut panels and prismatic panels in the glazed roof. The shapes of reflectors on the neighbouring roof are a flat reflector, a parabolic reflector and a parabolic concentrator. Strategies from all three groups are examined on a physical model of scale 1:20 in the artificial sky of mirror box type. Simulations with artificial sun have also been done. The results from model studies are compared with computer simulations. All the active daylighting systems designed for use in the atrium space or on the atrium facades have a huge potential for use in atrium buildings. From the strategies connected with the glazed roof the negatively sloped glass is found to be the best alternative for glazed roofs at high latitudes. Among the roof reflectors, the flat one performs best. 82 refs., 122 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Giulio; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Batisse, Alain [Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, Paris (France); Vouhe, Pascal [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Ou, Phalla [University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France); University Rene Descartes-Paris 5, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    The right superior vena cava draining into the left atrium is a rare malformation causing cyanosis and clubbing in patients in whom no other signs of congenital heart defect are present. Diagnosis may be difficult as cyanosis may be mild and the anomaly is not always easily detectable by echocardiography. For this reason we report a 13-month-old male in whom we confirmed the clinical and echocardiographic suspicion of anomalous drainage of the right superior vena cava using multidetector CT. This allowed successful surgical reconnection of the right superior vena cava to the right atrium. (orig.)

  7. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  8. Antiarrhythmic Mechanisms of SK Channel Inhibition in the Rat Atrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Wang, Xiaodong; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    -clamping and two-electrode voltage-clamp was used to access INa and IK,ACh respectively. RESULTS: The SK channel inhibitor N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) exhibited antiarrhythmic effects. ICA prevented electrically induced runs of atrial fibrillation in the isolated right atrium and induced...

  9. Massively dilated right atrium masquerading as a mediastinal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schroeter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe tricuspid valve insufficiency causes right atrial dilatation, venous congestion, and reduced atrial contractility, and may eventually lead to right heart failure. We report a case of a patient with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency, right heart failure, and a massively dilated right atrium. The enormously dilated atrium compressed the right lung, resulting in a radiographic appearance of a mediastinal tumor. Tricuspid valve repair and reduction of the right atrium was performed. Follow up examination revealed improvement of liver function, reduced peripheral edema and improved New York Heart Association (NYHA class. The reduction of the atrial size and repair of the tricuspid valve resulted in a restoration of the conduit and reservoir function of the right atrium. Given the chronicity of the disease process and the long-standing atrial fibrillation, there is no impact of this operation on right atrial contraction. In combination with the reconstruction of the tricuspid valve, the reduction atrioplasty will reduce the risk of thrombembolic events and preserve the right ventricular function.

  10. Value of selective spleen scintigraphy when liver/spleen image shows equivocal spleen defects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Corley, J.H.; Kyle, R.W.; Stotler, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine the utility of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS) in the evaluation of equivocal defects on liver/splen (LS) image. Six of seven questionable features on LS image were classified on SSS to be definite defects in three, and normal in three. Three of seven patients had defects on SSS that were not seen on LS image. The inability of the LS image to exclude or delineate an abnormality in the spleen was attributed to an overlying left lobe of the liver in five, and to technique in one. The SSS is a valuable diagnostic tool in the further evaluation of equivocal spleen defects on LS image, and SSS may demonstrate abnormalities not demonstrated on LS image

  11. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  12. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Right coronary fistula and aneurysm draining to the right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Erkki; Hochbergs, Peter

    2009-09-01

    In a 3-year-old boy, a continuous heart murmur was heard. The echocardiogram showed a dilated right coronary artery suggesting the existence of a coronary fistula. A more detailed echocardiogram when the patient was sedated revealed a fistula leading to a large aneurysm and further to the right atrium. The accidental dissection and thrombosis during the interventional heart catheterization resulted in a closure of the fistula. A continuous heart murmur and a dilated coronary artery are the hallmarks of coronary fistula. Anatomic details of coronary fistula might be possible to see in an echocardiogram. Interventional heart catheterization is usually an adequate treatment option.

  14. Validation of semi-automatic segmentation of the left atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Camp, J. J.; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.

    2008-03-01

    Catheter ablation therapy has become increasingly popular for the treatment of left atrial fibrillation. The effect of this treatment on left atrial morphology, however, has not yet been completely quantified. Initial studies have indicated a decrease in left atrial size with a concomitant decrease in pulmonary vein diameter. In order to effectively study if catheter based therapies affect left atrial geometry, robust segmentations with minimal user interaction are required. In this work, we validate a method to semi-automatically segment the left atrium from computed-tomography scans. The first step of the technique utilizes seeded region growing to extract the entire blood pool including the four chambers of the heart, the pulmonary veins, aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and other surrounding structures. Next, the left atrium and pulmonary veins are separated from the rest of the blood pool using an algorithm that searches for thin connections between user defined points in the volumetric data or on a surface rendering. Finally, pulmonary veins are separated from the left atrium using a three dimensional tracing tool. A single user segmented three datasets three times using both the semi-automatic technique as well as manual tracing. The user interaction time for the semi-automatic technique was approximately forty-five minutes per dataset and the manual tracing required between four and eight hours per dataset depending on the number of slices. A truth model was generated using a simple voting scheme on the repeated manual segmentations. A second user segmented each of the nine datasets using the semi-automatic technique only. Several metrics were computed to assess the agreement between the semi-automatic technique and the truth model including percent differences in left atrial volume, DICE overlap, and mean distance between the boundaries of the segmented left atria. Overall, the semi-automatic approach was demonstrated to be repeatable within

  15. Radiologic findings of intrapancreatic accessory spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Acu

    2015-06-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital abnormality consisting of normal splenic tissue in ectopic sites. They are found most commonly near the splenic hilum. One in every six accessory spleens is located in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis of an IPAS should be considered when a pancreatic mass has the CT densities and/or MRI signal intensities similar to those of the spleen, with and without contrast medium. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 140-143

  16. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  17. Sonographic determination of spleen to left kidney ratio among Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formed with high resolution real time scanner (DP-. 1100, Shenzhen Mindray Biomedical Electronics Co. ... Scanning Technique: A coupling medium was first applied to the area being scanned to ensure good .... other biometric parameters such as height, weight, BMI and BSA studied. Using 2 standard deviations above.

  18. Common Atrium with Unusual Electrocardiogram in Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of common atrium with unusual electrocardiographic findings in a patient with EVC syndrome. This 17-year-old male of Indian origin born of a consanguineous marriage had short stature, genu valgum, polydactyly, gingival hypertrophy, multiple frenula, common atrium, and right axis deviation of QRS with clockwise depolarization in electrocardiogram.

  19. Clarifying the atrioventricular junctional anatomy in the setting of double outlet right atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Gupta, Anunay; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Double outlet atrium is a rare cardiac anomaly wherein one of the atriums, most frequently the right atrium, opens into both the ventricles. Although seen more commonly in the setting of atrioventricular septal defect, this arrangement can also be found when one of the atrioventricular connections is atretic due to absence of the atrioventricular connection and the other atrioventricular valve straddles the muscular ventricular septum. It is the specific anatomy and connections of the atrioventricular junction that clarifies the situation and distinguishes between these two types of double outlet atrium. In this report, we present a case of double outlet right atrium co-existing with the absence of left atrioventricular connection. We then discuss the morphologic aspects of this interesting anomaly. PMID:26556972

  20. Ectopic Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Nutrition for Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Growth Failure in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Ectopic ...

  1. Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the left atrium-A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Moritz, E-mail: moritz.wagner@charite.d [Department of Radiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Rief, Matthias; Asbach, Patrick [Department of Radiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Vogtmann, Thomas [Department of Cardioloy and Angiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Imaging Science Institute Charite Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Beling, Mark [Department of Cardioloy and Angiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Butler, Craig [Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Laule, Michael [Department of Cardioloy and Angiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Warmuth, Carsten; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Lembcke, Alexander [Department of Radiology, Charite - University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: Imaging of the left atrium is regularly performed prior to pulmonary vein isolation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the left atrium using the blood-pool contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium in comparison to noncontrast MRA. Materials and methods: Twenty consecutive patients were examined by free-breathing electrocardiogram-gated whole-heart MRA (reconstructed spatial resolution, 0.7 mm x 0.6 mm x 0.8 mm) with a noncontrast T2-prepared steady state free precession sequence (T2-prep SSFP) and a gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced inversion-recovery SSFP sequence (CE IR-SSFP). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of blood in the left atrium was determined. Depiction of the left atrium was rated by two radiologists in consensus. A cardiologist segmented the MR data sets and rated depiction of the left atrium. Results: Five of 20 patients had irregular breathing patterns with navigator efficiency less than 35% and were excluded from evaluation. CNR was significantly higher for CE IR-SSFP compared with T2-prep SSFP (18.4 {+-} 5.3 vs. 11.7 {+-} 3.5, p < 0.01). Depiction of the left atrium by T2-prep SSFP was rated as good in four patients, moderate in ten patients, and poor in one patient, whereas depiction of the left atrium by CE IR-SSFP was rated as excellent in nine patients, good in four patients, and moderate in two patients. CE IR-SSFP allowed for semiautomated segmentation of the left atrium in 15 patients, whereas T2-prep SSFP allowed for segmentation only in ten patients. Conclusion: Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced MRA of the left atrium is feasible with significantly improved image quality compared to noncontrast MRA.

  2. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  3. Preservative spleen surgery and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Cintra, Luiz Cálice; Santos, Maria Carmem Silva; Rodrigues, Hildegardo; Ferrari, Thiago Antunes; Azevedo, Tiago Caetano V de; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da

    2007-01-01

    To assess functional and morphological aspects of spleen auto-implants and of the splenic inferior pole of rats, post-operatively treated or not with hyperbaric oxygen, as well as the survival of these animals, were studied. Seventy-eight male Wistar rats, weighing between 192 and 283 g ( 238,3 +/- 9,6g), were randomly distributed into three groups: Group 1--(n=20), spleen manipulation; group 2--(n=36), spleen auto-implantation; group 3--(n= 22), subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior pole. Each group was subdivided as follows: subgroup a, not submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: 1a(n=10), 2a(n=21), 3a(n= 13); subgroup b, submitted to the therapy: 1b(n=10), 2b(n=15), 3b(n=9). Blood was collected pre-operatively and 11 days after surgery, for the estimation of lipids and immunoglobulins and the counting of platelets and Howell-Jolly corpuscles. The spleen and remains were taken for histological study. The number of surviving animals was significantly higher in groups 1(p 2. The macro and microscopic appearance in subgroup 2b were more viable than in subgroup 2a, and that of group 3 more viable than in group 2. The survival of the animals carrying their whole spleen or its inferior pole was more frequent than that of the auto-implanted animals. Functionality and viability of the whole spleen or of its inferior pole, were better than in the auto-implanted animals. Hyperbaric oxygen-therapy contributed to increased survival frequency of auto-implanted animals, and to improve the functionality and viability of the auto-implants and the function of the inferior splenic pole, and did not interfere in animals carrying their whole spleen.

  4. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  5. Malignant inferior vena cava obstruction involving right atrium. Palliative treatment with self expandable metallic stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Guoliang; Wang Jianhua; Zhou Kangrong; Yan Zhiping

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of placement of self-expandable metallic stent within right atrium and inferior vena cava (ICV) in patients with malignant ICV obstruction involving right atrium. Methods: There were 5 male patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, aged from 42 to 65 years (mean 56.3 years). The malignancies invaded right atrium and ICV simultaneously, and caused obstruction of ICV. These patients presented symptoms and signs of obstruction of ICV such as hepatomegaly, ascites, edema of lower extremities. 'Z' type stainless steel stents (7.5-10.0 cm in length and 2.5 cm in diameter) were selected for these patients. Part (1.0-3.0 cm in length) of stent was placed in right atrium and the rest was in ICV. Results: All of stents were placed successfully and obstructed ICV reopened. The symptoms of obstruction of ICV relieved or disappeared. There were no recurrence of symptoms of obstruction of ICV and any cardiac complication related to placement of stents in follow-up period (67-188 days). Conclusion: Placement of self-expandable metallic stent within right atrium and ICV in treatment of patients with malignant ICV obstruction involving right atrium is one of the safe and effective methods

  6. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  7. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  8. The association between atrium electromechanical interval and pericardial fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Fan Chao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pericardial fat (PCF may induce local inflammation and subsequent structural remodeling of the left atrium (LA. However, the adverse effects of PCF on LA are difficult to be evaluated and quantified. The atrial electromechanical interval determined by transthoracic echocardiogram was shown to be a convenient parameter which can reflect the process of LA remodeling. The goal of the present study was to investigate the association between the electromechanical interval and PCF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 337 patients with mean age of 51.9 ± 9.0 years were enrolled. The electromechanical interval (PA-PDI defined as the time interval from the initiation of the P wave deflection to the peak of the mitral inflow A wave on the pulse wave Doppler imaging was measured for every patient. The amount of PCF was determined by multi-detector computed tomography. The PA-PDI interval was significantly correlated with the amount of PCF (r = 0.641, p value <0.001. Graded prolongation of PA-PDI interval was observed across 3 groups of patients divided according to the tertile values of PCF. The AUC for the PA-PDI interval in predicting an increased amount of PCF (third tertile was 0.796. At a cutoff value of 130 ms identified by the ROC curve, the sensitivity and specificity of PA-PDI interval in identifying patients with a highest tertile of PCF were 63.4% and 85.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PA-PDI intervals were longer in patients with an increased amount of PCF. It may be a useful parameter to represent the degree of PCF-related atrial remodeling.

  9. [Pyoderma gangrenosum with aseptic spleen abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, N; Maubec, E; Boccara, O; Marinho, E; Valeyrie-Allanore, L; Lecaille, C; Sebban, V; Hersent, B; Picard-Dahan, C; Descamps, V; Crickx, B

    2009-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis in which systemic involvement is rare. It may be associated with systemic disease. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in the spleen. A 68-year-old man presenting pyoderma gangrenosum with pustules and stage I multiple myeloma was admitted for asthenia and abdominal pain. There were no skin lesions. Laboratory tests showed inflammatory syndrome with polynuclear leucocytes of 25,000/mm(3). CAT scans and abdominal ultrasound revealed a splenic abscess. A spleen biopsy was performed and histological examination showed polynuclear leukocyte infiltration, while cultures were negatives. Diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum with splenic involvement was made. Increased systemic corticosteroid therapy produced a successful outcome. Haematological findings remained unchanged. Spleen involvement in pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare and can mimic an infectious process. In such cases, routine screening is essential for associated diseases, particularly haematological malignancies.

  10. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  11. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  12. Effect of rapamycin on spleen size in longstanding renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, N C; Sampaio Gonçalves de Lucena, S B; da Silveira Rioja, S

    2014-06-01

    Based on evidence available in the literature, rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, but not calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), has been shown to decrease spleen size. Small spleen, in some instances, is associated with hyposplenism, a condition recently reported in patients with longstanding renal transplant. Accordingly, the effect of immunosuppressive drugs on spleen size was evaluated. Renal transplant recipients (35 taking mTOR and 68 CNI) were included, in whom a standardized investigation of the kidney allograft and spleen with the use of color Doppler ultrasound was performed and a peripheral smear were reviewed for the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs). We enrolled 103 patients (64 men; 66 from a deceased donor). The mean age was 47.7 years (range, 23.0-74.0 y). Mean transplant duration was 1,899 days (range, 181-6,883 d). According to the presence of HJBs, the prevalence of hyposplenism was 47.6% for the entire cohort. The differences between the mTOR and CNI groups regarding sex and the presence of HJBs were not statistically significant (P > .05). Age, creatinine, hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, and Doppler parameters in spleen and kidney were similar in both groups (P > .05). mTOR patients had a decreased spleen length size (90.09 ± 13.02 mm vs 111.95 ± 18.66 mm; P < .001), a longer transplant duration (3,576 ± 1,594 d vs 1,036 ± 1,369 d; P < .001) and higher serum cholesterol (227.50 ± 38.75 mg/dL vs 182.67 ± 37.74 mg/dL; P < .001) and triglycerides (194.23 ± 79.88 mg/dL vs 148.70 ± 55.54 mg/dL; P = .003) levels compared with the CNI group. A multivariate analysis showed mTOR inhibitor to be the most important predictor of spleen size. In both the mTOR and CNI groups, the comparison between the subgroups of present and absent HJBs did not show any difference. The findings of this study suggest that small spleens in transplant recipients may be linked to treatment with an mTOR inhibitor, although this apparently does

  13. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as the fetus grows in the womb. In kidney dysplasia, the tubules fail to branch out completely. Urine that would ... to form a network of tiny structures called tubules. Kidney dysplasia in one kidney What are the kidneys ...

  14. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... place a healthy kidney into a person with kidney failure . ... Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney ... Becker Y, Witkowski P. Kidney and pancreas transplantation. In: Townsend CM ... Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  15. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  16. Catheter localization in the left atrium using an outdated anatomic reference for guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolwal, Aditya B; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher R; Liang, David H

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for registering real-time ultrasound of the left atrium to an outdated, anatomic surface mesh model, whose shape differs from that of the anatomy. Using an intracardiac echo (ICE) catheter with mounted 6DOF electromagnetic position/orientation sensor (EPS), we acquire images of the left atrium and determine where the ICE catheter must be positioned relative to the surface mesh to generate similar, "virtual" ICE images. Further, we use an affine warping model to infer how the shape of the surface mesh differs from that of the atrium. Our registration and warping algorithm allows us to display EPS-sensorized catheters inside the surface mesh, facilitating guidance for left atrial procedures. By solving for the atrium-to-mesh warping parameters, we ensure that tissue contact in the anatomy is properly displayed as tissue contact in the mesh. After considering less than thirty seconds worth of ICE data, we are able to accurately localize EPS measurements within the surface mesh, despite surface mesh warpings of up to +/-20% along and about the principal axes of the left atrium. Further, because our estimation framework is iterative and continuous, our accuracy improves as new data is acquired.

  17. Investigation on Smoke Movement and Smoke Control for Atrium in Green and Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lui; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    exhaust effectiveness; atrium smoke filling process and its time constant; pre-stratification and detection ; airflow for smoke control between the atrium and communicating space; sprinkler effect, etc. This report was written as a work report of my stay at the department of civil engineering of Aalborg...... conservation into account. Architectural and building design, electrical and mechanical systems, and building management have to be upgraded. However, there are problems in dealing with fire safety, especially in complying with the existing prescriptive fire codes. A hot argument is that smoke control system...... such as axisymmetric plume, wall plume, corner plume and balcony spill plume in this report. As many large space buildings such as cinema, sports arenas containing the sloping floor are designed to meet the function and aesthetic requirement. The smoke movement in atrium with sloping floor is also discussed...

  18. Atrium-specific ion channels in the zebrafish-A role of Iin atrial repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarsfeldt, M A; Bomholtz, S H; Lundegaard, P R

    2018-01-01

    reaction, we assessed the expression level of atrium-specific potassium channels. The functional role of these channels was studied by patch clamp experiments on isolated atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and by optical mapping of explanted adult zebrafish hearts. Finally, surface ECGs were recorded...... to establish possible in vivo roles of atrial ion channels. RESULTS: In isolated adult zebrafish hearts, we identified the expression of kcnk3, kcnk9, kcnn1, kcnn2, kcnn3, kcnj3 and kcnj5, the genes that encode the atrium-specific K2P, KCa2.x and Kir3.1/4 (KACh) ion channels. The electrophysiological data...... indicate that the acetylcholine-activated inward-rectifying current, IKACh,plays a major role in the zebrafish atrium, whereas K2P3.1/9.1 and KCa2.x channels do not appear to be involved in regulating the action potential in the zebrafish heart. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that the acetylcholine...

  19. The Linguistic and Cultural Interpretation of Dissonant Heritage: the ATRIUM Cultural Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Nauert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Cultural Route ATRIUM (Architecture of Totalitarian Regimes in Europe's Urban Memory deals with dissonant heritage, referring to a contrast of meaning and value systems between the past and the present. The route will be examined within the framework of a set of communication strategies for cultural routes. This short paper will look at some linguistic aspects related to the ATRIUM route and its ‘dissonant heritage’. By analysing some examples of existing promotional approaches related to this particular heritage, it will outline some considerations for a communicative strategy appropriate to the overall narrative structure of the ATRIUM cultural route, with special regard to a bottom-up constructivist approach.

  20. Daylighting and Cooling of Atrium Buildings in Warm Climates: Impact of the Top-Fenestration and Wall Mass Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Morad Rachid

    1992-01-01

    Sun-lighting and daylighting contribute greatly to the aesthetic value of an atrium. However, today's atria are often found either over-lit with extensive cooling loads, or under-lit requiring increased artificial lighting loads. The increase of the top-glazing area increases the cooling loads and decreases the lighting loads. The increase of the mass in the atrium walls decreases the maximum atrium temperature and the cooling loads. Furthermore, the mass distribution and its reflectance affect the lighting levels at the atrium floor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the simultaneous impact of the top-fenestration and the mass and reflectance of atrium walls on the cooling and daylighting performance of atria in warm climates. It attempts to determine the optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting and low cooling loads. The daylighting performance was evaluated through illumination measurements in physical models in a sky simulator. The cooling performance was evaluated using the software TRNSYS 13.1. Two types of top-fenestration were tested: horizontal and vertical south-facing, each with three alternate areas. The variations of the atrium walls included materials (standard frame and heavyweight concrete) and percentage and reflectance of the solid area. Two and four-story atria were considered, each with square and linear configuration. The performance was evaluated for three warm climates. The optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting was determined. The daylighting prediction algorithm was extended to include the effective reflectance of the atrium walls. The increase of mass in the atrium walls significantly decreased the atrium temperature range, the maximum atrium temperature, and the cooling loads. This impact decreased from horizontal to vertical south-facing top-glazing. The vertical south-facing top-glazing and, to a lesser degree, the reduction of the glazed atrium cover by 50% had more cooling benefits than increasing the

  1. Smoke Movement in an Atrium with a Fire with Low Rate of Heat Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik; Petersen, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Results from small-scale experiments on smoke movement in an atrium are given, both with and without a vertical temperature gradient, and expressions for the smoke movement are developed on the basis of these experiments. Comparisons with a general analytical expression used for calculating...... the height to the location of the smoke layer are given. Furthermore, the paper discusses the air movement in a typical atrium exposed to different internal and external heat loads to elaborate on the use of the "flow element" expressions developed for smoke movement from a fire with a low rate of heat...

  2. Focal FDG Activity in the Region of Right Atrium: Coregistered CT Identifies Three Benign Etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Murali; Depuey, E Gordon; Bhargava, Peeyush

    2008-01-01

    We present the whole body FDG PET-CT images on 3 different patients with benign focal activity in the region of the right atrium. Co-registered CT correctly identified the cause of focal FDG activity as: right atrial appendage, lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum, and catheter-related activity. Although all these have been reported separately in the literature, we are presenting them together to emphasize the importance of recognizing the benign causes of FDG uptake in the region of right atrium and the role of co-registered CT in improving the accuracy and specificity of the FDG PET.

  3. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  4. Enlarged Right Atrium Falsely Interpreted as a Mediastinal Mass: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Zand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Right atrial dilation due to left heart disease is a common complication among adults. The present review aimed to describe a case of massively dilated right atrium in a female patient presenting with valvular heart disease and no atrial fibrillation. The results of chest X-ray revealed a large opacity filling the lower right hemithorax, falsely interpreted as a mediastinal mass. During the transesophageal echocardiography, severe enlargement of the right atrium was detected, and open mitral and tricuspid valve replacements were performed successfully.

  5. Sonographic assessment and grading of spleen index in various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani N

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a useful procedure in evaluation of spleen size in different clinical conditions. In this study, we used it to evaluate spleen size in patients with various heptologic, hematologic and autoimmune diseases. To express spleen size, a spleen index (SI, the product of the transverse diameter and its perpendiculr diameter measured on the maximum-sectional image of the spleen, was used. Splenomegaly was present in high percentages of patients with liver, blood, collagen or autoimmune diseases, even though a majority of these spleens were not large enough to palpate. By grading the SI, characteristic distributions of SI were obtained for patients with different types of diseases. Obtaining and grading the SI by the use of ultrasound appears to be a significant supplemental aid for evaluating spleen size, especially in patients whose spleen are not palpable.

  6. Wandering spleen with a ten-time twisted vascular pedicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Peretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen in children, usually diagnosed with color-Doppler ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography. We report a pediatric case of torsion of wandering spleen.

  7. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  8. Wandering Spleen with Splenic Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wandering spleen is a rare clinical occurrence with fewer than 500 cases reported and an incidence of less than 0.2%1, 2. The spleen is an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is involved in immunological defence and can serve as a storage site for red blood cells3. The spleen is normally ...

  9. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  10. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... kidneys may be needed. Treatments for end-stage kidney disease may include dialysis or a kidney transplant .

  11. Rupture of sinus of Valsalva aneurysm into both right atrium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A young man had a congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysm originating from the right coronary sinus, complicated by fistulas draining into both right atrium and right ventricle, as well as a congenitally abnormal aortic valve with mild aortic insufficiency. His dramatic clinical presentation, with the sudden appearance of severe ...

  12. Anomalous muscle bundle in the right atrium; Implication to trans atrial device closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Philip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracavitary muscle bands or aberrant bands have been well described in all four chambers of the heart but rarely seen thick muscular band crossing right atrium. We report a case of devisable secundum atrial septal defect with an intra-atrial anomalous muscular band, crossing right atrial wall to the rim of the secundum atrial septal defect warranting surgical closure.

  13. Optimisation of Heating Energy Demand and Thermal Comfort of a Courtyard-Atrium Dwelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taleghani, M.; Tenpierik, M.; Dobbelsteen, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the light of energy reduction, transitional spaces are recognised as ways to receive natural light and fresh air. This paper analyses the effects of courtyard and atrium as two types of transitional spaces on heating demand and thermal comfort of a Dutch low-rise dwelling, at current and future

  14. Thrombus Development on a Transseptal Sheath in the Right Atrium Before Electrical Pulmonary Vein Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Romero-Rodriguez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient who developed a thrombus on the transseptal sheath in the right atrium before transseptal puncture for circumferential pulmonary vein isolation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treatment. The use of intracardiac echocardiography allowed to its identification and probably prevented the patient from suffering a serious thromboembolic complication.

  15. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough red blood cells. This is called kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you need treatment to ... providers, family, and friends, most people with kidney failure can lead full and active lives. NIH: National ...

  16. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Nutrition Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & ... specialize in the care of people with kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? ...

  17. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Menu Search Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health ... Tests for Transplant Care After Kidney Transplant Common Organ Donation and Transplantation Terms The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the ...

  18. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  19. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine until it is peed out. What Causes Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancers? Smoking is the most important risk ... grease from metal. What Are the Symptoms of Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancers? A person with kidney or renal ...

  20. [The application of Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system in ablation of different parts and different times of pig heart atrium and the analysis of transmural lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-sheng; Chen, Xin; Liu, Ming

    2010-12-15

    To analyze the transmural lesions of different parts of the pig heart atrium received different times of ablation applied with Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system. Six fresh (ex vivo timepig hearts with atrium preserved intact were used as the experimental objects and experimental groups were divided according to the ablation position. The Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system was applied in the ablation of the parts of the atrium, such as posterior wall of left atrium, anterior wall of left atrium, anterior wall of right atrium and posterior wall of left atrium close to mitral posterior ring. Ablate the position of the atrium lengthened about 2.0 cm with the same thickness with an interval of 0.5 cm for 4 times respectively, also recording the time of every ablation. For each part and each time of ablation, the ablated atrial tissue was preserved with 4% formaldehyde and 5% glutaraldehyde, and was sent for observation under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. The ablation time and lesion were analyzed statistically. In the same position of the atrium, ablation time decreased with the times of the ablation, in different position of the atrium with same time of ablation, time showed a positive proportion with the thickness of the atrium. Atricure bipolar radiofrequency system is very safe and efficient, also convenient for manipulation. With regard to the relatively thinner part of the atrium, such as posterior wall and anterior wall of left atrium, at least two times of ablation can ensure transmural lesion of the atrial tissue, but to the position of the atrium such as anterior wall of right atrium and posterior wall of left atrium close to mitral posterior ring, 3 to 4 times of ablation can ensure transmural lesion of the atrial tissue.

  1. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  2. Transcatheter therapy in partially abnormal pulmonary venous return with additional drainage to the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Debora; Laux, Daniela; Boudjemline, Younes; Hascoët, Sébastien; Lusson, Jean-René; Sorensen, Clio; Ovaert, Caroline; Kreitmann, Bernard; Van Praagh, Richard; Fraisse, Alain

    2013-12-10

    A persistent anastomosis between the pulmonary veins that connect with the left atrium and the systemic vein that drains into the right atrium has occasionally been reported. We report characteristics and transcatheter therapy in partially abnormal pulmonary venous return with additional drainage to the left atrium. We retrospectively studied such patients in 5 institutions. Ten patients (6 girls) presented at a median age of 8 (0.1 to 54) years with 2 anatomic types: 8 vertical vein types with drainage of the left upper lobe to the innominate vein via a large vertical vein (left superior cardinal vein) and to the left atrium via the left upper pulmonary vein; and 2 scimitar vein (SV) types with drainage of the right middle and lower pulmonary veins into the inferior vena cava and to the left atrium via an anomalous connecting vein. Associated malformations were aortic coarctation (n=2) and secundum atrial septal defects (n=3). Two patients of the vertical vein type were operated. Transcatheter occlusion of the abnormal pulmonary venous return was performed in 7 cases, associated with occlusion of systemic arterial supply (n=2), secundum atrial septal closure (n=2), left upper pulmonary vein stenosis stenting (n=1), and coarctation stenting (n=1). Including previously published cases, 18 patients (13 vertical veins and 5 scimitar veins) underwent transcatheter repair. Patients over 40 years of age tend to be symptomatic at presentation (p=0.056). In partially abnormal pulmonary venous return with dual drainage, transcatheter therapy can be offered in the majority of patients. © 2013.

  3. Kids in the atrium: comparing architectural intentions and children's experiences in a pediatric hospital lobby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Annmarie; Theodore, David; Goldenberg, Ellie; McLaren, Coralee; McKeever, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The study reported here adopts an interdisciplinary focus to elicit children's views about hospital environments. Based at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, the research explores the ways in which designers and patients understand and use the eight-storey lobby, The Atrium, a monumental addition constructed in 1993. It is a public place that never closes; hundreds of children pass through the namesake atrium every day. Combining methodological approaches from architectural history and health sociology, the intentions and uses of central features of the hospital atrium are examined. Data were collected from observations, focused interviews, and textual and visual documents. We locate the contemporary atrium in a historical context of building typologies rarely connected to hospital design, such as shopping malls, hotels and airports. We link the design of these multi-storey, glass-roofed spaces to other urban experiences especially consumption as normalizing forces in the everyday lives of Canadian children. Seeking to uncover children's self-identified, self-articulated place within contemporary pediatric hospitals, we assess how the atrium--by providing important, but difficult-to-measure functions such as comfort, socialization, interface, wayfinding, contact with nature and diurnal rhythms, and respite from adjacent medicalized spaces--contributes to the well-being of young patients. We used theoretical underpinnings from architecture and humanistic geography, and participatory methods advocated by child researchers and theorists. Our findings begin to address the significant gap in understanding about the relationship between the perceptions of children and the settings where their healthcare occurs. The study also underlines children's potential to serve as agents of architectural knowledge, reporting on and recording their observations of hospital architecture with remarkable sophistication. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  5. The influence of U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract on the formation of ectopic locus of haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Prus, E.K.; Basova, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The implantation of a bone marrow fragment of intact mouse donors below the kidney capsule of irradiated (7 Gy) recipients leads to the formation of the haemopoiesis locus that somewhat exceeds, by mass and cellularity, the new-formed locus of control animals. The U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract administered to recipients irradiated with the same dose increases the mass and cellularity of the haemopoiesis locus by 2.2 and 4.9 times respectively

  6. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  7. A large tumour of the left atrium – A 10-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Łebek-Szatańska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benign myxomas are the most common primary tumors in the left atrium of the heart, and they usually require urgent operative management. However, with the constant aging of the population and treatment of patients with severe concomitant diseases, an interesting question is the efficacy of the conservative approach. We present a case of a 75-year-old woman who was previously diagnosed with a left atrial myxoma, underwent an operation to resect it and then developed a recurrent tumor at the site of resection, which was found by control echocardiography 1.5 years later. She has been observed for over 10 years, as she repeatedly refused reoperation. In the setting of this example of a relatively favorable clinical course of left atrium myxoma, we discuss the current knowledge about the natural history of these tumors and the role of echocardiography in predicting their growth and complications.

  8. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  9. Angiosarcoma of the Right Atrium Presenting as Syncope and Hemorrhagic Pericardial Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma of the heart is a rare malignancy that can present in many ways. It is an important diagnosis to consider in patients presenting with otherwise unexplained tamponade-type symptoms. Here we present a case of a young male who presented with hemorrhagic tamponade and underwent resection of a large angiosarcoma of the right atrium. In this case, we describe the rare presentation of angiosarcoma with its diagnostic approaches, hospital course, clinical management, and discussion.

  10. Cor triatriatum or divided atriums: which approach provides the better understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Tara; Spicer, Diane E; Mohun, Timothy J; Black, David; Henry, G William; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    It is frequent, in the current era, to encounter congenital cardiac malformations described in terms of "cor triatriatum". But can hearts be truly found with three atrial chambers? The morphological method, emphasised by Van Praagh et al, states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their most constant components. In the atrial chambers, it is the appendages that are the most constant components, and to the best of our knowledge, hearts can only possess two appendages, which can be of either right or left morphology. The hearts described on the basis of "cor triatriatum", nonetheless, can also be analysed on the basis of division of either the morphologically right or the morphologically left atriums. In this review, we provide a description of cardiac embryology, showing how each of the atrial chambers possesses part of the embryological body, along with an appendage, a vestibule, a venous component, and a septum that separates them. We then show how it is, indeed, the case that the hearts described in terms of "cor triatriatum" can be readily understood on the basis of division of these atrial components. In the right atrium, it is the venous valves that divide the chamber. In the left atrium, it is harder to provide an explanation for the shelf that produces atrial division. We also contrast the classic examples of the divided atrial chambers with the vestibular shelf that produces supravalvar stenosis in the morphologically left atrium, showing that this form of obstruction needs to be distinguished from the fibrous shelves producing intravalvar obstruction.

  11. Renal Angiomyolipoma with Fatty Thrombus Extending to the Right Atrium: An Exceptional Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Nouira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the case of 34-year-old woman who presented with bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs. On the right side, there was a large AML with a fatty thrombus extending to the right atrium. The treatment consisted of right nephrectomy and complete thrombectomy with extracorporeal circulation and right atriotomy. Postoperatively, the patient was septic and died on postoperative day 7 because of septic shock.

  12. Il patrimonio scomodo del Novecento europeo nel progetto Atrium a Forlì

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pirazzoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Il Novecento ha lasciato tracce difficili nelle città d'Europa. I regimi che si sono succeduti hanno trasformato urbanisticamente e architettonicamente l'intero territorio e oggi è complesso relazionarsi con questi segni. Il progetto europeo Atrium - Architecture of Totalitarian Regimes in Urban Managements si propone di valorizzare, con attenta cura e senza intenti mistificatori, proprio il “patrimonio scomodo” di 11 paesi dell'Europa del sud.

  13. Atypical leiomyoma arising in a hepatic vein with extension into the inferior vena cava and right atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, H.J.; Udjus, K.

    1990-01-01

    We report an atypical leiomyoma arising in a hepatic vein and extending into the inferior vena cava and right atrium in a fourteen year old boy. US, CT and MRI facilitated diagnosis and removal of this tumor. (orig.)

  14. Researching for sustained translation from site cluster permeability into building courtyard and interior atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy Badai Samodra, FX; Defiana, Ima; Setyawan, Wahyu

    2018-03-01

    Many previous types of research have discussed the permeability of site cluster. Because of interaction and interconnected attribute, it will be better that there is its translation into lower context such as building and interior scale. In this paper, the sustainability design performance of both similar designs of courtyard and atrium are investigated continuing the recommendation of site space permeability. By researching related literature review and study through Ecotect Analysis and Ansys Fluent simulations, the pattern transformation and optimum courtyard and atrium design could comply the requirement. The results highlighted that the air movement from the site could be translated at the minimum of 50% higher to the building and indoor environment. Thus, it has potency for energy efficiency when grid, loop, and cul-de-sac site clusters, with 25% of ground coverage, have connectivity with building courtyard compared to the atrium. Energy saving is higher when using low thermal transmittance of transparent material and its lower area percentages for the courtyard walls. In general, it was more energy efficient option as part of a low rise building, while the courtyard building performed better with increasing irregular building height more than 90% of the difference.

  15. Surgical repair of an aneurysm-like fistula connecting the left main coronary artery with the right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guang; Sun, Zhongchan; Zhang, Weida

    2016-08-01

    Coronary fistula is defined as an anomalous connection between a coronary artery and any of the four chambers of the heart or any of its great vessels. A coronary fistula connecting the left main coronary artery to the right atrium is the most uncommon. In the present study, we report the surgical management of a very uncommon case of an aneurysm-like fistula connecting the left main coronary artery to the right atrium in a 2-year-old boy.

  16. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Hope Affair A Pairing for Prevention - Boston Classical Music For a Cause A Pairing for Prevention - ... kidney Financial Assistance Kidney patient assistance HelpLine Grants Management System (GMS) login Education & Research Patient Webinars Become ...

  17. Kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done include: Blood tests to check calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolyte levels Kidney function tests ... half an inch (1.25 centimeters) that are located in the kidney or ureter. It uses sound ...

  18. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Printing multiple copies? Read our licensing agreement Sexuality and Fertility Maintaining a healthy sex life and ... run. Take Our Survey! Sponsors Help Keep Kidney School Free Visit Our Sponsors Page Kidney School is ...

  19. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Results A normal result is when the kidney tissue shows normal structure. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means there are changes in the kidney tissue. This may be due to: Infection Poor blood ...

  20. Wandering spleen: Case report | Mwango | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the ...

  1. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  2. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Misawa T, Yoshida K, Shiba H, Kobayashi S, Yanaga K. Wandering spleen with chronic torsion. Am J Surg. 2008 Apr;195(4):504-5. This article on PubMed. 7. Fiquet-Francois C, Belouadah M, Ludot H, Defauw B. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study. J Pediatr Surg. 2010.

  3. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  4. A true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen: a very rare anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, T; Tollens, T; Aelvoet, Chr; Vanrykel, J P

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to a wandering or ectopic spleen which is vascularized by the original splenic vessels this case describes a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis. To our knowledge this anomaly has never been described in the literature before.

  5. Protease activity of legumain is inhibited by an increase of cystatin E/M in the DJ-1-knockout mouse spleen, cerebrum and heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yamane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumain (EC 3.4.22.34 is an asparaginyl endopeptidase. Legumain activity has been detected in various mouse tissues including the kidney, spleen and epididymis. Legumain is overexpressed in the majority of human solid tumors and transcription of the legumain gene is regulated by the p53 tumor suppressor in HCT116 cells. The legumain activity is also increased under acid conditions in Alzheimer's disease brains. DJ-1/PARK7, a cancer- and Parkinson's disease-associated protein, works as a coactivator to various transcription factors, including the androgen receptor, p53, PSF, Nrf2, SREBP and RREB1. Recently, we found that legumain expression, activation and cleavage of annexin A2 are regulated by DJ-1 through p53. In this study, we found that the expression levels of legumain mRNA were increased in the cerebrum, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, epididymis, stomach, small intestine and pancreas from DJ-1-knockout mice, although legumain activity levels were decreased in the cerebrum, spleen and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice. Furthermore, we found that cystatin E/M expression was increased in the spleen, cerebrum and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice. These results suggest that reduction of legumain activity is caused by an increase of cystatin E/M expression in the spleen, cerebrum and heart from DJ-1-knockout mice.

  6. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  7. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery Stenosis Renal Tubular Acidosis Simple Kidney Cysts ... sodium. Related Conditions & Diseases Chronic Kidney Disease Kidney Disease in Children Simple Kidney Cysts Kidney Stones Urinary Tract Infections ...

  8. Structural and molecular pathology of the atrium in boxer arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, J; Pariaut, R; Moïse, N S; Oxford, E M; Fox, P R; Reynolds, C A; Saelinger, C

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of desmosomal and gap junction proteins of the intercalated disc in the atria of boxers with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Nineteen control dogs and 13 boxers with histopathologically confirmed ARVC. Right and left atrial samples were examined using immunofluorescence and Western blots. The intercalated disc proteins investigated included total and phosphorylated connexin43 (Cx43 and pCx43), connexin45, connexin40, plakoglobin, plakophilin-2, desmoplakin, and N-cadherin. Histopathological changes characteristic of ARVC were present in the left or right atrium of 12 out of 13 boxers and were absent in all control dogs. When compared to the 19 control dogs, immunofluorescence analysis revealed a decrease in signal intensity for pCx43 and plakoglobin in the left (p = 0.03 and p = 0.014, respectively) and right atrium (p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, respectively) of affected boxers. Connexin43 and pCx43 Western blot band density was significantly decreased in the left (p = 0.025 and p = 0.027, respectively) and right atrium (p = 0.001 and p = 0.044, respectively) of affected boxers. Altered intercalated disc and gap junction proteins were identified in atrial myocardium of ARVC boxers, supporting atrial involvement as part of this disorder. Reduction in pCx43 in conjunction with histological changes could represent the substrate for atrial arrhythmias associated with ARVC. Furthermore, these findings detected in boxer dogs, lend support for the broader term, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, as preferred nomenclature used to describe this disease in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The small spleen: sonographic patterns of functional hyposplenia or asplenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, Christian; Eichkorn, Miriam; Zugmaier, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Functional hyposplenia or asplenia (FAS) can be associated with potential fatal infections. The diagnosis of FAS is traditionally made on liver-spleen scintigraphy and finding Howell-Jolly bodies within erythrocytes. In this retrospective study, our goal was to identify any characteristic sonographic findings of the spleen in patients with FAS in an attempt to determine whether the diagnosis of FAS can be made sonographically. In a review of all medical and sonographic records from the period of January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2001, we identified 24 patients (11 men, 13 women) in whom FAS had been diagnosed by liver-spleen scintigraphy (n = 13) or the finding of Howell-Jolly bodies (n = 11). The following sonographic parameters were determined: size of spleen (small, normal, or large), echotexture of the spleen (homogeneous versus inhomogeneous), echogenicity (isoechoic versus hyperechoic), presence of focal splenic lesions, and patterns of splenic vascularization as determined by color Doppler sonography (absent flow, hilar flow, or parenchymal flow). The spleen was small in 20 patients (83%) and normal in the other 4 (17%). Echotexture was homogeneous in 13 patients (54%) and inhomogeneous in 11 (46%). The spleen was isoechoic in 18 cases (75%) and hyperechoic in 6 (25%). Six patients (25%) had focal lesions. Color Doppler sonography showed absent flow in 4 patients (17%), hilar flow in 17 (71%), and hilar and parenchymal vascularization in 3 (12%). Sonographic findings in the spleen of patients with FAS are characterized predominantly by a small spleen with absence of parenchymal vascularization on color Doppler sonography in most cases. Future prospective studies will be necessary to confirm these findings and to determine whether FAS can be diagnosed reliably with sonography. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 31:152-155, 2003

  10. Pacing Lead-Induced Granuloma in the Atrium: A Foreign Body Reaction to Polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinagawa Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We described a case of an 82-year-old male who presented with a granuloma entrapping the polyurethane-coated pacing lead at the site of contact on the atrium. He had been paced for 8 years without symptoms or signs suggestive of an allergic reaction to the pacemaker system and died from thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery and heart failure. A histological examination of the nodule showed an incidental granuloma with multinucleated giant cells. No granuloma was found in the heart or the lung.

  11. Extension of adrenocortical carcinoma into the right atrium – echocardiographic diagnosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenman Yoseph

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare, highly malignant tumor. Cardiac involvement of the tumor is very rare. Echocardiography facilitates the evaluation of the cardiac involvement of the tumor. Case Presentation We describe a patient with an adrenal tumor. Transthoracic echo showed its extension into the right atrium. Accordingly, a combined abdominal and cardiac operation was performed, monitored by transesophageal echocardiography. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of echocardiography in revealing the cardiac involvement by this tumor and in planning the operative procedure.

  12. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  13. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  14. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  15. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  16. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  17. Torsion of a wandering spleen | Carapinha | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare and difficult diagnosis in the paediatric population, with death a possible outcome. In this paper we present our experience of a single case and discuss the embryology and management thereof.

  18. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  19. Computational prediction of proarrhythmogenic effect of the V241F KCNQ1 mutation in human atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaniastuti, Riski; Lee, Hyun Seung; Kim, Nari; Youm, Jae Boum; Shim, Eun Bo; Lim, Ki Moo

    2014-09-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial flutter (AF). Although mutation in KCNQ1 has been widely correlated with AF, the mechanism by which mutation promotes AF remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the proarrhythmic effect of V241F KCNQ1 mutation in human atrium using the electrophysiological model of human atrium. Using 2D and 3D cardiac electrophysiological models that incorporate the Courtemanche human atrial model, we simulated electrical conduction through atrial tissue and compared spiral wave dynamics under the wild-type and V241F KCNQ1 conditions. In 2D and 3D simulation, V241F KCNQ1 showed a stable and persistent wave without spiral break-up, whereas the wild-type wave was less stable, resulting in early self-termination. According to the results, we concluded that compared to the wild type, the electrical activity of the V241F KCNQ1 mutation is more likely to sustain spiral wave. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Endoscopic approach to ventricular atrium for biopsy of pineal region tumour: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-León, Odalys; Rodríguez-Villalonga, Olga Lidia; Pérez-Nogueira, Frank Reinaldo; Guillén-Cánovas, Evelio José; Alvarez-Toledo, Nilo; Lemus-Saraceni, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The usual endoscopic approach in the management of pineal region tumours consists of inserting the scope into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and advancing it through the foramen of Monro into the third ventricle. We report the case of a patient with a pineal tumour on whom we used an endoscopic approach through the ventricular atrium to obtain a biopsy by opening the choroidal fissure. This young 25-year-old man presented with headache and double vision. Papilloedema and Parinaud's syndrome were found on physical examination. Cranial magnetic resonance revealed a pineal mass and hydrocephalus. We initially performed a third ventriculostomy and a tumour biopsy through a frontal burr hole. The tissue sample was not useful for pathological diagnosis and we decided to perform a second endoscopic biopsy. The endoscopic approach to pineal region masses, reaching the ventricular atrium through a parietal burr hole and opening the choroidal fissure, makes it possible to take a biopsy using a single endoscopic approach without needing to cross other ventricular structures. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECTS OF AEROBIC TRAINING ON THE CARDIOMYOCYTES OF THE RIGHT ATRIUM OF MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gonçalves Coutinho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Polypeptide hormones (natriuretic peptides, NPs are secreted by the cardiac atria and play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. Objective: To evaluate the effects of aerobic training on the secretory apparatus of NPs in cardiomyocytes of the right atrium. Methods: Nine-month-old mice were divided in two groups (n=10: control group (CG and trained group (TG. The training protocol was performed on a motor treadmill for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured at the beginning of the experiment (9 months of age and at moment of the sacrifice (11 months of age. Electron micrographs were used to quantify the following variables: the quantitative density and area of NP granules, the relative volumes of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex and the relative volume of euchromatin in the nucleus and the number of pores per 10 µm of the nuclear membrane. The results were compared by Student's t test (p< 0.05. Results: The cardiomyocytes obtained from TG mice showed increased density and sectional area of secretory granules of NP, higher relative volume of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and Golgi complex compared with the CG mice. Furthermore, the quantitative density of nuclear pores and the relative volume of euchromatin in the nucleus were significantly higher compared with the CG mice. Conclusion: Aerobic training caused hypertrophy of the secretory apparatus in the cardiomyocytes of right atrium, which could explain the intense synthesis of natriuretic peptides in trained mice with respect to the untrained mice.

  2. Computer Simulation Investigation on the Effect of Channelled and Unchannelled Screens on Smoke Contamination in Atriums Upper Balconies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasif Mohammad Shakir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper performed the effect of installing channel screen on smoke contamination in the presence of 0.5 m deep down stand in a fire compartment. The results are then compared with smoke contamination occurrence when the channel screens were removed. The results showed that there will be 96% increase in upper balconies smoke contamination in an atrium when no channel screens at fire compartment opening are used. This work provides new correlation obtained from numerical study which can predict the smoke contamination height in upper balconies of the atrium in the presence of 0.5 m down stand and no channel screens. The proposed correlation will be useful design tool for building designer to design safe shopping malls (atrium.

  3. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  4. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  5. Numerical investigation on the effect of balcony open and solid upstand on smoke contamination in atrium balconies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafi, M. A.; Nasif, M. S.; Pao, W.; Ismail, F. B.

    2017-10-01

    Atrium is a modern architectural design of buildings that has an open space at the middle and contains several floors. In atrium structure the smoke due to fire can easily flow through the open spaces and causes smoke contamination. CFD simulation using fire dynamic simulator (FDS) software is conducted in this work, to investigate the effect of balcony open upstand on smoke contamination in atrium’s balconies and compare it with balconies with solid upstand. It was found that in case of open upstand, the smoke contamination occurrence decreased inside the balcony comparing with balconies with solid upstand.

  6. Kidney Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. If you're being treated for a urinary tract infection but your signs and symptoms aren't improving, make an appointment. Severe kidney ... Seek immediate medical attention if you have kidney infection symptoms combined with ... that enter your urinary tract through the tube that carries urine from ...

  7. Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  9. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  10. The hemodynamic response to dopamine and nitroprusside following right atrium-pulmonary artery bypass (Fontan procedure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D B; Kiernan, P D; Schaff, H V; Marsh, H M; Danielson, G K

    1982-07-01

    Cardiac output is critically dependent upon pulmonary vascular resistance after right atrium-pulmonary artery bypass (Fontan procedure), since there is no pulmonary ventricle in the circulation. Inotropic agents, including dopamine, may increase pulmonary vascular resistance and, therefore, might have an adverse effect on cardiac output. The present study determined the hemodynamic responses to dopamine and nitroprusside of 9 patients following right atrium-pulmonary artery bypass. Particular attention was given to effects on cardiac output (CI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and right atrial pressure (RAP). Baseline hemodynamic data were measured without drugs, with dopamine at 7.5 micrograms/kg/min, with sodium nitroprusside up to 5.0 micrograms/kg/min, and with a combination of dopamine, 7.5 micrograms/kg/min, and sodium nitroprusside, 1.0 micrograms/kg/min. Right and left atrial pressures (LAP), mean arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and CI were measured. Stroke volume index and pulmonary arteriolar resistance index were calculated. The increase in CI from baseline (1.98 +/- 0.86 liters per minute) was significant for infusions of dopamine (2.75 +/- 1.05, p less than 0.001), sodium nitroprusside (2.57 +/- 0.78, p less than 0.001), and both drugs (2.74 +/- 0.84, p less than 0.001). The increased CI was achieved primarily by a significant increase in HR with dopamine and by an increase in stroke volume index with sodium nitroprusside. With a similar increment in CI, the RAP was significantly decreased from baseline (21 +/- 4 torr) with sodium nitroprusside (15 +/- 3, p less than 0.001) but was unchanged with dopamine. Pulmonary arteriolar resistance index decreased significantly from baseline (375 +/- 230 dynes sec cm-5/m2) with sodium nitroprusside (169 +/- 132, p less than 0.001), and, interestingly, with dopamine as well (273 +/- 165, p less than 0.05). Both dopamine and sodium nitroprusside in these dosages have favorable effects on CI and

  11. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, is ... is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ...

  12. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery Stenosis Renal Tubular Acidosis Simple Kidney Cysts ... kidneys to develop multiple cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease occurs in children and adults who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) — ...

  13. A novel innominate vein-to-common atrium fenestration at Fontan completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Thomas S; Arndt, Florian; von Samson, Patrick; Philipp, Lisa; Schnegg, Clivia; Mueller, Götz; Dodge-Khatami, Ali

    2010-05-01

    With the hypothesis of low thromboembolic risk and higher late postoperative spontaneous closure, a new fenestration technique during extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection was attempted. From 2008 to 2009, 14 consecutive patients received an innominate vein-common atrium 5-mm Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) graft fenestration. Monitoring was performed by contrast bubble echocardiography at hospital discharge and up to 6 months postoperatively. The technique proved safe and reproducible, did not add to surgical difficulty or time, and provided reliable fenestration of up to at least 3 weeks, with a high rate of spontaneous closure during intermediate follow-up. Copyright (c) 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A сase of obstruction of SVC-right atrium appendage anastomosis after procedure Warden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Связов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a 6-year patient’s medical history after correction of congenital heart disease (partial anomalous drainage of the right superior pulmonary vein into the superior vena cava complicated by obstruction of the anastomosis between the SVC and the appendage right atrium is presented. The article discusses the stages of diagnosis and patient management features, as well as the choice of treatment.Received 12 December 2016. Accepted 14 February 2017.Financing: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Svyazov E.A.: data analysis, article writing and editing. Podoksenov A.U.: article editing. Varvarenko V.I.: implantation of the stent-graft in superior vena cava.Martsinkevich G.I.: echocardiographic examination of the patient before and after endograft implantation, article editing. Krivoshchyokov E.V.: organizational work and referral of the patient to endovascular treatment, article editing.

  15. Electro-anatomical mapping of the left atrium before and after cryothermal balloon isolation of the pulmonary veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. van Belle (Yves); S.P. Knops (Simon); P. Janse (Petter); M. Rivero-Ayerza (Maximo); E. Jessurun; T. Szili-Torok (Tamas); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The 28 mm cryoballoon catheter is a device used for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of the ablation in the antral regions of the left atrium. Methods and Results: Eighteen patients with drug refractory, symptomatic,

  16. Plant Atrium System for Food Production in NASA's Deep Space Habitat Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Simpson, Morgan; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Newsham, Gerald; Stutte, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for future human exploration missions to space, NASA evaluates habitat concepts to assess integration issues, power requirements, crew operations, technology, and system performance. The concept of a Food Production System utilizes fresh foods, such as vegetables and small fruits, harvested on a continuous basis, to improve the crew's diet and quality of life. The system would need to fit conveniently into the habitat and not interfere with other components or operations. To test this concept, a plant growing "atrium" was designed to surround the lift between the lower and upper modules of the Deep Space Habitat and deployed at NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) test site in 2011 and at NASA Johnson Space Center in 2012. With this approach, no-utilized volume provided an area for vegetable growth. For the 2011 test, mizuna, lettuce, basil, radish and sweetpotato plants were grown in trays using commercially available red I blue LED light fixtures. Seedlings were transplanted into the atrium and cared for by the. crew. Plants were then harvested two weeks later following completion of the test. In 2012, mizuna, lettuce, and radish plants were grown similarly but under flat panel banks of white LEDs. In 2012, the crew went through plant harvesting, including sanitizing tlie leafy greens and radishes, which were then consumed. Each test demonstrated successful production of vegetables within a functional hab module. The round red I blue LEDs for the 2011 test lighting cast a purple light in the hab, and were less uniformly distributed over the plant trays. The white LED panels provided broad spectrum light with more uniform distribution. Post-test questionnaires showed that the crew enjoyed tending and consuming the plants and that the white LED light in 2012 provided welcome extra light for the main HAB AREA.

  17. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  18. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  19. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  20. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  1. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  2. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  3. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type matches or is compatible to your own. Blood-type incompatible transplants are also possible but require additional medical treatment before and after transplant to reduce the risk of organ rejection. These are known as ABO incompatible kidney transplants. ...

  4. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... treatment option for kidney failure or disease through organ donation from a healthy, living person who is a ...

  5. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  6. Effect of ionizing radiation on cell death in frog spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.Yu.; Vojtovich, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the number of dead cells in frog spleen by means of coloration with trypan blue which allowed to estimate last stage of apoptosis dead of cells.The investigated frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in september 1997 at radionuclide contamination territory (the Gomel Region, the Khojniki District). Control animals were caught in village Ratamka of the Minsk District. The percent of dead cells was less in control group in 1,5 times. Under additional irradiation (2 Gy) the number of dead cells in spleen also differs significantly in the investigated and control groups

  7. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  9. Increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium in people who participated in a cancer screening program with whole-body PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira; Kubo, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of patients who showed increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium. We have encountered 10 patients with increased activity in the wall of the right atrium among a total of 2,367 examinees who participated in our cancer screening program with whole-body PET. The mean age of these examinees was 62.9 yr, higher than that of the total population. All suffered from cardiac disorders, especially atrial fibrillation. FDG accumulated almost exclusively in the wall of the right atrium, whereas only slight activity was seen in the wall of the left atrium. Although the average size of the right atria was significantly enlarged, left atria were more severely dilated than right ones. Therefore overload does not seem to account for the FDG accumulation in the wall of the right atrium. In conclusion, the increased activity in the wall of the right atrium was a rare finding that was made in older people who suffered from cardiac disease. Although the mechanism of induction of the high metabolic state of glucose in the wall of the right atrium remains unclear, this unusual activity would be another false positive finding in cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET. (author)

  10. Ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, and urinary tract of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Spotswood, Tim; Wagner, Wencke M; Grimbeek, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the abdomen of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) include those affecting the liver, spleen, and urinary tract. The most common diseases of captive-bred cheetah are gastritis, gastric ulceration, glomerulosclerosis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and are the most frequent causes of mortality in these animals. The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the normal liver, spleen, kidney, and urinary bladder of the anesthetized captive-bred cheetah. Twenty-one cheetahs were examined. Eight of the 21 animals had subclinical evidence of either gastritis or chronic renal disease. The ultrasonographic appearances of the liver, gall bladder, common bile duct, and spleen were evaluated and various measurements made. Statistical analyses of the measurements were performed on all the healthy and subclinically ill animals taking sex, age, mass, and anesthetic protocol into account. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the healthy and subclinically ill animals (P > 0.25) and data were combined for statistical analyses. The mean mass was 41.1kg ( +/- 8.8) and the mean age was 5.0 years (+/- 2.2). The mean thickness of the liver medial to the gall bladder was 67.0 mm (+/- 14.8) and the liver was within the left costal arch in 75% of animals, extended caudal to the right costal arch in 50% of animals for an average of 30 mm, and extended caudal to the sternum in 63% of animals for an average of 32.5 mm. The maximum mean hepatic vein diameter at the entrance to the caudal vena cava was 8.6 +/- 2.8 mm; the mean diameters of the portal vein at the hilus and that of the caudal vena cava as it entered the liver were 7.5 +/- 1.6 and 9.9 +/- 4.1 mm, respectively. The mean diameter of the caudal vena cava was significantly affected by the type of anesthetic used (P < 0.10). The mass of the animals was significant in explaining the variance in maximum portal vein diameters (P < 0.10). The mean maximum velocity of the

  11. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  12. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  13. Histopathological study and audit of the spleen in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    underreporting both the gross and microscopic changes in the organ by pathologists. This paper therefore is a study on spleen specimens with a view to auditing the gross and microscopic description and analysing the pathological findings in splenectomy specimens with respect to gender and age. Materials and Methods.

  14. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits of the spleen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... Tables 2 and 3 show a direct relationship of the spleen length with both age and body size indices. Table 3 shows a. Pearson correlation matrix of the splenic length with other variables. The splenic length correlated best with BSA, followed by WT. The splenic length was established to be longer in males.

  15. Differential expression of heparan sulfate domains in rat spleen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the spleen is composed of a meshwork of reticulum cells and their matrix. Heparan sulfates (HS) are important components of this meshwork and are involved in processes such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytokine/growth factor binding. The expression of HS epitopes

  16. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  17. Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured ...

  18. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  19. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  20. Sonographic Dimensions of the Spleen in Healthy School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spleen is the largest recticuloendothelial organ in the body which increases in size with several pathologies. Its average length and other dimensions have been documented in adults but none in children in our environment. This study is aimed at investigating with Ultrasonography the normal splenic dimensions in ...

  1. Proteomics analysis of IBS-D with spleen and kidney yang deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Li

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: These data suggest that SKYD/IBS-D pathophysiology likely involves inflammation, cell growth, apoptosis, stress granule formation, immune activation, loss of epithelial cell integrity, and visceral hypersensitivity.

  2. [Panarteritis nodosa with kidney and spleen rupture: diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebels, M; Nöldge, G; Sanwald, R; Andrassy, K

    1995-04-01

    Classic polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotizing vasculitis affecting medium- and small-sized arteries. Renal involvement from aneurysm formation is common and can result in perirenal or intrarenal bleeding. The gold standard of diagnostic procedures is the arteriography. Treatment of choice is a combination of steroids and cyclophosphamide, but in the case of severe hemorrhage surgery is mandatory. Patients with PAN need at least 2 years of long-term therapy; repeated arteriography will establish the efficacy of therapy.

  3. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  4. The function of the spleen in adults after ligation of the splenic artery of the traumatized spleen in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Dimitrios C; Soutis, Michael

    2003-05-01

    Ligation of the splenic artery (LSA) has been successfully used as a spleen-saving procedure in rare cases of splenic trauma in children in which management with splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomy alone was not possible. There are no data regarding the long-term effects of the procedure on the functional status of the spleen. The purpose of this study is to present and discuss our clinical and laboratory findings in adults who underwent LSA in childhood. Our first 2 patients in whom LSA was done at ages 4 and 2 years in 1977 underwent the following examinations in the year 2000: 1, imaging of the spleen; 2, immunologic studies; and 3, peripheral blood tests. Their ages at reexamination were 27 and 25 years, respectively. Results were as follows: triplex ultrasound revealed normal size and echomorphology; Doppler techniques revealed normal vasculature; 99mTc-Tin colloid scanning revealed normal uptake. Immunoglobulins (IgG1 to IgG4, IgA, IgM, IgE), complement fraction (C3, C4), antibodies response to vaccinations, and peripheral blood tests all had normal results. No Howell-Jolly bodies were found. Laboratory investigations in adults with LSA during childhood disclosed undisturbed function of the spleen. LSA can be used as an adjunct to splenorrhaphy in children with rare splenic injuries involving major hilar vessels.

  5. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Amyloidosis & Kidney Disease What is amyloidosis? Amyloidosis is a rare disease ... Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine ...

  6. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ... Learn about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage ...

  7. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... that you do not have symptoms until your kidneys have almost ... end-stage renal disease (ESRD). At this stage, the kidneys are ...

  8. Contrast-Based 3D/2D Registration of the Left Atrium: Fast versus Consistent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For augmented fluoroscopy during cardiac ablation, a preoperatively acquired 3D model of a patient’s left atrium (LA can be registered to X-ray images recorded during a contrast agent (CA injection. An automatic registration method that works also for small amounts of CA is desired. We propose two similarity measures: The first focuses on edges of the patient anatomy. The second computes a contrast agent distribution estimate (CADE inside the 3D model and rates its consistency with the CA as seen in biplane fluoroscopic images. Moreover, temporal filtering on the obtained registration results of a sequence is applied using a Markov chain framework. Evaluation was performed on 11 well-contrasted clinical angiographic sequences and 10 additional sequences with less CA. For well-contrasted sequences, the error for all 73 frames was 7.9 ± 6.3 mm and it dropped to 4.6 ± 4.0 mm when registering to an automatically selected, well enhanced frame in each sequence. Temporal filtering reduced the error for all frames from 7.9 ± 6.3 mm to 5.7 ± 4.6 mm. The error was typically higher if less CA was used. A combination of both similarity measures outperforms a previously proposed similarity measure. The mean accuracy for well contrasted sequences is in the range of other proposed manual registration methods.

  9. Simultaneous Epicardial and Noncontact Endocardial Mapping of the Canine Right Atrium: Simulation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sepideh; Matene, Elhacene; Vinet, Alain; Richer, Louis-Philippe; Cardinal, René; Armour, J. Andrew; Pagé, Pierre; Kus, Teresa; Jacquemet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Epicardial high-density electrical mapping is a well-established experimental instrument to monitor in vivo the activity of the atria in response to modulations of the autonomic nervous system in sinus rhythm. In regions that are not accessible by epicardial mapping, noncontact endocardial mapping performed through a balloon catheter may provide a more comprehensive description of atrial activity. We developed a computer model of the canine right atrium to compare epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping. The model was derived from an experiment in which electroanatomical reconstruction, epicardial mapping (103 electrodes), noncontact endocardial mapping (2048 virtual electrodes computed from a 64-channel balloon catheter), and direct-contact endocardial catheter recordings were simultaneously performed in a dog. The recording system was simulated in the computer model. For simulations and experiments (after atrio-ventricular node suppression), activation maps were computed during sinus rhythm. Repolarization was assessed by measuring the area under the atrial T wave (ATa), a marker of repolarization gradients. Results showed an epicardial-endocardial correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.63 (two dog experiments) and 0.96 (simulation) between activation times, and a correlation coefficients of 0.57 and 0.46 (two dog experiments) and 0.92 (simulation) between ATa values. Despite distance (balloon-atrial wall) and dimension reduction (64 electrodes), some information about atrial repolarization remained present in noncontact signals. PMID:24598778

  10. Percutaneous closure of a hemodynamically significant connection between the inferior vena cava and the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Jens; Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger

    2015-10-01

    A connection between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the left atrium (LA) can occur as a rare complication after surgical atrial septum defect (ASD) repair. We demonstrate the first case of a percutaneous closure of this connection. A 67-year-old female was admitted to hospital due to exertional dyspnea. A history of a surgical ASD repair in 1960 and 1966 with a residual shunt was already known. Transesophageal echocardiography and a CT scan revealed a hemodynamically significant drainage of the IVC into the LA. This connection was successfully closed percutaneously with an AMPLATEZR Duct Occluder I (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN). Post-procedural CT-scan and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a stable position and there was also no evidence of a residual shunt. The patient reported a significant reduction of exertional dyspnea. Percutaneous closure of an IVC to LA connection in this case was safe and feasible. The decision about which device is optimal must be made on an individual basis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hemangioma intra-atrial esquerdo Capillary-type cardiac hemangioma, in the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Freire Sobrinho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o caso de paciente de 49 anos, sexo feminino, com ecocardiograma e cateterismo cardíaco mostrando massa intra-atrial esquerda, sugerindo mixoma, encaminhada para avaliação cardiológica devido à dispnéia. A paciente era ainda portadora de hepatoesplenomegalia esquistossomótica. Após preparo pré-operatório, que incluiu assistência hematológica, a paciente foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico, com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea. Apresentou sangramento aumentado no pós-operatório imediato, melhorando após transfusão de plaquetas. O estudo anatomopatológico revelou tratar-se de hemangioma capilar benigno.A 49-year-old woman, whose echocardiography and hemodynamic study showed a mass in the left atrium suggestive of myxoma, was referred for cardiological evaluation because of dyspnea. She also had schistosomotic hepatosplenomegaly. After a preoperative evaluation with hematological assistance, the patient underwent surgery using a cardiopulmonary bypass. She suffered a hemorrhage in the immediate post-operative period, which improved after platelet transfusion. The histopathologic study showed a capillary-type cardiac hemangioma.

  12. Condrossarcoma mixóide de átrio direito Right atrium myxoid chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ribeiro da Cunha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 46 anos, cor branca, hipertensa há 20 anos, com suspeita de endocardite infecciosa. Foi realizado ecocardiograma transtorácico, o qual levou à hipótese de mixoma de átrio direito. A paciente foi submetida à cirurgia, observando-se massa tumoral de aspecto muco-gelatinoso friável. A massa foi submetida a congelação para exame anatomopatológico, com laudo sugestivo de tumor maligno mesenquimal. Foi realizado exame imunohistoquímico compatível com condrossarcoma mixóide. A paciente evoluiu com remissão espontânea do quadro após ressecção completa da neoplasia. Realizou acompanhamento ambulatorial por 14 meses, sem apresentar sinais de recidiva do tumor.We report a case of a 46 years-old woman, Caucasian, with hypertension and a primary dianosis of infectious endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed suggesting right atrium myxoma. The patient was submitted to surgery, which found a tumor mass with a jelly-like exterior. The mass was sent to anatomo-pathological analysis which diagnosed a myxoid chondrosarcoma tumor. After surgical resection, the patient achieved complete recovery with no signs of recidivation after 14 months.

  13. Simultaneous epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping of the canine right atrium: simulation and experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sabouri

    Full Text Available Epicardial high-density electrical mapping is a well-established experimental instrument to monitor in vivo the activity of the atria in response to modulations of the autonomic nervous system in sinus rhythm. In regions that are not accessible by epicardial mapping, noncontact endocardial mapping performed through a balloon catheter may provide a more comprehensive description of atrial activity. We developed a computer model of the canine right atrium to compare epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping. The model was derived from an experiment in which electroanatomical reconstruction, epicardial mapping (103 electrodes, noncontact endocardial mapping (2048 virtual electrodes computed from a 64-channel balloon catheter, and direct-contact endocardial catheter recordings were simultaneously performed in a dog. The recording system was simulated in the computer model. For simulations and experiments (after atrio-ventricular node suppression, activation maps were computed during sinus rhythm. Repolarization was assessed by measuring the area under the atrial T wave (ATa, a marker of repolarization gradients. Results showed an epicardial-endocardial correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.63 (two dog experiments and 0.96 (simulation between activation times, and a correlation coefficients of 0.57 and 0.46 (two dog experiments and 0.92 (simulation between ATa values. Despite distance (balloon-atrial wall and dimension reduction (64 electrodes, some information about atrial repolarization remained present in noncontact signals.

  14. Simultaneous epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping of the canine right atrium: simulation and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sepideh; Matene, Elhacene; Vinet, Alain; Richer, Louis-Philippe; Cardinal, René; Armour, J Andrew; Pagé, Pierre; Kus, Teresa; Jacquemet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Epicardial high-density electrical mapping is a well-established experimental instrument to monitor in vivo the activity of the atria in response to modulations of the autonomic nervous system in sinus rhythm. In regions that are not accessible by epicardial mapping, noncontact endocardial mapping performed through a balloon catheter may provide a more comprehensive description of atrial activity. We developed a computer model of the canine right atrium to compare epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping. The model was derived from an experiment in which electroanatomical reconstruction, epicardial mapping (103 electrodes), noncontact endocardial mapping (2048 virtual electrodes computed from a 64-channel balloon catheter), and direct-contact endocardial catheter recordings were simultaneously performed in a dog. The recording system was simulated in the computer model. For simulations and experiments (after atrio-ventricular node suppression), activation maps were computed during sinus rhythm. Repolarization was assessed by measuring the area under the atrial T wave (ATa), a marker of repolarization gradients. Results showed an epicardial-endocardial correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.63 (two dog experiments) and 0.96 (simulation) between activation times, and a correlation coefficients of 0.57 and 0.46 (two dog experiments) and 0.92 (simulation) between ATa values. Despite distance (balloon-atrial wall) and dimension reduction (64 electrodes), some information about atrial repolarization remained present in noncontact signals.

  15. Hepatic vein and inferior vena caval thrombus extending into the right atrium: A rare complication of amoebic liver abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Alvi, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Amoebic liver abscess is an endemic in developing countries but few cases of associated vascular complications have been reported. The authors report a very rare vascular complication of hepatic veins and inferior vena caval (IVC) thrombosis extending into the right atrium in a young male with large amoebic liver abscess. Optimal result was achieved with early diagnosis on CT scan, percutaneous drainage of abscess, intravenous metronidazole, peri-operative anticoagulation, sternotomy and thrombectomy. (author)

  16. Analysis and prediction of daylighting and energy performance in atrium spaces using daylight-linked lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Stanley K.H.; Li, Danny H.W.; Lee, Eric W.M.; Lam, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Daylight-linked lighting control and energy performance for atrium is studied. ► Field measurement of automatic dimming control shows 93% energy saving. ► Field measurement of manual on–off control shows 95% energy saving. ► Atrium illuminance is correlated with daylight factor for energy saving prediction. - Abstract: In subtropical Hong Kong, a certain amount of electricity is used to create visually comfortable interior spaces through electric lighting, which is the second major electricity-consuming item in commercial buildings, accounting for 20–30% of total electricity use. The burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation has many adverse effects on the environment. Daylighting is an important and useful strategy for enhancing visual comfort and reducing the need for the electricity consumed by light fittings. The rational use of daylight through tools such as photoelectric lighting controls can effectively reduce buildings’ electricity consumption and the related pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. Daylighting design techniques are often best demonstrated via field measurements that provide reliable operational and energy performance data for establishing design guidelines. An atrium provides an environmentally controlled indoor public space that introduces daylight into the hearts of large buildings. In circulation areas such as corridors, people expect the way ahead to be sufficiently lit and daylight-linked lighting controls can deliver excellent energy savings. This paper presents the daylighting and energy performance of an atrium space using daylight-linked lighting controls. The cost, energy and environmental issues related to various daylight illuminances are estimated and design implications are discussed

  17. Rapamycin protects kidney against ischemia reperfusion injury through recruitment of NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zheng, Long; Li, Long; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Liping; Huang, Shang; Gu, Chenli; Zhang, Lexi; Yang, Cheng; Zhu, Tongyu; Rong, Ruiming

    2014-08-19

    NKT cells play a protective role in ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, of which the trafficking in the body and recruitment in injured organs can be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rapamycin on kidneys exposed to IR injury in early stage and on trafficking of NKT cells in a murine model. Balb/c mice were subjected to kidney 30 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion. Rapamycin (2.5 ml/kg) was administered by gavage daily, starting 1 day before the operation. Renal function and histological changes were assessed. The proportion of NKT cells in peripheral blood, spleen and kidney was detected by flow cytometry. The chemokines and corresponding receptor involved in NKT cell trafficking were determined by RT-PCR and flow cytometry respectively. Rapamycin significantly improved renal function and ameliorated histological injury. In rapamycin-treated group, the proportion of NKT cells in spleen was significantly decreased but increased in peripheral blood and kidney. In addition, the CXCR3+ NKT cell in the kidney increased remarkably in the rapamycin-treated group. The chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, as the ligands of CXCR3, were also increased in the rapamycin-treated kidney. Rapamycin may recruit NKT cells from spleen to the IR-induced kidney to ameliorate renal IR injury in the early stage.

  18. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  19. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...... of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas....

  20. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  1. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  2. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  3. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  4. Comparative study on glucocerebrosidase in spleens from patients with Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Donker-Koopman, W. E.; Brul, S.; van Weely, S.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.; Schram, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Gaucher disease (glucosylceramide lipidosis), deficiency of glucocerebrosidase causes pathological storage of glucosylceramide, particularly in the spleen. A comparative biochemical and immunological analysis has therefore been made of glucocerebrosidase in spleens from normal subjects (n = 4)

  5. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  6. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  7. Pain perception during esophageal warming due to radiofrequency catheter ablation in the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Marco; Ficili, Sabina; Dottori, Serena; Elian, Mohamed Abdelkader; Pasceri, Vincenzo; Venditti, Franco; Russo, Maurizio; Lavalle, Carlo; Pandozi, Angela; Pandozi, Claudio; Santini, Massimo

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the relationship among esophageal warming, pain perception, and the site of radiofrequency (RF) delivery in the left atrium (LA) during the course of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Such a procedure in awake patients is often linked to the development of visceral pain and esophageal warming. As a consequence, potentially dangerous complications have been described. Twenty patients undergoing RF ablation in the LA were studied. An esophageal probe (EP) capable of measuring endoesophageal temperature (ET) was positioned before starting the procedure. The relative position of the EP and the tip of the ablator were evaluated through fluoroscopy imaging before starting each RF delivery, during which the highest value of the temperature was collected. After RF withdrawal, the patients were asked to define the intensity of the experienced pain by using a score index ranging from 0 (no pain) to 4 (pain requiring immediate RF interruption). The mean ET value during ablation was 39.59 +/- 4.71 degrees C. The EP proximity to the ablator's tip showed a high correlation with the development of the highest ET values (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.49, confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.41). Moreover, the highest values of pain intensity were reported when the RF was delivered to the atrial zones close to the EP projection (r = 0.50, CI 0.55-0.42) and when the highest ET levels were reached (r = 0.38, CI 0.30-0.45). Pain perception in LA ablation is significantly related to esophageal warming and is higher when the RF is delivered near the esophagus. It seems advisable to perform ET monitoring in sedated patients to avoid short- and long-term jeopardizing of the esophageal wall.

  8. Gray scale ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic liver and kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. C.; Kim, J. W.; Park, B. H.; Lee, S.

    1985-01-01

    Although the term polycystic disease is usually associated with the kidneys, involvement of other organs such as the liver, pancreas, spleen and lung is not uncommon. However, in many such cases the polycystic disease is found only at autopsy or is an incidental finding during laparotomy. Eight patients with polycystic liver and kidney disease were examined with gray-scale ultrasonography. The value of gray-scale ultrasound as a noninvasive means of differing cystic disease from suspected neoplastic disease is emphasized.

  9. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tubes, inside a fetus’ kidneys. In a normal kidney , urine flows through these tubules as the kidney is being formed during a ... not fully understand the cause of medullary sponge kidney or why cysts form in the tubules during fetal development. Even though medullary sponge kidney ...

  10. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  11. Segmentation of liver and spleen based on computational anatomy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhua; Chen, Yen-Wei; Foruzan, Amir Hossein; Lin, Lanfen; Han, Xian-Hua; Tateyama, Tomoko; Wu, Xing; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Huiyan

    2015-12-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs is a key step in developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Probabilistic atlas based on human anatomical structure, used as a priori information in a Bayes framework, has been widely used for organ segmentation. How to register the probabilistic atlas to the patient volume is the main challenge. Additionally, there is the disadvantage that the conventional probabilistic atlas may cause a bias toward the specific patient study because of the single reference. Taking these into consideration, a template matching framework based on an iterative probabilistic atlas for liver and spleen segmentation is presented in this paper. First, a bounding box based on human anatomical localization, which refers to the statistical geometric location of the organ, is detected for the candidate organ. Then, the probabilistic atlas is used as a template to find the organ in this bounding box by using template matching technology. We applied our method to 60 datasets including normal and pathological cases. For the liver, the Dice/Tanimoto volume overlaps were 0.930/0.870, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 2.906mm. For the spleen, quantification led to 0.922 Dice/0.857 Tanimoto overlaps, 1.992mm RMSE. The algorithm is robust in segmenting normal and abnormal spleens and livers, such as the presence of tumors and large morphological changes. Comparing our method with conventional and recently developed atlas-based methods, our results show an improvement in the segmentation accuracy for multi-organs (p<0.00001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric artery in about 40% of cases. Fusion of upper poles instead of the lower poles results in a n inverted horse Shoe Kidney which constitute 5 - 10% of ail Horse - Shoe kidneys , (i.e. in 95% of HSK , fusion is at lower poles. HSK is found more commonly in males by a 2 : 1 margin. AIM OF STUDY : An attempt has been made to know the various anomalies . The study has been taken up with the fond hope of helping the clinician , sonologist , and surgeons during their routine work. To apply this knowledge to the incoming post graduates in their research works. EMBRIOLOGICAL BASIS & KDNEY : The abnormality originates between 4th and 6th weeks of gestation , after the ureteral bud has entered the renal blastema. Boyden (1931 postulated that at the 14mm stage (4.5 weeks the developing metanephric masses lie close to one another , any disturbance in their relationship may result in joining at their inferior poles. A slight alteration in the position of the umbilical or common iliac artery could change the orientation of migrating kidneys thus leading to contact and fusion. In 1941 Dees (Nation 1945 , Bell 1946 , Gleen 1959 , Campbell 1970 described horse - shoe kidney di sease occurrence in 0.25% of the population or about 1 in 400. OBSERVATION : In the present study 176 specimens of kidneys were studied out of which 40 were fetal specimens and the rest were adult specimens consisting of both cadaveric and sonograms. The ad ult specimens from cadavers were 76 and 60 from sonograms. MATERIAL & METHODS : Abdomen is opened ; superficial viscera and

  13. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  14. Anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Ferraz de Melo, A; de Souza, W Machado; Rodrigues, R Felipe; Alves, F Ribeiro; Rici, R Eli Graci; Guerra, R Romão; Favaron, P Oliveira; Miglino, M Angélica; Di Dio, L John Aphonso

    2011-08-01

    With 2 figures The anatomosurgical segmentation of the arteries of the spleen was studied in 31 deer of the species Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus by means of vascular injection with latex and vinyl acetate and radiographic examination. The arteria lienalis penetrated through the hilus lienis in 87% of the cases, whereas an extrahilar artery was present in the other cases. An extraparenchymal division of the lineal artery into two, three or four segmental arteries was observed in 74% of the cases. Anastomoses between intraparenchymal arterial branches were rare and of a reduced calibre. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  16. [Value of two left atrium and pulmonary vein stereoscopic imaging reconstruction methods on guiding radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y; Zhou, S; Yin, Y H; Zheng, Y X; Wang, R P; Liu, X Q; Liu, Z Q; Liu, Q F; Liu, W; Pang, J; Jiang, Z; Tian, L H; Huang, J; Yang, L

    2017-11-24

    Objective: To compare the value of two 3D imaging reconstruction methods for left atria and pulmonary vein on guiding the catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: From January 2014 to January 2017, a total of 100 drug refractory paroxysmal AF patients were divided into left atria direct angiography group ( n =50), and indirect angiography group ( n =50). 3D CARTO system was applied for mapping and guiding the ablation procedure. Patients assigned to direct angiography group were treated as follows: intraoperative puncture of atrial septum, inject contrast agent directly into the left atrium, conduct left atrial and pulmonary venous rotation angiography, reconstruct three-dimensional image, integrate the image into real-time X-ray system to facilitate circumferential pulmonary vein isolation. Patients assigned into the indirect angiography group were treated as follows: inject contrast agent through the right ventricle, conduct delayed rotation angiography of the left atria and pulmonary vein to guide circumferential pulmonary vein fixation and ablation. The left atrial and pulmonary venous image acquisition, the operation and X-ray exposure time, the success rate and the incidence of complication of the two groups were compared. The patients were followed up for 3-6 months. Results: General clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar(all P >0.05). Ablation was successful in all 100 patients. The operation time[(112.0±21.4)min vs. (134.0±24.3)min]and X-ray exposure time((10.7±4.7)min vs. (15.8±5.2)min)were significantly lower in direct angiography group than in indirect angiography group (both P guide the radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by reconstruction 3D image of left atrium and pulmonary vein. Compared with indirect angiography group, direct angiography group can improve the imaging quality of left atrium and pulmonary vein, decrease the X-ray exposure time of the ablation procedure.

  17. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include any of the following: Bloody stools Breath odor and metallic taste in the mouth Bruising easily Changes in ...

  18. Kidney Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Kidney Replacement Therapy Diabetes sometimes damages kidneys so badly that ... Dialysis Dialysis, the more common form of kidney-replacement therapy, is a way of cleaning the blood ...

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunosuppressant medicines Anxiety, depression and mental health Kidney rejection Lifestyle changes Donate a kidney Being a living ... Healthy kidneys take the waste out of your blood. One type of waste is called creatinine. If you have ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and ... don't have any symptoms until their kidney disease is very advanced. Blood and urine tests are ...

  1. Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Menu Search Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health ... Tests for Transplant Care After Kidney Transplant Common Organ Donation and Transplantation Terms The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the ...

  2. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Chronic Kidney Disease Tests & Diagnosis How can I tell if I have kidney disease? Early kidney disease usually doesn’t have any ...

  3. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  4. Dynamics of Red Cells in Spleen: How Does Vesiculation Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Salehyar, Sara; Cabrales, Pedro; Asaro, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Vesiculation of red blood cells as a result of local separation between lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton is known to happen in vivo, most likely inside spleen where they sustain large mechanical loads during the passage through venus slits. There is, however, little knowledge about the detailed scenario and condition. We address this question via a fluid-cell interaction model by coupling a multiscale model of the cell membrane (including molecular details) with a fluid dynamics model based on boundary-integral equations. A numerical flow channel is created where the cell is driven through a narrow slit by pressure (imitating the transit through venus slits in spleen). The concentration is the occurrence of large dissociation (negative) pressure between the skeleton/membrane connection that promotes separation, a precursor of vesicle formation. Critical levels for the negative pressure are estimated using published data. By following the maximum range of pressure, we conclude that for vesiculation to happen there must be biochemical influences (e.g. binding of degraded haemoglobin) that significantly reduce effective attachment density. This is consistent with reported trends in vesiculation that are believed to occur in cases of various hereditary anemias and during blood storage. Our findings also suggest the criticality of understanding the biochemical phenomena involved with cytoskeleton/membrane attachment.

  5. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  6. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; San Luis, T. Jr.; Lange, C.E.; Thelen, M.; Veltman, G.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1977-01-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and 197 Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma. (orig.) [de

  7. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  8. Judge of surgical indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen by CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Yokoyama, Toshimitsu; Suga, Hiroyasu; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Muraoka, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masatake; Suzuki, Tadashi.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that the findings of injuries of parenchimatous organs such as liver and spleen by computed tomography (CT) are consistent with those by surgical operation. But it is still unclear whether CT findings can determine operative indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen. We performed a retrospective study on 35 lesions of blunt injuries of liver and spleen in 33 cases for blunt injuries of liver and spleen at our hospitals to examine whether CT findings can determine the severity of damage and surgical indication for the injuries, and the following results were obtained. Based on CT findings, the presence of injury was confirmed in all cases except for one lesion. Comparison of CT findings and operative or laparoscopic findings in 12 cases undergoing operation or laparoscopy for liver/spleen injury revealed that the findings of each method were almost the same with few exceptions. When liver/spleen injuries were classified according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma (JAST) Classification of injury of liver and spleen, cases with emergency operation had severe injury of Type IIIb for the liver and Type IIIb or higher for the spleen, while conservative treatment was possible for injury cases of Type IIIa or lower of the liver and spleen. From these results, the JAST Classification of these injuries based upon CT imaging was found to be a suitable method for selecting an appropriate treatment for blund injury of liver and spleen. (author)

  9. Judge of surgical indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen by CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Yokoyama, Toshimitsu; Suga, Hiroyasu; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Muraoka, Ryusuke [Fukui Medical School (Japan); Ishikawa, Masatake; Suzuki, Tadashi

    1997-10-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that the findings of injuries of parenchimatous organs such as liver and spleen by computed tomography (CT) are consistent with those by surgical operation. But it is still unclear whether CT findings can determine operative indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen. We performed a retrospective study on 35 lesions of blunt injuries of liver and spleen in 33 cases for blunt injuries of liver and spleen at our hospitals to examine whether CT findings can determine the severity of damage and surgical indication for the injuries, and the following results were obtained. Based on CT findings, the presence of injury was confirmed in all cases except for one lesion. Comparison of CT findings and operative or laparoscopic findings in 12 cases undergoing operation or laparoscopy for liver/spleen injury revealed that the findings of each method were almost the same with few exceptions. When liver/spleen injuries were classified according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma (JAST) Classification of injury of liver and spleen, cases with emergency operation had severe injury of Type IIIb for the liver and Type IIIb or higher for the spleen, while conservative treatment was possible for injury cases of Type IIIa or lower of the liver and spleen. From these results, the JAST Classification of these injuries based upon CT imaging was found to be a suitable method for selecting an appropriate treatment for blund injury of liver and spleen. (author)

  10. Quantitative description of the 3D regional mechanics of the left atrium using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklik, P; Molaee, P; Ganesan, A N; Brooks, A G; Worthley, S G; Sanders, P; Podziemski, P

    2014-01-01

    The left atrium (LA) plays an important role in the maintenance of hemodynamic and electrical stability of the heart. One of the conditions altering the atrial mechanical function is atrial fibrillation (AF), leading to an increased thromboembolic risk due to impaired mechanical function. Preserving the regions of the LA that contribute the greatest to atrial mechanical function during curative strategies for AF is important. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method of regional assessment of mechanical function of the LA. We used cardiac MRI to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the LA in nine control and nine patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Regional mechanical function of the LA in pre-defined segments of the atrium was calculated using regional ejection fraction and wall velocity. We found significantly greater mechanical function in anterior, septal and lateral segments as opposed to roof and posterior segments, as well as a significant decrease of mechanical function in the PAF group. We suggest that in order to minimize the impact of the AF treatment on global atrial mechanical function, damage related to therapeutic intervention, such as catheter ablation, in those areas should be minimized. (paper)

  11. A fast slam approach to freehand 3-d ultrasound reconstruction for catheter ablation guidance in the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolwal, Aditya B; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher R; Liang, David H

    2011-12-01

    We present a method for real-time, freehand 3D ultrasound (3D-US) reconstruction of moving anatomy, with specific application towards guiding the catheter ablation procedure in the left atrium. Using an intracardiac echo (ICE) catheter with a pose (position/orientation) sensor mounted to its tip, we continually mosaic 2D-ICE images of a left atrium phantom model to form a 3D-US volume. Our mosaicing strategy employs a probabilistic framework based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a technique commonly used in mobile robotics for creating maps of unexplored environments. The measured ICE catheter tip pose provides an initial estimate for compounding 2D-ICE image data into the 3D-US volume. However, we simultaneously consider the overlap-consistency shared between 2D-ICE images and the 3D-US volume, computing a "corrected" tip pose if need be to ensure spatially-consistent reconstruction. This allows us to compensate for anatomic movement and sensor drift that would otherwise cause motion artifacts in the 3D-US volume. Our approach incorporates 2D-ICE data immediately after acquisition, allowing us to continuously update the registration parameters linking sensor coordinates to 3D-US coordinates. This, in turn, enables real-time localization and display of sensorized therapeutic catheters within the 3D-US volume for facilitating procedural guidance. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemoperitoneum secondary to an spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicking a duodenal perforated ulcera: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Díaz, Gustavo; Alias, David; Jiménez-Fuertes, Montiel; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen without traumatic cause is an unfrequent entity, usually related with pathologic spleens. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of an histologically normal spleen with splenomegalia secondary to smoking habit. The hemoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicked a hollow viscera perforation.

  13. Pathomorphology of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in large dose 60Co γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the authors was to investigate the pathomorphology changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. At different times after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and the pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte were observed by light and transmission electron microscopies. Results: Spleen lymphocyte decreased evidently and the peak of apoptosis in spleen lymphocyte was dependent on radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Conclusion: After γ-irradiation with large doses, pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in mice can be divided into obviously different stages. The main causes of death of spleen lymphocytes are different in different dose groups

  14. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Andrea; Cofalik, Anna; Przeorek, Cesary; Gawlik, Tomasz; Olczyk, Tomasz; Kalemba, Michał; Modorowska, Alicja; Turska-d’Amico, Maria; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Jarzab, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  15. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound...

  16. Relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, dramatic advances have taken place in our knowledge of the organization and functions of the thymus and lymphoid system. Some of our understanding has come form the application of radiation therapy to diseases derived from lymphoid organs. Human investigations using radiotherapy have shed light on the radiosensitivities of the system as well as on its important functional activities. Likewise, studies of cellular traffic in the lymphoid organs, i.e., the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, showed that extensive cellular exchange occurs between the bone marrow compartment with its hemopoietic and progenitor cells and the various central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Because this is so, the term lymphohemopoietic (LH) system is appropriate. This very selective review will recapitulate some of the ongoing research in radiotherapy and radiobiology in these closely related fields. The clinical therapeutic advances have taken place in four important settings closely related to clinical therapy of tumor derived from the LH system

  17. Cat scratch disease with lymphadenitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, and spleen abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolain, J M; Chanet, V; Laurichesse, H; Lepidi, H; Beytout, J; Raoult, D

    2003-06-01

    In this report we describe a 30-year old male patient with vertebral osteomyelitis and spleen abscesses with cat scratch disease. The diagnosis was made on the basis of molecular detection of Bartonella henselae either on lymph node biopsies or on bone biopsy, histology of the lymph node, serology using either our in-house microimmunofluorescence assay or a commercial kit (Focus Technologies). Immunofluorescent detection was also performed directly on slide appositions using a monoclonal antibody. Treatment consisted of administration of antibiotics with rapid clinical improvement and a stabilization of skeletal lesions on the magnetic resonance imaging performed three months later. Twenty two other cases of this unusual manifestation associated with cat scratch disease have been reported in the literature and are reviewed here. Our case represents the second case of osteomyelitis associated with cat scratch disease in which B. henselae has been specifically identified as the etiological agent using several direct and indirect methods.

  18. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.G.; Fogh, J.; Graem, N.; Hansen, O.P.; Hippe, E.

    1984-04-15

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy, which showed only a few minor focal changes in the spine and ribs, angioscintigraphy with in vitro labeled /sup 99m/Tc-erythrocytes revealed extensive pathologic accumulations throughout the spine, femurs, and the liver, indicating the presence of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas.

  19. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  20. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Splenic Autotransplantation for an Enlarged Wandering Spleen with Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-01-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The t...

  1. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  2. Laparoscopic versus open splenectomy: the impact of spleen size on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Ali; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Although laparoscopic splenectomy (Lap-Spleen) has become the standard surgical approach for normal-sized spleens, open splenectomy (Open-Spleen) is still recommended by many in the setting of splenomegaly. We set out to compare the impact of spleen size on Lap-Spleen and Open-Spleen outcomes using a national database. We reviewed the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to identify patients who had undergone non-emergency splenectomy during 2005-2010. To evaluate the impact of spleen size on outcomes, we considered patients with diagnoses of splenomegaly and hypersplenism as those having large spleens (Large-Sp group) and those with diagnoses of primary thrombocytopenia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura as having normal spleens (Normal-Sp group). Patients were also categorized based on surgical approach into Lap-Spleen and Open-Spleen groups. We identified 639 patients in the Large-Sp group and 879 patients in the Normal-Sp group. During 2005-2010 laparoscopy was used in 84.2% of cases in the Normal-Sp group (annual range, 77.8%-90.8%). However, the rate of laparoscopy in the Large-Sp group remained consistently below 50% with an average of 41.8% (annual range, 20%-47%). In the Lap-Spleen group, those with Large-Sp had longer operative time and length of stay and higher blood transfusion and morbidity compared with the Normal-Sp group. However, when looking specifically at the Large-Sp group, patients with Open-Spleen had more transfusion requirements, longer length of stay, and higher morbidity, compared with those with Lap-Spleen. Lap-Spleen leads to significant improvement in outcomes. These advantages were believed to be limited to normal-sized spleens, but this study demonstrates that laparoscopy can still be advantageous in patients with splenomegaly. We hope such data encourages wider utilization of laparoscopy in the setting of splenomegaly, especially among surgeons who are experienced with the technique.

  3. Effects of aluminum trichloride on the trace elements and cytokines in the spleen of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Li, Xinwei; Chen, Chongxiao; Wang, Fan; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Miao, Liguang

    2012-08-01

    The bioaccumulation and immunotoxicity of aluminum (Al) have been previously documented. Al accumulates in the organs of the organism, including spleen. Spleen is a peripheral organ of the immune system. The accumulated Al may alter the immune function. Here, we investigated the bioaccumulation of Al in spleen and its alterations in the immune system. Forty male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) weighed 110-120 g were orally exposed to aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) (0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water for 120 days. The concentrations of spleen's Al, iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and growth index were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of Al and Cu in the spleen were increased in an AlCl(3)-dose dependent manner, and the concentrations of spleen's growth index, Fe, Zn, IL-2 and TNF-α were reduced in AlCl(3)-treated rats. The results suggest that AlCl(3) can suppress the growth of spleen, disorder the balance of trace elements and inhibit the immune regulation of cytokines in the spleen. It indicates that AlCl(3) suppresses the immune function of spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of the spleen in cyclophosphamide-induced hematosuppression and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Meng, Qinggang; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2009-05-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced in spleens due to various diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of spleen in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematosuppression and EMH in mice. Balb/c mice were IP injected with 300 mg/kg CTX 2 weeks after splenectomy or sham operation and randomly sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. Blood samples were collected, and spleens were weighed, histologically analyzed, and then used for flow cytometry. There were significant differences in white blood count, red blood count, platelet numbers and hemoglobin concentration between the splenectomized and sham-operated mice after CTX injection. The cellularity of the spleen was reduced 3 days following CTX treatment but then rose 7 days after CTX treatment. The numbers of colony-forming units in the spleen reached a peak 7 days after CTX injection, then declined. Flow cytometry demonstrated the percentage of CD34(+) and CD117(+) cells in the spleen increased 7 days after CTX injection, indicating the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the spleen. The study indicates that EMH occurs as a compensatory reaction to CTX-induced hematosuppression in the murine spleen, implying that conservation of the spleen may promote the recovery of cancer patients from chemotherapy-induced hematosuppression.

  5. Interactions between Biliverdin, Oxidative Damage, and Spleen Morphology after Simulated Aggressive Encounters in Veiled Chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Stressors frequently increase oxidative damage--unless organisms simultaneously mount effective antioxidant responses. One putative mitigative mechanism is the use of biliverdin, an antioxidant produced in the spleen during erythrocyte degradation. We hypothesized that both wild and captive-bred male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus, which are highly aggressive to conspecifics, would respond to agonistic displays with increased levels of oxidative damage, but that increased levels of biliverdin would limit this increase. We found that even just visual exposure to a potential combatant resulted in decreased body mass during the subsequent 48-hour period, but that hematocrit, biliverdin concentration in the bile, relative spleen size, and oxidative damage in plasma, liver, and spleen were unaffected. Contrary to our predictions, we found that individuals with smaller spleens exhibited greater decreases in hematocrit and higher bile biliverdin concentrations, suggesting a revision to the idea of spleen-dependent erythrocyte processing. Interestingly, individuals with larger spleens had reduced oxidative damage in both the liver and spleen, demonstrating the spleen's importance in modulating oxidative damage. We also uncovered differences in spleen size and oxidative damage between wild and captive-bred chameleons, highlighting environmentally dependent differences in oxidative physiology. Lastly, we found no relationship between oxidative damage and biliverdin concentration, calling into question biliverdin's antioxidant role in this species.

  6. Laparoscopy-Assisted Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy for Living-Donor Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, S; Noguchi, H; Kaku, K; Kurihara, K; Miyasaka, Y; Okabe, Y; Nakamura, U; Ohtsuka, T; Nakamura, M

    2017-06-01

    Living pancreas transplantation plays an important role in the treatment of patients with severe type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatectomy is very invasive for the donor, and less-invasive surgical procedures are needed. Although some reports have described hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for distal pancreatectomy in living-donor operations, less-invasive laparoscopy-assisted (LA) procedures are expected to increase the donor pool. We herein report the outcomes of four cases of LA spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (Warshaw technique [WT]) in living pancreas donors. Four living pancreas donors underwent LA-WT at our institution from September 2010 to January 2013. All donors fulfilled the donor criteria established by the Japan Society for Pancreas and Islet Transplantation. The median donor age was 54 years. Two donors underwent left nephrectomy in addition to LA-WT for simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The median donor operation time for pancreatectomy was 340.5 minutes. The median pancreas warm ischemic time was 3 minutes. The median donor blood loss was 246 g. All recipients immediately achieved insulin independence. One donor required reoperation because of obstructive ileus resulting from a port-site hernia. Another donor developed a pancreatic fistula (International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula grade B), which was controlled with conservative management. After a maximum follow-up of 73 months, no clinically relevant adverse events had occurred. These results were comparable with those of previous studies concerning living-donor pancreas transplantation. The LA-WT is a safe and acceptable operation for living-donor pancreas transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is Increased Echogenicity Related to a Decrease in Glomerular Filtration Rate? Objective Measurements in Pediatric Solitary Kidney Patients--A Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seung Lee

    Full Text Available Quantitative measurements of renal echogenicity using a graphic program show close correlation with renal histology in adult patients, but this has neither been applied in pediatric patients nor correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR. To determine the direct relationship between echogenicity and GFR, we retrospectively analyzed 91 patients with a solitary functioning kidney under the age of 10, who underwent ultrasonography and serum cystatin C evaluation on a single day between January 2013 and December 2014. Echogenicity was quantified as previously reported. Echogenicity and kidney length were correlated with age-matched values of serum cystatin C-based GFR. Evaluation was performed at a median age of 17.1 months. GFR was low for age in eight of 54 right solitary kidney patients and four of 37 left solitary kidney patients. The right kidney-liver ratio was significantly elevated in the right decreased GFR group, while the left kidney-spleen ratio was not different in the left decreased GFR group. Age-matched longitudinal kidney length ratios were similar between the decreased and normal GFR groups for both sides. This is the first report to objectively prove the relationship between echogenicity and renal function in patients with a right solitary kidney. The right kidney-liver echogenicity ratio, measured objectively, showed feasibility in clinical practice as it showed a close relationship with decreased renal function when increased. However, absolute kidney echogenicity values, or the left kidney-spleen echogenicity ratio, were not independent markers for decreased renal function.

  8. Effects of trypan blue on the action of adrenergic agonists in the guinea-pig isolated atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, M; Ziai, S A

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that trypan blue, a diazo dye with polyamphipathic structure, can inhibit the coupling of receptors to G-proteins. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of trypan blue on the actions of adrenoceptor agonists in the guinea-pig atrium. Trypan blue (10 and 100 microM) antagonized the positive inotropic effects of isoprenaline and dobutamine by shifting their concentration-response curves to the right. With the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, salbutamol, there was a reduction of response in the presence of trypan blue. Therefore, we concluded that trypan blue diminish the response to beta-adrenoceptor agonists possibly via decoupling receptors from Gs. Trypan blue and similar agents, due to their unique mode of action, can be used as tools for the investigation of the mechanism of receptor-G protein coupling in the whole tissue preparation.

  9. Cardiac Rupture of the Junction of the Right Atrium and Superior Vena Cava in Blunt Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Sung Byun

    Full Text Available Cardiac rupture following blunt thoracic trauma is rarely encountered, since it commonly causes death at the scene. With advances in critical care, blunt cardiac rupture has been successfully treated with well-organized team approach including an emergency physician, anesthesiologist, and cardiac surgeon. We encountered a patient with blunt cardiac rupture of the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium that extended 7 cm to the right ventricular junction. The patient was successfully resuscitated after a closed thoracostomy and pericardiocentesis with fluid loading. Cardiac injury was repaired via mid-sternotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient recovered without complications and was discharged on the 7th day after surgery.

  10. A successful insertion of PICC in patient with cardiac angiosarcoma and neoplasty of right atrium and pacemaker: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Sun, Wenyan; Wang, Kai

    2017-12-01

    Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare tumor and the common treatment is surgical resection followed by chemotherapy. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are widely used in cancer patients and ultrasound-guided PICC insertion could improve success rate especially in patient with abnormal anatomy structure. Reports about PICCs being placed in patient who had suffered from the cardiac angiosarcoma and neoplasty of right atrium with an ipsilateral cardiac permanent pacemaker are rarely.After patient's informed consent, we present a case of the successful insertion of PICC into a patient with the ipsilateral cardiac disease with a pacemaker placement, which has not been previously reported. This report highlights PICC could be used in patient with cardiac disease with a pacemaker placement for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A successful insertion of PICC in patient with cardiac angiosarcoma and neoplasty of right atrium and pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Sun, Wenyan; Wang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare tumor and the common treatment is surgical resection followed by chemotherapy. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are widely used in cancer patients and ultrasound-guided PICC insertion could improve success rate especially in patient with abnormal anatomy structure. Reports about PICCs being placed in patient who had suffered from the cardiac angiosarcoma and neoplasty of right atrium with an ipsilateral cardiac permanent pacemaker are rarely. After patient's informed consent, we present a case of the successful insertion of PICC into a patient with the ipsilateral cardiac disease with a pacemaker placement, which has not been previously reported. Conclusions: This report highlights PICC could be used in patient with cardiac disease with a pacemaker placement for chemotherapy. PMID:29390474

  12. Numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in a simple three-storey atrium building and thermal comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Shafqat; Oosthuizen, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    The numerical investigations of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation and thermal comfort evaluation in a simple three-storey atrium building as a part of the passive ventilation strategy was undertaken using a validated Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. The Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) modeling approach with the SST-k–ω turbulence model and the discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM) was used for the numerical investigations. The steady-state governing equations were solved using a commercial solver FLUENT©. Various flow situations of the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in the building during day and night time were examined. The numerical results obtained for the airflow rates, airflow patterns and temperature distributions inside the building are presented in this paper. Using the numerical results, the well-known thermal comfort indices PMV (predicted mean vote) and PPD (predicted percentage of dissatisfied) were calculated for the evaluation of the thermal comfort conditions in the occupied regions of the building. It was noticed that thermal conditions prevailing in the occupied areas of the building as a result of using the buoyancy-driven ventilation were mostly in comfort zone. From the study of the night time ventilation, it was found that hot water (80 °C) circulation (heated by solar collectors during daytime) along the chimney walls during night time and heat sources present in the building can be useful in inducing night ventilation airflows in the building as a part of the passive ventilation strategy. -- Highlights: • A simple three-storey atrium building. • Numerical modeling of buoyancy-driven ventilation flow in the building. • Effect of solar intensity and geographical location on ventilation. • CFD predictions were used to calculate thermal comfort indices. • Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions for the occupants

  13. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen: A rare complication in a patient with lupus nephritis on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadri Quaid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen is a life threatening condition. We report a 40-year-old fe-male patient, a known case of lupus nephritis receiving hemodialysis, who developed spontaneous rupture of the spleen during the course of her illness. The patient was managed conservatively with gradual regression of hematoma without further complications.

  14. Epithelial cyst of the spleen with squamous metaplasia: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Vissa; Reddy, Vengala Chidananda; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Grandhi, Bhavana; Kona, Suneetha

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial splenic cysts are uncommon lesions which occur the spleen. The aetiopathogenesis of these cysts is not clear. We are reporting a case of an epithelial cyst which occurred in the spleen in a 40-year-old female, which was multi loculated and which had flattened lining epithelium. Some foci showed squamous metaplasia.

  15. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  16. Two different mechanisms of immune-complex trapping in the mouse spleen during immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of immune-complex (IC) trapping was examined using purified horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-anti-HRP (PAP) on frozen sections of mouse spleen in vitro. We investigated the trapping mechanisms by applying the IC with or without fresh mouse serum added on the spleen sections of naive as

  17. Late return of function after intrathoracic torsion of the spleen in congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Pedersen, P V

    1986-01-01

    , and the spleen were intrathoracic. There was a 720 degree torsion of the splenic pedicle. After reduction, the spleen was placed in the abdomen. At scintiscans 12 days and 14 weeks after operation, no certain splenic function was demonstrated, but at follow-up up 21/2 years later the splenic scan was normal....

  18. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  19. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of the Depression of Heart-spleen Deficiency with Wuling Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Liu Ping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on the treatment of depression belong to the type of heart-spleen deficiency with Wuling capsule, 37 patients were assigned into two groups: the deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (I) and the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (II). The efficacy of two groups was surveyed and compared after taken Wuling capsule 2 and 4 weeks,respectively. After treatment, there was a difference (P 0.05). The satisfactory effects were showed on various kinds of depressions using wuling capsules,while deficiency of both the heart and spleen group effects were better than that of the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group. (authors)

  20. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  1. A case of torsion of the wandering spleen presenting as hypersplenism and gastric fundal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irak, Kader; Esen, Irfan; Keskın, Murat; Emınler, Ahmet Tarık; Ayyildiz, Talat; Kaya, Ekrem; Kiyici, Murat; Gürel, Selim; Nak, Selim Giray; Gülten, Macit; Dolar, Enver

    2011-02-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen from its normal location due to the loss or weakening of ligaments that hold the spleen in the left upper quadrant. The possibility of torsion of the spleen is high due to the long and mobile nature of the vascular pedicle. Generally, cases are asymptomatic. Under conditions of delayed diagnosis, symptoms of splenomegaly, left portal hypertension, gastric fundal varices, and hypersplenism may present as a result of development of vascular congestion associated with chronic torsion. There are only a few cases in the literature reporting the association of wandering spleen and fundal varices. We report herein the case of a 55-year-old female who admitted to our clinic with complaints of fatigue and epigastric pain. She was determined to have gastric fundal varices and hypersplenism secondary to the development of left portal hypertension due to chronic splenic torsion.

  2. The 2010 patent landscape for spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Alessandro F; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Kaila, Neelu; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Thorarensen, Atli

    2012-05-01

    Discovery of small molecular inhibitors for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a major ongoing effort within the pharmaceutical industry. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is one of leading small molecular targets with regard to clinical development primarlly due to efforts by Rigel and Portola. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the SYK patent landscape. The patent literature we evaluated relates to any organization that has filed applications that imply that SYK is the intended target. The interest in SYK was initiated in the early 2000's with many organizations, including several large pharmaceutical companies, and has been active for years. In general, the structural theme of most of the compounds in these applications is a traditional ATP competitive inhibitor with each organization having a different hinge binding element. In general, the attachment to the hinge is an aryl amine that is decorated with a solubilizing group. The other substituents are broadly variable across the numerous companies indicating that SYK has significant flexibility in its interactions in that portion of the kinase. This overview of the SYK patent literature and the learnings of the inhibitors' substitution patterns would be an important reference for anyone working in this area.

  3. Effect of Breath Holding on Spleen Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ai; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonographic studies have demonstrated transient reduction in spleen volume in relation to apnea diving. We measured spleen volume under various respiratory conditions by MR imaging to accurately determine the influence of ordinary breath holding on spleen volumetry. Twelve healthy adult volunteers were examined. Contiguous MR images of the spleen were acquired during free breathing and during respiratory manipulations, including breath holding at the end of normal expiration, breath holding at deep inspiration, and the valsalva maneuver, and spleen volume was measured from each image set based on the sum-of-areas method. Acquisition during free breathing was performed with respiratory triggering. The duration of each respiratory manipulation was 30 s, and five sets of MR images were acquired serially during each manipulation. Baseline spleen volume before respiratory manipulation was 173.0 ± 79.7 mL, and the coefficient of variance for two baseline measures was 1.4% ± 1.6%, suggesting excellent repeatability. Spleen volume decreased significantly just after the commencement of respiratory manipulation, remained constant during the manipulation, and returned to the control value 2 min after the cessation of the manipulation, irrespective of manipulation type. The percentages of volume reduction were 10.2% ± 2.9%, 10.2% ± 3.5%, and 13.3% ± 5.7% during expiration breath holding, deep-inspiration breath holding, and the valsalva maneuver, respectively, and these values did not differ significantly. Spleen volume is reduced during short breath-hold apnea in healthy adults. Physiological responses of the spleen to respiratory manipulations should be considered in the measurement and interpretation of spleen volume.

  4. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  6. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Pregnancy and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email A new baby is ... disease and pregnancy. Can a woman with "mild" kidney disease have a baby? That depends. There is good ...

  7. Tests for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Hope Affair A Pairing for Prevention - Boston Classical Music For a Cause A Pairing for Prevention - ... kidney Financial Assistance Kidney patient assistance HelpLine Grants Management System (GMS) login Education & Research Patient Webinars Become ...

  8. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Hope Affair A Pairing for Prevention - Boston Classical Music For a Cause A Pairing for Prevention - ... kidney Financial Assistance Kidney patient assistance HelpLine Grants Management System (GMS) login Education & Research Patient Webinars Become ...

  9. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood's chemical makeup may ...

  10. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys , contains the by-products of our body's metabolism — salts, toxins, and water — that end up in ... blood. Acute kidney failure may be due to bacterial infection, injury, shock, heart failure, poisoning, or drug ...

  11. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating ...

  12. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000136.htm Kidney stones and lithotripsy - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny ...

  13. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Related Topics English English French Español Section Navigation Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What ... tips from the family health reunion guide and speak with your family during special gatherings. Your chances ...

  14. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACKD)? M any people with chronic kid ney disease develop ACKD, a condition in which the kidneys develop fluid-filled sacs called renal (kidney) cysts. ACKD occurs in children and adults. The cysts are more likely to ...

  15. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  16. Study on the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guang-yao; Zhang, Wu-ning; Shen, Xiao-jing; He, Xue-fen; Chen, Yi

    2004-08-01

    Spleen in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is not actually the spleen in the anatomic sense designated in western medicine because its functions basically belong to the physiological category of digestive system in modern medicine, and it represents a macroscopic concept of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. Spleen deficiency syndrome refers to the clinical phenomena such as hypofunction of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. By integrating TCM with modern medicine, this paper is intended to explore the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis. By means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and histochemical staining, we conducted histopathological and subcellular ultrastructural (nuclei and mitochondrial) analysis of gastric mucosa of 188 patients of spleen deficiency, and that of 42 voluntary blood donors without clinical symptoms. The gastric mucosa of patients with spleen Qi deficiency (SQD) and spleen yang deficiency (SyangD) could either be affected by organic lesion (type G-occurring on the basis of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)) or unaffected (type F-chiefly belonging to functional indigestion); spleen yin deficiency (SyinD) and spleen deficiency with Qi stagnation (SDQS) both occurred on the basis of CSG and CAG; and the degree of mucosa inflammatory cells infiltration, the degree of decrease in glands propria, and the incidence of IMIIb in CSG and CAG were more serious than those of G-SQD and G-SyangD, P < 0.05 - 0.01. Spleen deficiency syndrome is likely to occur on the basis of organic lesion of gastric mucosa (disease with symptoms of both CSG or CAG and spleen deficiency symptoms), as well as on the basis of inorganic lesion of gastric mucosa (nondisease with symptoms, which is, despite spleen deficiency symptoms, there is no CSG or CAG). Besides, the clinical phenomenon of disease without

  17. Kidney Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is Kidney Cancer in Children? Kidney (renal) tumors are very rare in children. Still, the three most common renal tumors found ... treatable and curable. What are the Types of Kidney Cancer in Children? Male urinary tract Medical Illustration Copyright © ...

  18. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is ∼ 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing ∼ 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 μM, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of ∼ 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH 2 groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with [γ- 32 P]ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole 33 P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed

  19. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  20. Which common test should be used to assess spleen autotransplant effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ehsan; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Historically, total splenectomy was the only choice of treatment for traumatic splenic injuries. However, nonoperative management and spleen-preserving surgical techniques are preferred in modern medicine. In some situations in which the surgeon has to perform splenectomy, spleen autotransplant may preserve the splenic function. Selecting the best method for evaluating the splenic autotransplant effect has been debated for several years. In this study, we compared three common tests in evaluating the implanted spleen function. Participants included 10 patients who were candidates for laparotomy and splenectomy. After performing splenectomy, we implanted five pieces of the spleen in the greater omentum of each patient. After 3 months, the implanted spleen function was evaluated by nuclear red blood cell (RBC) scan, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M level, and presence of Howell-Jolly (HJ) bodies in the peripheral blood smear. All patients had normal peripheral blood smear. The IgM level was lower than normal in one patient, and scintigraphy did not demonstrate the transplanted spleen in another patient. All these tests may have comparable results, but because of availability and low cost of peripheral blood smear, which is also easily performed, it can be considered as the first option to evaluate the implanted spleen function.

  1. Microscopy of vascular architecture and arteriovenous communications in the spleen of two odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y

    1994-08-01

    The red pulp of the spleens of the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and the Pacific bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gilli) (Odontoceti) were examined by light and electron microscopy and found to comprise two venous layers, an inner and an outer. The inner layer is homologous to the intermediate zone (IZ) of primitive-type mammalian spleens and contains sinusoids consisting of endothelial cells and a thin layer of extracellular deposits. Its vascular structure is unclear. The venous vessels of this layer eventually communicate with veins of the perivenous outer layer. The perivenous layer contains veins of various sizes, interstitial elements, and trabeculae. It is filled with blood cells, particularly plasma cells, but no myeloid cells. The perivenous layer (PVL) is homologous to the red pulp of common mammalian spleens but shows signs of involution. The white pulp gives origin to arterial terminals that end in the red pulp, where they communicate directly with the sinusoidal veins producing a closed circulation. The arterial terminals do not show ellipsoids. The presence of an IZ with a closed circulation and the involution of the red pulp makes the spleen of Odeontoceti another example of a mammalian spleen of the primitive type that has been altered by the evolutionary process. Vascular remodelling of the spleen of Odontoceti seems to follow the pattern noted in the spleens of nonmammalian vertebrates.

  2. The spleen is the site where mast cells are induced in the development of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Shota; Wakamatsu, Ei; Ishida, Yasuo; Obata, Yuuki; Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Abe, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that splenic immune responses play pivotal roles in the development of allergic diseases; however, the precise role of the spleen remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated a novel role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of food allergy (FA). We found that mast cells (MCs) developed from progenitor cells present in spleen during an antigen-specific T-cell response in vitro. In a Th2 response-mediated FA model, significant expansion of MCs was also observed in spleen. The incidence of allergic diarrhea was profoundly reduced in splenectomized mice, whereas adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced splenic MCs into these mice restored allergic symptoms, suggesting that the splenic MCs functioned as the pathogenic cells in the development of FA. The in vitro-generated MCs required not only IL-3 but also IFN-γ, and treatment of FA-induced mice with anti-IFN-γ antibody suppressed expansion of MCs in spleen as well as diarrhea development, highlighting that IFN-γ in the spleen orchestrated the development of FA, which was followed by a Th2 response in the local lesion. Overall, we propose that the role of the spleen in the development of FA is to provide a unique site where antigen-specific T cells induce development of pathogenic MCs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Release and retention of labelled DNA in the thymus and spleen of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Abraham, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process of release and retention of labelled DNA in thymus and spleen of normal and irradiated ( 06 Co) mice has been studied after administration of 3 H-thymidine. The results indicate that the dividing fraction of lymphoid cells is more resistant to radiation than the fraction of nondividing lymphoytes. The time courses of the specific activities of DNA in thymus and spleen were different especially after irradiation with lethal doses. It is suggested that the process of depletion in the lymphoid series is probably similar for both thymus and spleen but, the different cellular composition of these organs led to apparently unrelated results. (orig.) [de

  4. Torsion of a wandering spleen. A rare cause of acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwashilli N. Jude

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen is a rare condition that accounts for less than 0.25% of all indications for splenectomy. It is characterized by ectopic localization of the spleen owing to the lack or weakening of its ligaments. Torsion is the most common complication due to its long pedicle and high mobility, which may result in acute abdomen. We report a case of torsion in a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old male presenting with an acute abdomen that was treated by splenectomy.

  5. Active suppression of in vitro reactivity of spleen cells after BCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach-Arbouys, S.; Poupon, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)

  6. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  7. Size matters: Spleen and lung volumes predict performance in human apneic diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eSchagatay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans share with e.g. seals the ability to contract the spleen and increase circulating hematocrit, which may improve apneic performance by enhancing gas storage. Seals have large spleens and while human spleen size is small in comparison, it shows great individual variation. Unlike many marine mammals, human divers rely to a great extent on lung oxygen stores, but the impact of lung volume on competitive apnea performance has never been determined. We studied if spleen- and lung size correlated with performance in elite apnea divers. Volunteers were 14 male apnea world championship participants, with a mean(SE of 5.8(1.2 years of previous apnea training. Spleen volume was calculated from spleen length, width and thickness measured via ultrasound during rest, and vital capacity via spirometry. Accumulated competition scores from dives of maximal depth, time and distance were compared to anthropometric measurements and training data. Mean dive performance was 75(4 m for constant weight depth, 5 min 53(39 s for static apnea and 139(13 m for dynamic apnea distance. Subjects’ mean height was 184(2 cm, weight 82(3 kg, vital capacity (VC 7.3(0.3 L and spleen volume 336(32 ml. Spleen volume did not correlate with subject height or weight, but was positively correlated with competition score (r=0.57; P<0.05. Total competition score was also positively correlated with VC (r=0.54; P<0.05. The three highest scoring divers had the greatest spleen volumes, averaging 538(53 ml, while the three lowest scoring divers had a volume of 270(71 ml (P<0.01. VC was also greater in the high-scorers, at 7.9(0.36 L as compared to 6.7(0.19 L in the low-scorers (P<0.01. Spleen volume was reduced to half after 2 min of apnea in the highest scoring divers, and the estimated resting apnea time gain from the difference between high and low scorers was 15 s for spleen volume and 60 s for VC. We conclude that both spleen- and lung volume predict apnea performance in elite

  8. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  9. EXAMINATION OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ATRIUMS IN PATIENTS WITH LONG-TERM PERSISTENT FORM OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION AND VALVULAR HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kulikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to examine electrophysiological parameters of atrial myocardium, characteristics of atrioventricular conduction, and potential factors affecting recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF in patients with persistent and long-term persistent forms of AF prior to the Labirynth IIIB surgery with single-step correction of valvular heart disease.Materials and methods. The study included 100 adults (48 men, 52 women with persistent and long-term persistent forms of AF and different valvular heart diseases. Mean patient age was 59 years. Mean AF duration was 4 years. All patients were prescribed antiarrhythmic therapy but it proved ineffective. In 15 % of patients, restoration of the sinus rhythm was attempted through electrical cardioversion but long-term control of the sinus rhythm wasn’t achieved. All patients were diagnosed with organic pathology of the mitral valve. Also, in 80 % of patients, relative insufficiency of the tricuspid valve was detected. Chronic heart failure functional class per NYHA was III. Size of the left atrium was 5 cm, mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 61 %. All patients underwent electrical cardioversion. After successful restoration of the sinus rhythm, endocardial electrophysiology study (EES of the heart was performed. Then, correction of valvular pathologies and the Labyrinth IIIB surgery were performed. Results. Examination of refractoriness of different parts of the atriums has shown that effective refractory period (ERP of the atrioventricular node was minimal compared to other parts of the atriums. Maximal ERP duration was observed in the upper part of the right atrium. Therefore, in patients with long history of AF, heterogeneity of atrial myocardium ERP duration is observed. In 17 % of patients, atrial vulnerability was detected. The area of atrial vulnerability was always associated with ERP. Its duration in patients with atrial vulnerability was significantly higher.Conclusion. Long

  10. Preventive AF ablation in patients with mitral valve lesion and left atrium enlargement: 3-month follow-up results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogachev-Prokophiev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Persistence or appearance of atrial fibrillation (AF after mitral valve surgery significantly reduces the number of excellent and good results in the long-term period. AF leads to heart failure and pulmonary hypertension and increases the risk of thromboembolic events and stroke. Drug strategies for prevention of new-onset AF in the postoperative period are well developed, while invasive methods are still under development and clinical trials. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgical prevention of atrial fibrillation in patients with left atrium enlargement and mitral valve (MV lesion at 3-month follow-up.Methods. Forty patients operated in our clinic over a period of 2015–2017 were included in the study. All patients had MV lesion and left atrial dilatation greater than 60 mm. All patients had a sinus rhythm at the time of the operation and no documented AF in the history. The mean age of the patients was 48.9±10.1 (23-69 years. All patients had indications for mitral valve surgery and were randomized into two groups. The first group included patients who underwent a concomitant preventive ablation procedure (n = 20. The second group included patients with isolated MV surgery (n = 20. Complications and heart rhythm were evaluated within 3 months after surgery.Results. Patients who underwent preventive ablation within 3 months after the surgery did not differ significantly in the number of complications as compared with the control. In the group of patients with preventive ablation, a higher freedom from AF in comparison with the group of patients with isolated MV surgery was observed: 95 vs. 40%, respectively. Conclusion. Preventive atrial fibrillation ablation in patients with mitral valve lesion and left atrium enlargement is a safe and effective procedure. Preventive ablation reduces the risk of atrial fibrillation by 1.6 times within 3-month follow-up.Received 24 April 2017. Accepted 28 June 2017.Funding: The

  11. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  12. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  13. Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation for an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2014-06-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The transplanted splenic tissues could be identified on a spleen scintigram obtained 3 months after the surgery. Howell-Jolly bodies were not observed in blood specimens. This procedure is able to prevent an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, and leads to satisfactory cosmetic results.

  14. Enhancement of erythroid colony formation in vitro by spleen extract from irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shiro; Terasawa, Waka; Kodama, Hiroaki; Terasawa, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    The effect of spleen extract from irradiated rats on CFU-e and BFU-e colony formation of rat bone marrow cells was investigated by using modified plasma clot culture media. In the presence of erythropoietin (Ep), CFU-e colony formation peaked at 48 hr of culture, and the Ep-induced increase of CFU-e colonies was dose-dependent. The addition of spleen extract enhanced the colony formation more than two-fold in the Ep-containing culture. BFU-e colony formation was also enhanced by the addition of spleen extract. These results indicate that spleen extract from irradiated rats contains factor(s) which stimulates the proliferation of erythroid progenitors. (author)

  15. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  16. Loss of Sympathetic Nerves in Spleens from Patients with End Stage Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B. Hoover

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spleen is an important site for central regulation of immune function by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, but little is known about this major region of neuroimmune communication in humans. Experimental studies using animal models have established that sympathetic innervation of the spleen is essential for cholinergic anti-inflammatory responses evoked by vagal nerve stimulation, and clinical studies are evaluating this approach for treating inflammatory diseases. Most data on sympathetic nerves in spleen derive from rodent studies, and this work has established that remodeling of sympathetic innervation can occur during inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of sepsis on spleen innervation. Our primary goals were to (i localize noradrenergic nerves in human spleen by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a specific noradrenergic marker, (ii determine if nerves occur in close apposition to leukocytes, and (iii determine if splenic sympathetic innervation is altered in patients who died from end stage sepsis. Staining for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT was done to screen for cholinergic nerves. Archived paraffin tissue blocks were used. Control samples were obtained from trauma patients or patients who died after hemorrhagic stroke. TH + nerves were associated with arteries and arterioles in all control spleens, occurring in bundles or as nerve fibers. Individual TH + nerve fibers entered the perivascular region where some appeared in close apposition to leukocytes. In marked contrast, spleens from half of the septic patients lacked TH + nerves fibers and the average abundance of TH + nerves for the septic group was only 16% of that for the control group (control: 0.272 ± 0.060% area, n = 6; sepsis: 0.043 ± 0.026% area, n = 8; P < 0.005. All spleens lacked cholinergic innervation. Our results provide definitive evidence for the distribution of noradrenergic

  17. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: → Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. → Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. → Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein

  18. Architecture of fibrin network inside thrombotic material obtained from the right atrium and pulmonary arteries: flow and location matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Piotr; Sobczyński, Robert; Ząbczyk, Michał; Babiarczyk, Paulina; Sadowski, Jerzy; Undas, Anetta

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolectomy is a treatment option in selected patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). Efficiency of thrombus degradation in PE largely depends on the architecture of its fibrin network, however little is known about its determinants. We present the case of a 56-year-old woman with high-risk PE and proximal deep-vein thrombosis, whose thrombotic material removed during embolectomy from the right atrium and pulmonary (lobar and segmental) arteries has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed that distally located thrombi are richer in densely-packed fibrin fibers and contain more white cells and less erythrocytes than the proximal ones and the atrial thrombus. Fibrin fibers alignment along the flow vector was observed in the thrombi removed from high-velocity flow pulmonary arteries, and not in the atrial thrombus. The content of denser fibrin network and platelet aggregates was increased in segmental thromboemboli. Our findings describe the relation between thrombus architecture and location, and might help to elucidate thrombus resistance to anticoagulant therapy in some PE patients.

  19. Latest generation of unipolar and bipolar steroid eluting leads: long-term comparison of electrical performance in atrium and ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, D; Fabbri, M; Puglisi, A; Moracchini, P; Bernasconi, M; Nastasi, M; Menozzi, C; Mascioli, G; Marotta, T; de Seta, F

    2000-07-01

    One hundred and seventy-three patients, mean age 74 years permanently paced with 123 atrial (53 unipolar, 70 bipolar) and 143 ventricular (73 unipolar, 70 bipolar) pacing leads were included in this study. The pacing leads were recent generation low surface area steroid eluting leads from one manufacturer: leads with silicone and polyurethane insulation were studied, and they were combined with generations of one pacemaker family from the same manufacturer permitting identical measurements to be made over a follow-up of 2 years. Pacing threshold was measured using pulse duration at a fixed voltage of 1.5 V: peak to peak P and R wave amplitude and pacing impedance at 2.5 V and 0.5 ms were all measured using the manufacturer's standard programmer. Although many significant differences, in the parameters measures, existed between atrium and ventricle and unipolar and bipolar configurations, none was felt to be of clinical significance. These data permit the physician to choose the lead type with regard to sensing performance and long-term lead integrity.

  20. A Combined Random Forests and Active Contour Model Approach for Fully Automatic Segmentation of the Left Atrium in Volumetric MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of the left atrium (LA from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI datasets is of great importance for image guided atrial fibrillation ablation, LA fibrosis quantification, and cardiac biophysical modelling. However, automated LA segmentation from cardiac MRI is challenging due to limited image resolution, considerable variability in anatomical structures across subjects, and dynamic motion of the heart. In this work, we propose a combined random forests (RFs and active contour model (ACM approach for fully automatic segmentation of the LA from cardiac volumetric MRI. Specifically, we employ the RFs within an autocontext scheme to effectively integrate contextual and appearance information from multisource images together for LA shape inferring. The inferred shape is then incorporated into a volume-scalable ACM for further improving the segmentation accuracy. We validated the proposed method on the cardiac volumetric MRI datasets from the STACOM 2013 and HVSMR 2016 databases and showed that it outperforms other latest automated LA segmentation methods. Validation metrics, average Dice coefficient (DC and average surface-to-surface distance (S2S, were computed as 0.9227±0.0598 and 1.14±1.205 mm, versus those of 0.6222–0.878 and 1.34–8.72 mm, obtained by other methods, respectively.

  1. Adrenocortical carcinoma with extension to the inferior vena cava and right atrium: 20-month-old girl with TP53 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Levin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-month-old female presented with respiratory distress and a right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava and right atrium. The mass was initially thought to be neuroblastoma. Pathology later revealed adrenocortical carcinoma. Inferior vena cava extension is far more common in adrenocortical carcinoma than neuroblastoma, and its presence should prompt clinical and laboratory evaluation for an adrenocortical tumor. The genetic findings in TP53 associated with this disease are discussed.

  2. Outcome of children with blunt liver or spleen injuries: Experience from a single institution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Woon-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, injury pattern, and treatment outcomes among children hospitalized for the management of blunt liver and spleen injury at a single institution in Korea, and to document trends in treatment strategies of children with blunt torso trauma. Children (injuries, hospitalized at our center between May 2010 and February 2016, were included in the present study. Data were retrospectively analyzed for demographic and injury-related information were obtained. During the study period, 34 patients with blunt liver injury and 21 patients with blunt spleen injury presented at the center. The most common cause of liver and spleen injury was motor vehicle collision, followed by fall. Thirty patients (88.2%) with liver injuries and 18 patients (85.7%) with spleen injuries were managed conservatively. No cases of mortality occurred in patients with spleen injury group; one patient (2.9%) died in patients with liver injury due to uncontrolled bleeding. Our data demonstrated that 85.7% of patients with spleen injuries and 88.2% of patients with liver injuries were managed nonoperatively. Operative management was chosen more selectively, being applied in patients with high grade organ injury scores or abrupt changes in vital status. Our findings will contribute to the available data concerning children with traumatic injuries in Korea. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of the spleen in the maturation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spleen cells from unimmunized Lewis rats were fractionated by 1 x g velocity sedimentation and assayed for their ability to restore the adoptive primary antibody response to horse spleen ferritin in irradiated syngeneic recipients given T cell supplementation. Large, medium and small cell fractions all showed virgin B cell activity. Similar studies with thoractic duct cells show that virgin B cell activity is restricted to the small and medium cells. Large spleen cells produced a 2-ME sensitive adoptive antibody response which persisted for 21 days. All antibody produced by small cells at 21 days was 2-ME resistant. Examination of spleen cells during recovery from sublethal irradiation showed that virgin B cell activity was first detected at 14 days, and is confined to the large cell fraction. Experiments with congenic rats which differ at the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain allotype showed that small cells from the bone marrow injected intravenously can transform into large Ig-bearing cells in the spleen. The relationship of the subclasses of virgin B cells in the spleen to B cell maturation is discussed

  4. [Clinical and experimental study on treatment of anorexy in children with the activating spleen prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S C; You, R D

    1991-02-01

    The treatment of 488 cases with anorexy in children showed that the curative effect of the group using Chinese medicines based on the differentiation of symptoms and signs by (1) activating the Spleen, (2) invigorating and activating the spleen was significantly higher than the control using concentrated vitamin B complex (P less than 0.001). The results of the experimental study were as follows: Erbao instant granules (the medicine for activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the D-xylose excretion rate of urine; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; raising the quality of 8 mineral elements in hair and the quality of SIgA in saliva; adjusting the abnormal peristalsis of the experimental rabbits and promoting the ability that duodenums which had been separated from rabbits had to absorb different amino acids and glucose. Jian'er syrup (the medicine for invigorating and activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the quality of 14 mineral elements in hair; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; increasing the index of thymus and spleen in the experimental rats and stimulating them to produce hemolysin. The authors tend to think that the therapeutic principle of activating the Spleen can improve appetite, help the body to absorb and utilize various nutrients which contain many kinds of essential trace elements.

  5. Incorporating parasite systematics in comparative analyses of variation in spleen mass and testes sizes of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlet, Nicolas; Chaisiri, Kitipong; Claude, Julien; Morand, Serge

    2011-11-01

    Parasite diversity is hypothesized to act on host life-history traits through investment in immunity. In order to incorporate the diversity of the parasite community that an individual host or a host species may face, two indices can be used: Taxonomic Species Richness and Taxonomic Entropy, where the taxonomic information is incorporated with the taxonomic weight. We tested whether these indices correlate with several morphological traits potentially implicated in immune defence and in reproduction, using data on gastrointestinal helminths and their rodent hosts sampled in Southeast Asia. We found no relationship between parasite diversity indices and either spleen mass or testes size at the intraspecific level, i.e. at the level of individuals. At the interspecific level, we found no relationship between the parasite diversity indices and testes size. However, we found that female spleen mass is significantly influenced by the specific species richness of parasites, whereas male spleen mass is influenced by individual mean parasite diversity indices. We concluded that female spleen mass may have evolved in response to gastrointestinal helminth pressure acting at species levels, while in males, the individual spleen mass could be constrained by other factors, such as the blood storage function of the spleen.

  6. A case of a resected benign myxoma-like hemorrhagic cyst, which later recurred as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Choi, Seo-Won; Min, Daniel; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Woo-In; Moon, Jae Youn; Sung, Jung Hoon; Kim, In Jai; Lim, Sang-Wook; Cha, Dong-Hun; Moon, Byung; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Won-Jang

    2017-04-01

    An intracardiac cystic mass is a rare type of mass found in the left atrium. The differential diagnosis of an intracardiac cystic mass includes hydatid cysts, bronchogenic cysts, intracardiac varices, and hemorrhages in some tumor types, including myxoma. We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with episodic dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed the presence of a left atrial mass mimicking myxoma. However, in postoperative findings, it was determined that the mass was actually a hemorrhagic cyst. Eighteen months later, the patient presented with recurrent exertional dyspnea and TTE revealed the recurrence of a left atrial mass. Computed tomography showed that the mass extended into the right atrium, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus. After re-operation, the final histological diagnosis was determined to be an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the left atrium. An intracardiac hemorrhagic cyst was suspected during the operation of a benign-looking LA mass. As such, we recommend that other rare etiologies be considered and more biopsies be performed when possible.

  7. Impact of ECG gating in contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the assessment of the pulmonary veins and the left atrium anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, M.; Buecker, A.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Guenther, R.W.; Spuentrup, E. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum RWTH Aachen (Germany); Schauerte, P. [Medizinische Klinik 1, Universitaetsklinikum RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: Implementation of ECG gating in contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ceMRA) for improved visualization of the pulmonary veins, the left atrium, and the thoracic vessels. Materials and Methods: CeMRA was performed on twelve patients with a history of recurrent atrial fibrillation for the purpose of an intra-individual comparison with and without ECG gating on a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, NL). Objective image quality parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the blood and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the blood and myocardium or lung parenchyma were analyzed. The contour sharpness of the pulmonary veins, left atrium, ascending aorta, and pulmonary trunk was also measured. In addition, the artifact level was subjectively assessed by two observers blinded with respect to the sequence parameters. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the procedures were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and Pearson Chi-square test. Results: The use of ECG gating in ceMRA significantly reduced artifacts caused by cardiac motion and vessel pulsation. This in turn lead to a significant increase in the contour sharpness of the left atrium and the thoracic vessels. In addition, higher SNR and CNR were found using ECG-gated ceMRA compared to standard ceMRA. Conclusion: The use of ECG gating in ceMRA results in artifact-free and sharper delineation of the structures of the heart and thoracic vessels. (orig.)

  8. Computer-based automated left atrium segmentation and volumetry from ECG-gated coronary CT angiography data. Comparison with manual slice segmentation and ultrasound planimetric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, R.W.; Kraus, B.; Kerl, J.M.; Lehnert, T.; Vogl, T.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Bernhardt, D.; Vega-Higuera, F. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany). Computed Tomography; Ackermann, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fuer Biostatistik und Mathematische Modellierung

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Enlargement of the left atrium is a risk factor for cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. We evaluated the performance of prototype software for fully automated segmentation and volumetry of the left atrium. Materials and Methods: In 34 retrospectively ECG-gated coronary CT angiography scans, the end-systolic (LAVsys) and end-diastolic (LAVdia) volume of the left atrium was calculated fully automatically by prototype software. Manual slice segmentation by two independent experienced radiologists served as the reference standard. Furthermore, two independent observers calculated the LAV utilizing two ultrasound planimetric methods ('area length' and 'prolate ellipse') on CTA images. Measurement periods were compared for all methods. Results: The left atrial volumes calculated with the prototype software were in excellent agreement with the results from manual slice segmentation (r = 0.97 - 0.99; p < 0.001; Bland-Altman) with excellent interobserver agreement between both radiologists (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). Ultrasound planimetric methods clearly showed a higher variation (r = 0.72 - 0.86) with moderate interobserver agreement (r = 0.51 - 0.79). The measurement period was significantly lower with the software (267 {+-} 28 sec; p < 0.001) than with ultrasound methods (431 {+-} 68 sec) or manual slice segmentation (567 {+-} 91 sec). Conclusion: The prototype software showed excellent agreement with manual slice segmentation with the least time consumption. This will facilitate the routine assessment of the LA volume from coronary CTA data and therefore risk stratification. (orig.)

  9. Ultrasonography of polycystic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Chul; Cho, Seung Gi; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1980-01-01

    Polycystic disease is defined as a heritable disorder with diffuse involvement of both kidneys. The term 'Polycystic disease' comprises at least two separate, genetically different disease-one with an onset typically in childhood (infantile polycystic disease) and the other with an onset typically in adulthood (adult polycystic disease). Adult polycystic kidney disease is the most common form of cystic kidney disease in humans. Ultrasonography is a very useful noninvasive diagnostic modality in the patient with clinically suspected renal diseases as well as screening test. 14 cases of ultrasonography in patient with polycystic kidney were reviewed. All cases show unilateral or bilateral enlarged kidneys. 7 cases reveal kidneys and liver replaced by multiple cysts of varing size. Screening ultrasonography for a familial tree is reported

  10. Ingested Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) Causes Histopathological Changes in Kidney, Spleen and Thymus Tissues and Mortality in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shiga toxin (Stxs) producing bacterial strain, Escherichia coli O157:H7, colonizes the distal small intestine and the colon, initiating a very broad spectrum of illnesses such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal ...

  11. Spleen Stiffness Correlates with the Presence of Ascites but Not Esophageal Varices in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although spleen stiffness has recently been identified as potential surrogate marker for portal hypertension, the relationship between spleen stiffness and portal hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We attempted to determine the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and the presence of ascites or esophageal varices by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. A total of 33 chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients (median age 68; range 51–84 were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and indicators of portal hypertension as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers were used for validating the accuracy of AFRI imaging. The liver and spleen stiffness increased significantly with progression of liver disease. A significant positive correlation was observed between the liver and spleen stiffness. However, spleen stiffness, but not liver stiffness, was significantly associated with the presence of ascites (, while there was no significant association between the spleen stiffness and spleen index/presence of esophageal varices in CHC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on the spleen stiffness was 0.80. In conclusion, spleen stiffness significantly correlates with the presence of ascites but not esophageal varices in CHC patients.

  12. Spherical harmonics based intrasubject 3-D kidney modeling/registration technique applied on partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Guillaume, Hélène; Patard, Jean-Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D shape reconstruction/intra-patient rigid registration technique used to establish a Nephron-Sparing Surgery preoperative planning. The usual preoperative imaging system is the Spiral CT Urography, which provides successive 3D acquisitions of complementary information on kidney anatomy. Because the kidney is difficult to demarcate from the liver or from the spleen only limited information on its volume or surface is available. In our paper we propose a methodology allowing a global kidney spatial representation on a spherical harmonics basis. The spherical harmonics are exploited to recover the kidney 3D shape and also to perform intra-patient 3D rigid registration. An evaluation performed on synthetic data showed that this technique presented lower performance then expected for the 3D shape recovering but exhibited registration results slightly more accurate as the ICP technique with faster computation time. PMID:17073323

  13. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  14. Clinical characteristics of potential kidney donors with asymptomatic kidney stones

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Elizabeth C.; Lieske, John C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Rule, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with symptomatic kidney stones are characterized by older age, male gender, white race, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Whether these characteristics differ in patients with asymptomatic kidney stones is unknown.

  15. Autotransplantation of Spleen Mitigates Drug-Induced Liver Damage in Splenectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Sabrine Teixeira Ferraz; Rezende, Alice Belleigoli; Figueiredo, Bárbara Bruna Muniz; Mendonça, Ana Carolina de Paula; Almeida, Caroline de Souza; de Oliveira, Erick Esteves; de Paoli, Flávia; Teixeira, Henrique Couto

    2017-12-01

    The spleen presents numerous functions, including the production of immunoglobulins and blood filtration, removing microorganisms and cellular debris. The spleen also has anatomical and functional relationship with the liver, but there are few studies on this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of splenectomy and autologous spleen transplantation on both filtering functions of spleen and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Fifty-two BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups: splenectomized; splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in the greater omentum; sham operated control; and non-operated control. At day 7th, 14th, and 28th after surgery, splenic filtration was assessed by counting Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB) and pitted red cells (PIT). The animals received 400 mg/kg acetaminophen by gavage at day 28 th and after 12 or 24 hours were euthanized for evaluation of splenic and hepatic morphology. The splenectomized group demonstrated reduced filtration of HJB and PIT in all analyzes, while the autotransplanted group developed progressive recovery of function after the 14th day. At day 28 after surgery the implants showed similar histology in comparison to normal spleen. Liver histology showed more intense centrilobular necrosis in splenectomized group in comparison to the others, suggesting a protective role of spleen in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Splenic implants showed structural and functional recovery, demonstrating the ability of autologous implant to rescue filtering function of intact spleen. Furthermore, the integrity of splenic function appears to influence liver morphology, since the presence of the splenic implants mitigated the effects of chemically-induced liver damage.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Small Text Medium Text Large Text Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease YESTERDAY Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) resulted ...

  18. Macro- and micromechanical remodelling in the fish atrium is associated with regulation of collagen 1 alpha 3 chain expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Adam N; Fenna, Andrew J; McConnell, James C; Sherratt, Michael J; Gardner, Peter; Shiels, Holly A

    2018-03-28

    Numerous pathologies lead to remodelling of the mammalian ventricle, often associated with fibrosis. Recent work in fish has shown that fibrotic remodelling of the ventricle is 'reversible', changing seasonally as temperature-induced changes in blood viscosity alter haemodynamic load on the heart. The atrial response to varying haemodynamic load is less understood in mammals and completely unexplored in non-mammalian vertebrates. To investigate atrial remodelling, rainbow trout were chronically cooled (from 10 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 °C) and chronically warmed (from 10 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 °C) for a minimum of 8 weeks. We assessed the functional effects on compliance using ex vivo heart preparations and atomic force microscopy nano-indentation and found chronic cold increased passive stiffness of the whole atrium and micromechanical stiffness of tissue sections. We then performed histological, biochemical and molecular assays to probe the mechanisms underlying functional remodelling of the atrial tissue. We found cooling resulted in collagen deposition which was associated with an upregulation of collagen-promoting genes, including the fish-specific collagen I alpha 3 chain, and a reduction in gelatinase activity of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Finally, we found that cooling reduced mRNA expression of cardiac growth factors and hypertrophic markers. Following long-term warming, there was an opposing response to that seen with cooling; however, these changes were more moderate. Our findings suggest that chronic cooling causes atrial dilation and increased myocardial stiffness in trout atria analogous to pathological states defined by changes in preload or afterload of the mammalian atria. The reversal of this phenotype following chronic warming is particularly interesting as it suggests that typically pathological features of mammalian atrial remodelling may oscillate seasonally in the fish, revealing a more dynamic and plastic atrial

  19. Mixoma gigante em átrio esquerdo: relato de caso Giant myxoma in the left atrium: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Paula Vale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 63 anos, sexo feminino, com história de dispnéia, palpitação e precordialgia foi submetida a avaliação cardiológica. Ao exame físico mostrava-se sem anormalidades. O ecocardiograma mostrou grande massa em átrio esquerdo, sugerindo mixoma; confirmado pela tomografia e cateterismo. A paciente foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico, com boa evolução pós-operatória. O estudo anatomopatológico confirmou o diagnóstico de mixoma. Neste artigo é apresentada revisão bibliográfica, bem como comentários enfatizando-se a dificuldade diagnóstica baseada nos sinais e sintomas, assim como o desenvolvimento de derrame pleural bilateral no pós-operatório, possivelmente relacionado ao mixoma.In this study is reported the case of a 63-year-old-woman with history of dyspnea, palpitations, and precordial pain who underwent cardiologic evaluation. The physical examination did not reveal abnormalities. The echocardiogram showed great mass in the left atrium, suggesting myxoma which was confirmed by tomography and catheterization. The patient underwent surgical treatment with a good postoperative evolution. The diagnosis of myxoma was confirmed by histopathologic study. In this study is included a bibliographic review and a comment emphasizing the diagnostic difficulty based on signs and symptoms, as well as the details about the development of bilateral pleural effusion possibly related to the myxoma.

  20. Paediatric chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of markers of kidney damage. • Markers of kidney disease include any of the following: • proteinuria (urine dipstick ≥2+ or urine protein:creatinine ratio 5 × the upper limit of normal). • urine sediment abnormalities. • electrolyte and other abnormalities caused by tubular disorders. • histological abnormalities.

  1. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may cause long-term damage to the kidney. Diagnosis If your child has pain in the side, blood in the urine, or ... as soon as possible. If your child has pain along with nausea, vomiting, ... away. To make a diagnosis of kidney stones, the doctor will ask about ...

  2. Paediatric chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (oliguria) (<1.0 mL/kg/hour). • Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and plasma parathyroid hormone should be determined to assess bone mineral disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. • Renal ultrasound is necessary to demonstrate kidney size (small shrunken kidneys are characteristic of CKD) and.

  3. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  4. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  5. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation.

  6. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  7. [Ginkgo biloba extract enhances the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Si, Lifang; Li, Xiangneng; Li, Zhansheng

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats each group). Three experimental groups were given GBE daily by gavage in doses of 40, 120, 360 mg/(kg.d), respectively. Animals in the control group were fed the same amount of PBS. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed by chloral hydrate anesthesia. The spleen and thymus were harvested to determine the organ index first. MTT assay was used to detect the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and transformation. Neutral red assay was performed to measure the rat peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. The ultrastructural changes of spleen and thymus were observed under scanning electron microscope. Administration of GBE in the rats increased the mass indexes of rat thymus and spleen, dose-dependently elevated the lymphocyte proliferative responses and enhanced the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. In experimental groups, the numbers of mature spleen and thymus lymphocytes were significantly raised in comparison with the control rats. GBE plays a regulatory role in immune function of the rat by increasing the mass of immune organs, increasing the number of mature T lymphocytes as well as their proliferative responses, and enhancing the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages.

  8. Autophagy induces apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hongchao; Zhao, Mingqiu; Fan, Shuangqi; Yuan, Jin; Liao, Jiedan; He, Wencheng; Xu, Hailuan; Chen, Jinding

    2017-10-19

    Lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression are typical clinical characteristics of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The apoptosis of virus-infected and bystander cells plays a role in the immunopathology of classical swine fever (CSF). Here, we offer the first evidence that autophagy is involved in apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV. Using immunohistochemical assays, we observed that more LC3II-positive cells appear in the T-cell zone of spleens. Spleen cell apoptosis was demonstrated using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed that partial LC3II-positive cells were simultaneously TUNEL-positive. By cultivating spleen cells ex vivo, we demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA treatment inhibited apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes caused by CSFV infection but did not have this effect  on B lymphocytes. Further observations demonstrated that uninfected cells in the spleen were also undergoing autophagy in vivo. In summary, these results linked autophagy with the apoptosis and cell death of splenic T cells, providing a new outlook to understand the mechanism of T lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression during CSF.

  9. [Acute torsion of wandering spleen: a rare cause of acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-Asenjo, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity characterized by an anomalous position of the spleen in the abdomen due to impaired splenic ligamentous attachments that produce an elongation of the vascular pedicle. This makes a partial or complete volvulus of the vascular axis more likely. Wandering spleen's clinical presentation is variable--from an asymptomatic patient to one with chronic abdominal pain or an acute abdomen. The most common complication is the acute torsion of the splenic pedicle causing acute abdominal pain. A 30-year-old woman who turned up at the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic imaging (ultrasonography and computerized axial tomography) revealed a huge spleen in an abnormal location and without vascularization. An urgent splenectomy was performed. Acute torsion of wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen, which makes early diagnosis difficult and can result in delayed treatment. This would lead to having to perform a splenectomy. Due to splenic necrosis or infarction, which increases the risk of postsplenectomy sepsis.

  10. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Spleen and thymic sonography as estimator of the immune response in children with repeated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Jesus; Fundora, Hermes; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2010-01-01

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. The spleen has many functions: IgM class antibody production and phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria. We propose to measure the dimensions of the spleen in children with repeated infections, in order to describe them as a diagnosis marker and to explore the probable correlation between the thymic characteristics and the dimensions of the spleen. We study 81 patients that attended the consultation of Immunology from Aballi hospital with repeated infections and they were from 8 months to 9 years old. Children with nutritional value up to the third percentile and those taking steroids 45 days before the study were excluded. We measured the thymic and splenic areas by mediastinal and abdominal echography. The length, the splenic index and the weight are less in patients with repeated infections. These data were significant in 12 to 23 month of age group. The length and the splenic index were less in patients with depletion of thymic area. The sonographic evaluation of the spleen is very important in patients from 1 to 2 years old and in patients with thymic depletion, because they are on the age of vaccine administration according to the Cuban schedule and having affected a main organ for immune response might be a reason for them to show a deficient response and need special schedules

  12. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  13. Atheroprotector role of the spleen based on the teaching of Avicenna (Ibn Sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtiazy, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Khodadoost, Mahmood; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazem, Esmaiel

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have proven atherosclerosis is an inflammatory immune disease. The spleen plays an important immune role in the human body. Splenectomy is often used in several clinical disorders; but recent studies have shown that splenectomy may be effective in the development of atheroma lesions. Ibn Sina or Avicenna was known as one of the greatest philosopher and physician in Islam and in Medicine. He is remembered for his masterpiece, The "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" or "Qanun of medicine". According to the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb", spleen as storage organ plays an important role in absorption and secretion of the black bile in the human body. Therefore any disruption in the function of the spleen can lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Based on his description, it is clear that Ibn Sina first described the role of spleen in prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the Avicenna (Ibn Sina) aspect of atheroprotector role of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival of motor neurone protein is required for normal postnatal development of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alison K; Somers, Eilidh; Powis, Rachael A; Shorrock, Hannah K; Murphy, Kelley; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Parson, Simon H

    2017-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn -/- ;SMN2 tg/0 ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death. Spleen lacks its distinctive red appearance and presents with a degenerated capsule and a disorganised fibrotic architecture. Histologically distinct white pulp failed to form and this was reflected in an almost complete absence of B lymphocytes necessary for normal immune function. In addition, megakaryoctyes persisted in the red pulp. However, the vascular density remained unchanged in SMA spleen. Assessment of the spleen in SMA patients with the infantile form of the disease indicated a range of pathologies. We conclude that development of the spleen fails to occur normally in SMA mouse models and human patients. Thus, further analysis of immune function is likely to be required to fully understand the full extent of systemic disease pathology in SMA. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  15. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  16. When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new (donor) kidney in the body dialysis , a therapeutic process that does the work of the kidneys ... Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Urine Test: Calcium Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Word! Kidney Chronic Kidney ...

  17. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  18. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings.

  19. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... of CSPH. We recently showed the algorithm to rule-out CSPH using sequential liver- (L-SWE) and spleen-Shear-wave elastography (S-SWE). This study investigated the diagnostic value of S-SWE for diagnosis of CSPH. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight cirrhotic patients with pressure gradient measurements...... were included into this prospective multicentre study. L-SWE was measured in 155 patients, S-SWE in 112 patients, and both in 109 patients. RESULTS: Liver-shear-wave elastography and S-SWE correlated with clinical events and decompensation. SWE of liver and spleen revealed strong correlations...

  20. Use of liver-spleen scintigraphy to detect immune status and Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, W.I.; Heiba, S.; Ganz, S.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) underwent liver-spleen scintigraphy. In 43 clinically immunocompromised patients splenic activity was decreased or absent. Eight of these patients had enlarged spleens with decreased uptake. Autopsy results are available on three, all of whom had Kaposi sarcoma of the spleen. Splenic uptake was initially demonstrated in six HTV-positive patients. In three of these subsequently symptomatic patients, follow-up scans showed decreased splenic uptake. Two non-AIDS, HIV-positive patients had normal splenic uptake. These preliminary data suggest that AIDS patients initially have increased uptake, which progresses to decreased splenic uptake as the patients become immunocompromised. Azidothymidine reversed this pattern in one patient. In addition, splenic enlargement with decreased uptake suggests the presence of Kaposi sarcoma

  1. Nonvisualization of an enlarged spleen on Ga-67 scintigraphy but demonstrated by CT after splenic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Maruyama, Y.

    1985-03-01

    The presence of an enlarged spleen using CT with the absence of splenic visualization in Ga-67 citrate images in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia and splenomegaly after splenic irradiation was observed. Since Howell-Jolly bodies had not been identified in the peripheral circulation, the finding of splenic nonvisualization was explained by disassociated splenic functions, which are not tightly coupled, and some activities that can be suppressed by irradiation without impairing others. The Ga-67 splenic localization mechanism is probably more sensitive and liable to disruption by irradiation, and was independent of spleen size. Ga-67 scintigraphy and Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy are two organ function-dependent imaging procedures, while CT provides anatomic information.

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Schille, Regine; Beer, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  3. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Schille, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Department, Leipzig (Germany); Beer, Joerg [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  4. Copper induced immunotoxicity promote differential apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Ghosh, Nabanita; Goswami, Suranjana; Datta, Anuradha; Das, Salomie; Maity, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Copper-induced ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes result in different consequences in spleen and thymus. ► Inflammation appeared in both the spleen and thymus after to copper treatment. ► Apoptosis in the spleen appears to follow a p53-independent pathway. ► Apoptosis in the thymus appears to follow a p53-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. ► In both the spleen and thymus, the CD4+ T cell population decreased and CD8+ T cell population increased after copper treatment. - Abstract: Inorganic copper, such as that in drinking water and copper supplements, largely bypasses the liver and enters the free copper pool of the blood directly and that promote immunosuppression. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways underlying copper-induced immune cell death remains largely unclear. According to our previous in vivo report, to evaluate the further details of the apoptotic mechanism, we have investigated how copper regulates apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus. We have analyzed different protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression by RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis. We also have measured mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, ROS and CD4 + and CD8 + population by flow cytometry. Sub lethal doses of copper in spleen and thymus of in vivo Swiss albino mice promote different apoptotic pathways. In case of spleen, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes promotes intrinsic pathway of apoptosis that was p53 independent, ultimately leads to decrease in CD4 + T cell population and increase in CD8 + T cell population. However in case of thymus, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes lead to death receptor that regulate extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and the apoptotic mechanism which was p53 dependent. Due to copper treatment, thymic CD4 + T cell population decreased and CD8 + T cell population was increased or

  5. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  6. Determination of T1- and T2-relaxation times in the spleen of patients with splenomegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Josephsen, P; Karle, H

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with known splenomegaly and seven healthy volunteers were examined. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were read out from a region of interest centrally in the spleen. Even though different mean T1 and T2 relaxation times were found between the groups, the great scatter and the c......Twenty-nine patients with known splenomegaly and seven healthy volunteers were examined. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were read out from a region of interest centrally in the spleen. Even though different mean T1 and T2 relaxation times were found between the groups, the great scatter...

  7. Reduced Noradrenergic Signaling in the Spleen Capsule in the Absence of CB1and CB2Cannabinoid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tyrell J; Fried, David; Parikh, Kevin; Galligan, James J; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2016-12-01

    The spleen is a visceral organ that contracts during hypoxia to expel erythrocytes and immune cells into the circulation. Spleen contraction is under the control of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation. The activity of noradrenergic neurons terminating in the spleen capsule is regulated by α2-adrenergic receptors (AR). Interactions between endogenous cannabinoid signaling and noradrenergic signaling in other organ systems suggest endocannabinoids might also regulate spleen contraction. Spleens from mice congenitally lacking both CB 1 and CB 2 cannabinoid receptors (Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mice) were used to explore the role of endocannabinoids in spleen contraction. Spleen contraction in response to exogenous norepinephrine (NE) was found to be significantly lower in Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mouse spleens, likely due to decreased expression of capsular α1AR. The majority of splenic Cnr1 mRNA expression is by cells of the spleen capsule, suggestive of post-synaptic CB 1 receptor signaling. Thus, these studies demonstrate a role for CB 1 and/or CB 2 in noradrenergic splenic contraction.

  8. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  9. Cardiac Aspergilloma: A Rare Case of a Cardiac Mass Involving the Native Tricuspid Valve, Right Atrium, and Right Ventricle in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S. Chen-Milhone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus can cause devastating opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Rarely does this fungus invade the heart, and when it does, survival is especially poor despite optimal medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of cardiac aspergilloma with involvement of the tricuspid valve and both the right atrium and ventricle found on a transthoracic echocardiogram in an immunocompromised patient after developing atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate. The findings from this case suggest that early clinical suspicion is critical in early diagnosis and thus early treatment.

  10. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Ilknur; Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported

  11. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath Acute kidney failure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  13. Images in kidney trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Manzano, Ana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 3 years old female patient, who suffered blunt lumbar trauma (horse kick) with secondary kidney trauma, is reported. Imaging findings are described. Renal trauma classification and imaging findings are reviewed

  14. World Kidney Day 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-01

    stage renal disease (ESRD)) worldwide. What was an experimental, risky and .... of deceased and living donor kidney transplants in World Health Organization member states in 2010, correlated with Human Development Index.

  15. Living kidney donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Hanne; Bistrup, Claus; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When possible, renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Technological developments in immunology have made it possible to perform kidney transplants between donors and recipients despite antibodies against the donor organ. This allows...... for a wider range of relationships between recipient and donor. We investigated experiences of, and reflections on, kidney donation among genetic and non-genetic living donors before first consultation at the transplant centre. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate early experiences in the process of becoming...... a living kidney donor (LKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted within a phenomenological-hermeneutic theoretical framework. Data were generated through semi-structured interviews with 18 potential donors. Data were interpreted and discussed in accordance with the Ricoeur's text interpretation...

  16. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes, vitamins, minerals, and medications to help with growth and to prevent bone disease. Sometimes unhealthy kidneys have problems producing a hormone that helps make red blood cells, the cells ...

  17. Obesity and kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Bentes, Ana Carla Sobral Novaes; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological rena...

  18. Osteoprotegerin and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez-Barragán, Alejandra; Gómez-Barrera, Isaias; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Ucero, Alvaro C; González-Espinoza, Liliana; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is associated to increased mortality. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily receptor that inhibits the actions of the cytokines receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by preventing their binding to signaling receptors in the cell membrane. OPG-deficient mice display vascular calcification while OPG prevented calcification of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and protected kidney cells from TRAIL-induced death. OPG may be a biomarker in patients with kidney disease. Circulating OPG is increased in predialysis, dialysis and transplant CKD patients and may predict vascular calcification progression and patient survival. By contrast, circulating OPG is decreased in nephrotic syndrome. In addition, free and exosome-bound urinary OPG is increased in human kidney disease. Increased urinary OPG has been associated with lupus nephritis activity. Despite the association of high OPG levels with disease, experimental functional information available suggests that OPG might be protective in kidney disease and in vascular injury in the context of uremia. Thus, tissue injury results in increased OPG, while OPG may protect from tissue injury. Recombinant OPG was safe in phase I randomized controlled trials. Further research is needed to fully define the therapeutic and biomarker potential of OPG in patients with kidney disease.

  19. Determination of normal dimension of the spleen by ultrasound in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A prospective study of normal spleen ultrasound-based measurements in 200 Nigerian adults at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. Results: There were 91 males and 109 females; their age ranged between 20 and 60 years. For the males the mean age was 32.4 years (± 9.2 ...

  20. The involvement of the spleen during chronic phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection in galectin-3-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Camila; Oliveira, Felipe L; Takiya, Christina M; Palumbo, Antônio; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Borojevic, Radovan; Chammas, Roger; El-Cheikh, Márcia C

    2012-08-01

    Schistosoma mansoni synthesizes glycoconjugates which interact with galectin-3, eliciting an intense humoral immune response. Moreover, it was demonstrated that galectin-3 regulates B cell differentiation into plasma cells. Splenomegaly is a hallmark event characterized by polyclonal B cell activation and enhancement of antibody production. Here, we investigated whether galectin-3 interferes with spleen organization and B cell compartment during chronic schistosomiasis, using wild type (WT) and galectin-3-/- mice. In chronically-infected galectin-3-/- mice the histological architecture of the spleen, including white and red pulps, was disturbed with heterogeneous lymphoid follicles, an increased number of plasma cells (CD19-B220-/lowCD138+) and a reduced number of macrophages (CD19-B220-Mac-1+CD138-) and B lymphocytes (CD19+B220+/highCD138-), compared with the WT infected mice. In the absence of galectin-3 there was an increase of annexin-V+PI- cells and a major presence of apoptotic cells in spleen compared with WT infected mice. In spleen of WT infected mice galectin-3 was largely expressed in lymphoid follicles and extrafollicular sites. Thus, we propose that galectin-3 plays a role in splenic architecture, controlling distinct events such as apoptosis, macrophage activity, B cell differentiation and plasmacytogenesis in the course of S. mansoni infection.

  1. Amelioratory Effect of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin on Spleen during VRSA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antioxidant effects of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VRSA infection on select makers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status in spleen. Methods. A coagulase-positive VRSA strain was used for this study. VRSA infection was developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 5 × 106 CFU/mL bacterial solutions. VRSA-infected mice were treated with nanoconjugated vancomycin at its effective dose for 10 days. After decapitation, blood was used for determination of viable bacteria count and spleen was excised from control and experimental groups, homogenized and used for different biochemical estimations. Results. Nitrate level, myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidized glutathione, and DNA fragmentation level were increased significantly (P<0.05 in spleen of VRSA-infected group as compared to control group, and reduced glutathione level, activity of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST were decreased significantly (P<0.05; which were increased or decreased significantly (P<0.05 near to normal in nanoconjugated vancomycin-treated group. Conclusion. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VRSA-infection-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in spleen.

  2. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following prompt and aggressive surgical intervention, both mother and baby survived. S Afr J Obstet Gynaecol 2015;21(2):50-51. DOI:10.7196.SAJOG.858. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal surgical emergency in the second trimester: Report of a case. M Heetun, MRCS; R Parameswaran, ...

  3. Recruitment of macrophages from the spleen contributes to myocardial fibrosis and hypertension induced by angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ping Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether macrophages migrated from the spleen are associated with angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to angiotensin II infusion in vehicle (500 ng/kg/min for up to four weeks. In splenectomy, the spleen was removed before angiotensin II infusion. In the angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade, telmisartan was administered by gastric gavage (10 mg/kg/day during angiotensin II infusion. The heart and aorta were isolated for Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: Angiotensin II infusion caused a significant reduction in the number of monocytes in the spleen through the AT1 receptor-activated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Comparison of angiotensin II infusion, splenectomy and telmisartan comparatively reduced the recruitment of macrophages into the heart. Associated with this change, transforming growth factor β1 expression and myofibroblast proliferation were inhibited, and Smad2/3 and collagen I/III were downregulated. Furthermore, interstitial/perivascular fibrosis was attenuated. These modifications occurred in coincidence with reduced blood pressure. At week 4, invasion of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the thoracic aorta was attenuated and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was upregulated, along with a reduction in aortic fibrosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that macrophages when recruited into the heart and aorta from the spleen potentially contribute to angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension.

  4. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  5. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  6. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  7. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  8. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Autotransplant of spleen tissue in children with schistosomiasis: evaluation of splenic function after splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, C T; Maciel, D T; Caneca, O A; Castro, C M; Araújo, L B

    2001-01-01

    Autotransplantation of spleen tissue has been done, in the past ten years, in children with schistosomiasis mansoni with bleeding varices. The purposes of this investigation were: (1) to study the morphology and function of the remnant spleen tissue; (2) to quantify the production of tuftsin; and (3) to assess the immune response to pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty three children, who underwent splenectomy and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum were included in this investigation. The average postoperative follow-up is five years. Splenosis was proved by colloid liver-spleen scans. Search for Howell-Jolly bodies assessed the filtration function. Tuftsin and the titer of pneumococcal antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, it was insufficient in two. Howell-Jolly bodies were found only in these two patients. The mean tuftsin serum concentration (335.0 +/- 29.8 ng/ml) was inside the normal range. The immune response to pneumococcal vaccination was adequate in 15 patients; intermediate in four; and inadequate in four. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: splenosis was efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% and produced tuftsin inside the range of normality. It also provided the immunologic splenic response to pneumococcal vaccination in 65% of the patients of this series.

  10. Autotransplant of spleen tissue in children with schistosomiasis: evaluation of splenic function after splenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teixeira Brandt

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue has been done, in the past ten years, in children with schistosomiasis mansoni with bleeding varices. The purposes of this investigation were: (1 to study the morphology and function of the remnant spleen tissue; (2 to quantify the production of tuftsin; and (3 to assess the immune response to pneomococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty three children, who underwent splenectomy and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum were included in this investigation. The average postoperative follow-up is five years. Splenosis was proved by colloid liver-spleen scans. Search for Howell-Jolly bodies assessed the filtration function. Tuftsin and the titer of pneumococcal antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, it was insufficient in two. Howell-Jolly bodies were found only in these two patients. The mean tuftsin serum concentration (335.0 ± 29.8 ng/ml was inside the normal range. The immune response to pneumococcal vaccination was adequate in 15 patients; intermediate in four; and inadequate in four. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: splenosis was efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% and produced tuftsin inside the range of normality. It also provided the immunologic splenic response to pneumococcal vaccination in 65% of the patients of this series.

  11. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J.; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Robot-assisted pancreatectomies of the DutchMEN1 study

  12. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J.; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H J; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. Objective: To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Methods: Robot-assisted

  13. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van Dijkum, Els J. Nieveen; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. ObjectiveTo describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. MethodsRobot-assisted

  14. Solitary metastasis of ampullary carcinoma to the spleen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tri M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report a first case of ampullary cancer with solitary metastasis of the spleen, which was successfully treated with pancreatoduodenectomy and splenectomy and was discharged 7 days after the operation with outpatient chemotherapy. In such cases, physicians should consider splenectomy as an effective treatment option.

  15. Coexisting Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen with Multiple Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumors in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor or tumor-like lesions of the spleen are rare. Among them, vascular lesions are the most common. Vascular tumor of the spleen is different from the usual hemangioma of soft tissue because the vascular structure of the spleen is unique. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT is a recently described vascular lesion of the spleen. Grossly, it is a multinodular, well-circumscribed tumor containing a hypervascular core. Microscopically, it comprises three types of vessels, and each type recapitulates the immunohistochemical characteristics of the normal vascular elements of the splenic red pulp, i.e. capillaries, sinusoids, and small veins, respectively. Because of the rarity of this entity, its actual pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of SANT occurring in a 43-year-old woman, in whom there were also multiple calcifying fibrous pseudotumors (CFPTs in the abdominal cavity. Both SANT and CFPT are thought to be variants of inflammatory pseudotumor. Coexistence of these two rare entities in a patient has never been reported, and this fact suggests that there might be a common mechanism contributing to the formation of these two types of lesions. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:234-239

  16. OBSERVATION ON ARRANGEMENT OF HILAR STRUCTURES IN CADAVERIC KIDNEYS AND THEIR CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Sinha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilum of an organ is a depression, pit or slit like opening through which vital structures enter or leave the organ. In addition to the kidney, hilum is also observed in the cerebellum, lung, ovary, spleen and suprarenal gland. Laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery for solid renal masses can be achieved successfully both transperitoneally and retroperitoneally if a comprehensive knowledge of both normal and variant hilar anatomy of the kidneys is in the mind of the operating surgeon. Documented text is available on various aspects of the kidneys but an observation on variations in hilar arrangement is infrequently cited. In standard text from anterior to posterior the structures at the renal hilum are renal vein, renal artery and the renal pelvis.

  17. Effect of orally administered zinc oxide nanoparticles on albino rat thymus and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Marwa A; Selim, Sally A; Selim, Assmaa O; El-Shal, Amal S; Gouda, Zienab A

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral intake of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the structure of thymus and spleen. Twenty-four young male Wistar albino rats were assigned into two groups: group I (control) and group II (ZnO NPs treated group).The thymus and spleen were analyzed biochemically, histopathologically and immunohistochemically. After ZnO NPs intake, hematologically, the total leucocytic count was significantly increased while the RBCs and platelets counts and Hb % were significantly decreased. Biochemically, a significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 4 and 10 (IL-4 and IL-10) levels was noted. While a significant increase in splenic and thymic malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA shearing, as well as the studied proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1β, tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α) and interferon (INF-γ) levels was detected. Notably, we noted upregulation of the immunomodulatory [CD3, CD11b, heme oxygenase (HO-1)] and the inflammatory [toll-like receptor 4 and 6 (TLR4 and TLR6)] genes. Histopathologically, degenerative changes were detected in thymus and spleen of ZnO NPs treated group. While the immunohistochemical analysis of the ZnO NPs treated group revealed a decrease in the number of cells expressed positive reactions of anti-PCNA and an increase in the number of cells expressed positive reaction of anti-p53 in the thymus and spleen. In conclusion, ZnO NPs induced obvious immunotoxicity in the thymus and spleen, where oxidative/inflammatory pathway may be the potential mechanism underlying this immunotoxicity. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(7):528-539, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  19. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  20. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  1. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements obtained via two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography of the left atrium and time-left atrial area curve analysis in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Lim, Sue Yee; Tamura, Yu; Kumara, Wickramasekara Rajapakshage Bandula; Murakami, Masahiro; Sasaki, Noboru; Morishita, Keitaro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate left atrial phasic function in healthy dogs by means of 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography with time-left atrial area curve analysis and to assess repeatability and reproducibility of obtained measurements. 6 healthy Beagles. Each dog underwent echocardiography twice on different days (3 nonconsecutive examinations/d). Images were analyzed with offline software; area of the left atrium was automatically calculated in each frame throughout the cardiac cycle to derive time-left atrial area curves. Variables used to assess left atrial phasic function (total, passive, and active emptying area and emptying fractions and mean active and total emptying rates) were calculated. Agreement between variables measured via speckle tracking echocardiography and a manual tracing method was assessed with modified Bland-Altman analysis. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were determined. Mean ± SD total, passive, and active emptying fractions of the left atrium were 49.8 ± 3.5%, 277 ± 4.0%, and 30.5 ± 4.3%, respectively. Mean ± SD total and active emptying rates were 16.0 ± 2.5 cm(2)/s and 25.1 ± 4.9 cm(2)/s, respectively. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were canine patients.

  2. [Surgical treatment for pseudoaneurysm of the sinus of valsalva ruptured into the right atrium after mycotic right coronary artery aneurysm repair;report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hidekazu; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hosono, Mitsuharu; Bito, Yasuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Suehiro, Yasuo; Kaku, Daisuke; Miyabe, Makoto; Suehiro, Shigefumi

    2015-02-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital by ambulance after syncope due to complete A-V block. He had received surgical treatment for mycotic aneurysm of the right coronary artery 3 months before, with patch plasty of the right sinus of Valsalva and bypass grafting to the right coronary artery (RCA) as well as the left anterior descending branch. Computed tomography revealed pseudoaneurysm of the right Valsalva sinus of about 8 cm in diameter and a shunt flow to the right atrium. The previous bypass graft to RCA had been occluded due to compression by the aneurysm. As he was in a shock state, emergency operation was performed. Cardiopulmonary bypass was first established, and after the rectal temperature reached to 26 degrees centigrade, the chest was opened. The pseudoaneurysm burst out when the sternum was re-opened. Under circulatory arrest, the ascending aorta was clamped, and then the circulation was resumed. The previous bovine pericardium patch repairing the Valsalva sinus was detached due to infection, and mural thrombus and pus were observed in the aneurysm. At the bottom of the aneurysm, a fistula connected to the right atrium was found. Debridement around the aneurysm was performed as much as possible. The defect of the Valsalva sinus was repaired with a Dacron patch immersed in gentian violet. The postoperative course was uneventful without any recurrence of infection.

  3. Negative inotropic effect of carbachol and interaction between acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium channel (K.ACh channel) and GTP binding protein in mouse isolated atrium--a novel methodological trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Muneyoshi; Noma, Chihiro; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Hara, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between acetylcholine receptor-operated potassium channel (K.ACh channel) and GTP binding protein was examined by an immunoprecipitation-Western blotting system in mouse isolated atrium. The carbachol-induced negative inotropic action in indomethacin-pretreated mouse atrium was significantly inhibited by a K.ACh channel blocker, tertiapin or atropine. Kir3.1 K.ACh channel (Kir3.1) was immunoprecipitated with a mouse anti-Kir3.1 antibody. Coprecipitating Gβ with Kir3.1, detected by Western blotting, was significantly augmented by carbachol. Atropine, but not tertiapin, significantly inhibited the carbachol-induced coprecipitating Gβ with Kir3.1. The data indicate that immunoprecipitation with Kir3.1 and Western blotting of Gβ system is a useful method for assessing interaction between K.ACh channel and GTP binding protein in mouse atrium.

  4. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  5. Role of spleen-derived IL-10 in prevention of systemic low-grade inflammation by obesity [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-04-29

    Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen. Splenectomy (SPX) aggravates the inflammatory response in hypothalamus, liver and WAT. These SPX-induced alterations are inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, in IL-10 deficiency, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in these multiple organs. We show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 on inflammatory responses in obesity.

  6. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  7. [Autophagy in the kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved, physiological, catabolic process, involving the lysosomal degradation of cytosolic components, including macromolecules (such as proteins and lipids) and cytosolic organelles. Autophagy is believed to be essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, for a number of fundamental biological activities, and an important component of the complex response of cells to multiple forms of stress. Autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of a number of clinically important disorders but, until recently, little was known about its connection to kidney diseases. However, there is now growing evidence that autophagy is specifically linked to the pathogenesis of important renal diseases such as acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. However, an understanding of the precise role of autophagy in the course of kidney diseases is still in its infancy. The review points out areas of particular interest for future research, and also discusses the importance of such information on whether the pharmacologic agents that modulate autophagy are potentially usable as novel forms of treatment for various kidney diseases. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  8. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  11. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huaxian; Wang Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by ∼ 1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and ∼ 1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was ∼ 1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was ∼ 1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of mutagenic oxidative

  12. Imaging of kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, A.

    2006-01-01

    This is one of the first books to deal specifically with diagnostic imaging of the entire spectrum of kidney cancers. Both new and conventional imaging modalities are fully considered. After an introductory chapter on the histopathological classification of kidney cancers, the advantages and disadvantages of the various imaging modalities used in the diagnosis and assessment of disease extension are documented. Subsequent chapters offer an exhaustive description of the radiological features of the different histological subtypes of kidney cancer, with radiological and histological illustrations and tables. The latest innovations in interventional and minimally invasive procedures are also well covered. The book benefits from carefully chosen and technically excellent images. Each of the 24 chapters is written by an internationally acclaimed expert, making this book the most current and complete treatment of the subject available. It should be of great interest to radiologists, oncologists, and urologists. (orig.)

  13. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules......, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling....... Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved...

  14. Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Weaver, Amy L.; Lieske, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Polycystic kidney disease Polycystic kidney disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder that affects the kidneys and ...

  16. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000500.htm End-stage kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term ( ...

  17. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  18. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  19. Liver/spleen volume ratio as a predictor of prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yosuke; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The course of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is determined by clinical symptoms and histological findings. The present study examined the prognostic importance of imaging parameters in PBC. The volumes of the liver and spleen of patients with PBC were assessed by computed tomography (CT). The volume ratio of liver to spleen (LV/SV ratio) was evaluated and used for further analyses. The prognosis was significantly poorer in PBC patients with a low, rather than high, LV/SV ratio. The Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that the serum bilirubin level and the LV/SV ratio could predict the prognosis of PBC patients. In addition, the LV/SV ratio was significantly lower in patients who developed symptoms (s-PBC) than in those who remained asymptomatic (a-PBC) during the observation period. The LV/SV ratio is of prognostic importance in patients with PBC. (author)

  20. Spleen irradiation and splenectomy for treatment of hypersplenism in chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphatic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolzenbach, G.; Franke, H.D.; Montz, R.; Schulze, P.J.; Hamburg Univ.; Hamburg Univ.

    1979-01-01

    Hypersplenism is characterized by cytopenia, splenomegaly (possibly hyperplastic bone-marrow), and lienal hypersequestration. It is necessary, in view of the rather important surgical risks of splenectomy, to clarify if the hypersplenism may be influenced by splenic irradiation in case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL). References in literature are rare and do not present a reliable differentiation of the syndrome, according to its present definition. Of our patients, three cases with hypersplenism verified by radioiron studies are reported: in one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia, irradiation of the spleen had no effect, whereas pancytopenia was completely repaired by means of splenectomy. The same result were seen in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia. In the last patient, however, who had chronic lymphatic leukemia, fractionated irradiation of the spleen led to a distinct improvement of anemia and thrombopenia, but the recovery lasted only six months. This effect is due to transient normalization of the lienal hypersequestration. (orig.) [de

  1. Splenic Pathology in Traumatic Rupture of the Spleen: A Five Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Hunaina; Devi, Leena; George, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To Study the histopathology of spleens with a history of traumatic rupture with a view to establish possible predisposing factors to the rupture Methods This study examined the gross and microscopic features of consecutive cases of splenectomies done for traumatic rupture during a five year period in order to evaluate the presence or absence of any pathology prior to rupture. Results Of the 17 cases of splenectomy during this period, 14 were normal and 3 cases showed pathology other than rupture. Conclusion In the five year period of studying splenic pathology in traumatic rupture, 82% of the spleens showed normal histology except for the rupture. 18% of the cases showed different pathological findings on histopathology which could have contributed to the rupture. PMID:22334849

  2. Abdominal pregnancy with placenta inserted in the spleen left in situ causing subphrenic abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pregnancy appears once in 3000 pregnancies. It usually terminates with abortion and urgent surgery. Thanks to ultrasonography and computed tomography the diagnosis is possible before surgery. Most frequently the diagnosis has been established during emergency laparotomy. Gynaecologists are not in agreement wheather removal of placenta is mandatory or not, as it may include removal of parts or entire organs or may be followed with serious bleeding difficult to control. We present a 21-year old woman in whom during an urgent laparotomy performed for abdominal pregnancy placenta inserted in the spleen was left in situ. Postoperatively the patient developed subphrenic abscess which could not be solved without reoperation during which both the placenta and the spleen were removed. Ten years after surgery she is symptom-free.

  3. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  4. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  5. Electronmicroscopic study of gamma irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneva, V.G.; Gitsov, L.G.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhajlova, A.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Viklichka, St.

    1978-01-01

    An electronmicroscopic study of the mouse spleen immunocompetent cells during the productive phase of the primary immune response after sublethal gamma ray irradiation is carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep red blood cells 24 hours after irradiation and sacrified on the 5th day after immunization. The number of small lymphocytes is reduced in all zones of the spleen. Only in the periarteriolar area the lymphoid sheaths are well outlines and the ultrastructure of the cells preserved. Three types of reticulohistocytic elements, according to their radiosensitivity are observed. The most radioresistant cells are the fixed ''dark'' reticular cells which do not complete phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of their nucleus and cytoplasm is not damaged. The macrophages are also quite resistant. The ''light'' reticular cells are the most radiosensitive. The chromatine of their nuclei is dispersed. The mitochondria are imbibed, with a reduced number of cristae. The cytoplasm contains many electron light vesicles, different in size. The changes in the processes of the dendridic cells in the spleen lymph follicles are of particular interest. Compared with the control animals the processes of dendritic reticular cells are markedly reduced. The postirradiation ultrastructural changes of the spleen cells indicate that parallel with the basic factor (the death of a considerable part of the small lymphocytes, precursors of the antibody-synthetizing cells) the reduced antibody-formation is due also to the limited capacity for ''traping'' the antigen on the processes of the dendritic follicular cells and to the reduced capacity of the reticulo-histocytic cells for antigen phagocytosis. The later is determined both by the damage of a considerable part of the phagocytes (radiosensitive ''light'' reticulo-histocytic cells) and by the blocking of the functionally undamaged phagocytes from ingested debris. (K.M.)

  6. The guinea fowl spleen at embryonic and post-hatch periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeanusi, B I

    2006-06-01

    The spleen of the guinea fowl was bean-shaped but without a dented hilus. It is supplied by three short arteries that came from the ventral surface, two on the cranial end and one at the caudal end of the organ. The whole organ had a thin but tough capsule covering the outer surface except at the point of entry of the blood vessels. By day 18 of incubation, the spleen had a thin but well-defined capsule and internal to this been complete network of sinusoids filled with erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes. By day 19, dark and light staining zones, which could be termed red and white pulps, had appeared. By day 20, the granulocytes with a lot of granules within their cytoplasm, had become the biggest-sized cells in the spleen. At day 21, arteries and veins were noticed clearly in the spleen and many lymphocytes, few granulocytes and reticular cells surrounded these. Red pulp with its sinusoids was now distinct. A giant cell containing three nuclei was seen within the red pulp. At day 1 post-hatch, the capsule was at its greatest thickness so far and muscle cells were seen at the inner most part of the capsule. Granulocytes that had been a constant feature suddenly disappeared. At day 5, the small lymphocytes had dominated the large and medium-sized ones. By 2 weeks, the red and white pulps were virtually equal in distribution but by 3 weeks, the red pulp was convincingly greater. By 7 weeks, plasma cells had appeared in the peripheral splenic cords. Monocytes were observed in the sinusoids. Two germinal centres were identified for the first time in week 13 post-hatch.

  7. Computer tomographic findings in splenic ruptures, subcapsular haematomas of the spleen and perisplenic abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, E.; Semerak, M.; Jaschke, W.; Rehabilitations-Krankenhaus Langensteinbach

    1980-01-01

    The computer tomographic criteria of splenic rupture, new or old haematomas of the spleen (pseudocysts) and perisplenic or subphrenic abscesses are described with reference to three cases. It is shown that all the relevant problems in the pre-operative stage can be clarified by computer tomography, making arteriography unnecessary. The differential diagnosis between old haematomas and perisplenic abscesses can only be made by taking account of the history and other clinical information. (orig.) [de

  8. Invasive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the spleen treated with partial splenectomy in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krl, Elif Altnay; Orhan, Diclehan; Haliloğlu, Mithat; Karnak, Ibrahim

    2012-05-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare benign tumor that can be found in intra-abdominal organs such as the liver, intestine, extrahepatic bile ducts, and mesentery. The spleen is an extremely unusual location for an IMT. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy with invasive splenic IMT, present a review on the current literature about childhood splenic IMT, and emphasize the necessity of total excision of the tumor together with tumor-invaded surrounding tissues.

  9. Unfolding the mechanism of cisplatin induced pathophysiology in spleen and its amelioration by carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sinha, Krishnendu; Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sil, Parames C

    2018-01-05

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) is an effective chemotherapeutic and is widely used for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. Bio-distribution of cisplatin to other organs due to poor targeting towards only cancer cells constitutes the backbone of cisplatin-induced toxicity. The adverse effect of this drug on spleen is not well characterized so far. Therefore, we have set our goal to explore the mechanism of the cisplatin-induced pathophysiology of the spleen and would also like to evaluate whether carnosine, an endogenous neurotransmitter and antioxidant, can ameliorate this pathophysiological response. We found a dose and time-dependent increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the spleen tissue of the experimental mice exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin. The increase in inflammatory cytokine can be attributed to the activation of the transcription factor, NF-ĸB. This also aids in the transcription of other pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. Exposure of animals to cisplatin at both the doses resulted in ROS and NO production leading to oxidative stress. The MAP Kinase pathway, especially JNK activation, was also triggered by cisplatin. Eventually, the persistence of inflammatory response and oxidative stress lead to apoptosis through extrinsic pathway. Carnosine has been found to restore the expression of inflammatory molecules and catalase to normal levels through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, NF-ĸB and JNK. Carnosine also protected the splenic cells from apoptosis. Our study elucidated the detailed mechanism of cisplatin-induced spleen toxicity and use of carnosine as a protective agent against this cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dexamethasone Regulates Macrophage and Cd4+Cd25+ Cell Numbers in the Chicken Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Calefi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dexamethasone (DEX is a corticoid hormone that is experimentally used to mimic the effects of increased levels of endogenous corticosterone observed during the stress response. Currently, stress is considered one of the major predisposing factors for diseases in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of DEX and/or of a 20-fold coccidial vaccine dose on leukocyte phenotypes in the spleen and cecal tonsils of chickens. Twenty specific-pathogen-free (SPF Leghorn chickens were divided into four groups: a non-treated group (NT, a DEX-treated group (Dex, a vaccinated group (V and a DEX-treated+vaccinated group (Dex+V. On experimental day (ED 42, each bird in the vaccinated groups received a anti-coccidial vaccine. DEX was injected in the birds of the Dex and Dex+V groups (0.9 mg/kg onED42 and ED45. The immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry analysis of splenocytes and cecal tonsils cells onED48. DEX treatment per se was unable to change CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8+ and CD4-CD8+ populations with TCRgd or CD28 in the spleen, or macrophages and T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils. V group birds presented higher numbers of splenic macrophages compared with those measured in the Dex+V group. The number of CD4+CD25+ cells in the spleen of birds of the V group was higher than those measured in the other experimental groups. Our data suggest that CD4+CD25+ cells and macrophages might be influenced by DEX treatment in spleen, but not in the cecal tonsils of chickens inoculated with Eimeria.

  11. PRIMARY GIANT HYDATID DISEASE OF THE SPLEEN: A RARE CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common organ involved in hydatid disease is the liver, followed by the lungs. Hydatid disease of spleen is a rare clinical condition, as even in the endemic region the frequency is reported to be 0.5 – 4% of abdominal hydatid diseases. Most commonly splenic involvement is secondary i.e., along with other organs. Primary hydatid diseases in s pleen is rare, here we are reporting a rare case of primary splenic hydatid disease

  12. Transcription from a spleen necrosis virus 5' long terminal repeat is suppressed in mouse cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Embretson, J E; Temin, H M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the block(s) to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) replication in mouse cells, we studied the expression of a dominant selectable marker, neo, or a gene whose product is easily assayed, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene, in SNV-derived and murine leukemia virus-derived vectors. Using transient (CAT) and stable (Neor phenotype) transfection assays, we showed that the SNV promoter was used in mouse cells only when the 3' SNV long terminal repeat (LTR) was absent. Infection ...

  13. A case report with atypical liver-spleen scan after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcora, N.; Ilgin, N.; Basaklar, C.

    1992-01-01

    Remodeling of the liver following splenectomy may simulate hypertrophy of an accessory spleen on sulphur colloid scans. There are but a few reports about the persistent splenic activity as a prominent finding during the post-splenectomy period. Splenic simulation may be attributed to the unusual hepatic lobe displacement, as in this case. The clinician should be aware of possible splenic simulation in the post-splenectomy period, if hypersplenism is suspected

  14. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: CT and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Uder, M.; Altmeyer, K.; Gruber, M.; Kramann, B. [Univ. Hospital Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Bonkhoff, H. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Saarland University, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of littoral cell angioma (LCA) of the spleen, a recently described splenic pathology, which imaging characteristics and pathologic morphology have been discussed only by a few authors. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and CT as well as histologic specimen are presented. Diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. Differential diagnosis of splenic tumors as well as the imaging findings in this particular case are discussed. (orig.)

  15. A comparison of low and high dose-rate radiation for recipient mice in spleen-colony studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H.; Keene, J.P.; Hodgson, B.W.; Xu, C.X.; Rezvani, M.; Jordan, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, endogenous spleen-colony formation in mice, following lethal irradiation, has increased to an unacceptable level. It has been found necessary, therefore, to introduce a new method of preparing recipient mice for spleen-colony studies. Irradiation with low dose-rate 60 Cobalt γ rays has been compared with high dose-rate linear accelerator electrons, and their effects on endogenous spleen colony formation compared with earlier X and γ ray dose-response data. A large dose (13.5 Gy) of γ rays results in fewer endogenous colonies than 8.5 gy of electrons, yet because of its low dose rate it has a marked sparing of the intestinal tissue as measured by the intestinal microcolony technique. This in turn permits better survival and, therefore, a 'healthier' animal for spleen-colony work. Exogeneous colony formation is also lower in the low dose-rate, γ-irradiated recipients and this is shown to be due to a reduced spleen-seeding efficiency. It is concluded that very low dose-rate radiation is preferable for haemopoietic ablation, that a mouse colony requires constant monitoring for changes of endogenous spleen-colony formation and that the spleen-seeding efficiency of CFU-s depends on the irradiation technique used. (author)

  16. Simultaneous increases in immune-competent cells and nitric oxide in the spleen during Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrevanian, Hossein; Dascombe, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    Nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) are thought to be important mediators of both immunological and pathological responses of the vertebrate host to malaria infection. The role of RNI has been studied most often by assay of stable RNI metabolites (nitrites, nitrates) in blood. This study evaluated the nature of the RNI response of mice to malaria by analyzing the subsets of immune-competent cells within the organ displaying increased RNI in vivo. We measured RNI production indirectly, as stable metabolites of nitric oxide activity in tissue homogenates (brain, liver, spleen) from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Only spleen exhibited an RNI concentration response during rising parasitemia. Subsets of immune-competent cells (B cells, CD19+), macrophages/monocytes (MOMA2+) and T cells (CD4+, CD8+) in the spleen were assayed by fluorescence activated cell scan flow cytometry. The spleen was confirmed as a major source of RNI during mid-phase P. berghei infection. Significant increases in CD19+ and MOMA2+ spleen cells were evident during the mid-phase of P. berghei infection in MF1 mice when RNI are maximally elevated. The time courses of the cellular and RNI responses indicate that CD19+ and MOMA2+ cells may be responsible for the increase in RNI in the spleen. However, experiments in vitro are needed to make a definitive identification of the cell type(s) responsible for the increase in RNI in the mouse spleen during P. berghei infection.

  17. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in ... as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney ...

  18. [Relation between PMI and FTIR spectral changes in asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to observe the postmortem degradation process in mechanical asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen for providing a new method of estimating PMI. Rats were sacrificed by mechanical asphyxia and cadavers were kept at (20 +/- 2) degrees C in a control chamber. The liver and spleen were sub-sampled from the same rat at intervals of 0-15 days postmortem and the data were measured by FTIR spectrometer. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish mathematical models by the statistical software. The band absorbance ratios showed increase, decrease and stable with PMI. The cubic model functions showed the strongest correlation coefficient. Compared with the spleen, the liver showed a higher correlation coefficient. The A1541/A1396 of liver showed the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.966). After 6-7 days postmortem, band absorbance ratios showed a steady period. FTIR spectroscopy can be a new and efficient method to estimate PMI within 7 days.

  19. Synergistic effect of lidocaine with pingyangmycin for treatment of venous malformation using a mouse spleen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Yuan-Zheng; Mao, Kai-Ping; Fu, Yanjie; Lin, Qiang; Xue, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether lidocaine has the synergistic effect with pingyangmycin (PYM) in the venous malformations (VMs) treatment. Methods: The mouse spleen was chosen as a VM model and injected with different concentration of lidocaine or PYM or jointly treated with lidocaine and PYM. After 2, 5, 8 or 14 days, the mouse spleen tissues were acquired for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, TUNEL assay and quantitative RT-PCR analysis to examine the toxicological effects of lidocaine and PYM on splenic vascular endothelial cells. Results: 0.4% of lidocaine mildly promoted the apoptosis of endothelial cells, while 2 mg/ml PYM significantly elevated the apoptotic ratios. However, the combination of 0.2% lidocaine and 0.5 mg/ml PYM notably elevated the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells and severely destroyed the configuration of spleen, compared to those of treatment with 0.5 mg/ml PYM alone. Conclusion: Lidocaine exerts synergistic effects with PYM in promoting the apoptosis of mouse splenic endothelial cells, indicating that lidocaine possibly promotes the therapeutic effects of PYM in VMs treatment via synergistically enhancing the apoptosis of endothelial cells of malformed venous lesions. PMID:24966943

  20. Morphological changes in lymph nodes and spleen upon EAE induction in C57BL/6 mic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslovarić Irina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG is a protein widely used in the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE for studying human multiple sclerosis (MS. In C57BL/6 female mice aged eight weeks, we administered subcutaneously MOG35-55 peptide in CFA (complete Freund’s adjuvant along with pertussis vaccine injected intraperitoneally. We observed the sign of flaccid tail as early as thirteen days post-immunization in five of twelve animals. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of paraffin-embedded sections of lymph nodes and spleen revealed the presence of germinal centers in the immunized animals. In the control group of animals, lymphoid follicles without germinal centers were observed. Immunohistochemical staining of spleen sections revealed an expression of MHC II molecules in the EAE-induced group. We would like to point out that even though the clinical signs are mild, the morphological changes are apparent in the lymph nodes and spleen of MOG35-55-immunized mice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. M-175050

  1. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John M

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  2. Melanomacrophage centers aggregation in P. lineatus spleen as bioindicator of environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiyappan Balamurugan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor the water quality parameters and climatic impact on the health condition of the fish through pathology study of Marine catfish spleen using Melano-macrophage centers (MMCs aggregation as a biomarker Marine catfishes along the parangipettai coast of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Replicate samples were done for all the seasons along the coast. Condition factor (K and Histopathology technique, were used to evaluate the condition. Results: The result revealed the Condition factor (K of fish was minimum in winter 1.0874 and maximum in summer 1.6726. Histology show the number of MMCs aggregation in spleen 59.5 暲8.3 MMCs/mm2 was observed in at post monsoon and 2-5 MMCs/mm2 in summer. Anova shows significantly different at P<0.05. The MMCs aggregation excited 30/mm2 when the water temperature is below 22曟and reaches maximum at temperatures of below 20 曟. The MMCs were correlated with water temperature shows positive correlation mean drop in water temperature may also reason for MMCs aggregation in spleen. Conclusion: The rise in temperature causes effect in health of the fish which was indicated in condition factor and MMCs aggregation. Animals are vulnerable to disease due to lowering of temperature and other environmental conditions. The MMCs aggregation can be used as bio-indicators for environmental.

  3. Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verroiotou Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her pulse was 120 b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

  4. Postsplenectomy recurrence of idiopathic thrombocitopenic purpura: role of laparoscopic splenectomy in the treatment of accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, C A; Pravisani, R; Bidinost, S; Baccarani, U; Bresadola, V; Risaliti, A; Terrosu, G

    2015-01-01

    Idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for splenectomy. The failure rate of surgery is about 8% and the failure rate after splenectomy is approximately 28% for all patients. When the presence of an accessory spleen is diagnosed, splenectomy is recommended. Laparoscopic approach is considered the first choice. At our Department, between July and November 2011 two patients underwent laparoscopic accessory splenectomy for recurrence of ITP. Both patients had a previously laparoscopic splenectomy. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance (MR) was performed in both the cases revealing the presence of an accessory spleen. The operative time was 105 and 100 minutes respectively. No perioperative complications occured. Hospital stay was four days in both cases. The first patient had a disease free period of two months; the second one of one month. Both patients restarted immunosuppressive therapy. The relapse of thrombocytopenia post-splenectomy can be associated with the presence of an accessory spleen. The laparoscopic accessory splenectomy should be considered the first choice approach. Surgical accessory splenectomy allows a transitory remission of the disease.

  5. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  6. Three-dimensional demonstration of liver and spleen by computer graphics technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiromi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takao; Takayama, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional demonstration system of the liver and spleen has been developed using computer graphics technique. Three-dimensional models were constructed from CT images of the organ surface. The three-dimensional images were displayed as wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. The anatomical surface of the liver and spleen was realistically viewed from any direction. In liver cirrhosis, atrophy of the right lobe, hypertrophy of the left lobe and splenomegaly were displayed vividly. The liver and hepatoma were displayed as wire-frame and solid models respectively on the same image. This combined display clarified the intrahepatic location of hepatoma together with configuration of liver and hepatoma. Furthermore, superimposed display of three dimensional models and celiac angiogram enabled us to understand the location and configuration of lesions more easily than the original CT data or angiogram alone. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for noninvasive evaluation of patho-morphological changes of the liver and spleen. (author)

  7. The critically ill kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Interleukin-18 is induced in the proximal renal tubule after AKI and appears to be useful in the differentiation of acute tubular necrosis from other types of renal disease, as it is not elevated in chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection or pre-renal failure. Renal replacement therapy. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a ...

  8. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  9. Kidney injury in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in patients with cirrhosis. AKI and hyponatraemia are major determinants of the poor prognosis in advanced cirrhosis. The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) denotes a functional and potential reversible impairment of renal function. Type 1 HRS, a special type of AKI...

  10. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper JE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Compared with rapamycin, everolimus is characterized by a shorter half-life and improved bioavailability. Prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval, a number of Phase II and III clinical trials were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of everolimus in combination with calcineurin inhibitors for preventing acute rejection and promoting allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. In this report, we review the pharmacokinetic properties of everolimus, the clinical efficacy studies that led to its approval for use in kidney transplantation, as well as reported data on patient safety and tolerability associated with its use.Keywords: mTOR inhibitors, kidney transplantation, everolimus

  11. Chapter 12. Kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyrac, R.; Sulman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The isotopic kidney check-up consists of the isotopic nephrogram with simultaneous clearance measurement. For clinicians it supplies a set of data which no other method can provide so quickly. This check-up offers many advantages. The examination is simple: after intraveinous injection of hippuran 131 I the radioactivity is followed for 20 minutes in the kidney, heart and bladder by external counting. A blood sample is taken between the 10th and 20th minutes and the urine collected at the 20th minute. The glomerular clearance may be calculated by injecting 125 I hypaque at the same time. The examination is fast: the process lasts half an hour altogether. The only preparation is an adequate hydration of the patient before the test. The examination is absolutely harmless: internal irradiation of the patient is negligible. Numerous data are obtained: pathological changes in the nephrogram: reduced affinity of a kidney for hippuran, heterogeneity of the nephrons, slowing down of transit times, intraparenchyme stases; blood concentration of hippuran and hypaque at the 10th or 20th minute, elimination in the urine at the 20th minute; total blood purification and glomerular and tubular excretion clearances, clearance of each kidney separately. No other method as simple, fast and harmless can yield such a complete set of data. Very often the nephrograms are obtained from gamma-camera recording on the dynamic mode, which allows a morphological study to be carried out at the same time [fr

  12. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury - kidney and ureter To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injury to ... lead-coated metals, and alcohol distilled in recycled car radiators. Take all your ... safety equipment during work and play. Use cleaning products, ...

  13. Chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnani, Paola; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Glassock, Richard; Levin, Adeera; Jager, Kitty J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Massy, Ziad; Wanner, Christoph; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress

  14. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Needle-Based Probe Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (nCLE) of Intrapancreatic Ectopic Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Amanda B.; Holloman, David; Lankarani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Accessory spleens and splenosis represent the congenital and acquired type of ectopic splenic tissue. Generally, they are asymptomatic entities posing as solid hypervascular masses at the splenic hilum or in other organs, such as the pancreas. Intrapancreatic ectopic spleen mimics pancreatic neoplasms on imaging studies, and due to the lack of radiological diagnostic criteria, patients undergo unnecessary distal pancreatectomy. We present the first case of intrapancreatic ectopic spleen in which the concomitant use of needle-based probe confocal laser endomicroscopy and fine-needle aspiration supported the final diagnosis. PMID:27144203

  15. Evaluation of right atrium-to-right ventricle diameter ratio on computed tomography pulmonary angiography: Prediction of adverse outcome and 30-day mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Altınsoy, Bülent; Serifoglu, Ismail; Sayın, Rasit; Buyukuysal, Mustafa Cagatay; Erboy, Fatma; Akduman, Ece Isin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) diameters on computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography in response to acute pulmonary embolism (APE), in addition to 30-day mortality and adverse outcomes in patients with APE. This retrospective study was accepted by the institutional ethics committee. From January 2013 to March 2014, 79 hospitalized adult patients with symptomatic APE were included. Inclusion criteria were a CT pulmonary angiography positive for pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records, and a follow-up of at least 30 days. A review of patient records and images was performed. The maximum diameters of the heart chambers were measured on a reconstructed four-chamber heart view, and the vascular obstruction index was calculated on CT pulmonary angiography. There were statistically significant relationships in both the RA/RV diameter ratio and the RV/left ventricle (LV) diameter ratio between patients with and without adverse outcomes (prights reserved.

  16. Isolated right atrial appendage (RAA) rupture in blunt trauma--a case report and an anatomic study comparing RAA and right atrium (RA) wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Adoniram M; Poggetti, Renato S; Quintavalle, Fabio G; Fontes, Belchor; Dalva, Moise; Younes, Riad N; Jatene, Fabio B; Birolini, Dario

    2007-02-15

    Heart chambers rupture in blunt trauma is uncommon and is associated with a high mortality. The determinant factors, and the incidence of isolated heart chambers rupture remains undetermined. Isolated rupture of the right atrium appendage (RAA) is very rare, with 8 cases reported in the reviewed literature. The thin wall of the RAA has been presumed to render this chamber more prone to rupture in blunt trauma. To report a case of isolated RAA rupture in blunt trauma, and to compare right atrium (RA) and RAA wall thickness in a necropsy study. The thickness of RA and RAA wall of hearts from cadavers of fatal penetrating head trauma victims was measured. Our case of isolated RAA rupture is presented. The main findings of the 8 cases reported in the literature, and the findings of our case, were organized in a table. The comparison of the data showed that wall thickness of the RAA (0.53 +/- 0.33 mm) was significantly thinner than that of RA (1.11 +/- 0.42 mm) (p < 0.05). In all these 9 cases of isolated RAA rupture, cardiac tamponade occurred, RAA rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively and sutured, and the patients survived. Main mechanisms hypothesized for heart chamber rupture include mechanical compression coincident with phases of cardiac cycle, leading to high hydrostatic pressure inside the chamber. Published series include numerous cases of RA rupture, and only a few cases of RAA rupture. Thus, our data suggests that wall thickness is not a determinant factor for RA or RAA rupture in blunt trauma.

  17. Isolated right atrial appendage (RAA rupture in blunt trauma – a case report and an anatomic study comparing RAA and right atrium (RA wall thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatene Fabio B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart chambers rupture in blunt trauma is uncommon and is associated with a high mortality. The determinant factors, and the incidence of isolated heart chambers rupture remains undetermined. Isolated rupture of the right atrium appendage (RAA is very rare, with 8 cases reported in the reviewed literature. The thin wall of the RAA has been presumed to render this chamber more prone to rupture in blunt trauma. Objective To report a case of isolated RAA rupture in blunt trauma, and to compare right atrium (RA and RAA wall thickness in a necropsy study. Methods The thickness of RA and RAA wall of hearts from cadavers of fatal penetrating head trauma victims was measured. Our case of isolated RAA rupture is presented. The main findings of the 8 cases reported in the literature, and the findings of our case, were organized in a table. Result The comparison of the data showed that wall thickness of the RAA (0.53 ± 0.33 mm was significantly thinner than that of RA (1.11 ± 0.42 mm (p Comments In all these 9 cases of isolated RAA rupture, cardiac tamponade occurred, RAA rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively and sutured, and the patients survived. Main mechanisms hypothesized for heart chamber rupture include mechanical compression coincident with phases of cardiac cycle, leading to high hydrostatic pressure inside the chamber. Published series include numerous cases of RA rupture, and only a few cases of RAA rupture. Conclusion Thus, our data suggests that wall thickness is not a determinant factor for RA or RAA rupture in blunt trauma.

  18. Isolated right atrial appendage (RAA) rupture in blunt trauma – a case report and an anatomic study comparing RAA and right atrium (RA) wall thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Adoniram M; Poggetti, Renato S; Quintavalle, Fabio G; Fontes, Belchor; Dalva, Moise; Younes, Riad N; Jatene, Fabio B; Birolini, Dario

    2007-01-01

    Background Heart chambers rupture in blunt trauma is uncommon and is associated with a high mortality. The determinant factors, and the incidence of isolated heart chambers rupture remains undetermined. Isolated rupture of the right atrium appendage (RAA) is very rare, with 8 cases reported in the reviewed literature. The thin wall of the RAA has been presumed to render this chamber more prone to rupture in blunt trauma. Objective To report a case of isolated RAA rupture in blunt trauma, and to compare right atrium (RA) and RAA wall thickness in a necropsy study. Methods The thickness of RA and RAA wall of hearts from cadavers of fatal penetrating head trauma victims was measured. Our case of isolated RAA rupture is presented. The main findings of the 8 cases reported in the literature, and the findings of our case, were organized in a table. Result The comparison of the data showed that wall thickness of the RAA (0.53 ± 0.33 mm) was significantly thinner than that of RA (1.11 ± 0.42 mm) (p < 0.05). Comments In all these 9 cases of isolated RAA rupture, cardiac tamponade occurred, RAA rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively and sutured, and the patients survived. Main mechanisms hypothesized for heart chamber rupture include mechanical compression coincident with phases of cardiac cycle, leading to high hydrostatic pressure inside the chamber. Published series include numerous cases of RA rupture, and only a few cases of RAA rupture. Conclusion Thus, our data suggests that wall thickness is not a determinant factor for RA or RAA rupture in blunt trauma. PMID:17302990

  19. Immunity in the spleen and blood of mice immunized with irradiated Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; Sato, Maria Notomi; do Nascimento, Nanci; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong and long-lasting immune response that is able to prevent most reinfections but allows tissue cysts. Irradiated, sterilized T. gondii tachyzoites are an interesting vaccine, and they induce immunity that is similar to infection, but without cysts. In this study, we evaluated the cellular immune response in the blood and spleen of mice immunized with this preparation by mouth (v.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) and analyzed the protection after challenge with viable parasites. BALB/c mice were immunized with three i.p. or v.o. doses of irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites. Oral challenge with ten cysts of the ME-49 or VEG strain at 90 days after the last dose resulted in high levels of protection with low parasite burden in the immunized animals. There were higher levels of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in the serum, and the i.p. immunized mice had higher levels of the high-affinity IgG and IgM antibodies than the orally immunized mice, which had more high-affinity IgA antibodies. B cells (CD19(+)), plasma cells (CD138(+)) and the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were increased in both the blood and spleen. Cells from the spleen of the i.p. immunized mice also showed antigen-induced production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). The CD4(+) T cells, B cells and likely CD8(+) T cells from the spleens of the i.p. immunized mice proliferated with a specific antigen. The protection was correlated with the spleen and blood CD8(+) T cell, high-affinity IgG and IgM and antigen-induced IL-10 and IL-4 production. Immunization with irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites induces an immune response that is mediated by B cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with increased humoral and cellular immune responses that are necessary for host protection after infection. The vaccine is similar to natural infection, but free of tissue cysts; this immunity restrains infection at challenge and can be an

  20. (Re)Building a Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxburgh, Leif; Carroll, Thomas J; Cleaver, Ondine; Gossett, Daniel R; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Jain, Sanjay; Jensen, Jan; Kaplan, David L; Kesselman, Carl; Ketchum, Christian J; Little, Melissa H; McMahon, Andrew P; Shankland, Stuart J; Spence, Jason R; Valerius, M Todd; Wertheim, Jason A; Wessely, Oliver; Zheng, Ying; Drummond, Iain A

    2017-05-01

    (Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function. Projects within the consortium will answer fundamental questions regarding human gene expression in the developing kidney, essential signaling crosstalk between distinct cell types of the developing kidney, how to derive the many cell types of the kidney through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells, which bioengineering or scaffolding strategies have the most potential for kidney tissue formation, and basic parameters of the regenerative response to injury. As these projects progress, the consortium will incorporate systematic investigations in physiologic function of in vitro and in vivo differentiated kidney tissue, strategies for engraftment in experimental animals, and development of therapeutic approaches to activate innate reparative responses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Daily Intake of Grape Powder Prevents the Progression of Kidney Disease in Obese Type 2 Diabetic ZSF1 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa M. K. Almomen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living with metabolic syndrome (MetS such as diabetes and obesity are at high risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study investigated the beneficial effect of whole grape powder (WGP diet on MetS-associated CKD. Obese diabetic ZSF1 rats, a kidney disease model with MetS, were fed WGP (5%, w/w diet for six months. Kidney disease was determined using blood and urine chemical analyses, and histology. When compared to Vehicle controls, WGP intake did not change the rat bodyweight, but lowered their kidney, liver and spleen weight, which were in parallel with the lower serum glucose and the higher albumin or albumin/globin ratio. More importantly, WGP intake improved the renal function as urination and proteinuria decreased, or it prevented kidney tissue damage in these diabetic rats. The renal protection of WGP diet was associated with up-regulation of antioxidants (Dhcr24, Gstk1, Prdx2, Sod2, Gpx1 and Gpx4 and downregulation of Txnip (for ROS production in the kidneys. Furthermore, addition of grape extract reduced H2O2-induced cell death of cultured podocytes. In conclusion, daily intake of WGP reduces the progression of kidney disease in obese diabetic rats, suggesting a protective function of antioxidant-rich grape diet against CKD in the setting of MetS.

  2. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.; Reznikov, Boris; Lee, Edward Y.; Grant, Ronald M.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms of presumed neuroectodermal origin that predominantly present as bone or soft-tissue masses in adolescents and young adults. PNET arising in the kidney is rare. To describe the radiological features in three patients with primary renal PNET. The radiological features of primary renal PNET in three adolescent patients (age 10, 14 and 16 years) are described. Tumour thrombus extending into the renal vein and inferior vena cava was noted in all three patients. In addition, further tumour extension into the atrium was seen in two patients with extension into a pulmonary artery in one patient. Neural foraminal and intraspinal extension close to the origin of the tumour was identified in two patients. Liver, bone and lung metastases were identified. While rare, one should consider the diagnosis of PNET when encountering a renal mass with aggressive features such as inferior vena cava tumour thrombus, direct intraspinal invasion and distant metastasis. (orig.)

  3. Early morphogenesis of the sinuatrial region of the chick heart: a contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of direct pulmonary venous connections to the right atrium and atrial septal defects in hearts with right isomerism of the atrial appendages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männer, Jörg; Merkel, Nico

    2007-02-01

    The morphogenesis of the sinuatrial region of embryonic hearts is still not well understood. Current matters of dispute are the topogenesis of the future pulmonary vein orifice and the topogenesis of the primary atrial septum. We analyzed the development of the sinuatrial region in chick embryos ranging from Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 14 to 25. Our study disclosed three features of sinuatrial development. First, the primitive atrium of the HH stage 16 chick embryo heart has a separate inflow component. This inflow component takes up the mouth of the confluence of the systemic veins (sinus venosus) as well as the future mouth of the common pulmonary vein (pulmonary pit). The left portion of the atrial inflow component becomes incorporated into the left atrium and its right portion becomes incorporated into the right atrium. Rightward growth of the sinuatrial fold separates the sinus venosus from the left atrium. Second, the pulmonary pit originally forms as a bilaterally paired structure. Its left and right portions are connected to the left and right portions of the atrial inflow component, respectively. Normally, only the left portion of the pulmonary pit deepens to form the common pulmonary vein orifice, whereas the right portion disappears. Third, the primary atrial septum of the chick heart is not formed at the original midline of the embryonic heart, but is formed to the left of the original midline. This finding is in accord with molecular data suggesting that the primary atrial septum derives from the left heart-forming field. Our findings shed new light on the pathogenesis of direct pulmonary venous connections to the right atrium and atrial septal defects in hearts with right isomerism of the atrial appendages.

  4. Conditions affecting the activity of glucocerebrosidase purified from spleens of control subjects and patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Brouwer-Kelder, E. M.; van Weely, S.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Glucocerebrosidase was purified to homogeneity from spleens of control subjects and Type 1 Gaucher disease patients by immunoaffinity chromatography. Activation of the enzyme by taurocholate, phosphatidylserine and sphingolipid activator protein 2 (saposin C; SAP-2) was investigated by titration of

  5. The value of MR angiography in predicting the risk of torsion of a pelvic spleen during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, A.H. [Department of CT-MRI, Larissa General Hospital (Greece); Stagianis, K.D. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Larissa (Greece)

    2002-02-01

    A case of an enlarged pelvic spleen, studied with MRI and MR angiography (MRA), is presented in a 32-year-old female wishing to become pregnant. An ectopic located spleen may be complicated by an acute abdomen due to torsion of the splenic vascular pedicle, resulting in splenic infarction. Displacement of the spleen and splenic pedicle during pregnancy may further increase the risk of torsion. Urgent splenectomy during pregnancy is associated with a high fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, elective splenectomy of a pelvic spleen before pregnancy can result in adhesion formation, compromising the patient's fertility. The abilities of MRI and MRA in predicting the risk of these life-threatening complications during pregnancy are discussed, in order to evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of surgical treatment by splenectomy of splenopexia. (orig.)

  6. The value of MR angiography in predicting the risk of torsion of a pelvic spleen during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, A.H.; Stagianis, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    A case of an enlarged pelvic spleen, studied with MRI and MR angiography (MRA), is presented in a 32-year-old female wishing to become pregnant. An ectopic located spleen may be complicated by an acute abdomen due to torsion of the splenic vascular pedicle, resulting in splenic infarction. Displacement of the spleen and splenic pedicle during pregnancy may further increase the risk of torsion. Urgent splenectomy during pregnancy is associated with a high fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, elective splenectomy of a pelvic spleen before pregnancy can result in adhesion formation, compromising the patient's fertility. The abilities of MRI and MRA in predicting the risk of these life-threatening complications during pregnancy are discussed, in order to evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of surgical treatment by splenectomy of splenopexia. (orig.)

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease: What Does It Mean for Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) View or Print All Sections ​​What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys are ...

  8. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  9. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  10. Demonstration of Antigenic Identity Between Purified Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and an Antigen Extracted from Infected Horse Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Norcross, Neil L.; Coggins, Leroy

    1972-01-01

    Antigenic relationship between purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus and spleen-derived antigen from EIA-infected horses was examined by immunodiffusion. Identical antigenicity of these two antigens has been proven because precipitation lines formed between the two antigens and EIA antiserum connected with each other. The results indicate that the antigenic substance derived from infected spleen is a component of EIA virus. Images PMID:4629262

  11. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C.; Valderrama, E.

    1998-01-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Valderrama, E. [Department of Pathology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  13. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  14. Perioperative spleen embolization as a useful tool in laparoscopic splenectomy for simple and massive splenomegaly in children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Veken, E; Laureys, M; Rodesch, G; Steyaert, H

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the efficiency of perioperative spleen embolization prior to laparoscopic splenectomy indicated for hypersplenism. We conducted a prospective study exploring a technique combining ultra-selective perioperative embolization and splenectomy. Between January 2008 and March 2013, 16 splenectomies were performed in children suffering from hypersplenism due to varying hematologic diseases. Spleen embolization was performed by an interventional radiologist in the operating room (OR) just before splenectomy and during the same general anesthesia. Ages varied from 3 to 17 years. Spleen volume was measured by preoperative ultrasound. One patient underwent a laparotomy because of suspected adhesions due to previous surgery. All other operations were performed laparoscopically. One complication arose from embolization: a perforation of the splenic artery. After immediately placing a platinum coil proximal to the perforation, the splenectomy was carried out as usual. Fourteen children (87.5 %) had splenomegaly, of which eight (50 %) had massive splenomegaly. There were no deaths, no conversions to laparotomy, no reoperations and none of these patients had to be transfused. Perioperative spleen embolization performed in the OR by an interventional radiologist makes laparoscopic splenectomy a safer procedure. We propose a preoperative method for spleen measurement that is adapted to children: simple and massive splenomegaly is defined through patient body weight and a preoperative ultrasound. We conclude that spleen size is no more a limiting factor for laparoscopic splenectomy in children.

  15. [Kidney injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doletskiĭ, S Ia; korol'kova, I A; Shanidze, V V

    1975-02-01

    Anatomo-topographic features of the kidneys in children mostly condition a great incidence of its damage, compared with adults. One hundred and fifty children with renal injuries were observed, 147 of them with closed injuries and 3 -- with open ones. In 10 cases a trauma of anomalously developed kidneys was noted. 124 children were treated conservatively, 26 children were operated upon, in 16 of them organ-preserving operations were performed, in 10 children -- nephrectomay. Late results were followed up in 51 children in terms from 6 months to 10 years (40 patients were treated conservatively and 11 -- were operated upon). As a result of the conducted control investigation all patients were subdivided into three groups: practically healthy children (25), children with roentgenoradiological changes on the part of the injured kidney but without signs of clinico-laboratory symptomatics (11) children with posttraumatic complications (15). An analysis of late results enabled to revise indications to surgery in an acute period of trauma in behalf of their extension.

  16. Kidney recipients experiences before during and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte

    lives. After the transplant, there is often a need for less medication and the possible side effects of the immunosuppressant treatment are outweighed by the increased quality of life. The transplant is a milestone, but the whole process is based on close contact with the health services, before...... and after the kidney transplant, through outpatient visits and during possible hospitalization, which can occur due to complications or disease progression. Objective To explore the coherence of the kidney transplant process in order to explain the lived experiences of kidney recipients before, during...... and after kidney transplantation. Method Participant observation and semi-structured individual interviews was conducted with kidney recipients before, during and after kidney transplantation. Data analysis is inspired by Ricoeur's interpretation theory on three levels: Naive reading; structural analysis...

  17. Histopathological effects of sodium nitrite on the spleen of male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Juibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrite and nitrate are common additives in meat processed products. In spite of all technological advantages of nitrite, creation of nitrosamine carcinogenic substances causes a lot of concerns for use of these additives. In this study, the histopatological effects of sodium nitrite on the splenic tissue in adult male and female rats were evaluated. Material and method: In recent studies, 60 adult male and female rats strain Vistar, divided in 6 groups of 10. They were examined for 60 day, and they (male and female rats separately were divided in 175 mg/kg/day dose recipient group, 350 mg/kg/day dose recipient group and control group which was absorbed nitrite through drinking water. At the end of day 60, using cotton dipped in ether in the jar of anesthesia, were anesthetized. After anesthesia, blood from the left ventricle was taken .the spleen was taking out of body, and then tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. The samples were stained with Hematoxilin- Eozin method. In both sex, factors like morphometric and morphologic from spleen tissue, body weight changes before and after test and blood NOx level was checked. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 17 with using Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. P value of less than 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. Result: The results showed that consume of sodium nitrite, cause background inflammation type of Mononuclear in both sex, especially around the pulp. Also, in both sex NOx levels in the blood of animals in the group receiving 350 mg/ kg and group receiving 175 mg of sodium nitrite per kg compared with the control group, significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Considering of this study and other studies, Nitrite can cause damage to blood vessels, liver, spleen and other organs. Also sodium nitrite has to switching to other food preservatives.

  18. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  19. Portal Hypertension in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Spleen Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Yoshitaka; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Youichi; Tomokuni, Junko; Sahara, Akiko; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of spleen stiffness (SS) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in the diagnosis of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis, with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) as a reference standard. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this prospective single-center study. From February 2012 to August 2013, 60 patients with liver cirrhosis (mean age, 70.8 years; age range, 34-88 years; 34 men, 26 women) with HVPG, LS, and SS measurements and gastrointestinal endoscopy and laboratory data were included if they met the following criteria: no recent episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, no history of splenectomy, no history of partial splenic embolization, no history of β-blocker therapy, and absence of portal thrombosis. The efficacy of the parameters for the evaluation of portal hypertension was analyzed by using the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The correlation coefficient between SS and HVPG (r = 0.876) was significantly better than that between LS and HVPG (r = 0.609, P higher (0.943, 0.963, 0.937, and 0.955, respectively) than those of LS, spleen diameter, platelet count, and platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (P < .05 for all). SS could be used to accurately rule out the presence of clinically important portal hypertension, severe portal hypertension, EVs, and high-risk EVs (negative likelihood ratios, 0.051, 0.056, 0.054, and 0.074, respectively). SS is reliable and has better diagnostic performance than LS for identifying portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. Characterization of the rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identification of immune-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eAli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resistance against diseases affects profitability of rainbow trout. Limited information is available about functions and mechanisms of teleost immune pathways. Immunogenomics provides powerful tools to determine disease resistance genes/gene pathways and develop genetic markers for genomic selection.RNA-Seq sequencing of the rainbow trout spleen yielded 93,532,200 reads (100bp. High quality reads were assembled into 43,047 contigs. 26,333 (61.17% of the contigs had hits to the NR protein database and 7,024 (16.32% had hits to the KEGG database. Gene ontology showed significant percentages of transcripts assigned to binding (51%, signaling (7%, response to stimuli (9% and receptor activity (4% suggesting existence of many immune-related genes. KEGG annotation revealed 2,825 sequences belonging to organismal systems with the highest number of sequences, 842 (29.81%, assigned to immune system. A number of sequences were identified for the first time in rainbow trout belonging to Toll-like receptor signaling (25, B cell receptor signaling pathway (28, T cell receptor signaling pathway (33, chemokine signaling pathway (44, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis (23, leukocyte transendothelial migration (34 and NK cell mediated cytotoxicity (21. In addition, 51 transcripts were identified as spleen-specific genes. The list includes 277 full-length cDNAs.The presence of a large number of immune-related genes and pathways similar to other vertebrates suggests that innate and adaptive immunity in fish are conserved. This study provides deep-sequence data of rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identifies many new immune-related genes and full-length cDNAs. This data will help identify allelic variations suitable for genomic selection and genetic manipulation in aquaculture.

  1. Robotic splenectomy with ex vivo bench surgery and hemi-spleen autotransplant: the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis F; Bianco, Francesco M

    2017-06-01

    We describe our experience with what is, to our knowledge, the first case of robotic assisted ex vivo partial splenectomy with auto-transplantation for a benign non parasitic cyst. The patient is a 32 year-old female with a giant, benign splenic cyst causing persistent abdominal pain. Preoperative imaging showed a cystic lesion measuring 8.3 × 7.6 cm, in the middle portion of the spleen. Due to the central location of the bulky lesion a partial splenectomy was not feasible. As an alternative to a total splenectomy, a possible reimplantation of hemi-spleen after bench surgery was offered. We proceeded with a robotic total splenectomy and bench hemisplenectomy, preserving the lower pole and a portion of the middle segment of the organ. A robotic reconstruction of the splenic vessels was then performed intra-abdominally. The reperfusion was optimal. The total operative time was 305 min, with 78 min of robotic time. Postoperative ultrasound confirmed a patent arterial and venous flow. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. The pathology report was consistent with epithelial cyst of the spleen. The patient is doing well at 6-month follow-up. The optimized vision and dexterity provided by the robotic system allowed a safe and precise reconstruction of the splenic vessels, even in a deep and narrow operative field. Partial splenectomy with autotransplantation of the organ was thus achieved, avoiding a total splenectomy in a young patient.

  2. Fragmentation of kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.; Kun, F.; Vertse, T.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Fragmentation, i.e. the breaking of particulate materials into smaller pieces is abundant in nature and underlies several industrial processes, which attracted a continuous interest in scientific and engineering research over the past decades. In industrial applications, fragmentation processes are mostly used for the comminution of ores in various types of mills. Kidney stone is a well known human dis- ease which embitters the life of many people (in a country like the USA about 10 6 cases are registered yearly). In order to extract large kidney stones (diameter ≥ 1 cm) from the human body without operation, one of the most efficient treatment is the fragmentation of kidney stones by the so-called extracorporal shock wave lithography method: a shock wave penetrating the human body is generated by an electric pulse. The repeated application of the shock wave gradually fragments the stones into pieces of size ≤ 2 mm which then leave the body through the urine system. Recently, a novel type of lithographic method has been suggested by using widely focused shock waves which fragment the stones by a squeezing mechanism. Laboratory experiments showed that the widely focused squeezing waves achieve a higher fragmentation efficiency than the frequently used shock waves of sharp focus. Based on this method a novel medical treatment can be introduced which is less demanding for the patients. Before the application of the method in the clinical practice a detailed understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of kidney stones due to shock waves is required. Since analytic theoretical methods have serious limitations in this field, we develop a realistic model of the mechanical behavior of kidney stones and a simulation code which makes possible to study the mechanism of breakup under various external conditions. Computer simulations in two dimensions have revealed a peculiar way of crack formation, i.e. the crack which finally breaks

  3. Radioembolization of the Spleen: A Revisited Approach for the Treatment of Malignant Lymphomatous Splenomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylle, Kristoff, E-mail: kristoff.muylle@bordet.be [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Belgium); Nguyen, Jasmine [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Haematology (Belgium); Wind, Alexandre de [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Anatomo-Pathology (Belgium); Meuleman, Nathalie [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Haematology (Belgium); Delatte, Philippe [UMC Sint-Pieter, Department of Interventional Radiology (Belgium); Vanderlinden, Bruno [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Radiophysics (Belgium); Roelandts, Martine [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Radiotherapy (Belgium); Van der Stappen, Anja [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Bron, Dominique [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Haematology (Belgium); Flamen, Patrick [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    Intraarterial administration of {sup 90}Y microspheres to the spleen in patients with malignant lymphoma was mentioned once in the literature in 1973. This case study illustrates the potential indication of selective internal radiotherapy in a heavily pretreated patient with highly refractory disease with a marginal zone lymphoma in leukemic phase and symptomatic splenomegaly. We describe the clinical course of disease; the biological and clinical response to the treatment after radioembolization; and simulation and dosimetry by multimodal imaging via single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. The advantages of radioembolization for the management of lymphomatous splenomegaly are discussed.

  4. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

  5. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen in Factor XIII deficiency: A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, Pankaj; Al-Hilli, Shatha

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to factor XIII defieciency is a rare cause of abdominal pain with disastrous consequences and can be easily confused with other abdominal pathologies until a strong possibility is entertained.The patients usually present in emergengy with acute abdomen and diagnosis is difficult.The diagnosis is usually made on high degree of clinical suspicion and falling hematorit and failure of conservative management or by imaging. The radiologist need to be aware of this potentially fatal complication since early intervention is life saving. CT imaging can also help in conservative management in non critical patients

  6. Cross channel infections: nostalgia, spleen and the construction of national character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    In the nineteenth century, both spleen and nostalgia were considered clinical categories, and each associated with the character of a nation. English medical commentators boasted of their compatriots' resistance to nostalgia, an often fatal form of homesickness, while the French in turn argued that the splenetic English were flocking to France to escape their own insalubrious climate. Behind such jingoistic claims were broader concerns, on both sides of the channel but particularly acute for the French, about the impact of modernity on subjectivity, the relation between home, homeland and empire, and the fitness of both nations to succeed in the modern age.

  7. Changes in mouse thymus and spleen after return from the STS-135 mission in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daila S Gridley

    Full Text Available Our previous results with flight (FLT mice showed abnormalities in thymuses and spleens that have potential to compromise immune defense mechanisms. In this study, the organs were further evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after Space Shuttle Atlantis returned from a 13-day mission. Thymuses and spleens were harvested from FLT mice and ground controls housed in similar animal enclosure modules (AEM. Organ and body mass, DNA fragmentation and expression of genes related to T cells and cancer were determined. Although significance was not obtained for thymus mass, DNA fragmentation was greater in the FLT group (P<0.01. Spleen mass alone and relative to body mass was significantly decreased in FLT mice (P<0.05. In FLT thymuses, 6/84 T cell-related genes were affected versus the AEM control group (P<0.05; up: IL10, Il18bp, Il18r1, Spp1; down: Ccl7, IL6; 15/84 cancer-related genes had altered expression (P<0.05; up: Casp8, FGFR2, Figf, Hgf, IGF1, Itga4, Ncam1, Pdgfa, Pik3r1, Serpinb2, Sykb; down: Cdc25a, E2F1, Mmp9, Myc. In the spleen, 8/84 cancer-related genes were affected in FLT mice compared to AEM controls (P<0.05; up: Cdkn2a; down: Birc5, Casp8, Ctnnb1, Map2k1, Mdm2, NFkB1, Pdgfa. Pathway analysis (apoptosis signaling and checkpoint regulation was used to map relationships among the cancer-related genes. The results showed that a relatively short mission in space had a significant impact on both organs. The findings also indicate that immune system aberrations due to stressors associated with space travel should be included when estimating risk for pathologies such as cancer and infection and in designing appropriate countermeasures. Although this was the historic last flight of NASA's Space Shuttle Program, exploration of space will undoubtedly continue.

  8. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  9. Nonreciprocal Pseudotyping: Murine Leukemia Virus Proteins Cannot Efficiently Package Spleen Necrosis Virus-Based Vector RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Certo, Jeanine L.; Shook, Betsy F.; Yin, Philip D.; Snider, John T.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    1998-01-01

    It has been documented that spleen necrosis virus (SNV) can package murine leukemia virus (MLV) RNA efficiently and propagate MLV vectors to the same titers as it propagates SNV-based vectors. Although the SNV packaging signal (E) and MLV packaging signal (Ψ) have little sequence homology, similar double-hairpin RNA structures were predicted and supported by experimental evidence. To test whether SNV RNA can be packaged by MLV proteins, we modified an SNV vector to be expressed in an MLV-base...

  10. Disorder of G2-M Checkpoint Control in Aniline-Induced Cell Proliferation in Rat Spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Wang

    Full Text Available Aniline, a toxic aromatic amine, is known to cause hemopoietic toxicity both in humans and animals. Aniline exposure also leads to toxic response in spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and the eventual formation of tumors on chronic in vivo exposure. Previously, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation, which could eventually contribute to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. Despite our demonstration that cell proliferation was associated with deregulation of G1 phase cyclins and increased expression of G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, molecular mechanisms, especially the regulation of G2 phase and contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in aniline-induced splenic cellular proliferation remain largely unclear. This study therefore, mainly focused on the regulation of G2 phase in an animal model preceding a tumorigenic response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day in drinking water or drinking water only (controls for 30 days, and expression of G2 phase cyclins, CDK1, CDK inhibitors and miRNAs were measured in the spleen. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins A, B and CDK1, particularly phosphor-CDK1, and decreases in CDK inhibitors p21 and p27, which could promote the splenocytes to go through G2/M transition. Our data also showed upregulation of tumor markers Trx-1 and Ref-1 in rats treated with aniline. More importantly, we observed lower expression of miRNAs including Let-7a, miR-15b, miR24, miR-100 and miR-125, and greater expression of CDK inhibitor regulatory miRNAs such as miR-181a, miR-221 and miR-222 in the spleens of aniline-treated animals. Our findings suggest that significant increases in the expression of cyclins, CDK1 and aberrant regulation of miRNAs could lead to an accelerated G2/M transition of the splenocytes, and

  11. Selective spleen scintigraphy to evaluate frequency of splenosis after posttraumatic splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, A.; Tischler, E.; Mahlstedt, J.; Wolf, F.; Meier, H.

    1981-01-01

    In 60 patients having had posttraumatic splenectomy between 9 months and 12 years ago frequency of splenosis was investigated in comparison to immunological and hematological parameters. Selective spleen scintigraphy was performed with sup(99m)-Tc-labelled heat-damaged auto-erythrocytes. In 46,7% of the patients splenosis was found without age dependence. Between patients with and without splenosis no significant differences concerning the immunological and hematological parameters were seen. Therefore, the lack of pathological manifestations after posttraumatic splenectomy is not to be related to autotransplantation of splenic tissue. (orig.) [de

  12. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  13. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T; Diack, Abigail B; Ritchie, Diane L; Ironside, James W; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C

    2013-04-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and recipient spleen

  14. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T.; Diack, Abigail B.; Ritchie, Diane L.; Ironside, James W.; Will, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and

  15. Close pathological correlations between chronic kidney disease and reproductive organ-associated abnormalities in female cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sotozaki, Kozue; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus) is a useful experimental rodent for the study of human infectious diseases. We previously clarified that cotton rats, particularly females, developed chronic kidney disease characterized by cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis. The present study investigated female-associated factors for chronic kidney disease development in cotton rats. Notably, female cotton rats developed separation of the pelvic symphysis and hypertrophy in the vaginal parts of the cervix with age, which strongly associated with pyometra. The development of pyometra closely associated with the deterioration of renal dysfunction or immunological abnormalities was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine or spleen weight and serum albumin/globulin ratio, respectively. These parameters for renal dysfunction and immunological abnormalities were statistically correlated. These phenotypes found in the female reproductive organs were completely inhibited by ovariectomy. Further, the female cotton rats with pyometra tended to show more severe chronic kidney disease phenotypes and immunological abnormalities than those without pyometra; these changes were inhibited in ovariectomized cotton rats. With regard to renal histopathology, cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated by ovariectomy. Notably, the immunostaining intensity of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β were weak in the healthy kidneys, but both estrogen receptors were strongly induced in the renal tubules showing cystic changes. In conclusion, the close correlations among female reproductive organ-associated abnormalities, immunological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction characterize the chronic kidney disease features of female cotton rats. Thus, the cotton rat is a unique rodent model to elucidate the pathological crosstalk between chronic kidney disease and sex-related factors. Impact statement The increasing number of elderly individuals in the overall

  16. Cytochemical demonstration of mercury deposits in trout liver and kidney following methyl mercury intoxication: differentiation of two mercury pools by selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E; Danscher, G

    1988-01-01

    The amount and the ultrastructural distribution of mercury was studied in seven different organs of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings following exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg)-contaminated fodder for periods of 2 and 7 weeks. The amounts of mercury retained by the whole fish...... and the selected organs were determined by measuring the uptake of 203Hg-labeled MeHg. Spleen, liver, and kidney had the highest concentrations after both experimental periods, while the largest relative increases were found in brain, muscle, and kidney. The subcellular distribution of mercury accumulations...... was demonstrated cytochemically in liver and kidney using the silver enhancement method by which accumulations of mercury-sulfides and/or mercury-selenides are made visible for light and electron microscopy. When sections prepared from the liver and kidney from fish, injected with selenium 2 hr prior to being...

  17. Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo; Schreiber, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight...... are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin...

  18. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  19. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Lu; Zhen, Weng-Ya; Wang, Le-Feng; Pan, Meng; Lv, Jia-Qian; Wang, Fan; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is a bioactive compound with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PSG-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results showed that PSG-1 protected mice against CTX-mediated immunosuppression, as evidenced by enhancing the ratios of thymus and spleen weights to body weight, promoting T cell and B cell survival, and increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-2. Apoptosis, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the immune organs of the immunosuppressed animals were ameliorated by PSG-1. The immune benefits of PSG-1 were associated with the enhancement of the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the immune organs, implying that antioxidant activities of PSG-1 may play an important role in PSG-1-evoked immune protection. Taken together, these findings have demonstrated that PSG-1 may ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression through reducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  1. Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbates spleen injury caused by superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Liu, J.C.; Yang, L.N.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei, China, Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China)

    2014-04-15

    The intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ injury following superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. We hypothesized that mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) is a major cause of spleen injury after SMAO shock. To test this hypothesis, SMAO shock was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Similarly, MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the MLR+SMAO group rats, both the SMA and MLD were clamped and then released for reperfusion for 2 h. SMAO shock alone elicited: 1) splenic structure injury, 2) increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3) enhanced activities of NO synthase and myeloperoxidase, and 4) decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and ATPase. MLR following SMAO shock further aggravated these deleterious effects. We conclude that MLR exacerbates spleen injury caused by SMAO shock, which itself is associated with oxidative stress, excessive release of NO, recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, endotoxin translocation, and enhanced inflammatory responses.

  2. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  3. [The study on the morphology character of blood-spleen barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, An-long; Jiang, Hong-chi; Liu, Lian-xin; Piao, Da-xun; Pan, Shang-ha; Qiao, Hai-quan

    2005-05-01

    To study the morphology and functional character of blood-spleen barrier (BSB) and establish the concept of BSB. Thirty healthy Wistar rats were studied. Ten rats were injected with 1.5 ml mixed fluid of India ink and physiological saline through the tail vein. Histological changes of the spleen in all animals were observed with light and electron microscopy, including HE, Foot, Masson staining and immunohistochemistry of CD68 and CD34. Most of the carbon particles were within the splenic sinuses in marginal zone but not in the white pulp after 6 h. There was a characteristic distribution of the macrophagocytes, vessel endothelial cell, reticular tissue and collagen fiber in the BSB. BSB, surrounding the white pulp, is composed of macrophagocytes, marginal-sinus-endothelial cells and their basement membrane, the reticular tissue (reticular cells and reticular fibers) and collagen fibers. The role of BSB is to keep the microenvironment of white pulp stable. It becomes mature while the formation of germinal center of the white pulp. The permeability of BSB changes during its development.

  4. 2[125I]Iodomelatonin binding sites in spleens of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, A.M.S.; Pang, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    2-[ 125 I]Iodomelatonin was found to bind specifically to the membrane preparations of the spleens of guinea pigs with high affinity. The binding was rapid, stable, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the binding assays revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 49.8±4.12 pmol/l and binding site density (Bmax) of 0.69±0.082 fmol/mg protein at mid-light. There was no significant change in the Kd or the Bmax at mid-dark. Kinetic analysis showed a Kd of 23.13±4.81 pmol/l, in agreement to that derived from the saturation studies. The 2-[ 125 I]iodomelatonin binding sites have the following order of potency: 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > 6-chloromelatonin much-gt N-acetylserotonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin > 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-methoxytryptophol > serotonin, 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid > 5-hydroxytryptophol, 3-acetylindole, 1-acetylindole-3-carboxyaldehyde, L-tryptophan > tryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Differential centrifugation studies showed that the binding sites are localized mainly in the nuclear fraction, the rest are distributed in the microsomal fraction, mitochondrial fraction and cytosolic fraction. The demonstration of 2-[ 125 I]iodomelatonin binding sites in the spleen suggests the presence of melatonin receptors and a direct mechanism of action of melatonin on the immune system

  5. Cytokine gene expression profiles in chicken spleen and intestinal tissues during Ascaridia galli infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne A.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    , the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta 4 and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17F were determined over a period of 3 weeks in A. galli and non-A. galli-infected chickens. A characteristic Th2 response was observed in the jejunum of A. galli-infected chickens with increased expression of IL-13...... and decreased expression of IFN-gamma from day 14 post infection. At the putative time of larvae invasion into the intestinal mucosa (day 7), an increased expression of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and TGF-beta 4 was observed in the spleen. At the putative onset of the innate immune response (day 10), a decreased...... expression of jejunal IFN-gamma and IL-13 was observed. Finally, at the expected period of an adaptive immune response (days 14-21) a general decreased expression of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 4 in spleen and IFN-gamma in jejunum was followed by a decreased expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 at day 21 in caecal...

  6. Immune-Related Gene Expression Patterns in GPV- or H9N2-Infected Goose Spleens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Goose parvovirus (GPV and avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses, respectively, both of which can spread in goslings and cause a significant economic loss. To explore the comprehensive transcriptome of GPV- or H9N2-infected goose spleens and to understand the immune responses induced by a DNA virus (GPV or a RNA virus (H9N2, RNA-seq was performed on the spleens of goslings at the fifth day post infection. In the present study, 2604 and 2409 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the GPV- and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Through KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, the up-regulated transcripts in the two virus-infected groups were mainly involved in immune-related pathways. In addition, the two virus-infected groups displayed similar expression patterns in the immune response pathways, including pattern-recognition receptor signaling pathways, the antigen processing and presentation pathway, the NF-κB signaling pathway and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, as well as cytokines. Furthermore, most of the immune-related genes, particularly TLR7, TRAF3, Mx, TRIM25, CD4, and CD8α, increased in response to GPV and H9N2 infection. However, the depression of NF-κB signaling may be a mechanism by which the viruses evade the host immune system or a strategy to achieve immune homeostasis.

  7. Radiosensitivity of mice and its modifiers based on the endogeneous spleen colony formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Jindo; Wagatuma, Kaoru

    1987-02-01

    In irradiated mouse hematopoietic tissue, there is a group of cells which can proliferate and form macroscopic colonies. In the spleen, the colonies formed in this manner are discrete and easy to count. In order to look into a difference of radiosensitivity between male and female and the mechanisms of the modification, such as protective agent and hormones on radiosensitivity, the spleen colony forming (SCF) is used as an indicator of reactions in the x-rays irradiated mice. A linear decrease was found in SCF depended on x-rays dose. From the colony forming after irradiation the male was more radiosensitive than female. AET protected from the injury depended on the radiation dose in male mice, but in female mice, protection effects were not observed. Gonatropin showed protective effects for radiation injury on high dose irradiation both in male and female mice. Adrenaline showed similar effects as Gonatropin. Insuline showed a negative effects of protection on 400 R irradiation, while on 600 R irradiation, protective effects were observed.

  8. Laparoscopic Resection of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1 were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

  9. Spleen, tedio y ennui. El valor indiciario de las emociones en la literatura del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Cebreiro Rábade Villar, María

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the semantic implications of the concept of tedio through a comparative analysis of Rosalia de Castro´s novel, Flavio, and Edgar Allan Poe’s tale, «The Man of the Crowd». Like spleen and ennui, hispanic tedio is an emotional concept inseparable from the industrial dynamic of the modern city. In this sense, it can be read as a symptom of the profound modification of aesthetic and sociological aspects of narrative which took place in the second half of the XIX century.El artículo se propone explorar las implicaciones semánticas del concepto de tedio a través de un análisis comparado de la novela Flavio, de Rosalía de Castro, y del cuento «The Man of the Crowd», de Edgar Allan Poe. Al igual que el spleen y el ennui, el tedio hispánico es un concepto emocional indisociable de la dinámica industrial instaurada en la ciudad moderna. En este sentido, puede leerse como síntoma de una profunda modificación en el horizonte estético y sociológico de la narrativa en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.

  10. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years

  11. The case of the mysterious vanishing spleen: autosplenectomy complicating pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Georgina; Jenkins, Megan; Shetty, Dushyant; Blundell, Julie

    2017-05-04

    A 57-year-old previously healthy fisherman was admitted in fulminant pneumococcal septic shock, with disseminated intravascular coagulation, requiring aggressive management including bilateral below-knee amputations for ischaemic necrosis. He began to recover and was discharged for rehabilitation, however during his convalescence was found to be hypercalcaemic. No malignancy was found on CT scan, but it was noted that his spleen was absent, replaced by a 4 cm smooth-walled, fluid-filled lesion. This was unexpected as an ultrasound in intensive care 10 weeks previously had demonstrated a normal spleen. Functional hyposplenism was confirmed on a peripheral blood film with evidence of target cells, spherocytes and Howell-Jolly bodies. A diagnosis of autosplenectomy complicating pneumococcal sepsis was therefore made, of which there is just one case previously reported. The patient continues to recover well and was discharged on penicillin prophylaxis after receiving vaccinations for hyposplenism. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in the Spleen for Treatment of Hypersplenism in Cirrhosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, XiangWu; Gao, Fei; Ma, Yan; Feng, ShuFen; Liu, XueLian; Zhou, HongKe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the feasibility and therapeutic effectiveness of percutaneous microwave ablation in the treatment of hypersplenism in cirrhosis. Forty-one cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism were treated with ultrasonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation between February 2007 and August 2011. Peripheral blood cell counts, portal vein diameter, splenic vein diameter, and blood flow of splenic vein were evaluated before and after the operation, and complications of the treatment were also investigated. All patients were followed up for 24 months. The levels of platelets and white blood cells were increased, while the splenic vein diameter narrowed gradually after the therapy and 24 months later. Moreover, patients received percutaneous microwave ablation had much lower splenic venous flow velocity. The portal vein diameter did not change significantly 6 months after the treatment, although it narrowed gradually within 3 months after the treatment. Furthermore, no complications such as uncontrollable bleeding, splenic abscess, spleen rupture, and damage in surrounding organ happened after the therapy. Graded percutaneous microwave ablation, as a minimally invasive therapy, could damage the spleen, increase the levels of platelets and white blood cells, and reduce portal hypertension effectively without serious complications. Percutaneous microwave ablation is an effective, safe, and feasible method for cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism.

  13. Spleen cell proliferation during and after skin myiasis by human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jomara Mendes; Nascimento, Maria Fernanda Alves do; Breyner, Natália Martins; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Góes, Alfredo Miranda de; Leite, Antonio César Rios

    2009-01-01

    Spleen cells from mice were examined at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days post-infection (dpi) with Dermatobia hominis larva and at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Cell proliferation in vitro assays were carried out with RPMI-1640 medium and larval secretory product (LSP) of D. hominis at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. When each group of mice was tested against each medium, significance was only seen for 25 dpi, with increasing order: LSP-10 d, -25 d, -5 d, -20 d, -15 d and RPMI. Significant results were also observed when each medium was tested against mice at each dpi or dple. Each dple group vs. each medium produced significant results only for 10 dple, with increasing order: LSP-5 d, -20 d, -25 d, -10 d, -15 d and RPMI. Comparative tests were also carried out between groups to refine certain observations. The LSPs were also analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The results prove that myiasis caused depletion of spleen cells, particularly under the effect of the LSP-10 and -15, but the cells tended to increase up to 60 dple. This in vitro assay may represent the real systemic immune response in the relationship LSP-D. hominis-host.

  14. Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbates spleen injury caused by superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L L; Zhang, C H; Liu, J C; Yang, L N; Niu, C Y; Zhao, Z G

    2014-05-01

    The intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ injury following superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. We hypothesized that mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) is a major cause of spleen injury after SMAO shock. To test this hypothesis, SMAO shock was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Similarly, MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the MLR+SMAO group rats, both the SMA and MLD were clamped and then released for reperfusion for 2 h. SMAO shock alone elicited: 1) splenic structure injury, 2) increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3) enhanced activities of NO synthase and myeloperoxidase, and 4) decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and ATPase. MLR following SMAO shock further aggravated these deleterious effects. We conclude that MLR exacerbates spleen injury caused by SMAO shock, which itself is associated with oxidative stress, excessive release of NO, recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, endotoxin translocation, and enhanced inflammatory responses.

  15. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H J; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R

    2016-09-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Robot-assisted pancreatectomies of the DutchMEN1 study group and the Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France were compared to a historical cohort of laparoscopic treated MEN1 patients. Perioperative outcomes were compared. A total of 21 MEN1 patients underwent minimally invasive pancreatic surgery for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, seven patients were subjected to robot-assisted surgery, and 14 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery. Demographics and clinical characteristics did not differ between the cohorts and no significant differences in operative outcomes were found. A high number of ISGPS grade B/C pancreatic fistulas were observed in both cohorts (38%), and no conversions were seen in the robot-assisted cohort (respectively 0% vs. 43%, P = 0.06). In one laparoscopic and one robot-assisted case the primary tumor was not resected. Minimally invasive spleen-preserving surgery in MEN1 patients is safe and feasible. Patients who underwent robot-assisted surgery did not require conversion to open surgery. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:456-461. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  17. Oral Exposure to Atrazine Induces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Homeostasis Disruption in Spleen of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide atrazine (ATR can cause many adverse effects including immunotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The current study investigated the role of oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis in ATR-induced immunotoxicity in mice. ATR at doses of 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight was administered to Balb/c mice daily for 21 days by oral gavage. The studies performed 24 hr after the final exposure showed that ATR could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the spleen of the mice, increase the level of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP in the host serum, and cause the depletion of reduced glutathione in the serum, each in a dose-related manner. In addition, DNA damage was observed in isolated splenocytes as evidenced by increase in DNA comet tail formation. ATR exposure also caused increases in intracellular Ca2+ within splenocytes. Moreover, ATR treatment led to increased expression of genes for some antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1 and Gpx1, as well as increased expression of NF-κB and Ref-1 proteins in the spleen. In conclusion, it appears that oxidative stress and disruptions in calcium homeostasis might play an important role in the induction of immunotoxicity in mice by ATR.

  18. Detection of Babesia DNA in blood and spleen samples from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Babesia are intraerythrocytic parasites of importance worldwide within the fields of human and veterinary medicine, as some Babesia sp., including Babesia microti are potentially zoonotic and can cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. The aims of this study were to use a nested PCR (amplifying the 18S rRNA gene) to determine the presence and species of Babesia parasite DNA found in blood (n = 47) and spleen (n = 47) samples collected from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland. The results showed 28/47 (59·6%) blood and 14/47 (29·8%) spleen samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia DNA. Initial sequence analysis of the Babesia DNA identified three distinct sequence types (submitted to GenBank KX528553, KX528554 and KX528555), which demonstrated ⩾99% identity to Babesia sp. parasites previously identified in badgers in Spain (KT223484 and KT223485). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three isolates are closely related to Babesia annae, B. microti and other Piroplasmida species found in wildlife. Further sequence analysis of the samples demonstrated that the badgers were routinely infected with more than one parasite isolate and there was also evidence of genetic recombination between the Babesia parasite isolates (submitted to GenBank KY250472 - KY250477).

  19. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S. (Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey (United States))

    1992-09-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years.

  20. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.